dunnettreader + tolerance + religious_history   23

Grell and Scriber eds. -Tolerance and Intolerance in the European Reformation (1996) | Cambridge University Press
This volume offers a re-interpretation of the role of tolerance and intolerance in the European Reformation. It questions the traditional notion of a progressive development towards greater religious toleration from the beginning of the sixteenth century onwards. Instead, it places incidents of religious tolerance and intolerance in their specific social and political contexts. Fifteen leading scholars offer a comprehensive interpretation of this subject, covering all the regions of Europe that were directly affected by the Reformation in the crucial period between 1500, when northern humanism had begun to make an impact, and 1648, the end of the Thirty Years War. In this way, Tolerance and Intolerance in the European Reformation provides a dramatically different view of how religious toleration and conflict developed in early modern Europe. - excerpt is TOC and full Intro including ftnts - downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
Lutherans  persecution  politiques  social_movements  Huguenots  Erastianism  church_history  Europe-Early_Modern  change-social  Calvinism  religious_wars  heresy  Kirk  religion-established  books  legitimacy  Thirty_Years_War  networks-religious  Papacy  iconoclasm  Counter-Reformation  16thC  Church-and-State  anti-Calvinists  religious_history  godly_persons  Church_of_England  social_order  politico-theology  Wars_of_Religion  Socinians  downloaded  Arminians  religious_belief  Inquisition  religious_culture  17thC  religious_lit  Thirty-Nine_Articles  Reformation  tolerance  Puritans  heterodoxy 
may 2016 by dunnettreader
Grell and Porter eds. - Toleration in Enlightenment Europe (2000) | Cambridge University Press
The Enlightenment is often seen as the great age of religious and intellectual toleration, and this 1999 volume is a systematic European survey of the theory, practice, and very real limits to toleration in eighteenth-century Europe. A distinguished international team of contributors demonstrate how the publicists of the European Enlightenment developed earlier ideas about toleration, gradually widening the desire for religious toleration into a philosophy of freedom seen as a fundamental attribute and a precondition for a civilized society. Nonetheless Europe never uniformly or comprehensively embraced toleration during the eighteenth century: although religious toleration was central to the Enlightenment project, advances in toleration were often fragile and short-lived. -- excerpt contains TOC and full Chapter 1 - Intro - including ftnts to Chapter 1 - downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
High_Church  1730s  Papacy  French_Enlightenment  civil_liberties  Enlightenment  Church_of_England  Church-and-State  Holy_Roman_Empire  Locke  philosophes  Spain  Spinoza  Toland  Italy  British_history  tolerance  anti-Semitism  political_philosophy  Dutch  downloaded  Germany  citizenship  Austria  Inquisition  18thC  religious_history  17thC  church_history  intellectual_history  enlightened_absolutism  books 
may 2016 by dunnettreader
Julián Casanova - The death throes of Franco: Spain's new reckoning with the dictatorship and Civil War | Eurozine - July 2011
Original in Spanish - Translation by Martin Douch ' First published in Eurozine -- Spain's Amnesty Act of 1977 ensured that, during the first two decades of democracy, the memory of the Civil War and the human rights violations of the Franco dictatorship remained taboo. Initiatives by the Zapatero government to redress historic injustices signal a new era, yet there is a way to go before Spanish society is unanimous about its past, writes historian Julián Casanova. -- downloaded pdf to Note
political_culture  political_history  religious_history  20thC  entre_deux_guerres  WWII  post-WWII  Spain  Spanish_Civil_War  civil_wars  religious_wars  religious_culture  anti-Communist  authoritarian  democracy  human_rights  civil_liberties  civil_society  civility-political  tolerance  collective_memory  memory-cultural  historiography  historiography-religious  historians-and-politics  historians-and-state  lieux_de_mémoires  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
N.H. Keeble - The Restoration: England in the 1660s (2002) | Wiley Online Library
This cultural history challenges the standard depiction of the 1660s as the beginning of a new age of stability, demonstrating that the de following the Restoration was just as complex and exciting as the revolutionary years that preceded it. -- very large endnotes available as free access -- downloaded pdf to Air
books  bibliography  downloaded  17thC  British_history  British_politics  Restoration  cultural_history  religious_history  politics-and-religion  English_Civil_War  monarchy  Charles_II  James_II  Parliament  dissenters  tolerance  persecution  religion-established  Church_of_England  social_history 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Colin Kidd - Civil Theology and Church Establishments in Revolutionary America | JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 42, No. 4 (Dec., 1999), pp. 1007-1026
The discourse of America's founding generation, it is now widely recognized, was rich and variegated in its composition, drawing upon the commonwealth tradition, the English common law, Montesquieu, Locke, Scottish moral philosophy, and the classics. These sources yield significant clues as to how eighteenth-century Americans viewed religious liberty and church-state relations, subjects of the First Amendment to the Constitution. Supplementing the work of legal historians on the religious provisions of the early state constitutions, the study of political ideas suggests the parameters of the eighteenth-century debate over the effects which various types of religious belief and ecclesiastical establishment had upon manners and institutions. It also reveals the ideological underpinnings of the apparently inconsistent legal provisions for religion at the state level, and, far from settling the elusive question of `original intent', highlights the nature of the divisions within the founding generation. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  theology  religious_history  church_history  religious_culture  religion-established  civil_religion  civil_liberties  tolerance  US_constitution  17thC  18thC  British_history  British_politics  US_history  Founders  bill_of_rights  ancient_Rome  ancient_Greece  Commonwealthmen  Locke-religion  Hutcheson  Smith  Montesquieu  civic_virtue  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  US_legal_system  US_politics  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Derek Hirst - Bodies and Interests: Toleration and the Political Imagination in the Later 17thC | JSTOR: Huntington Library Quarterly, Vol. 70, No. 3 (September 2007), pp. 401-426
Religious fragmentation threatened the notion of a unitary body politic, and conservative Anglicans in the Restoration exploited the organic figure to excoriate dissenters. While scriptural patterns drew the godly too to that trope, its ecclesiastical implications often left them parsing uncomfortably as they urged concessions. In this article Derek Hirst argues that they were largely rescued from such parsing by the new discourse of “interest.” When the promise of trade was taking the court by storm, Independents and Presbyterians had much to gain in re-imagining the polity more pluralistically in terms of interest; Locke too was part of this process. But though the general drift is clear, partisan circumstance could occasion surprising cross-currents, in England and Ireland alike. -- Keywords body politic, religious toleration, John Owen, discourse of “interest”, John Locke -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  17thC  British_history  British_politics  politics-and-religion  economic_history  political_economy  religious_history  religious_culture  religion-established  dissenters  High_Church  merchants  trade  Restoration  tolerance  political_philosophy  political_order  political_nation  interest-discourse  body_politic  Locke  Locke-religion  court_culture  colonialism  tariffs  Presbyterians  Independents  Ireland  Church_of_England  Anglican  Church_of_Ireland  Ulster  Catholics-Ireland  Catholics-England  downloaded  EF-add 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
BRENT S. SIROTA -- THE OCCASIONAL CONFORMITY CONTROVERSY, MODERATION, AND THE ANGLICAN CRITIQUE OF MODERNITY, 1700–1714 (2014) | The Historical Journal, 57, pp 81-105 - Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
BRENT S. SIROTA - North Carolina State University -- The occasional conformity controversy during the reign of Queen Anne has traditionally been understood as a straightforward symptom of the early eighteenth-century ‘rage of party’. For all the pious rhetoric concerning toleration and the church in danger, the controversy is considered a partisan squabble for short-term political gain. This traditional interpretation has, however, never been able to account for two features of the controversy: first, the focus on ‘moderation’ as a unique characteristic of post-Revolutionary English society; and second, the prominence of the Anglican nonjurors in the debate. This article revisits the occasional conformity controversy with an eye toward explaining these two related features. In doing so, it will argue that the occasional conformity controversy comprised a referendum on the Revolution settlement in church and state. Nonjurors lit upon the practice of occasional conformity as emblematic of the broader malady of moderation afflicting post-Revolutionary England. From their opposition to occasional conformity, the nonjurors, and soon the broader Anglican high-church movement, developed a comprehensive critique of religious modernity that would inform the entire framework of debate in the early English Enlightenment. -* I thank James Vaughn, Steve Pincus, Bill Bulman, Robert Ingram, and the participants in the ‘God and the Enlightenment’ conference at Ohio University in October 2012 for their generous engagement with earlier drafts of this article. Thanks also to Phil Withington and the anonymous reviewers for their assistance in shaping this article into its final form.
article  paywall  find  18thC  British_history  British_politics  1700s  1710s  occasional_conformity  nonjurors  High_Church  Church_of_England  religious_history  church_history  religious_culture  religion-established  politics-and-religion  political_press  pamphlets  political_participation  tolerance  latitudinarian  secularization  atheism_panic  partisanship  Tories  Whigs  dissenters  Whig_Junto  moderation  modernity  Enlightenment  Queen_Anne  Harley  Bolingbroke  comprehension-church  Convocation  church-in-danger  sermons  religious_lit  cultural_critique  Atterbury  popular_politics  popular_culture  Revolution_Principles  Glorious_Revolution  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Steven D. Smith, review essay - Discourse in the Dusk: The Twilight of Religious Freedom? | JSTOR: Harvard Law Review, Vol. 122, No. 7 (May, 2009), pp. 1869-1907
Reviewed work(s): Religion and the Constitution — Volume 2: Establishment and Fairness by Kent Greenawalt -- Smith claims a millennium of tradition re church and state is unraveling (a la MacIntyre decadent tradition) and US policy and jurisprudence tends to ignore erosion of their fundamental justifications -- starts with Pope Gregory and Henry IV and investiture controversy -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  theology  religion-established  religious_culture  religious_history  church_history  civil_liberties  freedom_of_conscience  tolerance  pluralism  secularism  US_constitution  bill_of_rights  legal_theory  philosophy_of_law  medieval_history  Papacy  Reformation  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
John Locke, A Letter concerning Toleration and Other Writings, ed. Mark Goldie - Online Library of Liberty
John Locke, A Letter concerning Toleration and Other Writings, edited and with an Introduction by Mark Goldie (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2010). 07/13/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2375> -- Part of the Thomas Hollis Library (series editor David Wormersley) published by Liberty Fund. This volume contains A Letter Concerning Toleration, excerpts of the Third Letter, An Essay on Toleration, and various fragments, including Constitution of Carolina excerpts, pamphlet debates e.g. with Samuel Parker. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  17thC  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  theology  Locke  Locke-religion  British_history  British_politics  religious_history  politics-and-religion  tolerance  dissenters  religion-established  religious_belief  religious_lit  religious_culture  political_culture  Church_of_England  atheism_panic  scepticism  Epicurean  heterodoxy  Christology  salvation  soul  natural_law  natural_rights  obligation  Catholics-England  Papacy  Papacy-English_relations  Protestant_International  colonialism  American_colonies  UK_government-colonies  reformation_of_manners  English_constitution  constitutionalism  Carolina  Shaftesbury_1st_Earl  Board_of_Trade  civil_liberties  civil_religion  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Margaret C. Jacob - How Radical Was the Enlightenment? What Do We Mean by Radical? | Diametros
Distinguished Professor of History, UCLA Email: mjacob@history.ucla.edu
-- The Radical Enlightenment has been much discussed and its original meaning somewhat distorted. In 1981 my concept of the storm that unleashed a new, transnational intellectual movement possessed a strong contextual and political element that I believed, and still believe, to be critically important. Idealist accounts of enlightened ideas that divorce them from politics leave out the lived quality of the new radicalism born in reaction to monarchical and clerical absolutism. Taking the religious impulse seriously and working to defang it of bellicosity would require years of labor. First all the world’s religions had to be surveyed, see Picart’s seven folio volumes; and Rousseau’s Savoyard vicar had to both preach and live religion simply as true virtue; and finally Jefferson editing the Bible so as to get the irrational parts simply removed, thus making people more fit to grant a complete religious toleration. Throughout the century all these approaches to revealed religion may be legitimately described as radical. Each produced a different recommendation for its replacement. As I have now come to see, the pantheism I identified in 1981 would lead in many directions, among them lay the search to understand all human religiosity and to articulate a universal natural religion. -- Keywords - Atheism materialism absolutism French Protestant refugees Dutch cities religious toleration Bernard Picart Jonathan Israel English freethinkers Papal condemnation Rousseau pantheism Jefferson -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  religious_history  cultural_history  political_history  17thC  18thC  Dutch  British_history  Enlightenment  Radical_Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  political_culture  politics-and-religion  religion-established  religious_belief  comparative_religion  comparative_anthropology  monotheism  natural_religion  natural_philosophy  materialism  tolerance  natural_rights  naturalism  pantheism  atheism  atheism_panic  anticlerical  Absolutism  monarchy  monarchy-proprietary  publishing  public_sphere  Picart  Rousseau  Jefferson  revelation  Biblical_authority  Bible-as-history  Biblical_criticism  Huguenots  free-thinkers  Papacy  papal_infallibility  censorship  Republic_of_Letters  rational_religion  American_colonies  Early_Republic  ecclesiology  querelle_des_rites  virtue  moral_philosophy  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
John Coffey - Puritanism and Liberty Revisited: The Case for Toleration in the English Revolution - JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 41, No. 4 (Dec., 1998), pp. 961-985
In recent years historians have grown sceptical about attempts to trace connections between puritanism and liberty. Puritans, we are told, sought a godly society, not a pluralistic one. The new emphasis has been salutary, but it obscures the fact that a minority of zealous Protestants argued forcefully for the toleration of heresy, blasphemy, Catholicism, non-Christian religions, and even atheism. During the English revolution, a substantial number of Baptists, radical Independents, and Levellers insisted that the New Testament paradigm required the church to be a purely voluntary, non-coercive community in the midst of a pluralistic society governed by a `merely civil' state. Although their position was not without its ambiguities, it constituted a startling break with the Constantinian assumptions of magisterial Protestantism. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  historiography  revisionism  religious_history  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  17thC  British_history  British_politics  Puritans  English_Civil_War  Interregnum  Protectorate  godly_persons  Parliamentarians  republicanism  Cromwell  Levellers  tolerance  religion-established  religious_belief  religious_culture  church_history  New_Testament  apostolic_succession  Early_Christian  theocracy  heterodoxy  pluralism  civil_liberties  civil_religion  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Steven Lestition - Kant and the End of the Enlightenment in Prussia | JSTOR: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 65, No. 1 (Mar., 1993), pp. 57-112
Didn't download - looks like good summary of Spinozist flap over Lessing in broader context of Lutheran clergy, political and religious authoritarianism in some Prussia estates even before death of Frederick_the_Great - works through some of Kant’s non Critique writings -- loads of references
article  jstor  intellectual_history  religious_history  18thC  Prussia  Germany  Enlightenment  Lessing  Jacobi  Kant  freedom_of_conscience  Lutherans  fideism  Pietist  Biblical_criticism  religion-established  tolerance  Spinozism  Hume  rationalist  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Andrew Sabl - The Last Artificial Virtue: Hume on Toleration and Its Lessons | JSTOR: Political Theory, Vol. 37, No. 4 (August 2009), pp. 511-538
David Hume's position on religion is, broadly speaking, "politic": instrumental and consequentialist. Religions should be tolerated or not according to their effects on political peace and order. Such theories of toleration are often rejected as immoral or unstable. The reading provided here responds by reading Hume's position as one of radically indirect consequentialism. While religious policy should serve consequentialist ends, making direct reference to those ends merely gives free reign to religious-political bigotry and faction. Toleration, like Hume's other "artificial virtues" (justice, fidelity to promises, allegiance to government), is a universally useful response to our universal partiality—as Established uniformity, however tempting, is not. This implies that toleration can progress through political learning, becoming broader and more constitutionally established over time. A sophisticated Humean approach thus shares the stability and normative attractiveness of respect- or rights-based arguments while responding more acutely and flexibly to problems the former often slights: antinomian religious extremism; underdefined political agency; and internationalized, politicized religious movements. -- extensive bibliography -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  religious_history  18thC  Hume-politics  Hume-ethics  religion-established  tolerance  civil_liberties  politics-and-religion  political_culture  religious_culture  social_order  freedom_of_conscience  faction  bigotry  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Will R. Jordan - Religion in the Public Square: A Reconsideration of David Hume and Religious Establishment | JSTOR: The Review of Politics, Vol. 64, No. 4 (Autumn, 2002), pp. 687-713
While recent scholarship has attempted to clarify the Founders' opposition to religious establishment, few pause to consider public establishment as a viable alternative. This study examines one of the eighteenth century's least likely proponents of religious establishment: David Hume. Despite his reputation as an avowed enemy of religion, Hume actually defends religion for its ability to strengthen society and to improve morality. These salutary qualities are lost, however, when society is indifferent about the character of the religion professed by its citizens. Hume's masterful "History of England" reveals that a tolerant established church is best equipped to reap the advantages of religion while avoiding the dangers of fanaticism. Hume's differences in this respect from Adam Smith and Alexis de Tocqueville are explored. -- Hume not all that unique among sceptical philosophes in thinking that a moderate established religion - that didn't run around actively persecuting dissent - would be socially and politically salutary if not necessary
article  jstor  intellectual_history  religious_history  political_philosophy  18thC  Hume-politics  Hume-historian  Hume-ethics  politics-and-religion  religion-established  Church_of_England  Kirk  tolerance  dissenters  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Brenna Moore - Beyond the Catholic-Protestant divide - review of Brad Gregory’s The Unintended Reformation « The Immanent Frame - Nov 2013
Gregory seems to think if Europe had avoided theological split all would have been well,maybe even avoid modernity and its evils - ignores Catholic relations with other religions and Christianity entanglement with colonialism and economic imperialism -- Also ignores important 20thC European Catholic rethinking of relations with others, support for eg human rights etc that Gregory disparages, ignoring Catholic links -- quote: With this twentieth-century European Catholic scholarly tradition as a backdrop, it appears all the more remarkable that Gregory did not follow its lead in thinking through the role of Christianity’s relationship to non-Christian religions in the making of modernity. Modern civilization, including secularization and consumerism, is incomprehensible when defined as a debate between Protestants and Catholics alone. Christians’ encounters with religious others shaped their own self-understanding in the early modern period and beyond, and the interactions between religiously diverse people must be central to any genealogy of our present. These encounters—sometimes violent, sometimes deeply humane—between Catholics and Jews, between missionaries and those they met on the frontier, between the orientalists and their archives, have to be at the center (or at least included somewhere!) of any analysis of the Christian roots of contemporary global capitalism and consumerism. Maritain and his cohort faced this head-on. José Casanova and Saba Mahmood have leveled similar critiques at Charles Taylor’s A Secular Age. In short, it is impossible to understand the historical trajectory of Christianity without understanding its contact with non-Christian others. Why does Gregory, like Taylor, bracket all of this? Had he not, what difference might it have made for the conclusions of The Unintended Reformation?

John W. O’Malley’s work has shown that few areas of sixteenth-century Catholicism were more significant than the intense upheavals caused by the missionary activity that began with the Portuguese and Spanish conquests and explorations and lasted through the seventeenth century. Catholics, he argues, were not always as fixated on Protestant reforms as we tend to assume (hence his preference for the label “early modern Catholicism” rather than “the Counter-Reformation”).
books  reviews  kindle-available  religious_history  intellectual_history  modernity  Christianity  Catholics  Reformation  16thC  17thC  20thC  comparative_religion  Judaism  colonialism  Spanish_Empire  Netherlands  tolerance  Counter-Reformation  Islam  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
James Chappel review of Brad Gregory’s The Unintended Reformation - An intended absence? Democracy and The Unintended Reformation « The Immanent Frame Sept 5, 2013
This persistent closed-mindedness—the insistence that any and every text and phenomenon be read back into one grand Manichean narrative—is not a problem unique to Gregory: indeed, the work that his resembles more than any other is Jonathan Israel’s Radical Enlightenment, a clarion call for a robust secularity. Both of these books were written by venerable, erudite early modern scholars, convinced that the die of modernity were cast somewhere around 1650. They are both inordinately long—some of the longest nonfiction works published for mass consumption in the last few years. They are both obsessed with Spinoza. And both authors adopt the pose of a Cassandra, howling obvious truths into a world too blinkered by its iPhones to understand. Their great length, and unending cascade of details, stands in for a paucity of theoretical complexity. For both of them, the story itself is extremely simple: in the seventeenth century, there was a grand parting of the ways, and ever since then the children of light have been combating the children of darkness.
books  reviews  historiography  Reformation  Europe-Early_Modern  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  religious_history  intellectual_history  history_of_science  economic_history  cultural_history  church_history  political_history  democracy  Catholics  Protestants  Spinoza  monism  atheism  secularism  tolerance  metaphysics  theology  modernity  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Review by: Mark Goldie - Subjects and Sovereigns: The Grand Controversy over Legal Sovereignty in Stuart England by C. C. Weston; J. R. Greenberg (1983)
JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 26, No. 4 (Dec., 1983), pp. 1029-1030 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- nice little essay on what goes wrong when try to map Left-Right assumptions re political theory since antiquity onto 17thC English religious politics -- the players in fact don't wind up where the authors put them, ignoring the discrepancies
books  reviews  political_history  religious_history  church_history  Church_of_England  dissenters  Whigs  Tories  Absolutism  tolerance  political_culture  religious_culture  Charles_II  James_II  English_Civil_War  Restoration  Parliament  sovereignty  Locke  Shaftesbury_1st_Earl  Marvell  Erastianism  ecclesiology  downloaded  EF-add  English_constitution 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
B. W. Young, review essay - Enlightenment Political Thought and the Cambridge School (2009)
JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 52, No. 1 (Mar., 2009), pp. 235-251 -- paywall 24-hours $5.99 Cambridge Journals url http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0018246X08007383 -- Works reviewed: --**-- John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture: Religious Intolerance and Arguments Religious Toleration in Early Modern and 'Early Enlightenment' Europe by John Marshall;  --**-- The Case for the Enlightenment: Scotland and Naples, 1680-1760 by John Robertson;  --**-- Jealousy of Trade: International Competition and Nation-State in Historical Perspective by Istvan Hont; --**--  The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Political Thought by Mark Goldie; Robert Wokler
books  bookshelf  reviews  jstor  paywall  find  intellectual_history  historiography  Cambridge_School  17thC  18thC  political_philosophy  political_culture  political_economy  Britain  Italy  France  Germany  Dutch  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Enlightenment  religious_history  religious_culture  church_history  tolerance  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Matthew Kaldane: Anti-Trinitarianism and the Republican Tradition in Enlightenment Britain | Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts
Citation: Kadane, Matthew. “Anti-Trinitarianism and the Republican Tradition in Enlightenment Britain.” Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 2, no. 1 (December 15, 2010): http://rofl.stanford.edu/node/68.-- In "Limits of Atlantic Republican Tradition" issue -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Writing in the opening months of the French Revolution and in response to the accusation of anti-monarchical republicanism, Joseph Priestley explained in self-defense that if he was a “unitarian in religion” he remained “a trinitarian in politics” The republican-leaning Priestley was making a subtle distinction, but if the image of a political Trinitarian who held faith in Commons, Lords, and monarch could concisely illustrate what was surprising, if not paradoxical, about the political outlook of a religious Unitarian, it was because the link between republicanism and anti-Trinitarianism was so common.  By the end of the century, in the paranoid 1790s—when, whatever his subtle outlook, “Gunpowder Joe” Priestley could be construed as a Guy Fawkes style terrorist—Edmund Burke helped defeat the Unitarian Relief Bill of 1792 in the Commons by comparing Unitarians to “insect reptiles” that “fill us with disgust” and “if they go above their natural size . . . become objects of the greatest terror.” Given the republican implications in the Glorious Revolution and the century of Enlightenment it helped set in motion, anti-Trinitarianism therefore presents something of a paradox: republicans were drawn to it in great enough numbers to make it an unofficial religious outlook of the republican tradition, but it was explicitly criminalized in the state that was more republican, at least up to 1776, than any other major Atlantic state apart from the Dutch Republic.
article  intellectual_history  political_history  religious_history  political_culture  religious_culture  republicanism  anti-Trinitarian  17thC  18thC  19thC  British_history  British_politics  theology  Church_of_England  dissenters  tolerance  Priestley  Burke  divine_right  monarchy  heterodoxy  Wilkes  Glorious_Revolution  French_Revolution  Counter-Enlightenment  anti-Jacobin  middle_class  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
The Nature of Early Eighteenth-Century Religious Radicalism | Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts
Citation: Jacob, Margaret . “The Nature of Early Eighteenth-Century Religious Radicalism.” Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 1, no. 1 (May 1, 2009): http://rofl.stanford.edu/node/42. -- in "Rethinking the Republic of Letters" issue -- downloaded pdf to Note In 1981 I had focused on the Dutch-French-English nexus, and saw a select cast of major seventeenth-century thinkers as influencing the arguments put forward by French refugees and English Whigs for religious freedom, republican government, freedom of the press, habeas corpus, and against monarchical absolutism as practiced by the French king and clergy. These arguments appeared in the journals, books, and clandestine manuscripts originating in both London and Amsterdam. The origin of these new polemics owed much to a particular reading of Hobbes, to Locke, to a heretical reading of Newtonian science (Toland’s distinctive contribution), and of course to Bruno, Spinoza, as well as the English republican thinkers of the 1650s. In 2001 all of those influences were collapsed by Jonathan Israel into an ideengeschichte that fixated on the intellectual legacy of Spinoza to the exclusion of any significant English or French component.But if I think that Israel’s simplification of the way intellectual influence and human agency work—an idealist rendering that also effaces the political—will not stand up under scrutiny, so too I think aspects of my own youthful thinking are in need of a reformulation. The power of the Enlightenment—from this early coterie to latter thinkers like Rousseau and Jefferson—lay in understanding the force of organized religion, and then searching for a set of beliefs which deists, and perhaps even atheists of the age, could live with and accept. As I have now come to see, the pantheism I identified in 1981 would lead in many directions, among them the search to understand all human religiosity and to articulate a universal natural religion.
article  intellectual_history  historiography  17thC  18thC  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Radical_Enlightenment  Freemasonry  religious_history  theology  political_philosophy  republicanism  Republic_of_Letters  philosophes  church_history  tolerance  heterodoxy  Spinoza  Hobbes  Locke  Toland  Bayle  Huguenots  Edict_of_Nantes  Louis_XIV  Newtonian  Rousseau  Jefferson  Bolingbroke  Picart  sociology_of_religion  Deism  natural_religion  rational_religion  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader

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