dunnettreader + state-building   52

Blaydes
We document a divergence in the duration of rule for monarchs in Western Europe and the Islamic world beginning in the medieval period. While leadership tenures in the two regions were similar in the 8th century, Christian kings became increasingly long lived compared to Muslim sultans. We argue that forms of executive constraint that emerged under feudal institutions in Western Europe were associated with increased political stability and find empirical support for this argument. While feudal institutions served as the basis for military recruitment by European monarchs, Muslim sultans relied on mamlukism—or the use of military slaves imported from non-Muslim lands. Dependence on mamluk armies limited the bargaining strength of local notables vis-à-vis the sultan, hindering the development of a productively adversarial relationship between ruler and local elites. We argue that Muslim societies' reliance on mamluks, rather than local elites, as the basis for military leadership, may explain why the Glorious Revolution occurred in England, not Egypt. - downloaded via iphone to dbox
governance-participation  Sultans  Islamic_empires  Europe  military_history  medieval_history  political_participation  article  political_history  political_culture  feudalism  militarization-society  Mamluks  bibliography  Europe-Medieval  monarchy  Great_Divergence  governing_class  government-forms  elites-political_influence  downloaded  state-building  jstor 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
Karaman
Theoretical work on taxation and state-building borrows heavily from early modern European experience. While a number of European states increased centralized tax revenues during this period, for others revenues stagnated or even declined and these variations have motivated alternative arguments for the determinants of fiscal and state capacity. This study reviews the arguments concerning the three determinants that have received most attention, namely warfare, economic structure, and political regime, and tests them by making use of a new and comprehensive tax revenue dataset. Our main finding is that these three determinants worked in interaction with each other. Specifically, when under pressure of war, it was representative regimes in more urbanized-commercial economies and authoritarian regimes in more rural-agrarian economies that tended to better aggregate domestic interests towards state-building. - Downloaded via iphone
tax_collection  taxes  state-building  nation-state  urban_politics  competition-interstate  political_culture  political_participation  agriculture-surplus  Absolutism  government_finance  fiscal-military_state  agriculture  Europe-Early_Modern  economic_history  article  bibliography  political_sociology  central_government  19thC  financial_instiutions  downloaded  18thC  15thC  urban_elites  military_history  political_economy  17thC  governing_class  constitutional_regime  local_government  fiscal_policy  16thC  government-forms  jstor  Crown_finance  financial_system 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
Failed states and the paradox of civilisation - Ernesto Dal Bó, Pablo Hernandez-Lagos, Sebastián Mazzuca | Vox.EU - July 2016
While cases of state failure have risen in the last decade, most notably in the Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa, they are not a new phenomenon. Historical evidence from the early modern period, and even the Bronze Age, shows that the majority of formed states have failed rather than thrived. This column introduces the ‘paradox of civilisation’ to characterise the obstacles settlements face in establishing civilisations. The paradox defines the success of a civilisation as a trade-off between the ability to produce economic surplus and to protect it. It is therefore important to correctly balance military and economic support when providing aid. - Summary of NBER paper- downloaded vox version to Tab S2
paper  downloaded  ancient_history  civilization-concept  state-building  institutional_capacity  institution-building  failed_states  military  economic_growth  historical_sociology  agriculture  ancient_Near_East  ancient_Egypt  Sub-Saharan_Africa  MENA  Iraq  Syria  ISIS 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Guido Alfani, Wouter Ryckbosch - Income inequality in pre-industrial Europe | VOX, CEPR’s Policy Portal 06 November 2015
Thomas Piketty and others have prompted renewed interest in understanding long-term patterns of inequality. This column presents evidence from pre-industrial Europe. Inequality rose even during the success stories of early modern Europe, but it can hardly have been the sole requisite for growth. In both economic history and today’s economic theory, the idea of a universal trade-off between growth and inequality needs to be replaced by stronger attention to social processes and institutional developments. -- brief but extensive lit review of how thinking of economic historians has been evolving -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  economic_history  early_modern  Europe-Early_Modern  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  economic_growth  inequality  capital_formation  new_institutionalism  institutional_economics  political_economy  state-building  nation-state  human_capital  urbanization  Innovation  Industrial_Revolution  consumer_revolution  consumer_demand  wages  growth-equity_tradeoff  bibliography  downloaded 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
Joram Mayshar, Omer Moav, Zvika Neeman, Luigi Pascali - The Neolithic roots of economic institutions | VOX, CEPR’s Policy Portal - 11 September 2015
Conventional theory suggests that hierarchy and state institutions emerged due to increased productivity following the Neolithic transition to farming. This column argues that these social developments were a result of an increase in the ability of both robbers and the emergent elite to appropriate crops. Hierarchy and state institutions developed, therefore, only in regions where appropriable cereal crops had sufficient productivity advantage over non-appropriable roots and tubers. -- I.e. Eurasia, not Sub-Saharan Africa
paper  economic_history  pre-historical_people  development  institutional_economics  institutions  state-building  state-roles  agriculture  elites  violence  hierarchy  Sub-Saharan_Africa  geography  geography-and-economics 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Eurozine - Where is the power? - Wojciech Przybylski, Bartlomiej Sienkiewicz A conversation with Bartlomiej Sienkiewicz - July 2015
Original in Polish -- Translation by Aleksandra Malecka
First published in Res Publica, Nowa 30 (2015) -- In Europe all political thought is imperialist, says Bartlomiej Sienkiewicz. This means that politics as we know it today incorporates the experience of imperial politics from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century, when the foundations of what we call "the political" were forged. -- downloaded pdf to Note
geopolitics  Europe  Europe-Early_Modern  empires  state-building  nation-state  national_interest  EU  EU_governance  imperial-soft  Germany  Germany-Eurozone  Russia  Russian_foreign_policy  Poland  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  post-WWII  post-Cold_War  empire-and_business  globalization  sovereignty  hierarchy  authority  public_policy  policymaking  public_opinion  political_culture  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Hoffman, P.T.: Why Did Europe Conquer the World? (eBook and Hardcover).
Between 1492 and 1914, Europeans conquered 84% of the globe. But why did Europe rise to the top, when for centuries the Chinese, Japanese, Ottomans, and South Asians were far more advanced? Why didn’t these powers establish global dominance? ...distinguished economic historian Hoffman demonstrates that conventional explanations— eg geography, epidemic disease, and the Industrial Revolution—fail to provide answers. Arguing instead for the pivotal role of economic and political history, Hoffman shows that if variables had been at all different, Europe would not have achieved critical military innovations, and another power could have become master of the world. In vivid detail, he sheds light on the two millennia of economic, political, and historical changes that set European states on a distinctive path of development and military rivalry. Compared to their counterparts in China, Japan, South Asia, and the Middle East, European leaders—whether chiefs, lords, kings, emperors, or prime ministers—had radically different incentives, which drove them to make war. These incentives, which Hoffman explores using an economic model of political costs and financial resources, resulted in astonishingly rapid growth in Europe’s military sector from the Middle Ages on, and produced an insurmountable lead in gunpowder technology. The consequences determined which states established colonial empires or ran the slave trade, and even which economies were the first to industrialize. -- Professor of Business Economics and professor of history at CalTech. His books include Growth in a Traditional Society (PUP), Surviving Large Losses, and Priceless Markets. -- ebook and pbk not yet released --text 200 pgs, data, mideks in appendices ~35 pgs -- downloaded 1st chapter excerpt
books  kindle-available  Great_Divergence  economic_history  political_history  political_culture  military_history  technology  gunpowder  colonialism  imperialism  Europe  Europe-exceptionalism  Europe-Medieval  Europe-Early_Modern  incentives  wars-causes  war  Innovation  technology-adoption  historical_sociology  historical_change  balance_of_power  path-dependency  Tilly  Mann_Michael  state-building  downloaded 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Stéphanie Novak & Will Slauter - Interview with David Stasavage - Small States, Big Credit? | March 2012 - Books & ideas
Tags : state | political representation | the elite | debt | Italy
-- In States of Credit, David Stasavage explains why city-states were able to create long-term debt as early as the 13th century, whereas territorial states began to do so only in the 16th century. This research has major implications for our understanding of state formation and economic growth. Re his book -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  kindle  economic_history  political_economy  political_culture  sovereign_debt  city_states  13thC  property_rights  property-confiscations  default  representative_institutions  state-building  creditors  North-Weingast  institutional_economics  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Thomas Grillot & Pauline Peretz - Interview with William Novak and James Sparrow - The American State: Power Obscured | Nov 2011 - Books & ideas
Tags : welfare state | state | war | law | France | United States of America -- Finding the American state where historians never looked before: this could be the motto of the new history of the state, of which William Novak and James Sparrow are two of the strongest advocates. To capture the specificity of state formation in the U.S., they encourage historians to look at the mutual constitution of state and society, instead of taking their separation for granted. Their approach is key to understanding the current legitimation crisis undergone by the American state. -- downloaded pdf to Note
US_government  US_history  US_politics  state-building  state-roles  19thC  20thC  anti-statist  right-wing  rights-legal  rights-political  centralization  central_government  ideology  libertarianism  market_fundamentalism  historiography  political_science  political_culture  sociology-process  legitimacy  power  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Dan Bogart - "There Can Be No Partnership with the King": Regulatory Commitment and the Tortured Rise of England's East Indian Merchant Empire | via Brad DeLong - Equitablog
Dan Bogart, Department of Economics, UC Irvine - : “There Can Be No Partnership with the King”: Regulatory Commitment and the Tortured Rise of England’s East Indian Merchant Empire: “The English East India Company helped build Britain’s colonial empire, but the Company was not a leader in East Asian trade for nearly a century after its founding in 1600. This paper argues that its early performance was hindered by a problem of regulatory commitment. It gives a brief history of the torturous renegotiations over its monopoly trading privileges and the fiscal demands by the monarchy. It also analyzes the effects of political instability, warfare, and fiscal capacity on the Company’s investment in shipping tonnage. Regressions show the growth of shipping tonnage declined significantly when there were changes in government ministers, when Britain was at war in Europe and North America, and when shipping capacity exceeded central government tax revenues. The findings point to the significance of regulatory institutions in Britain’s development and its links with politics and war. They also provide an important case where regulatory uncertainty lowers investment.” paper dated Jan 2015 -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  downloaded  economic_history  British_history  British_Empire  fiscal-military_state  state-building  UK_government-colonies  East_India_Company  trade-policy  trading_companies  trading_privileges  monopolies  British_Navy  17thC  institutional_capacity  regulation  monarchy-proprietary  James_I  Charles_I  Charles_II  James_II  English_Civil_War  Interregnum  taxes  political_culture  shipping  merchants  interlopers  military_history  Anglo-Dutch_wars  Glorious_Revolution  Nine_Years_War  War_of_Spanish_Succession  investment  uncertainty-regulation  uncertainty-political  British_politics  Restoration  colonialism  parties  faction  EF-add 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Jeffrey A. Sheehan - The Legacy of Indonesia's Boediono - Knowledge@Wharton
Boediono served as Vice President of Indonesia from 2009 to October 20, 2014, when President Joko Widodo was elected and took office with Vice President Jusuf Kalla. In the following piece, Jeffrey A. Sheehan of Sheehan Advisory LLC — and former associate dean for international relations at Wharton — writes about Boediono, who he has known for 22 years. The material, which draws on public and private discussions, is excerpted from the manuscript of Sheehan’s forthcoming book, tentatively titled, “There Are No Foreign Lands.”
books  Indonesia  democracy  democratization  development  nation-state  state-building  emerging_markets  national_ID  globalization  global_governance  post-colonial  Dutch  20thC  21stC  bureaucracy  corruption 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
- DAVID LEWIS JONES - British Parliaments and Assemblies: A Bibliography of Printed Materials (2009) Parliamentary History - Wiley Online Library
Each section a pdf downloaded to Note - combined, c 25,000 entries *--* Section 1: Preface, Introduction, The Westminster Parliament 1-4005. **--** Section 2: The Medieval Parliament 4006-4728 **--** Section 3: Tudor Parliaments 4729-5064 **--* Section 4: Stuart Parliaments 5063-6805 **--** Section 5: The Unreformed Parliament 1714-1832 6806-9589. **--** Section 6: The Reformed Parliament 1832-1918 9590-15067 **--** Section 7: Parliament 1918-2009 15068-21582. **--** Section 8: The Judicial House of Lords 21583-21835. -- The Palace of Westminster 21836-22457. -- The Irish Parliament 22458-23264 -- The Scottish Parliament (to 1707) 23265-23482 -- The New Devolved Assemblies 23483-23686 -- The Scottish Parliament (1999-) 23687-24251 -- Northern Ireland 24252-24563 -- The National Assembly for Wales 24537-24963 -- Minor Assemblies
bibliography  historiography  Medieval  medieval_history  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  political_culture  political_philosophy  political_economy  political_history  politics-and-religion  political_participation  political_press  legal_history  legal_system  legal_theory  British_history  British_politics  Britain  British_Empire  British_foreign_policy  English_constitution  British_Empire-constitutional_structure  monarchy  monarchy-proprietary  monarchical_republic  limited_monarchy  Parliament  Parliamentary_supremacy  House_of_Commons  House_of_Lords  sovereignty  government-forms  governing_class  government_finance  government_officials  Scotland  Ireland  Ireland-English_exploitation  elites  elite_culture  common_law  rule_of_law  1690s  1700s  1707_Union  1680s  Glorious_Revolution  Glorious_Revolution-Scotland  English_Civil_War  Three_Kingdoms  composite_monarchies  Absolutism  ancient_constitution  religion-established  Church_of_England  Reformation  reform-legal  reform-political  elections  franchise  state-building  opposition  parties  pa 
december 2014 by dunnettreader
Special Issue in Memory of Charles Tilly (1929–2008): Cities, States, Trust, and Rule - Contents | JSTOR: Theory and Society, Vol. 39, No. 3/4, May 2010
1 - Cities, states, trust, and rule: new departures from the work of Charles Tilly - Michael Hanagan and Chris Tilly [d-load] *-* 2 - Cities, states, and trust networks: Chapter 1 of 'Cities and States in World History' - Charles Tilly [d-load] *-* 3 - Unanticipated consequences of "humanitarian intervention": The British campaign to abolish the slave trade, 1807-1900 - Marcel van der Linden [d-load] *-* 4 - Is there a moral economy of state formation? Religious minorities and repertoires of regime integration in the Middle East and Western Europe, 600-1614 - Ariel Salzmann [d-load] *-* 5 - Inclusiveness and exclusion: trust networks at the origins of European cities - Wim Blockmans [d-load] *-* 6 - Colonial legacy of ethno-racial inequality in Japan - Hwaji Shin. *-* 7 - Legacies of empire? - Miguel Angel Centeno and Elaine Enriquez. *-* 8 - Cities and states in geohistory - Edward W. Soja [d-load] *-* 9 - From city club to nation state: business networks in American political development - Elisabeth S. Clemens [d-load] *-* 10 - Irregular armed forces, shifting patterns of commitment, and fragmented sovereignty in the developing world - Diane E. Davis *-* 11 - Institutions and the adoption of rights: political and property rights in Colombia - Carmenza Gallo *-* 12 - Taking Tilly south: durable inequalities, democratic contestation, and citizenship in the Southern Metropolis - Patrick Heller and Peter Evans *-* 13 - Industrial welfare and the state: nation and city reconsidered - Smita Srinivas *-* 14 - The forms of power and the forms of cities: building on Charles Tilly - Peter Marcuse [d-load] *-* 15 - Was government the solution or the problem? The role of the state in the history of American social policy
journal  article  jstor  social_theory  political_sociology  contention  social_movements  change-social  historical_sociology  nation-state  cities  city_states  urban_politics  urban_elites  urbanization  urban_development  economic_sociology  institutions  institutional_change  property_rights  civil_liberties  civil_society  political_participation  political_culture  inequality  class_conflict  development  colonialism  abolition  medieval_history  state-building  religious_culture  politics-and-religion  MENA  Europe-Early_Modern  Reformation  networks-business  US_history  US_politics  US_economy  welfare_state  power-asymmetric  power-symbolic  elites  elite_culture  imperialism  empires  trust  networks-social  networks-religious  networks  14thC  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  geohistory  moral_economy  military_history  militia  guerrillas  mercenaires  sovereignty  institution-building 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Matthew Bowser - The Golden Age of Rome: Augustus’ program to better the Roman Empire (2013 undergrad thesis) | History of the Ancient World - October 2014
Undergraduate Thesis, University of Pittsburgh, 2013 -- posted to History of the Ancient World website - Argument continues among historians to this day whether Augustus should be considered the benefactor that Vergil portrays, who restored virtue and order, or as the tyrant Tacitus describes. Using evidence from a variety of contemporary sources, I intend to show that Augustus did in fact work to bring about the Age of Gold that Vergil promises. Whether through warfare, legislation, political maneuvering, or propaganda, I believe that his actions from the start reflect a clear program to make the Roman Empire the most powerful and most secure state that it could be, and that he was not just working for personal ambition. I have narrowed down the concept of the Golden Age, as portrayed by the poets, to three primary qualities: peace and security, the flourishing of the old Republican virtues, and prosperity under a glorious, divine leader. I will address each of these aspects in turn, consulting evidence from the period to show how Augustus’ regime worked to satisfy them. This evidence will include contemporary literature, historical facts and records, art, architecture, religion, and symbolism. I will also address the major criticisms of each facet by eyewitnesses such as Ovid and Propertius, by Roman historians such as Tacitus and Suetonius, and by various modern scholars of Roman history. Studying the success of Augustus’ methods can reap numerous benefits, including a deeper understanding of later dictators and their programs. -- downloaded pdf to Note
thesis  ancient_history  empires  Roman_Republic  Roman_Empire  Augustan_Rome  political_history  political_culture  civic_virtue  civil_religion  literary_history  Latin_lit  Virgil  Tacitus  historians-and-politics  state-building  Ovid  Suetonius  historiography  historiography-antiquity  downloaded  EF-add 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Clive Holmes, review - (1) Joel Samaha, Law and Order in Historical Perspective: The Case of Elizabethan Essex and (2) A. Hassell Smith, County and Court: Government and Politics in Norfolk, 1558-1603 | JSTOR: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 49, No. 3
Very useful discussion of the very different tales told re administrative efficiency of local government and judiciary in Elizabethan Norfolk and Essex. Particularly noteworthy was the factionalism that emerged after the fall of the Duke of Norfolk when Norfolk gentry fought for the various powers and control of patronage that had been monopolized by the Duke. The disappearance of the top status figure removed a key organizing part of the structure of ranks and status recognition, producing what sounds like a free-for-all vicious competition. Of course factions tried to develop court connections they could exploit. In addition to contributing local conflicts to central court confkicts, the central-local links also worked the other way. The Elizabethan government, frustrated by the variability and often poor quality of implementation by locals of central policies and concerns, including for security and defense, resorted to delegating particular matters to narrower groups than the overall county structures - e,.g. militia commissions and even letters patent. This selectivity would feed local factional competition. But the disputes fed back into conflicts at the central level in the latter part of Elizabeth's reign even Parliamentary constitutional debates challenging the prerogative to circumvent local government structures.
books  reviews  16thC  Elizabethan  British_history  British_politics  local_government  English_constitution  central_government  centralization  prerogative  judiciary  status  patronage  criminal_justice  bureaucracy  rationalization-institutions  state-building  faction  political_culture  elites  EF-add 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Jean-Philippe Genet - La genèse de l'État moderne: Culture et société politique en Angleterre (2003) | Livres -- Amazon.fr
La genèse de l'État moderne est le fruit d'une lente évolution à partir de la seconde moitié du XIIIe siècle, qui a d'abord affecté les monarchies féodales d'Occident : il y a quelques années, elle a fait l'objet d'études systématiques de nombreux historiens en Europe, grâce au CNRS et à la Fondation européenne de la Science. Le présent ouvrage est une étude de cas, consacrée à l'Angleterre, à bien des égards la plus précoce et la plus cohérente des constructions politiques médiévales qui, paradoxalement, est peu étudiée par les historiens français. On y retrouve le primat de la guerre et de la fiscalité dans la dynamique de la genèse de l'État moderne, ainsi que la mise en place d'un système judiciaire garantissant la reproduction de la classe dominante dans des conditions satisfaisantes. Mais l'ouvrage permet surtout de relever et d'articuler la corrélation entre le développement et la vitalité de la société politique, dont l'existence est une condition sine qua non pour l'État moderne, et la mutation de la culture et du système de communication médiéval, tant au niveau des médias et de la langue qu'à celui des types de textes produits. Par l'analyse de plus de 2200 bio-bibliographies d'" auteurs " actifs dans les domaines de l'histoire et du politique, et au moyen d'une théorie des champs de production textuelle, se dégage ce qu'a été l'idéologie spécifique du féodalisme d'État. Alors naissent progressivement les catégories modernes du politique, ainsi que la notion d'une société politique " nationale " -- Recommended in Penguin history of England bibliographies
books  amazon.fr  British_history  British_politics  medieval_history  13thC  14thC  15thC  nation-state  national_ID  political_culture  feudalism  legal_system  legal_culture  common_law  judiciary  historiography  political_sociology  military_history  state-building  political_economy  elites  elite_culture  monarchy  taxes  fiscal-military_state  nobility 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Matias Vernengo - NAKED KEYNESIANISM: Institutions, what institutions? - September 2014
Nice breakdown of theorists of causes of development and underdevelopment and problems of trying to catch up -- So if you believe most heterodox economists institutions are relevant, but not primarily those associated to the supply side; the ones linked to the demand side, in Keynesian fashion are more important than the mainstream admits. Poor countries that arrive late to the process of capitalist development cannot expand demand without limits since the imports of intermediary and capital goods cause recurrent balance of payments crises. The institutions that allow for the expansion of demand, including those that allow for higher wages to expand consumption and to avoid the external constraints, are and have been central to growth and development. The role of the State in creating and promoting the expansion of domestic markets, in the funding of research and development, and in reducing the barriers to balance of payments constraints, both by guarantying access to external markets (sometimes militarily, like in the Opium Wars) and reducing foreign access to domestic ones was crucial in the process of capitalist development. In this view, for example, what China did not have that England did, was not lack of secure property rights and the rule of law, but a rising bourgeoisie (capitalists) that had to compete to provide for a growing domestic market that had acquired a new taste (and hence explained expanding demand) for a set of new goods, like cotton goods from India, or china (porcelain) from… well China, as emphasized by economic historian Maxine Berg among others (for the role of consumption in the Industrial Revolution go here). Or simply put, China did not have a capitalist mode of production (for the concept of mode of production and capitalism go here). Again, I argued that Robert Allen’s view according to which high wages and cheap energy forced British producers to innovate to save labor, leading to technological innovation and growth, and the absence of those conditions in China led to stagnation is limited since it presupposes that firms adopt more productive technologies even without growing demand. -- see links
economic_history  economic_theory  economic_growth  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  development  emerging_markets  Latin_America  Great_Divergence  demand  consumer_demand  British_history  China  institutional_economics  institutional_change  institution-building  institutions  supply-side  demand-side  cultural_history  economic_culture  political_culture  industrialization  Industrial_Revolution  international_political_economy  international_monetary_system  balance_of_payments  state-building  rent-seeking  rentiers  commodities  links 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Niccolo Machiavelli, The Historical, Political, and Diplomatic Writings of Niccolo Machiavelli, Vol. 1. (Life of Machiavelli, History of Florence), tr. from the Italian, by Christian E. Detmold (Boston, J. R. Osgood and company, 1882). - Online Library of
<http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/774> - Volume 1 of a 4 volume set of Machiavelli’s writings which contains a lengthy introduction on the life of Machiavelli, the History of Florence, The Prince, Discourses on Livy, and his letters and papers from his time as a diplomat. This volume contains his famous History of Florence. - life and historical context based especially on 19thC Italian historiography -- downloaded kindle version of html
books  etexts  Liberty_Fund  downloaded  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  historiography-Renaissance  historiography-19thC  Machiavelli  Italy  Florence  Italian_Wars  Papacy  France  Louis_XI  nation-state  state-building  military_history  militia  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  mercenaires  diplomatic_history  IR_theory  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Niccolo Machiavelli, Il Principe, edited by L. Arthur Burd, with an Introduction by Lord Acton (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1891) - Online Library of Liberty
Facsimile PDF 23.8 MB This is a facsimile or image-based PDF made from scans of the original book. -- A heavily annotated edition by Burd with the famous introduction by Lord Acton. The text is in the original Italian. -- Burd has an enormous amount of context- historical background for all the players before and after invasion of Italy - and cross-references to other works by Machiavelli, Guicciardini etc -picks up language usage, concepts etc - and comments on previous commentaries on The Prince with which he agrees or has differences -- downloaded pdf to Note -- probably available in Google_Books
books  etexts  Liberty_Fund  downloaded  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  political_history  Renaissance  Italian_Wars  15thC  16thC  Machiavelli  Guiccidarini  historiography-Renaissance  historiography-19thC  Italy  Florence  Papacy  France  raison-d'-état  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  institutions  legal_history  state-building  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Protecting the European Choice -EU's Eastern Partnership and Russian challenges - 4 case studies | European Council on Foreign Relations
Europe’s Eastern Partnership has developed into crisis management and the EU must develop a new strategy towards Russia and the periphery, according to this new series of essays. As tensions around Russia continue to grow following the shooting down of a Malaysian civilian airliner, Ukraine and its fellow Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries are increasingly exposed in areas from energy to security. The editor of the series of case studies on Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia and Moldova, ECFR senior policy fellow Andrew Wilson, argues that European Union policy towards the Eastern Partnership is “proceeding on auto pilot” and that it needs to do “more than simply protect the status quo if it is serious about maintaining the Eastern Partnership”. Wilson warns that the EU will “have to be committed to spending a lot of blood and treasure to protect countries at the sharp end of Russian pressure.” All four case studies show that Russian pressure, for all its strength and breadth, is often self-defeating and they recommend three elements which the EU should adopt in its new strategy towards Russia and the periphery: ** The EU needs to prioritise “state building” in EaP countries which lack democracy and human rights. Security must come before strengthening their economies. ** Because of the serious weaknesses of the states involved, the EU needs to develop an instrument to help the Eastern Partnership countries deal with the new types of pressure that Russia will continue to apply. ** The EU needs a vision of how to engage with Russia in a new security framework.
etexts  Europe  EU  Eastern_Europe  Russia  NATO  state-building  Russia-near_abroad 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard J. Ross, Philip J. Stern - Reconstructing Early Modern Notions of Legal Pluralism in "Legal Pluralism and Empires, 1500-1850", ed. Lauren Benton and Richard J. Ross (2013) :: SSRN
Richard J. Ross, U. of Illinois College of Law; U. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Dept of History - Philip J. Stern, Duke History Dept -- Legal pluralism occurs when two or more legal orders exert control within a given territory or over a particular social group and yet are not part of a single hierarchical “system” under a coordinating authority. Most historical scholarship on legal pluralism concentrates on its shifting structures in local contexts and on its political and economic implications. By contrast, our essay probes historical actors’ uses of political and religious thought to justify or undermine plural legal regimes in the late 16thC through early 18thC. Historians of early modern political thought preoccupied with the rise of the modern state have lavished attention on ‘centralizing’ discourses, particularly theorists such as Bodin, Hobbes, and Pufendorf represented as champions of sovereignty. Against this tendency, we emphasize how ideological support for plural legal orders could be found in a wide range of intellectual projects. These ranged from debates over the right of resistance and the divine right of rulers, through historical work on the ancient Jewish commonwealth and theological disputes over which precepts “bound conscience,” and finally to writings on political economy and the place of family. -- The central ambition of our article is to provide an alternative historical genealogy for legal scholars of pluralism. Workaday legal pluralism did not struggle against a predominantly hostile intellectual climate. Many discourses supported pluralism. And the most emphatic theorists of a powerful singular sovereign were often responding to intellectual projects that valorized pluralism.
article  books  SSRN  intellectual_history-distorted  legal_history  legal_system  Europe-Early_Modern  16thC  17thC  18thC  nation-state  centralization  central_government  sovereignty  territory  pluralism-legal  pluralism  custom  customary_law  family  state-building  political_economy  political_culture  religious_history  religious_culture  politics-and-religion  law-and-religion  canon_law  church_history  church_courts  Bodin  Hobbes  Pufendorf  natural_law  colonialism  empires  commonwealth  Hebrew_commonwealth  resistance_theory  divine_right  monarchy  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  theology  casuistry  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
PATRICK A. WALSH -- THE FISCAL STATE IN IRELAND, 1691–1769 (2013).| The Historical Journal, 56, pp 629-656 Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
PATRICK A. WALSH - University College, Dublin (& UCL post doc fellowship) -- This article examines the Irish fiscal-military state in the eighteenth century. It locates the Irish state within a broader imperial context showing how Ireland contributed to the wider British imperial project. In particular, this article looks at the development of an efficient tax-gathering apparatus, showing how the revenue board, the most pervasive agency of the eighteenth-century Irish state, extracted increasing levels of taxation from a sometimes hostile population. Drawing extensively on the records of the Irish revenue commissioners, a very rich if under utilized source, it demonstrates for the first time the levels of taxation raised in Ireland, while also exploring how these taxes were collected. It concludes that this period saw the expansion of an increasingly professional bureaucracy, challenging existing interpretations that have focused predominantly on politicization. The final section looks at issues of evasion and compliance, showing the difficulties faced by the Irish state in this period, as it expanded deeper into Irish society. -* I would like to thank Stephen Conway, Niamh Cullen, Julian Hoppit, Eoin Magennis, and Ivar McGrath, as well as the two anonymous readers, for their comments on earlier drafts.
article  paywall  find  17thC  18thC  British_history  Ireland  Ireland-English_exploitation  taxes  fiscal-military_state  tax_collection  bureaucracy  state-building  British_Empire  British_Empire-constitutional_structure  UK_Government  UK_government-colonies  primary_sources  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - The Principle of Proximity (2011) :: SSRN
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 11-08 -- How should we think about, how should we model the basis of political community. To the extent that it is a matter of choice, what should be the basis on which the people of the world divide themselves up into distinct political communities. This paper seeks to cast doubt on the proposition that it is a good idea for people to form a political community exclusively with those who share with them some affinity or trust based on culture, language, religion, or ethnicity. I want to cast doubt on that proposition by articulating an alternative approach to the formation of political communities, which I shall call the principle of proximity. People should form political communities with those who are close to them in physical space, particularly those close to them whom they are otherwise like to fight or to be at odds with. This principle is rooted in the political philosophies of Hobbes and Kant. The suggestion is that we are likely to have our most frequent and most densely variegated conflicts with those with whom we are (in Kant’s words) “unavoidably side by side”, and the management of those conflicts requires not just law (which in principle can regulate even distant conflicts) but law organized densely and with great complexity under the auspices of a state. The paper outlines and discusses the proximity principle, and the conception of law and state that it involves, and defends it against the criticism that it underestimates the importance of pre-existing trust in the formation of political communities. -- Number of Pages in PDF File: 27 -- Keywords: community, conflict, ethnicity, Hobbes, identity, Kant, law, nationalism, proximity, state, state-building
paper  SSRN  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  philosophy_of_law  social_theory  community  community-virtual  conflict  political_culture  state-building  rule_of_law  trust  ethnic_ID  national_ID  nation-state  nationalism  Kant  Kant-politics  Kant-ethics  Hobbes  sociability  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui, The Principles of Natural and Politic Law [c 1750, tran 1763], trans. Thomas Nugent, ed. Peter Korkman - Online Library of Liberty
Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui, The Principles of Natural and Politic Law, trans. Thomas Nugent, ed. and with an Introduction by Peter Korkman (Indianpolis: Liberty Fund, 2006). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1717> -- The basis of this version of The Principles of Natural and Politic Law is Thomas Nugent’s 1763 English translation, which became a standard textbook at Cambridge and at many premier American colleges, including Princeton, Harvard, and the University of Pennsylvania. The first scholarly work on Burlamaqui was written by an American, M. Ray Forrest Harvey, who in 1937 argued that Burlamaqui was well known among America’s Founding Fathers and that his writings exerted considerable influence on the American constitutional system. In his introduction, Nugent said of Burlamaqui: “His singular beauty consists in the alliance he so carefully points out between ethics and jurisprudence, religion and politics, after the example of Plato and Tully, and the other illustrious masters of antiquity.”
books  etexts  17thC  18thC  Enlightenment  intellectual_history  natural_law  political_philosophy  human_nature  moral_psychology  obligation  sovereignty  Geneva  Calvinist  natural_rights  mixed_government  aristocracy-natural  elites  bourgeoisie  democracy  authority  legitimacy  civil_liberties  civil_religion  happiness  rationalist  Grotius  Pufendorf  Barbeyrac  Leibniz  Rousseau  governing_class  government-forms  governance  state-building  state-of-nature  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Lord Kames, Sketches of the History of Man, 3 vols., ed. James A. Harris - Online Library of Liberty
Henry Home, Lord Kames, Sketches of the History of Man Considerably enlarged by the last additions and corrections of the author, edited and with an Introduction by James A. Harris (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2007). 3 Vols. 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2031> -- Written late in his life, this 3 volume work deals with the idea of human progress. Vol. 1 deals with progress in property law, commerce, the treatment of women, and luxury. Vol. 2 deals with the development of states, government, and taxation. Vol. 3 deals with the progress of science.
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Kames  historiography-18thC  stadial_theories  progress  civil_society  political_philosophy  human_nature  luxury  property  property_rights  legal_history  legal_culture  commerce  taxes  nation-state  state-building  Scientific_Revolution  Newtonian  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Charles W. Prior, review - Bernard Capp. England's Culture Wars: Puritan Reformation and Its Enemies in the Interregnum, 1649-1660 | H-Net Reviews May 2013
Capp’s new book adds significant depth and nuance to our view of this period, ... Broadly speaking, the reformers were motivated by godly zeal and the desire to establish a civic commonwealth that was animated by humanist values, such as civility and good order. In this sense, the aims of the reformers agreed with the social values of the nobility, magistrates, and city corporations... However, ..a spectrum, along which positions were defined by the relative proportion of godliness to civility. The book is divided into three parts. The first concentrates on the various loci of political power, ...legislative reform carried on by the interregnum parliaments, by the government and the church at the county and local levels, and in an excellent chapter by propaganda and the press. The second part consists of six detailed chapters that take up the puritan “reformation of manners.” The third part of the book looks in some detail at local contexts, illustrating that reform proceeded very much according to the whims and will of local magistrates. Reformers had to contend with a series of structural and practical obstacles. ?..interregnum politics was fragmented. Parliament never really recovered from Pride’s Purge ... In spite of the desire to limit religious expression, a fervent climate of sectarianism remained. The Cromwellian state was obliged to settle for ad hoc compromises on a range of issues. ?...surely all of this detail adds up to something larger. ?...goes some way toward challenging the view that one major effect of the civil war was that the “state” emerged in its modern form. That is, politics transcended confessionalism and embraced legal values, secularism, and the rigid control of religion by the state. By contrast, Capp’s work suggests that religious dispute continued to destabilize politics at all levels, and that the state, if it existed at all, was obliged to defer to local custom.
books  reviews  historiography  17thC  British_history  British_politics  religious_history  Interregnum  Protectorate  Puritans  godly_persons  Parliamentarians  republicanism  Cromwell  sectarianism  state-building  nation-state  local_government  local_politics  reformation_of_manners  authority  authoritarian  church_history  commonwealth  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert Tiegs, review - Derek Croxton. Westphalia: The Last Christian Peace (2013) | H-Net Reviews
The work is divided into three sections covering the background, negotiations, and conclusions. The background section is the largest - its fifth chapter, “Structures,” is undoubtedly the highlight of the work. Croxton superbly places the negotiations in their baroque setting, showing how issues of precedence, prestige, gift giving, and logistics all affected the talks. The second section, covering the negotiations - In addition to attempting to resolve contentious religious issues, they also wrangled over the representation of imperial estates at the congress, territorial compensation, the independence of the United Provinces, and arrears for the Swedish soldiers. ...it was nearly impossible to settle any issue independently, and negotiations became a matter of brinksmanship. In the final section on consequences, Croxton takes aim at perceived errors in the historiography. ..he wants to place the focus back on the religious dimensions of negotiations, as the opening lines of the treaty clearly stated, “Let there be a Christian peace”. He believes that the notion of Westphalia as the foundation of modern diplomacy between independent sovereign states is erroneous. Alsace again provides a good example, as he points to the fact that the negotiations led to the curious situation where it was part of both the French crown and the empire. As this case makes clear, internal and external issues were not clear cut post-1648, thus European states were not independent and discrete sovereign units. In fact, he goes on to argue that Westphalia probably had the opposite effect, specifically “the continuation of the idea of mutual interference of states in each other’s internal affairs”.
books  reviews  17thC  diplomatic_history  military_history  religious_history  IR_theory  IR  nation-state  Westphalia  Thirty_Years_War  religious_wars  Holy_Roman_Empire  France  Sweden  Spain  Germany  Austria  Habsburgs  Dutch_Revolt  Dutch  state-building  balance_of_power  Great_Powers  sovereignty  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
James Shedel, review - Pieter M. Judson, Exclusive Revolutionaries: Liberal Politics, Social Experience, and National Identity in the Austrian Empire, 1848–1914 | JSTOR: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 72, No. 1 (March 2000), pp. 254-256
Reviewed work(s): Exclusive Revolutionaries: Liberal Politics, Social Experience, and National Identity in the Austrian Empire, 1848–1914. By Pieter M. Judson. Social History, Popular Culture, and Politics in Germany. Edited by Geoff Eley. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996. Pp. xiii+304. $49.50. -- James Shedel, Georgetown University -- a corrective that Viennese liberals weren't entirely gormless. Contributed in part to Habsburgs relative success in latter part of 19thC.
books  reviews  jstor  political_history  political_culture  19thC  20thC  1848_revolutions  Fin-de-Siècle  Austria  Vienna  Austro-Hungarian_Empire  Habsburgs  liberalism  national_ID  nationalism  rule_of_law  state-building  nation-state  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Noel D. Johnson: Banking on the King: The Evolution of the Royal Revenue Farms in Old Regime France (2006)
JSTOR: The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 66, No. 4 (Dec., 2006), pp. 963-991-- downloaded pdf to Note -- The writing and allocation of French tax farm contracts changed dramatically after the Fronde (1648-1653): they were gradually transformed from small, competitively auctioned, units into a large cartel known as the Company of General Farms. Surprisingly, the crown's revenues increased. I present a transaction cost argument to explain the behavior of tax farm lease prices as tax farming changed during the seventeenth century. Cartelization of tax farms lowered costs faced by the crown. The tax farm system's evolution offers insights into how organizations evolve to protect their property rights in the absence of well functioning representative institutions.
article  jstor  economic_history  political_history  institutional_economics  economic_sociology  17thC  18thC  France  state-building  public_finance  taxes  property_rights  firms-theory  institutions  Absolutism  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
J. C. D. Clark: Historiography review - Protestantism, Nationalism, and National Identity, 1660-1832 (2000)
JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 43, No. 1 (Mar., 2000), pp. 249-276 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- National identity, nationalism, patriotism, state formation, and their present-day policy implications now constitute one of the most vital areas of scholarship on British history. In no other period is the debate currently as focused as it is in the long eighteenth century, that crucially contested territory in which older assumptions about a fundamental transition between pre-modernity and modernity have now been called in doubt. This article offers an overview of recent work. It argues that much writing on these years has framed misleading models both of state formation and of national identity. It adds that this period is nevertheless a key one in revealing that the processes at work in sustaining collective identities in the British Isles did not originate with `nationalism' in its historically correct meaning, and need not follow its trajectory.
article  jstor  lit_survey  historiography  British_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  Ancien_régime  national_ID  nationalism  Protestant_International  state-building  Three_Kingdoms  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Anthony Molho: The State and Public Finance: A Hypothesis Based on the History of Late Medieval Florence (1995)
JSTOR: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 67 (Dec., 1995), pp. S97-S135 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- questions fiscal-military_state as driver of centralizing state - provide conditions of external pressures but response function of internal politics
article  jstor  historical_sociology  state-building  fiscal-military_state  15thC  16thC  17thC  Italy  Florence  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Anthony Molho: Recent Works on the History of Tuscany: Fifteenth to Eighteenth Centuries (1990)
JSTOR: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Mar., 1990), pp. 57-77 -- among other things, model of centralizing Renaissance state being substituted with dualistic (more powerful prince and reinforcement of corporate liberties, especially territorial) - and accommodation between secular leadership and Papacy re governance
article  jstor  lit_survey  historiography  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  Italy  state-building  Papacy  Italian_Wars  local_government  bibliography  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Michael Braddick: State Formation and Social Change in Early Modern England: A Problem Stated and Approaches Suggested (1991)
JSTOR: Social History, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Jan., 1991), pp. 1-17 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- the theoretical background to Braddick work on local government, taxation, authority and challenges in Three Kingdoms etc -- focus on state building process not on state as entity
article  jstor  historiography  historical_sociology  17thC  British_history  UK_Government  British_politics  social_history  local_government  taxes  fiscal-military_state  state-building  nation-state  English_Civil_War  political_culture  Ireland  Scotland 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Ben Holland: Sovereignty as Dominium? Reconstructing the Constructivist Roman Law Thesis (2010)
JSTOR: International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 54, No. 2 (June 2010), pp. 449-480 -- The constructivist authors John Gerard Ruggie, Friedrich Kratochwil, and Nicholas Onuf have each independently pressed the case that the concept of state sovereignty owes its genesis to the rediscovery of the Roman law of private property in the Renaissance. This article supports this conclusion, but argues that it was the notion of representation that Roman property law bequeathed which was of such significance. It makes this argument through analyses of the writings of Hobbes (on the temporally permanent state), Montesquieu (on the territorially bounded state), and Sieves (on the nation-state). It thus provides a fresh account of the rise of the nation-state within the framework of a powerful series of analyses of sovereignty that have been posited by scholars in the discipline of International Relations.
article  Wiley  jstor  paywall  intellectual_history  Renaissance  17thC  18thC  international_system  IR  constructivism  sovereignty  Roman_law  legal_history  political_philosophy  nation-state  state-building  property_rights  Hobbes  Montesquieu  Sieves 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Edgar Kiser and April Linton: Determinants of the Growth of the State: War and Taxation in Early Modern France and England (2001)
JSTOR: Social Forces, Vol. 80, No. 2 (Dec., 2001), pp. 411-448 -- downloaded pdf to Note -'- Although the causal impact of war on state-making in the early modern era is now widely accepted, there is less consensus about the way in which war affects levels of taxation, and the factors that might strengthen or weaken the relationship. Two questions can be posed: Do individual wars produce immediate effects on taxes, or is the cumulative effect of long periods of warfare more important? How do variations in administrative capacity and the strength of representative institutions affect the extent to which war pushes the growth of the state? This article attempts to answer these questions with a quantitative analysis of the effects of war on taxation in early modern England and France. We find that the cumulative effect of war is strong in both cases, suggesting that war made states via a "ratchet effect," and that this effect is much stronger when the administrative capacity of states is improved by centralization and bureaucratization. Strong representative assemblies decrease the effect of war on state growth in France but increase it in England, due to the very different characteristics of these institutions in the two countries.
article  jstor  social_theory  historical_sociology  state-building  Weber  Tilly  fiscal-military_state  representative_institutions  Parliament  institutional_economics  taxes  war  16thC  17thC  18thC  Britain  British_politics  France  fiscal_policy  French_politics  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Richard Lachmann: Greed and Contingency: State Fiscal Crises and Imperial Failure in Early Modern Europe (2009)
JSTOR: American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 115, No. 1 (July 2009), pp. 39-73 -- paywall $14.00 -- Why do states lose the capacity to finance the expansionist military policies, economic development strategies, or domestic spending initiatives they once supported? The path‐dependent models offered by fiscal‐military, rational choice, and geopolitical theorists are evaluated in comparison with an elite conflict model of contingent historical change. The latter model is found to be better able to explain territorial and fiscal stagnation and decline as well as imperial expansion in the cases of early modern Spain, France, the Netherlands, and Britain.
article  jstor  paywall  social_theory  historical_sociology  state-building  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  fiscal-military_state  rational_choice  geopolitics  IR  balance_of_power  Spain  Dutch  Britain  France  British_Empire  find  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Sharon Kettering: Brokerage at the Court of Louis XIV (1993)
JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 36, No. 1 (Mar., 1993), pp. 69-87 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- For a commission brokers negotiated an exchange between those who had patronage to grant and those in need who were willing to give something in return. They received a fee for their help as intermediaries in the search for patronage. Brokerage differed from patronage in that it was a mercenary service which did not by itself create a personal bond. Noble brokers of royal patronage in the provinces and at court were prevalent during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Provincial brokers included the governors, lieutenants general, intendants, clerics, first presidents of the sovereign courts, military commanders, great nobles, and any resident provincials related to, or well-known by, high-ranking court or government personages. Court brokers included all those regularly at court, and ranged from those immediately surrounding the king, as the fount of royal patronage, downward and outward in layers of influence calculated upon their distance from the king. Brokers in the provinces became less important during Louis XIV's reign because the king himself insisted on supervising the distribution of royal patronage at court. Patronage became more easily obtainable at Versailles than in the provinces, and, increasingly, nobles in need of patronage went to court to find it, aided in their search by courtiers acting as brokers. During Louis XIV's reign, an absolute monarchy sought successfully to centralize the brokerage of royal patronage at court, a hitherto unrecognized aspect of the process of social and political centralization known as early modern statebuilding.
article  jstor  political_history  cultural_history  historical_sociology  court_culture  patronage  Absolutism  state-building  17thC  France  Louis_XIV  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Sasha David Pack : review David Bekk, The Cult of the Nation in France | The Nationalism Project 2002
Bell’s singular emphasis on eighteenth-century political culture indicates a concern not to confuse nationalism with earlier processes of state-building, though neither is he a "modernist" in the mould of Hobsbawm or Gellner, for he clearly rejects the frequent assumption that industrialization and the French Revolution spawned the modern European nationalisms. The eighteenth-century French obsession with the nation reflected more concrete experiences of war and cultural extension on the one hand, and more deeply-rooted political and religious traditions on the other.
books  bookshelf  reviews  17thC  18thC  France  cultural_history  religious_history  political_history  political_culture  state-building  nation-state  nationalism  national_ID  religious_wars  Enlightenment  EF-add 
july 2013 by dunnettreader

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