dunnettreader + values   37

Cousin and Chauvin - L'économie symbolique du capital social (2012) - Cairn.info
The Symbolic Economy of Social Capital
Drawing on several studies dealing with upper-class sociability (in particular an investigation of Milan’s traditional social clubs and Rotary clubs), this article develops a relational analysis of social capital, i.e. one that is attentive to the distinctive value of the forms taken by social capital. Indeed, unequal conditions of accumulation of social capital give rise to a relation of symbolic domination between the different ways of actualizing it, of maintaining it, and of representing it. We review the main theories of social capital – network analysis and cultural sociology – in an attempt at combining them. We show how they both neglect this relational dimension. Finally, we present the heuristic advantages of an approach sensitive to the fact that the different ways of describing (and legitimizing) social connections are themselves symbolic resources in the accumulation and preservation of social capital. -- downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
social_capital  networks-business  social_theory  inequality-wealth  downloaded  methodological_individualism  status  networks-social  article  civil_society  values  methodology 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Jean-Claude Monod , review essay - Habermas et la dialectique de la sécularisation | La Vie des idées - 8 décembre 2008
Jürgen Habermas, Entre naturalisme et religion. Les défis de la démocratie, traduit de l’allemand par Christian Bouchindhomme et Alexandre Dupeyrix, Paris, Gallimard, 2008, 380 p. 22, 50€. -- Et si la raison, comme le montre aujourd’hui la logique marchande, était finalement bien plus capable de calculer des moyens que de poser des fins ? Le dernier recueil de Jürgen Habermas, le chantre de la raison communicationnelle, témoigne d’un surprenant revirement vers la religion et le registre compassionnel. -- Mots-clés : communication | religion | raison | sécularisation
books  reviews  political_philosophy  social_theory  secularization  post-secular  post-Cold_War  cultural_critique  political_culture  democracy  democracy_deficit  political_participation  values  communication  rationality  empathy  religious_culture  epistemology  epistemology-naturalism  epistemology-moral  means-justify-ends  dialectic-historical  dialogue  public_sphere  public_goods  community  legitimacy  reason  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Martens, Rusconi and Leuze, eds. - New Arenas of Education Governance: The Impact of International Organizations and Markets on Educational Policy Making | Palgrave Macmillan - November 2007
Edited by Kerstin Martens, Alessandra Rusconi, Kathrin Leuze -- How and to what extent is education becoming a field of international and market governance? Traditionally, education policy making has been viewed as the responsibility of the nation state, falling within the realm of domestic politics. But recent years have witnessed the transformation of the state. Globalization has introduced new actors and led to the internationalization and marketization of education. This volume provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date account of these new arenas of education governance, examining the impact of international organizations and the role of the market in policymaking. It demonstrates how education policy is formulated at international levels and what the consequences for national policy making will be. -- excerpt = TOC, Introduction and index -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  public_policy  education  education-higher  education-training  education-privatization  education-finance  international_organizations  globalization  markets_in_everything  market_fundamentalism  privatization  public_goods  governance  global_governance  business-and-politics  business_influence  education-civic  values  accountability  Labor_markets  human_capital  competition  competition-interstate  development  distance_learning  IT  communication  nation-state  national_ID  knowledge_economy  OECD  World_Bank  WTO  trade-policy  trade-agreements  student_debt  democracy_deficit  political_participation  EU  EU_governance  standards-setting  testing  downloaded 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Stephen Turner - Max Weber and the Dispute Over Reason and Value (Routledge, 1984) | bookmark for book abstract - Academia.edu
The problem of the nature of values and the relation between values and rationality is one of the defining issues of twentieth-century thought and Max Weber was one of the defining figures in the debate. In this book, Turner and Factor consider the development of the dispute over Max Weber's contribution to this discourse, by showing how Weber's views have been used, revised and adapted in new contexts. The story of the dispute is itself fascinating, for it cuts across the major political and intellectual currents of the twentieth century, from positivism, pragmatism and value-free social science, through the philosophy of Jaspers and Heidegger, to Critical Theory and the revival of Natural Right and Natural Law. As Weber's ideas were imported to Britain and America, they found new formulations and new adherents and critics and became absorbed into different traditions and new issues. This book was first published in 1984 by Routledge. -- Research Interests: Ethics, Political Theory, Continental Philosophy, Max Weber (Philosophy), Social and Political Philosophy, and Max Weber
books  intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  Weber  social_theory  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  philosophy_of_social_science  epistemology  epistemology-social  positivism  rationality  values  fact-value  constructivism  pragmatism  German_scholarship  German_historical_school  hermeneutics  Heidegger  Frankfurt_School  critical_theory  natural_law  natural_rights  positivism-legal 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Emilie Frenkiel - Interview with David A. Bell, Choosing Confucianism: Departing from the Liberal Framework | Sept 2012 - Books & ideas
Tags : liberalism | confucianisme | China -- Recounting his itinerary from research on Communitarianism to the adoption of Confucian values, political philosopher Daniel A. Bell advocates thinking of cities as representing different social values in the modern world. He also sees meritocracy, which is valued in China nowadays as a potential remedy to the flaws of democratic systems. -- downloaded pdf to Note
political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  liberalism  liberal_democracy  liberalism-republicanism_debates  communitarian  Confucianism  meritocracy  modernity  modernity-emergence  urbanism  pluralism  values  China  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Fiona Ellis - God, Value, and Nature (October 2014) - Oxford University Press
** analysis of the familiar contrast between the 'natural' and the 'supernatural' domains ** Explores the idea of expanded nature and develops it in a direction that will accomodate theism. ** Examines the nature of expansive naturalism, drawing on ...Akeel Bilgrami, David Wiggins, and John McDowell ** extensive discussion of Levinas's claim that relating to value is both necessary and sufficient for relating to God **-** Many philosophers believe that God has been put to rest. Naturalism is the default position, and the naturalist can explain what needs to be explained without recourse to God. This book agrees that we should be naturalists, but it rejects the more prevalent scientific naturalism in favour of an 'expansive' naturalism inspired by David Wiggins and John McDowell. (..) expansive naturalism can accommodate the idea of God, (..) the expansive naturalist has unwittingly paved the way towards a form of naturalism which poses a genuine challenge to the atheist. (..) the traditional naturalism vs theism debate must be reconfigured: naturalism and theism (..) can both be true. Ellis draws on ... thinkers from theology and philosophy, ... between analytic and continental philosophy. (..) philosophical problems including the limits of nature and the status of value; theological problems surrounding the natural/supernatural relation, the Incarnation, and the concept of myth; and offers a model - inspired by the secular expansive naturalist's conception of philosophy - to comprehend the relation between philosophy and theology.
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  philosophy_of_religion  philosophy_of_science  naturalism  natural_religion  theism  Deism  analytical_philosophy  McDowell  atheism  atheism-new  values  secularism  theology  Christology  supernatural  myth 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Fiona Ellis - on her new book "God, Value and Nature" | Oxford University Press Blog
Uses A.C. Grayling as the atheistic-naturalism foil. Suggests more re her argument than in the Oxford University Press catalog -- that her model uses Hegelian dialectic to surmount the "scientism" of the New Atheists and takes McDowell's argument that "value" belongs on the naturalist side of the divide to further extend the boundaries of naturalism.
books  kindle-available  theology  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_religion  naturalism  supernatural  values  theism  Deism  analytical_philosophy  McDowell  atheism  atheism-new  scientism  Hegel  dialectic  Pocket  Instapaper  from instapaper
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Asad Zaman - Normative Foundations of Scarcity | WEA Pedagogy Blog - September 2014
In my paper of this name (Real-World Economics Review, no. 61, September 2012) I show that the apparently objective concept of scarcity is built on THREE normative assumptions - contra the conventional assertion that economics is a POSITIVE study of facts of our economic existence, and does not involve value judgement. The three normative pillars on which scarcity stands as the fundamental principle of economics are: ONE: Private Property - If there is a cultural norm of sharing public resources, then the issue of scarcity would not arise (or at least, would be much less frequent). In conventional economics, the Pareto principle embodies the normative idea that the right to property takes precedence over the right to life. If a poor man is starving, the rich man is NOT obligated to provide for him. -- TWO: Consumer Sovereignty - Economists argue the we SHOULD not question consumer preferences as to where they come from and whether they are legitimate. Also, economists argue that we SHOULD design an economic system which fulfills ALL preferences (to the extent possible). The noxious NORMATIVE idea that the right of the super-rich to private jets trumps the right of the poor hungry child to bread is what leads to scarcity becoming the foundation of economics. -- THREE: WELFARE Lies in fulfillment of desires - Again this is a normative judgment about the purpose of life, which is taken to be fulfillment of desires. The normative preference of the economists for the homo economicus model creates an unhappy and lonely society, for those who buy into these assumptions. Abandoning these hidden normative commitments of economics, by allowing for more public spaces and common property, creating norms of social responsiblity, and encouraging simple lifestyles would remove scarcity as the central economic problem. QUOTE FROM FDR: “But while they prate of economic laws, men and women are starving. We must lay hold of the fact that economic laws are not made by nature. They are made by human beings. “
paper  philosophy_of_social_science  values  positivism  economic_theory  scarcity  economic_culture  property  Pareto_principle  utility  rationality-economics  normativity 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Roger Cohen - Truths of a French Village - NYTimes.com - September 2014
A few weeks ago I was in France, where I’ve owned a village house for almost 20 years that I am now planning to sell. A real estate agent had taken a look at the property and we had made an appointment to discuss how to proceed. She swept into the kitchen, a bundle of energy and conviction, with an impassioned appeal: “Monsieur Cohen, whatever you do, you must on no account sell this house!” I gazed at her, a little incredulous. “You cannot sell it. This is a family home. You know it the moment you step in. You sense it in the walls. You breathe it in every room. You feel it in your bones. This is a house you must keep for your children. I will help you sell it if you insist, but my advice is not to sell. You would be making a mistake.” This was, shall we say, a cultural moment, one of those times when a door opens and you gaze, if not into the soul of a country, at least into territory that is distinct and deep and almost certainly has greater meaning than the headlines and statistics that are supposed to capture the state of a nation,
economic_culture  efficiency  values  globalization 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Lant Pritchett -The Politics of Penurious Poverty Lines (Part II) Strange Bedfellows | Center For Global Development September 2014
Re unholy alliance in US, Europe and Japan between advocates for the destitute, fiscal realists and post-materialists -- I argue the success of the "advocates for the destitute" is the result of a coalition of strange bedfellows that actually bring the political heft in rich countries and use the rhetoric of the "advocates" as cover. The fiscal realists and post-materialists like penurious poverty lines not because they put more attention on the poor [the advocates' rationalization of using the poorest of the poor as a PR target], but because they take income gains to everyone else off the table by making a small deal of big differences in incomes between the “middle class” in Ethiopia or India and those of the rich countries. Reframing the “center” of the development agenda around an arbitrary poverty measure that eliminates 5 billion people from “development” is a political master-stroke for the fiscal realists. The advocates of penurious poverty lines create political space for fiscal realists to posture as “pro-development” (and not just hard-hearted or fiscally strapped) while arguing that “development assistance” hasn’t gone to “the poor” (by this new arbitrary measure) and hence with “focus,” agencies need less resources. “Extreme poverty” is a boon for post-materialists in promoting their goals as it manages to take the concerns of large majorities in developing countries in favor of rapid material progress (prioritized at their existing material conditions over other legitimate goals) off the table as their income gains don’t “count” as development progress as they are not “poor.”
post-2015_agenda  development  poverty  global_governance  emerging_markets  OECD_economies  aid  conservatism  values  environment  sustainability  welfare  technical_assistance  technology_transfer  middle_class  international_organizations  UN 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - The Truth is Terrible - in Daniel Came (ed.), Nietzsche on Morality and the Affirmation of Life (Oxford University Press, Forthcoming Feb 2014) :: SSRN
When Nietzsche says, as he frequently does, that "the truth is terrible" he has in mind three kinds of terrible truths: (1) the terrible "existential" truths about the human situation (the inevitability of death and suffering); (2) the terrible "moral" truth that "life is essentially something amoral"; and (3) the terrible "epistemic" truth that most of what we think we know about the world around us is illusory. These terrible truths raise Schopenhauer's question: why continue living at all? Nietzsche's answer, from early in his career to the very end, is that only viewed in terms of aesthetic values can life itself be "justified" (where "justification" really means restoring an affective attachment to life). Something can have aesthetic value even if it has no epistemic value -- indeed, Nietzsche takes it to be a hallmark of art that "the lie hallows itself" and "the willl to deception has good conscience on its side." Similarly, something can have aesthetic value even when it lacks moral value, something well-exemplified, he thinks, by the Homeric sagas. But how could the fact that life exemplifies aesthetic value restore our attachment to life in the face of the terrible existential truths about our situation? I suggest that there are two keys to understanding Nietzsche's answer: first, his assimilation of aesthetic pleasure to a kind of sublimated sexual pleasure; and second, his psychological thesis, central to the Genealogy, that powerful affects neutralize pain, and thus can "seduce" the sufferer back to life. Finally, life can only supply the requisite kind of aesthetic pleasure if it features what I call the "spectacle of genius," the spectacle represented by the likes of Beethoven, Goethe, and Napoleon. Since such geniuses are not possible in a culture dominated by "morality" (in Nietzsche's pejorative sense), the critique of morality is essential to the restoration of an affective attachment to life, since only by defeating morality will the spectacle of genius continue to be possible. - Keywords: Nietzsche, Schopenhauer, life, morality, art, aesthetic value - didn't download
paper  SSRN  intellectual_history  19thC  Germany  Nietzsche  morality-Nietzche  values  moral_psychology  genius  aesthetics  Schopenhauer  Dionysian 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
ALEXIS D. LITVINE, review essay - THE INDUSTRIOUS REVOLUTION, THE INDUSTRIOUSNESS DISCOURSE, AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN ECONOMIES (2014) | The Historical Journal, 57, pp 531-570. - Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
ALEXIS D. LITVINE - Trinity College, Cambridge -- The idea of industriousness has been an ever-recurring issue since Max Weber launched it as a putative explanation of the advent of economic modernity. The notion of ‘industrious revolution’ has provoked a renewed flourishing of publications focusing on this issue. Although most historians agree on the emergence of industriousness in seventeenth-century Europe, there is no consensus regarding the chronology, hence the real causes, of this mental and discursive shift. This article emphasizes the problematic role played by literary evidences in these social and cultural models of diffusion of new consumer values and desires. It then establishes the timing of the emergence of the ‘industriousness discourse’ using an original approach to diffusion based both on the quantitative analysis of very large corpora and a close reading of seventeenth-century economic pamphlets and educational literature. It concludes first that there was not one but several competing discourses on industriousness. It then identifies two crucial hinges which closely match the chronology proposed by Allen and Muldrew, but refutes that championed by de Vries and McCloskey. The industrious revolution as described by these authors would have happened both too late to fit its intellectual roots and too early to signal the beginning of a ‘consumer revolution’. -- * I am extremely grateful to Peter Mandler, Craig Muldrew, participants in the Early Modern Economic and Social History seminar, and two anonymous referees, for their comments on previous versions of this article. I am also indebted to Andrew Hardie, Jean-Baptiste Michel, and Paul Schaffner for allowing me to use their data and to Billy Janitsch, Andreas Vlachos, and Andrew Wilson for technical assistance.
article  paywall  find  historiography  17thC  Europe-Early_Modern  Great_Divergence  economic_history  intellectual_history  cultural_history  social_order  consumerism  Industrial_Revolution  industriousness  virtue  discourse  bourgeoisie  modernity-emergence  education  values  publishing  readership  Protestant_Ethic  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
David Auerbach - Georg Simmel's Philosophy of Money - Waggish - August 2014
Rather than focusing on how people argue over the allocations of values, he looks at how the prior requirement, the nature of valuation itself, influences those discussions. The main themes, as I read them, are the following: 1. Money as a structural metaphor for human existence (almost every aspect of it) 2. The dual nature of the word “value,” moral and monetary 3.The physicalization, universalization, and commodification of value (through money or otherwise) 4. The effects of valuation and commensurability on human relations. The final theme ultimately becomes most important, but Simmel spends time laying the groundwork for it by examining the nature of value and how it is assigned and fixed, before he then moves on to how value is standardized and made portable and universal by money. Simmel’s treatment of “value” is heavily influenced by Kant’s first and third critique, which isn’t too surprising given that Simmel came out of the 19th century neo-Kantian movement which wanted to reclaim Kant’s worth after Hegelianism had petered out. Value, being something not assigned by nature but by creatures, becomes a crucial cognitive category in life, despite being something that each of us has comparatively little control over. (Language is also a category of this sort, though at least in 1900 “value”‘s constructed nature was a bit more clear than that of language.) Simmel makes clear just how philosophical it is by declaring in the introduction that money has attracted his attention because it is the purest and most ubiquitous manifestation of the perennial problem that has vexed philosophers, the relation between the universal and the particular.
intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  social_theory  neo-Kantian  Simmel  moral_psychology  moral_philosophy  values  money  Cassirer  Germany  constructivism  commodification  universals  particulars  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
"BEYOND THEOCRACY AND SECULARISM (PART I): TOWARD A NEW PARADIGM FOR LA" by Mark C. Modak-Truran
To move beyond theocracy (pre-modern) and secularism (modern), this article closes by identifying the trajectory for a new constructive postmodern paradigm that embraces legal indeterminacy and secularizing the text of the law but argues that a plurality of religious convictions implicitly legitimates and thereby desecularizes the law. Desecularizing the law does not result in the imposition of the religion of the ruler (theocracy) in a pluralistic democratic society. Rather, the constructive postmodern paradigm of law and religion allows for the religious pluralism in society to provide a plurality of religious ontologies that implicitly legitimate the law and close the ontological gap between legal theory and legal practice. -- Mark C. Modak-Truran. "BEYOND THEOCRACY AND SECULARISM (PART I): TOWARD A NEW PARADIGM FOR LAW AND RELIGION" Mississippi College Law Review 27.1 (2008): 159-233. -- downloaded pdf to Note
philosophy_of_law  ontology  ontology-social  social_theory  foundationalism  moral_philosophy  secularism  secular_humanism  post-secular  postmodern  legal_indeterminancy  values  pluralism  legal_theory  legal_culture  political-theology  politics-and-religion  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Morality Critics [chapter] :: SSRN - in THE OXFORD HANDBOOK OF CONTINENTAL PHILOSOPHY, B. Leiter & M. Rosen, eds., Oxford University Press, 2007
U of Texas Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 114 -- One striking feature of post-Kantian philosophy in Europe has been the emergence of morality critics, philosophers who, contra the popular consensus, dispute the value of morality and the moral life. Their views find a faint echo in the work of some Anglophone moral philosophers (Philippa Foot and Bernard Williams are the main exemplars), but, as we will see, the "Continental" criticisms of morality generally cut far deeper and more radically. -- These Continental morality critics object that morality in practice is an obstacle to human flourishing itself. So understood, this attack on morality raises two immediate questions. First, the Continental morality critics are plainly not without ethical views of their own - ..broadly, about the good life for (some or all) human beings - since it is on the basis of these views that they criticize "morality." -- we can usefully divide Continental critics of morality into two camps: .... In the first camp ... see the individual's acceptance of morality as such as an obstacle to the individual's flourishing; in different ways, Nietzsche and Freud .... In the second camp ... see morality as among the "ideological" instruments that sustain socio-economic relations that are obstacles to individual flourishing. On this second account - ..Marx and perhaps some of ..the Frankfurt School - it is not allegiance to morality per se that thwarts individual flourishing, but rather the role such allegiance plays in sustaining certain socio-economic relations.. We will call the former "Direct Morality Critics" and the latter "Indirect Morality Critics." (Foucault straddles both approaches, and so we will discuss him in a transitional section.) -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  books  SSRN  intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  social_theory  metaethics  continental_philosophy  cultural_critique  Germany  France  Marx  Nietzsche  Freud  Frankfurt_School  Foucault  morality-Nietzche  morality-conventional  normativity  human_nature  social_order  ideology  bourgeoisie  power  morality-critics  Williams_Bernard  values  ethics  human_condition  flourishing  Aristotelian  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Bix - On the Dividing Line between Natural Law Theory and Legal Positivism :: SSRN - Notre Dame Law Review, Vol. 75, No. 5, Aug. 2000
The nature and location of the disagreement(s) between legal positivism and natural law theory has often been unclear, in large part because of the way each approach has been misunderstood by advocates for the other side. Many commentators assume that the two approaches disagree about whether immoral rules can have the status of law, but there is little evidence to support this view. Natural law theorists from Aquinas to Finnis have allowed that immoral rules are law (can have legal status), only that they are not law in its fullest sense (because such laws do not create moral obligations to obey them). The article concludes that the debate between natural law and legal positivism is joined elsewhere: regarding the meta-theoretical question of whether it is possible and valuable to have a morally neutral theory of law. Legal positivists advocate morally neutral theories, while natural law theorists like Finnis expressly or implicitly argue for a pervasively moral-evaluative theory of law, arguing that one can only understand a reason-giving practice like law against the background of what it would mean to give a good (legitimate, moral-obligation-creating) reason for action. A variation of the same argument is that one can only understand law within a (teleological) theory that gives a place for the moral ideal (justice) to which law strives. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  legal_system  legal_theory  legal_history  intellectual_history  natural_law  positivism-legal  positive_law  Aquinas  moral_philosophy  values  obligation  reasons  reasons-externalism  action-theory  justice  legitimacy  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Kenneth R. Westphal - Enlightenment Fundamentals: Rights, Responsibilities & Republicanism | Diametros
Kenneth R. Westphal is Professorial Fellow in the School of Philosophy, University of East Anglia (Norwich), and currently Visiting Professor of Philosophy at the Martin-Luther-Universität Halle Wittenberg. -- This essay re-examines some key fundamentals of the Enlightenment regarding individual rights, responsibilities and republicanism which deserve and require re-emphasis today, insofar as they underscore the character and fundamental importance of mature judgment, and how developing and fostering mature judgment is a fundamental aim of education. These fundamentals have been clouded or eroded by various recent developments, including mis-guided educational policy and not a little scholarly bickering. Clarity about these fundamentals is more important today than ever. Sapere aude! -- Keywords - Hobbes Hume Rousseau Kant Hegel, rational justification, mature judgment, moral constructivism, realism objectivity rights responsibilities republicanism media culture, Euthyphro question, natural law, Dilemma of the Criterion -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  British_history  French_Enlightenment  Germany  German_Idealism  voluntarism  obligation  morality-conventional  morality-objective  natural_rights  civil_liberties  civil_society  civic_virtue  Hobbes  Hume  Hume-ethics  Hume-politics  Rousseau  Kant  Kant-ethics  Hegel  judgment-political  public_sphere  media  political_culture  values  education-civic  education-higher  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add  21stC  Dewey  Quine  Sellars  analytical_philosophy  academia  professionalization 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Tom Jones - Pope's "Epistle to Bathurst" and the Meaning of Finance | JSTOR: Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Summer, 2004), pp. 487-504
This article attempts to show that Alexander Pope's argument and poetic technique in the Epistle to Bathurst challenge the idea that words are like money or other economic tokens. Reading against the recent characterization of Pope's work as nostalgic, this piece takes issue with the corollary established by J. G. A. Pocock and others between financial change and linguistic uncertainty in the early eighteenth century. It presents Pope as a skeptical thinker aware of the radical contingency of all human values, more in line with David Hume than earlier writers on money. It suggests that Pope's imitative meter is an investigation of this contingency of value. -- Yeah ! -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  18thC  English_lit  Pope  political_economy  moral_economy  finance_capital  financial_innovation  language  semiotics  values  historical_change  scepticism  contingency  morality-conventional  social_order  Pocock  commerce  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
The Question of Certainty by John Dewey (1929)
Source: The Quest for Certainty (1933), publ. Capricorn Books, 1960. -- Chapter II - Philosophy's Search for the Immutable -- The failure and frustration of actual life is then attributed to the fact that this world is finite and phenomenal, sensible rather than real, or to the weakness of our finite apprehension, which cannot see that the discrepancy between existence and value is merely seeming, and that a fuller vision would behold partial evil an element in complete good. Thus the office of philosophy is to project by dialectic, resting supposedly upon self-evident premises, a realm in which the object of completest cognitive certitude is also one with the object of the heart's best aspiration. The fusion of the good and the true with unity and plenitude of Being thus becomes the goal of classic philosophy. -- Practical activity is dismissed to a world of low grade reality. Desire is found only where something is lacking and hence its existence is a sign of imperfection of Being. Hence one must go to passionless reason to find perfect reality and complete certitude. But nevertheless the chief philosophic interest is to prove that the essential properties of the reality that is the object of pure knowledge are precisely those characteristics which have meaning in connection with affection, desire and choice. After degrading practical affairs in order to exalt knowledge, the chief task of knowledge turns out to be to demonstrate the absolutely assured and permanent reality of the values with which practical activity is concerned! Can we fall to see the irony in a situation wherein desire and emotion are relegated to a position inferior in every way to that of knowledge, while at the same time the chief problem of that which is termed the highest and most perfect knowledge is taken to be the existence of evil-that is, of desires errant and frustrated?
etexts  Dewey  pragmatism  epistemology  ontology  Great_Chain_of_Being  Platonism  idealism-transcendental  Hegelian  evil  theodicy  certainty  desire  moral_philosophy  values  morality-objective  morality-conventional  moral_psychology  epistemology-social  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter, review - Christopher Janaway and Simon Robertson (eds.), Nietzsche, Naturalism and Normativity // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // Jan 2014
This volume comprises nine new essays, primarily on various topics in Nietzsche's ethics, especially his critique of morality, meta-ethics and moral psychology; only one essay primarily concerns the meaning of "naturalism." The contributors include, besides the editors, several well-known figures in Anglophone Nietzsche studies: R. Lanier Anderson, Nadeem Hussain, Peter Poellner, Bernard Reginster, and Richard Schacht. Of perhaps special interest is that the volume features two essays by well-known moral philosophers, Peter Railton and Alan Thomas, neither of whom has written on Nietzsche previously. Almost all the essays (with an exception to be noted) are written to a high standard of scholarly care and philosophical argumentation, and can be read profitably by philosophers not primarily interested in Nietzsche. The volume as a whole is essential for Nietzsche scholars, and some of the essays will interest moral philosophers more generally.

The essays can be grouped into three main areas. First, when Nietzsche critiques morality, what is his target and how can his critique (and his naturalism) be squared with his own evaluative views (Railton, Simon Robertson)? Call this, following my terminology (Leiter 2002: 74-77, which Robertson explicitly adopts), "the Scope Problem." Second, several essays (Hussain, Poellner, Thomas) address metaethical questions, in particular, what the metaphysical and semantic status and character of Nietzsche's own evaluative judgments are supposed to be. Third, three other authors (Anderson, Christopher Janaway, Reginster) examine aspects of Nietzsche's moral psychology, particularly his conception of human agency, motivation, and the self. Finally, Schacht is the only author to focus exclusively on the question of what Nietzsche's naturalism amounts to; unfortunately, his is the weakest essay in the volume.
books  reviews  intellectual_history  19thC  Germany  Nietzsche  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  naturalism  free_will  agency  self  values  normativity  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Alan Goldman - DESIRES AND REASONS | JSTOR: American Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 46, No. 4 (OCTOBER 2009), pp. 291-304
Works through a more elaborate process of how information can interact with desires and deeper concerns to motivate, provide reasons for acting, or for changing desires, preferences or actions (reasons for acting) -- this "modified" internalist view still mostly Humean and doesn't accept premises of externalist that presumes external objective values -- didn't download
article  jstor  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  action-theory  practical_reason  reasons-internalism  reasons-externalism  rationality  values  Hume-ethics  reason-passions  Scanlon  contractualism  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Claudia Blöser, Aron Schöpf and Marcus Willaschek - Autonomy, Experience, and Reflection. On a Neglected Aspect of Personal Autonomy | JSTOR: Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, Vol. 13, No. 3 (June 2010), pp. 239-253
The aim of this paper is to suggest that a necessary condition of autonomy has not been sufficiently recognized in the literature: the capacity to critically reflect on one's practical attitudes (desires, preferences, values, etc.) in the light of new experiences. It will be argued that most prominent accounts of autonomy—ahistorical as well as historysensitive—have either altogether failed to recognize this condition or at least failed to give an explicit account of it. -- discusses internalist (Frankfurt's "free_will" 1st and 2nd order desires that involves critical reflection; ahistorical, Taylor's "punctuated"?) and externalist (adds conditions of information not just psychology in determining values) - this paper adds ability to reflect on values and experience going forward when new experience doesn't fit with expectations from existing values --focus is on practical judgment without extending into a particular view of moral philosophy etc though points out where theorists in other areas have used a narrower notion of autonomy --bibliography may be useful eg Rawls -- didn't download
article  jstor  human_nature  free_will  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  autonomy  practical_reason  values  development-personal  bibliography  Taylor_Charles  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Patrik Aspers - Nietzsche's Sociology | JSTOR: Sociological Forum, Vol. 22, No. 4 (Dec., 2007), pp. 474-499
Downloaded pdf to Note -- large bibliography looks especially interesting re placing Nietzsche's social constructivism in context of 19thC social sciences and emerging discipline of sociology especially in Germany. -- The aim of this article is to present that part of Friedrich Nietzsche's work that is of special interest to sociologists. To do this, I discuss the relationship between Nietzsche's work and the sociology both of today and of his own time. The most important idea is that he saw reality as a social construction. The idea of social construction is related to the beliefs and values, power and interests of the actors. Nietzsche's discussions of power and of the individual vs. the collective are also analyzed.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  social_theory  social_sciences  19thC  Germany  Nietzsche  sociology  Weber  constructivism  belief  values  power  individualism  subject  civil_society  community  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Catherine H. Zuckert - On the 'Rationality' of Rational Choice | JSTOR: Political Psychology, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Mar., 1995), pp. 179-198
Proponents argue that rational choice theory is a form of positive science, one whose simplified model of the human psyche generates useful predictions of human behavior. But their assumptions are contrary to fact. Their analyses of public policy decisions are cast in terms of the sharp and now largely discredited distinction logical positivists drew between "facts" and "values" or efficient "means" and affective "ends." And their models arouse suspicions concerning and objections to the political and psychological effects of the methods they employ and the policy options they endorse. All of this makes the theory not only less useful for understanding politics but also more subject to criticism by "postmodern" thinkers than it need be. Were its proponents explicitly to acknowledge the "prescriptive" character of "rational choice," however, they would help foster a broader discussion of the different kinds of rationality and their interaction in the formulation of public policy. That discussion of the forms of rationality would, in turn, bring out a more complex view of the psychological basis of both politics and rationality. -- see bibliography -- didn't download
article  jstor  political_philosophy  political_science  rational_choice  fact-value  postmodern  values  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Nicholas Rescher, Issues in the Philosophy of Religion, Reviewed by Laura Garcia // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews (2007)
The opening chapter on "Faith and Belief" sets the theme for the entire collection, introducing Rescher's distinction between a doxastic approach to religion and an axiological approach. The doxastic perspective focuses on propositional beliefs, their interpretation, coherence, and justification, while an axiological inquiry focuses on what a person values or finds desirable. Both approaches concern themselves with how God is conceived, but with different ends in mind -- a doxastic inquiry asks what sort of God is being accepted or rejected, while axiology asks whether the existence of God (conceived in a particular way) would be a good or a bad thing, welcome or unwelcome..... Most important for Rescher's purposes, a committed doxastic atheist might still be an axiological theist, since it is notoriously difficult to prove something's nonexistence. Rescher argues in favor of a presumption of atheism vis-à-vis the doxastic question, assuming that in any question of fact the affirmative side is required to offer reasons or evidence. However, he includes under this description many kinds of evidence -- demonstrative, experiential, inductive, and even acceptance of a claim to revelation. Rescher spends little time on the doxastic question, moving quickly to his main focus on the value question. There is no similar presumption in favor of axiological atheism, he claims, since the focus here is not on what is true or false but on what one should wish to be true or false.
books  reviews  God-existence  philosophy_of_science  theology  science-and-religion  atheism  Aquinas  values  hope  James_William  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert B. Ekelund, Jr., review - Germano Maifreda: From Oikonomia to Political Economy: Constructing Economic Knowledge from the Renaissance to the Scientific Revolution | EH.net
Ashgate, 2012. vii + 304 pp. $135 (hardcover), ISBN: 978-1-4094-3301-9.

The transition from the culturally and religiously oriented era of Oikonomia to the political economy of, say, Smith and Hume, was not linear.? Culture, science and religion evolved and helped shape conceptions of economic functioning. (It would appear that medieval Christianity was not productive of ?economy.?)? Secularism also evolved and searches for constancy in value, in exchange and in entrepreneurship were shaped by culture and psychology.? Epistemology affected the scaffolding and functioning of the economic superstructure at any point in time.?

[H]e raises intriguing links between culture, psychology, medicine, biology and economic categories. In Chapters 5 through7 (plus an epilogue), Maifreda weaves together exceptionally interesting material on the manner in which the principles of other sciences and studies used what we now call economic reasoning and motivations.? The whole question of how the idea that labor ?caused? or ?represented? or ?was involved with? value is the subject of Chapters 5 and 6.? Maifreda highlights (properly) how Locke?s analysis of private property is the ?essential element? in productive economy (p. 167).? Also examined is how labor and the concept of equilibrium are related to both theological and physiological reasoning, the concept of equilibrium prominent in the writings of Hales and Boisguilbert He concludes that ?powerful metaphors formed within diverse fields of knowledge … lent their assistance to ways of thinking about phenomena and drawing up models and generalizations? (p. 253) that, later, became an independent science of economics and economic reasoning.? One small complaint is that he does not extend his discussion into exactly how and through whom the transition was finally made (e.g., possibly Cantillon and others).? But that may be the subject for another study.
books  reviews  intellectual_history  economic_history  Renaissance  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  16thC  17thC  18thC  political_economy  economic_theory  economic_culture  commerce  values  labor  Locke  property  currency  prices  cultural_history  theology  Providence  moral_philosophy  moral_economy  Foucault  Physiocrats  Linnaeus  biology  physiology  equilibrium  metaphor  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
AIME - An Inquiry into Modes of Existence | Bruno Latour - Science Po
The inquiry in which you will be able to take part has the aim of providing a more precise definition for the experiences gathered under the vague expression “modernization”. And especially one that is more acceptable to those other civilisations that have also been subject to the same discovery: that there is no Earth where we can modernize “the way we used to”. So we have to think again what we mean by this term while both retaining the inheritance of the modernization project and composing it in a quite new way.

The inquiry is based on the delicate extraction of a series of “values”—a deliberately outdated term—which the Moderns say they hold dear. But without ever being sure what these values mean, and how they can all be endorsed at the same time while respecting their differences and being wary of their tendency to crush other ones.

To establish these differences, we have prepared a very simple little protocol that begins with the experience produced when there is a clash between two values. This clash is felt each time one value is judged using the instrumentation coming from another value. We will make a collection of such incidents by creating a database of what we will call “crossings” because they will allow two types of judgement to emerge.
website  books  anthropology  modernity  modernization  Modernism  values  ecology  climate  humanism  posthumanism  political_culture  economic_sociology  philosophy_of_science  EF-add 
november 2013 by dunnettreader
John Dewey: The Evolutionary Method As Applied To Morality: II Its Significance for Conduct | George Herbert Mead Project
John Dewey. "The Evolutionary Method As Applied To Morality: II Its Significance for Conduct", Philosophical Review 11, (1902): 353-371.

I would have those who deny moral significance to the historical method show how we may guide and control the formation of our further moral judgments if we forego inquiry into the process of their formation as historically set before us....... The point of the genetic method is then that it shows relationships, and thereby at once guarantees and defines meaning. We must take the history of any intuition or attitude of moral consciousness in both directions: both ex parte ante and ex parte post. We must consider it with reference to the antecedents which evoked it, and with reference to its later career and fate. It arises in a certain context, and as a reaction to certain circumstances ; it has a subsequent history which can be traced. It maintains and reinforces certain conditions, and modifies others. It becomes a stimulus which provokes new modes of action. Now when we see how and why the belief came about, and also know what else came about because of it, we have a hold upon the worth of the belief which is entirely wanting when we set it up as an isolated intuition. Pure intuitionalism. is often indeed undistinguishable from the crassest empiricism. The ' intuition' is declared to be a content of 'reason,' but reason is a mere label. The ordinary relation and criteria of rationality are expressly eliminated. Quite likely we have deified the results of a merely accidental history or series of circumstances. The only way to introduce reasonableness is to analyze in detail the course of events from which the intuition results, and to trace in further detail the influences that radiate from it. There is much ground for John Stuart Mill's basis of opposition to intuitionalism -- it tends to perpetuate prejudice and sanctify conservatism by calling them eternal truths of reason, and thus to erect barriers in the way of moral progress.
article  online_texts  Dewey  19thC  20thC  intellectual_history  US_history  moral_philosophy  intuitionism  values  reason  history-as_experiment  evolution-as-model  evolution-social  genealogy-method  morality-objective  morality-conventional  epistemology-moral  progress  pragmatism  culture  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
PT Jackson: The Society of Individuals - cont debate w/ P Arena | Duck of Minerva June 2013
By contrast, in a world of relationally embedded actors, action comes not from calculation, but from something unknown in the society of individuals: deliberation. Actors find themselves within a set of delimited though ambiguous cultural resources — resources that are never solely the possession of any one individual, unlike preferences which are individual from the get-go — and are confronted not with the question of how to best fulfill their ends, but the question of what their ends ought to be. 

So we have two fundamentally different models here: autonomous individuals — prototypical males? — with preferences making strategic calculations, and relationally embedded actors (I’m not going to push the gender point any further here, but I think that many feminists might agree with me about the relative depictions of autonomy-vs.-embeddedness in a patriarchal society) engaged in deliberation and discernment looking for the right course of action. While the former might end up conforming to one or another moral code, only the latter can actually engage in “moral action” per se, because autonomous individuals would be choosing whether or not to act morally while embedded actors would be endeavoring to suss out the moral thing to do and then doing it. One does not choose to be moral as a moral actor; one acts morally, or one fails to do so

Decision-theoretic accounts tell us a story in which value is radically subjectivized, individuals are separated from one another by firm borders, and social relations are nothing but instrumental conveniences (contra Phil, I would claim that public choice theory isn’t about what is best for the collective as a collective, but what is best for the individuals inhabiting it, since collectives don’t have preference-functions). Relational accounts tell us a far different story.

The fact that we tell decision-theoretic stories about entities that can’t be said to be actually making decisions — we have “selfish genes” and utility-maximizing ants — simply shows how our values have shifted to the point where such stories seem to make intuitive sense, and also contributes to the further promulgation (what I actually want to say here is Veralltäglichung, Weber’s word that literally means “making-everyday”) of those assumptions and value-commitments
social_theory  rational_choice  moral_philosophy  utilitarianism  libertarianism  Weber  values  EF-add 
july 2013 by dunnettreader

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