dunnettreader + spatial   5

(Url is a pdf) N. Cummins, M. Kelly & C. O'Grada - Living Standards and Plague in London, 1560–1665
Living Standards and Plague in London, 1560–1665.
Neil Cummins, Morgan Kelly, and Cormac Ó Gráda∗ 2015 forthcoming Economic History Review
Abstract -- We use records of 870,000 burials and 610,000 baptisms to recon- struct the spatial and temporal patterns of birth and death in London from 1560 to 1665, a period dominated by outbreaks of plague. The plagues of 1563, 1603, 1625, and 1665 appear of roughly equal mag- nitude, with deaths running at five to six times their usual rate, but the impact on wealthier central parishes falls markedly through time. Tracking the weekly spread of plague before 1665 we find a consis- tent pattern of elevated mortality spreading from the same two poor northern suburbs. Looking at the seasonal pattern of mortality, we find that the characteristic autumn spike associated with plague con- tinued in central parishes until the early 1700s, and in the poorer surrounding parishes until around 1730. Given that the symptoms of plague and typhus are frequently indistinguishable, claims that plague suddenly vanished from London after 1665 should be treated with caution. In contrast to the conventional view of London as an undif- ferentiated demographic sink we find that natural increase improved as smaller plagues disappeared after the 1580s, and that wealthier... Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
17thC  Black_Death  social_history  statistics  birth_rates  Mathusian_checks  living_standards  economic_history  medicine  political_arithmetick  death_rates  18thC  British_history  plague  London  demography  article  fertility  downloaded  16thC  spatial  segregation 
february 2017 by dunnettreader
David Hugot - Entretien avec Philippe Descola (2011) - Cairn.info
Philippe Descola est ethnologue et anthropologue. Il occupe une chaire d’Anthropologie de la nature au Collège de France depuis 2000. Dans Par-delà nature et culture (Gallimard, 2005), il cherche à extraire l’anthropologie du paradigme que constituait pour elle le dualisme de la nature et de la culture. Il y montre que l’opposition entre nature et culture, loin d’être universelle, ne constitue qu’une façon parmi d’autres d’objectiver la réalité. La finalité de l’anthropologie s’en trouve profondément modifiée. Celle-ci ne n’est plus l’étude de la diversité des cultures sur fond d’une nature partout homogène, mais la mise au jour de schèmes, c’est-à-dire de structures d’objectivation de la réalité, dont l’opposition nature/culture n’est qu’une des réalisations possibles. Ce concept de « schème », qui témoigne de l’attachement de Philippe Descola au structuralisme, constitue un nouvel outil d’analyse, qui ne se confond pas avec les notions de « société », de « tribu », de « nation », de « classe » ou de « civilisation ». Les aires d’extension des différents schèmes ne coïncident en effet ni avec les frontières linguistiques, ni avec les réseaux d’échange, ni même avec les modes de vie des peuples étudiés par les sciences humaines. Ce faisant, Philippe Descola a semble-t-il forgé un instrument inédit, susceptible, au-delà de son usage proprement ethnologique, de repenser sur une base renouvelée l’histoire mondiale et le devenir de l’humanité. -- downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
human_nature  environment  downloaded  nature-nurture  spatial  anthropology  nature-mastery  interview  cultural_history  social_theory  comparative_anthropology  Collège_deFrance 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Common-place: Ed Countryman - What Changed During the American Revolution?
Presentation at conference - included neat stories re colonial maps contesting space as colonial administrators, local elites and various Indian tribes claimed the same spaces From the beginning, Europe's children in America connected themselves with both Native people and Africans. The mature colonial order presented one set of such connections, turning ultimately on space; the young Republic presented another set, turning ultimately on slavery. Neither was a European problem at all. The Revolution replaced a colonial-era landscape of contested spaces with triumphalist notions about an Empire of Liberty, Manifest Destiny, and the Moving Frontier, in which Native people became mere "Indians Not Taxed" and, later, "domestic dependent nations." It also turned slavery from an accepted, universal fact into a pressing issue, opening a breach into which Black Americans stepped, and raising the question of whether, should slavery end, they would belong to the Republic as citizens or, like Indians, be excluded from it.
US_history  18thC  American_colonies  American_Revolution  British_Empire-constitutional_structure  British_Empire  Board_of_Trade  diplomatic_history  sovereignty  indigenous_peoples  Native_Americans  slavery  African-Americans  citizens  Manifest_Destiny  landowners  maps  historiography  spatial  geography  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Lincoln Mullen · Mapping the Spread of American Slavery - May 2014
As I see it, one of the main problems for the historians’ method today is the problem of scale. How can we understand the past at different chronological and geographical scales? How can we move intelligibly between looking at individuals and looking at the Atlantic World, between studying a moment and studying several centuries? Maps can help, especially interactive web maps that make it possible to zoom in and out, to represent more than one subject of interest, and to set representations of the past in motion in order to show change over time. I have created an interactive map of the spread of slavery in the United States from 1790 to 1860. Using Census data available from the NHGIS, the visualization shows the population of slaves, of free African Americans, of all free people, and of the entire United States. It also shows those subjects as population densities and percentages of the population. For any given variable, the scales are held constant from year to year so that the user can see change over time.
historiography  digital_humanities  US_history  slavery  18thC  19thC  maps  change-social  historical_sociology  spatial  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader

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