dunnettreader + urban_development   23

Gamm
Do big cities exert more power than less populous ones in American state legislatures? In many m m political systems, greater representation leads to more policy gains, yet for most of the nation's history, urban advocates have argued that big cities face systematic discrimination in statehouses. Drawing on a new historical dataset spanning 120 years and 13 states, we find clear evidence that there is strength in numbers for big-city delegations in state legislatures. District bills affecting large metropolises fail at much higher rates than bills affecting small cities, counties, and villages. Big cities lose so often because size leads to damaging divisions. We demonstrate that the cities with the largest delegations—are more likely to be internally divided—are the most frustrated in the legislative process. Demographic differences also matter, with district bills for cities that have many foreign-born residents, compared the state as a whole, failing at especially high rates. -- Downloaded via iphone
downloaded  political_history  women-in-politics  political_science  states  state_government  jstor  immigration  rights-political  20thC  19thC  US_politics  Catholics-and-politics  US_society  local_politics  urban_politics  urban_rural_divides  state_legislatures  bibliography  US_history  article  political_culture  alliances-political  welfare_state  urban_development  political_participation  US_politics-race 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
Lu Ming - Myths and Realities of China’s Urbanization | Paulson Institute - August 2015
as a direct result of these deeply held beliefs, Beijing has relied on administrative controls, not market mechanisms, to direct China’s urbanization process (...) has yielded some major deficiencies in China’s overall urbanization policy. (..) Beijing has imposed tight hukou controls on the country’s biggest cities, thus restricting their ability to grow. Second, the Chinese government has relied excessively on administrative power to accelerate urbanization in China’s central and western regions, even though people are, in fact, moving largely to the country’s coastal areas. Third, Beijing has encouraged the development of small and medium sized cities, but these are usually scattered far away from regional economic centers. Lu’s memo proposes several adjustments aimed at mitigating the distorted economic effects of the policies that have flowed from these misunderstandings. Five specific areas of China’s current urbanization policy require changes, says Lu. These are: (1) China’s hukou system; (2) the way that China allocates construction land quotas; (3) China’s fiscal transfer payment system; (4) the use of economic growth and tax revenue targets in the evaluation and promotion system for officials and cadres; and (5) the use of planning tools in metropolitan areas and urban cores. Lu makes a number of policy recommendations in each of these five areas, arguing that only in this way can China effectively respond to the challenges that have bedeviled urbanization in other countries. -- didn't download
paper  China  China-economy  China-governance  urbanization  urban_development  safety_net  land_use_planning  local_government  fiscal_policy  incentives-distortions 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
David Roberts - The transformative potential of self-driving electric cars | Vox - Sept 2015
Reimagining urbanization and lived environment that exploits the huge amount of land currently devoted to cars to handle far more population without changing lived experience of density
Pocket  futurology  environment  self-driving_cars  automation  IT  urban_development  urbanism  land_use_planning  transport  cities  energy  from pocket
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Elizabeth Popp Berman - Creating the Market University: How Academic Science Became an Economic Engine | Princeton University Press - 2012, ebook 2015
US universities today serve as economic engines, performing the scientific research that will create new industries, drive economic growth, and keep the US globally competitive. But only a few decades ago, these same universities self-consciously held themselves apart from the world of commerce. Drawing on extensive historical research, EPB shows how the government--influenced by the argument that innovation drives the economy--brought about this transformation. Americans have a long tradition of making heroes out of their inventors. But before the 1960s and '70s neither policymakers nor economists paid much attention to the critical economic role played by innovation. However, during the late 1970s, a confluence of events--industry concern with the perceived deterioration of innovation in the US, a growing body of economic research on innovation's importance, and the stagnation of the larger economy--led to a broad political interest in fostering invention. The policy decisions shaped by this change were diverse, influencing arenas from patents and taxes to pensions and science policy, and encouraged practices that would focus specifically on the economic value of academic science. By the early 1980s, universities were nurturing the rapid growth of areas such as biotech entrepreneurship, patenting, and university-industry research centers. -- She is assistant professor of sociology at the SUNY-Albany. -- downloaded excerpt to Note
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  economic_history  20thC  21stC  post-WWII  post-Cold_War  US_politics  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  university  research  research-funding  Innovation  innovation-government_policy  R&D  science-and-politics  urban_development  economic_growth  IP  incentives  incentives-distortions  public-private_partnerships  public_goods  market_fundamentalism  public_policy  -priorities  risk_capital  local_government  state_government  state-and-science  education-finance  academia-governance  managerialism  technology  technology-history  commercialization  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Patrick Love - OECD Report: Fostering Investing in infrastructure | OECD Insights Blog - 24 June 2015
According to the OECD’s Fostering Investment in Infrastructure, it’s going to cost a lot to keep the thrifty housewives across the globe happy over the next 15 years: $71 trillion, or about 3.5% of annual world GDP from 2007 to 2030 for transport, electricity, water, and telecommunications. The Newport railway was privately financed, as was practically all railway construction in Britain at the time, but in the 20th century, governments gradually took the leading role in infrastructure projects. In the 21st century, given the massive sums involved and the state of public finances after the crisis, the only way to get the trillions needed is to call on private funds. -- downloaded pdf to Note
report  OECD  infrastructure  infrastructure-markets  public-private_partnerships  project_finance  public_goods  public_finance  green_finance  green_economy  LDCs  emerging_markets  OECD_economies  energy  energy-markets  telecommunications  technology_transfer  technology-adoption  FDI  water  urban_development  public_health  economic_growth  economic_reform  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
David Glaser - Paul Krugman on Tricky Urban Economics | Uneasy Money - May 2015
Paul Krugman has a post about a New Yorker piece by Tim Wu discussing the surprising and disturbing increase in vacant storefronts in the very prosperous and… Thinks Krugman should have stressed more the active damage governments can do (and did) when he highlighted the interstate highway system and middle class white flight. Some great quotes from studies of the impact on racially and ethnically marginalized communities -- destroying the "social capital" infrastructure that African-Americans had relied on, thereby reinforcing the impact of discriminatory private and public policies of both Jim Crow and residentia and workforce segregation in the Northern cities. And excellent examples of how the upper end of the wealth spectrum was repeatedly able to protect their urban communities in the freeway wars -- e.g. Cambridge and Georgetown.
US_history  20thC  post-WWII  political_economy  US_politics  urban_development  urban_politics  urban_elites  NIMBY  suburbs  white_flight  governmentality  transport  infrastructure  racism  African-Americans  lower_orders  community  segregation  housing  highways  public_policy  elites-political_influence  policymaking  links  from instapaper
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Dietz Vollrath - All Institutions, All the Time? | The Growth Economics Blog - April 2015
Wolfgang Keller and Carol Shiue just released a working paper on “Market Integration as a Mechanism for Growth“. They are looking at growth in Germany during… Discusses a neat paper looking at parts of Germany that followed different patterns of economic development and growth in the 19thC, comparing cities based on (1) degree of market integration (measured by wheat prices) and (2) whether they transformed property relations from feudal to liberal, disbanded guilds, and adopted "equality before the rule of law". The second tended to reflect whether a city was conquered by Napoleon. He first looks at each variable and how the authors define it, what's likely involved in whether it's positive for a given city. He critiques some of their methodology, such as combining legal and socioeconomic indicators into a single weighted index. But his strongest critique is how the authors keep refining their analysis to make "institutional" factors appear highly significant, when the significance is unclear to put it charitably. And the biggest problem where they are likely to find significance, cities conquered by Napoleon, doesn't consider different types of causality that might have been involved, e.g. a city's situation geographically (which affected market integration) and degree of economic development might have been part of why Napoleon focused on those cities to conquer, from which he organized things like supply lines or transport for his armies. It's a continuation of his ongoing critique of what he sees as a fad for institutional explanations that don't actually demonstrate what they say they do -- let alone suggest how institutional development could be replicated. -- copied to Instapaper
economic_history  19thC  Germany  feudalism  capitalism  property_rights  guilds  urban_development  institutional_economics  market_integration  Napoleonic_Wars  Napoleonic_Wars-impact  Instapaper  from instapaper
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Jeff Horn - Economic Development in Early Modern France: The Privilege of Liberty, 1650–1820 (release date for hardback mid-Feb 2015) | European history after 1450 | Cambridge University Press
Privilege has long been understood as the constitutional basis of Ancien Régime France, legalising the provision of a variety of rights, powers and exemptions to some, whilst denying them to others. In this fascinating new study however, Jeff Horn reveals that Bourbon officials utilized privilege as an instrument of economic development, freeing some sectors of the economy from pre-existing privileges and regulations, while protecting others. He explores both government policies and the innovations of entrepreneurs, workers, inventors and customers to uncover the lived experience of economic development from the Fronde to the Restoration. He shows how, influenced by Enlightenment thought, the regime increasingly resorted to concepts of liberty to defend privilege as a policy tool. The book offers important new insights into debates about the impact of privilege on early industrialisation, comparative economic development and the outbreak of the French Revolution. **--** 1. Introduction: profits and economic development during the Old Régime *--* 2. Privileged enclaves and the guilds: liberty and regulation *--* 3. The privilege of liberty put to the test: industrial development in Normandy *--* 4. Companies, colonies, and contraband: commercial privileges under the Old Régime *--* 5. Privilege, liberty, and managing the market: trading with the Levant *--* 6. Outside the body politic, essential to the body economic: the privileges of Jews, Protestants and foreign residents *--* 7. Privilege, innovation, and the state: entrepreneurialism and the lessons of the Old Régime *--* 8. The reign of liberty? Privilege after 1789 -- look for pdf of Intro once released
books  find  political_economy  economic_history  political_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  France  privileges-corporate  economic_culture  economic_policy  development  monarchy  profit  entrepreneurs  guilds  trading_companies  trade-policy  regulation  industrialization  industrial_policy  Colbert  Colbertism  urban_development  urban_elites  commerce  commercial_interest  French_government  Huguenots  Jews  colonialism  French_Empire  colonies  corporate_finance  monopolies  Levant  MENA  Ottomans  liberties  liberty  Ancien_régime  Louis_XIV  Louis_XV  Louis_XVI  French_Revolution  French_Revolutionary_Wars  Napoleonic_Wars  Restoration-France  bourgeoisie  haute_bourgeoisie  markets  markets-structure  foreign_trade  foreign_policy  foreigners-resident 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Nigel Goose, review - Peter Borsay, Lindsay Proudfoot eds., Provincial Towns in Early Modern England and Ireland: Change, Convergence and Divergence | JSTOR - The Economic History Review Vol. 56, No. 3 (Aug., 2003), pp. 567-568
Mostly 18thC. The comparative angle forces the studies to focus on small towns in England, not covering where most of the rapid provincial urbanization was going on. That said, the overview chapters are excellent and the individual studies give a look at some areas not usually focused on. -- didn't download
books  reviews  jstor  economic_history  social_history  17thC  18thC  Britain  British_history  Ireland  urbanization  provinces  towns  rural  urban_development 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Special Issue in Memory of Charles Tilly (1929–2008): Cities, States, Trust, and Rule - Contents | JSTOR: Theory and Society, Vol. 39, No. 3/4, May 2010
1 - Cities, states, trust, and rule: new departures from the work of Charles Tilly - Michael Hanagan and Chris Tilly [d-load] *-* 2 - Cities, states, and trust networks: Chapter 1 of 'Cities and States in World History' - Charles Tilly [d-load] *-* 3 - Unanticipated consequences of "humanitarian intervention": The British campaign to abolish the slave trade, 1807-1900 - Marcel van der Linden [d-load] *-* 4 - Is there a moral economy of state formation? Religious minorities and repertoires of regime integration in the Middle East and Western Europe, 600-1614 - Ariel Salzmann [d-load] *-* 5 - Inclusiveness and exclusion: trust networks at the origins of European cities - Wim Blockmans [d-load] *-* 6 - Colonial legacy of ethno-racial inequality in Japan - Hwaji Shin. *-* 7 - Legacies of empire? - Miguel Angel Centeno and Elaine Enriquez. *-* 8 - Cities and states in geohistory - Edward W. Soja [d-load] *-* 9 - From city club to nation state: business networks in American political development - Elisabeth S. Clemens [d-load] *-* 10 - Irregular armed forces, shifting patterns of commitment, and fragmented sovereignty in the developing world - Diane E. Davis *-* 11 - Institutions and the adoption of rights: political and property rights in Colombia - Carmenza Gallo *-* 12 - Taking Tilly south: durable inequalities, democratic contestation, and citizenship in the Southern Metropolis - Patrick Heller and Peter Evans *-* 13 - Industrial welfare and the state: nation and city reconsidered - Smita Srinivas *-* 14 - The forms of power and the forms of cities: building on Charles Tilly - Peter Marcuse [d-load] *-* 15 - Was government the solution or the problem? The role of the state in the history of American social policy
journal  article  jstor  social_theory  political_sociology  contention  social_movements  change-social  historical_sociology  nation-state  cities  city_states  urban_politics  urban_elites  urbanization  urban_development  economic_sociology  institutions  institutional_change  property_rights  civil_liberties  civil_society  political_participation  political_culture  inequality  class_conflict  development  colonialism  abolition  medieval_history  state-building  religious_culture  politics-and-religion  MENA  Europe-Early_Modern  Reformation  networks-business  US_history  US_politics  US_economy  welfare_state  power-asymmetric  power-symbolic  elites  elite_culture  imperialism  empires  trust  networks-social  networks-religious  networks  14thC  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  geohistory  moral_economy  military_history  militia  guerrillas  mercenaires  sovereignty  institution-building 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
theAIRnet.org - Home
The Academic-Industry Research Network – theAIRnet – is a private, 501(c)(3) not-for-profit research organization devoted to the proposition that a sound understanding of the dynamics of industrial development requires collaboration between academic scholars and industry experts. We engage in up-to-date, in-depth, and incisive research and commentary on issues related to industrial innovation and economic development. Our goal is to understand the ways in which, through innovation, businesses and governments can contribute to equitable and stable economic growth – or what we call “sustainable prosperity”.
website  economic_growth  industry  technology  Innovation  green_economy  development  business  business-and-politics  capitalism  global_economy  public-private_partnerships  public_policy  public_health  public_goods  urban_development  health_care  IP  Labor_markets  wages  unemployment  education-training  sustainability  financial_system  corporate_citizenship  corporate_governance  corporate_finance  CSR  firms-theory  management  plutocracy  MNCs  international_political_economy  human_capital  OECD_economies  emerging_markets  supply_chains  R&D  common_good  1-percent  inequality  working_class  work-life_balance  workforce  regulation  regulation-harmonization  incentives  stagnation 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Adaptation Clearinghouse | Georgetown Climate Center
Tap into the adaptation expertise of the Georgetown Climate Center and its partners. Find resources using the search, mapping, and browsing tools displayed on this page. **--** Featured Policy Areas -- * Law & Governance. * Sea-Level Rise. * Urban Heat. **--** Sector Materials to Get You Started -- * Coasts. * Public Health. * Transportation. * Water **--** The Adaptation Clearinghouse seeks to assist state policymakers, resource managers, academics, and others who are working to help communities adapt to climate change. The Clearinghouse was developed by the Georgetown Climate Center through the generous support of the Rockefeller Foundation and all of the wonderful funders who make our work possible.
website  technical_assistance  climate  climate-adaptation  local_government  law-and-environment  law-and-economics  coordination-governments  ocean  water  transport  urban_development  public_health 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
WEF's Global Risk Report | Silvia Merler at Bruegel.org - September 2014
Last week, the World Economic Forum (WEF) published its Global Risk Report (GRR) for 2014/15. The report is an exercise conducted by the WEF since 2006, but this year’s issue is particularly interesting because it adopts an historical perspective, offering insights on how the world has changed in respondents’ eyes and concerns. The GRR assesses risks that are global in nature and have the potential to cause significant negative impact across entire countries and industries if they take place over a time frame of up to 10 years. 31 such risks are identified in the report and grouped under five categories – economic, environmental, geopolitical, societal and technological. *-* Economic Risks include fiscal and liquidity crises, failure of a major financial mechanism or institution, oil-price shocks, chronic unemployment and failure of physical infrastructure on which economic activity depends. *-* Environmental Risks encompass both natural disasters and man-made risks such as collapsing ecosystems, freshwater shortages, nuclear accidents and failure to mitigate or adapt to climate change. *-* Geopolitical Risks cover politics, diplomacy, conflict, crime and global governance. These risks range from terrorism, disputes over resources and war to governance being undermined by corruption, organized crime and illicit trade. *-* Societal Risks are intended to capture risks related to social stability – such as severe income disparities, food crises and dysfunctional cities – and public health, such as pandemics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the rising burden of chronic disease. *-* Technological Risks covers major risks related to the centrality of information and communication technologies to individuals, businesses and governments (such as cyber attacks, infrastructure disruptions and data loss). -- excellent network chart showing how risks are interrelated within and across categories -- downloaded pdf to Note
report  global_economy  global_governance  global_system  international_political_economy  international_finance  financial_crisis  climate  energy  water  inequality  unemployment  geopolitics  infrastructure  public_health  public_goods  urban_development  urbanization  downloaded 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Thomas D. Wilson - The Oglethorpe Plan: Enlightenment Design in Savannah and Beyond: (2012) | Amazon.com: Books
The statesman and reformer James Oglethorpe was a significant figure in the philosophical and political landscape of 18thC British America. His social contributions—all informed by Enlightenment ideals—included prison reform, the founding of the Georgia colony on behalf of the "worthy poor," and stirring the founders of the abolitionist movement. He also developed the famous ward design for the city of Savannah, a design that became one of the most important planning innovations in American history. Multilayered and connecting the urban core to peripheral garden and farm lots, the Oglethorpe Plan was intended by its author to both exhibit and foster his utopian ideas of agrarian equality. The professional planner Thomas D. Wilson reconsiders the Oglethorpe Plan, revealing that Oglethorpe was a more dynamic force in urban planning than has generally been supposed -- the Oglethorpe Plan embodies all of the major themes of the Enlightenment, including science, humanism, and secularism. The vibrancy of the ideas behind its conception invites an exploration of the plan's enduring qualities. In addition to surveying historical context and intellectual origins, this book aims to rescue Oglethorpe’s work from its relegation to the status of a living museum in a revered historic district, and to demonstrate instead potential links with New Urbanism and other more naturally evolving and socially engaged modes of urban development. -- only hdbk
books  18thC  British_history  Atlantic  American_colonies  Georgia  Enlightenment  cultural_history  social_history  intellectual_history  egalitarian  civic_humanism  civic_virtue  slavery  abolition  poverty  Poor_Laws  debtors  agriculture  urban_development  urbanization  prisons  improvement  secularism  republicanism  farmers  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Elizabeth McKellar, Landscapes of London: The City, the Country, and the Suburbs, 1660–1840 (2014) | Yale University Press
The idea of a "Greater London" emerged in the 18th century with the expansion of the city's suburbs. In Landscapes of London, Elizabeth McKellar traces this growth back to the 17th century, when domestic retreats were established in outlying areas. This transitional zone was occupied and shaped by the urban middle class as much as by the elite who built villas there. McKellar provides the first major interdisciplinary cultural history of this area, analyzing it in relation to key architectural and planning debates and to concepts of national, social, and gender identities. She draws on a wide range of source materials, including prints, paintings, maps, poetry, songs, newspapers, guidebooks, and other popular literature, as well as buildings and landscapes. The author suggests that these suburban landscapes—the first in the world—were a new environment, but one in which the vernacular, the rustic, and the historic played a substantial part. This fascinating investigation shows London as the forerunner of the complex, multifaceted modern cities of today. -- Elizabeth McKellar is senior lecturer and staff tutor in the history of art, Open University.
books  amazon.com  17thC  18thC  British_history  cultural_history  social_history  London  architecture  housing  elite_culture  landscape  urban_elites  urban_development  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Karl Smith - Not All Forms of Wealth Are Equally Pernicious | FT Alphaville Feb 2014
Responding to Ryan Advent re Smith's earlier Alphaville post on Piketty book on trends in wealth and inequality -- Let me be clear. I am a fan of Piketty’s brute mechanistic approach. It is one that I have employed myself and on much the same question. It is one that led me to conjecture, and still suspect, that landlords are the once and future global plutocracy. And this happens precisely because all wealth is not created equal and some forms are more persistent and pernicious than others.

In the wake of the subprime crisis, I understand the temptation to rally against big banks and global finance. However, Lehman Brothers is dead. Sam Zell, founder and CEO of Equity Residential, is still alive. This is not an accident. The future does not belong to high flying titans. It belongs to dogged men and women who squirrel away rent checks when times are good, and buy your home when times are tight. This is the tyranny of land. Ignore it at your peril.
economic_history  economic_growth  capital  capitalism  capital_markets  landowners  France  US_economy  UK_economy  plutocracy  inequality  cities  urban_development  urban_elites  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard Marshall -Perspectives book series review - why fight poverty etc » 3:AM Magazine Feb 2014
Series editor Diane Coyle summarises the series nicely when she writes: ‘Perspectives are essays on big ideas by leading writers, each given free rein and a modest word limit to reframe an issue of great contemporary interest.’ Reading them invites peppy fustigation or pash. *--* (1) Julia Unwin’s ‘Why Fight Poverty’ argues that the UK must solve its poverty crisis and focuses on the emotional and sentimental thinking that ultimately provides obstacles for tackling the problem. This is hard-headed pugnacious stuff. *--* (2) Jim O’Neil’s ‘The BRIC Road to Growth’ warns that emerging markets are not an old story. The shift from the dominance of USA and Europe has happened. *--* (3) Anne Powers ‘Phoenix Cities’ is a study of regeneration ideas from Europe and the USA. Bridget Rosewell writes about ‘Reinventing London.’ *--* (4) Rediscovering Growth: After the Crisis’ by Andrew Sentance begins by asking what has happened to economic growth since the North Atlantic crisis in the stricken economies affected by the crisis. It’s an interesting question, and one that has in the background worries that without growth governments won’t be able to contain public borrowing, reduce their debts nor establish a direction for economic recovery.
books  reviews  public_policy  global_economy  global_governance  Great_Recession  emerging_markets  economic_growth  sovereign_debt  austerity  urban_development  urban_politics  London  education  poverty  Poor_Laws  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
R. H. Sweet - Topographies of Politeness | JSTOR: Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Sixth Series, Vol. 12 (2002), pp. 355-374
Politeness was a quintessentially urban concept; the formulation of a code of polite behaviour was a response to the pressures of urban living and the cultivation and display of polite manners took place in the social spaces of the urban locale. Not all towns were equally polite, however, and the degree of politeness on display in a town became another yardstick by which to categorise and judge provincial society. London was often presented as the centre of true politeness, in contrast to provincial vulgarity, but other towns were quick to appropriate the concept and its rhetoric as a means of self-promotion. In so doing politeness underwent modification as it was reinvented as a virtue of provincial, middling urban society. - bibliography - downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  social_history  cultural_history  British_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  urbanization  politeness  court_culture  commerce-doux  manners  elites  Town  provinces  urban_development  London  middle-class  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
G. William Domhoff - Rival Theories of Urban Power | Who Rules America
Attacks especially the pluralist theory - as often further modified by rational choice - which has relied on questionable results of Dahl study of New Haven urban renewal (1961)

Conclusion

Pluralism and Marxism are both based on abstract models of the good society, but they have very different attitudes toward markets. A complete market system is the ideal for pluralists, with a minimal role for government, whereas a planned non-market economy is the ideal for Marxists because they believe that private capitalists will inevitably dominate a market system and exploit workers. Given these strong ideological roots, the two theories are very hard to dislodge despite the many empirical studies of urban power structures that contradict their assumptions and conclusions.

Regime theory comes closer to the mark because it draws on insights from both of these traditions. However, it does not take the systemic power held by landowners and developers seriously enough. It remains at the institutional level as a theory even while recognizing that local growth coalitions are usually the dominant partners in city regimes, except under the unusual circumstances when neighborhoods and activists can forge a progressive coalition that lasts beyond one or two issues and a few elections. The commodified nature of land in the United States, and the conflict between use values and exchange values, is therefore the best starting point for understanding urban power structures.
social_theory  political_culture  power  elites  urban_politics  urban_development  US_politics  US_history  parties  20thC  rational_choice  neoliberalism  Marxist  property  economic_growth  landowners  EF-add 
november 2013 by dunnettreader
G. William Domhoff - Power at the Local Level: Growth Coalition Theory | Who Rules America
Theory of local "growth coalitions" and history of urban policy and public administration institutions growing out of Good Government battles against Democratic Party machines and Socialists. Rockefeller Foundation and University of Chicago building nationwide urban policy network of thinktanks through Progressive and New Deal era. Electoral and managerial "reforms" (off yr & nonpartisan elections, citywide councils w/ no or minimal pay), city managers) that defanged threats from immigrant, Negro & Socialist politicians, foreclosed working class participation in governing bodies etc.

The idea that the heart of a local power structure is provided by those businesses concerned with local real estate values explains what had been considered a perplexing issue in what was once called the "community power literature:" the relative absence of industrial executives as top leaders within the city..... manufacturers usually are not concerned with land values unless they are also big landowners as well. Their focus is on making profits through the sale of products in regional, national, and international markets. For an industrialist, any given locality is merely a site for production that can be abandoned with a fair amount of ease if it becomes too costly, .... Their power is not in their involvement in local government but in their ability to move, which ... creates an underlying tension between the two sets of interests.

Since a great many specific government decisions can affect land values and growth potentialities, leaders of the growth coalition are prime participants in local government. Their involvement is even greater than that of corporate capitalists at the national level, where the power elite can rely to some extent on such "signals" as stock prices, interest rates, and the level of new investments to tell government officials what they think of current policies.

Due to the separation of local, state, and national government in the United States, the wily members of the local growth coalition are able to have it both ways. At the state and national levels they support those politicians who oppose, in the name of fiscal and monetary responsibility, the kinds of government policies that might create more jobs, whereas at the local level they talk in terms of their attempts to create more jobs. Their goal is never profits, but only jobs.
19thC  20thC  US_history  urban  urbanization  political_history  political_press  politics-and-money  urban_politics  US_economy  US_politics  political_economy  political_culture  local_government  business  elites  networks  investment  profit  property  Labor_markets  conservatism  lobbying  landowners  economic_growth  off-shoring  urban_development  suburbs  parties  elections  Great_Depression  US_politics-race  EF-add 
november 2013 by dunnettreader

related tags

-priorities  1-percent  14thC  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  abolition  academia-governance  access_to_services  African-Americans  agriculture  alliances-political  amazon.com  American_colonies  Ancien_régime  antitrust  architecture  article  Atlantic  austerity  automation  autos  batteries  bibliography  books  bourgeoisie  Britain  British_history  business  business-and-politics  capital  capitalism  capital_markets  Catholics-and-politics  change-social  China  China-economy  China-governance  cities  city_states  civic_humanism  civic_virtue  civil_liberties  civil_society  class_conflict  climate  climate-adaptation  Colbert  Colbertism  colonialism  colonies  commerce  commerce-doux  commercialization  commercial_interest  common_good  community  competition  conservatism  contention  coordination-governments  corporate_citizenship  corporate_finance  corporate_governance  court_culture  CSR  cultural_history  debtors  development  downloaded  economic_culture  economic_growth  economic_history  economic_policy  economic_reform  economic_sociology  education  education-finance  education-training  EF-add  egalitarian  elections  electricity  electric_transport  elites  elites-political_influence  elite_culture  emerging_markets  empires  energy  energy-markets  Enlightenment  entrepreneurs  environment  Europe-Early_Modern  farmers  FCC  FDI  feudalism  financial_crisis  financial_system  find  firms-theory  fiscal_policy  foreigners-resident  foreign_policy  foreign_trade  France  French_Empire  French_government  French_Revolution  French_Revolutionary_Wars  futurology  geohistory  geopolitics  Georgia  Germany  global_economy  global_governance  global_system  governmentality  Great_Depression  Great_Recession  green_economy  green_finance  guerrillas  guilds  haute_bourgeoisie  health_care  highways  historical_sociology  housing  Huguenots  human_capital  immigration  imperialism  improvement  incentives  incentives-distortions  industrialization  industrial_policy  industry  inequality  infrastructure  infrastructure-markets  Innovation  innovation-government_policy  Instapaper  institution-building  institutional_change  institutional_economics  institutions  intellectual_history  international_finance  international_political_economy  Internet  investment  investment-government  IP  Ireland  IT  Jews  journal  jstor  kindle-available  Labor_markets  landowners  landscape  land_use_planning  law-and-economics  law-and-environment  LDCs  Levant  liberties  liberty  links  lobbying  local_government  local_politics  London  Louis_XIV  Louis_XV  Louis_XVI  lower_orders  management  managerialism  manners  markets  markets-structure  market_fundamentalism  market_integration  Marxist  medieval_history  MENA  mercenaires  middle-class  military_history  militia  MNCs  monarchy  monetary_policy  money  money-Cartelist  monopolies  moral_economy  Napoleonic_Wars  Napoleonic_Wars-impact  nation-state  neoliberalism  networks  networks-business  networks-information  networks-religious  networks-social  NIMBY  ocean  OECD  OECD_economies  off-shoring  Ottomans  paper  parties  plutocracy  Pocket  policymaking  politeness  political_culture  political_economy  political_history  political_participation  political_press  political_science  political_sociology  politics-and-money  politics-and-religion  Poor_Laws  post-Cold_War  post-WWII  poverty  power  power-asymmetric  power-symbolic  prisons  privileges-corporate  profit  project_finance  property  property_rights  provinces  public-private_partnerships  public_finance  public_goods  public_health  public_policy  R&D  racism  rational_choice  Reformation  regulation  regulation-harmonization  religious_culture  report  republicanism  research  research-funding  Restoration-France  reviews  rights-political  risk_capital  roads  rural  rural_development  safety_net  science-and-politics  secularism  segregation  self-driving_cars  slavery  social_history  social_movements  social_theory  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  sovereignty  sovereign_debt  stagnation  state-and-science  state-building  states  state_government  state_legislatures  suburbs  supply_chains  sustainability  technical_assistance  technology  technology-adoption  technology-history  technology_transfer  telecommunications  Town  towns  trade-policy  trading_companies  transport  transport-public  trust  UK_economy  unemployment  university  urban  urbanism  urbanization  urban_development  urban_elites  urban_politics  urban_rural_divides  urban_spaces  US_economy  US_government  US_history  US_politics  US_politics-race  US_society  utilities  wages  water  website  welfare_state  white_flight  women-in-politics  work-life_balance  workforce  working_class 

Copy this bookmark:



description:


tags: