dunnettreader + sociology_of_knowledge   180

Kathleen Knight - Transformations of the Concept of Ideology in the 20thC (2006) | The American Political Science Review on JSTOR
Kathleen Knight - Barnard & Columbia U -- The American Political Science Review, Vol. 100, No. 4, Thematic Issue on the Evolution of Political Science, in Recognition of the Centennial of the Review (Nov., 2006), pp. 619-626
Ideology has been the subject of a surprising amount of attention during the last half of the 20thC. Although it has been argued that the term has been "thoroughly muddied by diverse uses"(Converse 1964, 207),an empirical investigation of the pages of the Review reveals substantial convergence among political scientists over time on a core definition. This essay traces the use of the concept in the Review since its launch in 1906. It reveals changing fashions in the connotation of the term, but suggests an underlying agreement on the essential components - coherence, stability and contrast - and underlines the centrality of the concept of ideology in political science. - Downloaded via Air
article  jstor  downloaded  intellectual_history  20thC  political_science  social_sciences  social_sciences-post-WWII  ideology  identity  political_culture  political_participation  political_philosophy  sociology_of_knowledge 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Matteo Bortolini - The trap of intellectual success: Bellah, the American civil religion debate, & sociology of knowledge (2012) | Theory & Society on JSTOR
The trap of intellectual success: Robert N. Bellah, the American civil religion debate, and the sociology of knowledge, Theory and Society, Vol. 41, No. 2 (March 2012), pp. 187-210 -- Current sociology of knowledge tends to take for granted Robert K. Merton's theory ofcumulative advantage: successful ideas bring recognition to their authors, successful authors have their ideas recognized more easily than unknown ones. This article argues that this theory should be revised via the introduction of the differential between the status of an idea and that of its creator: when an idea is more important than its creator, the latter becomes identified with the former, and this will hinder recognition of the intellectual's new ideas as they differ from old ones in their content or style. Robert N. Bellah 's performance during the "civil religion debate" of the 1970s is reconstructed as an example of how this mechanism may work. Implications for further research are considered in the concluding section. — Keywords Intellectuals • Success • Cumulative advantage • Robert N. Bellah • American civil religion -- downloaded via AIr to DBOX
article  downloaded  jstor  intellectual_history  sociology_of_knowledge  20thC  US_history  post-WWII  1960s  sociology_of_religion  sociology  social_theory  social_sciences-post-WWII  civil_society  US_society  national_ID  national_tale  exceptionalism  universalism  civil_religion 
august 2016 by dunnettreader
Kristine Haugen - Imagined Universities: Public Insult and the Terrae Filius in Early Modern Oxford (2000) | Academia.edu
Abstract: The 17th-century University of Oxford was plagued by an extremely insulting Latin commencement speaker known as the terrae filius, or "son of the earth." The speakers were routinely expelled from the university, while manuscript copies proliferated -- a few speeches were even owned by John Locke. How did such a custom arise, what were the social effects of the filius' speeches, and what forces surrounded the filius' eventual suppression? It's argued that in the heyday of the filius, his insults actually served a sort of rhetoric of the rotten apple: the observed transgressions of the few were held up against an imagined and far more virtuous, decorous, and pious Oxford. Meanwhile, the filius himself might be understood in terms of two long-established university social types -- the disputant and the tour guide.
More Info: History of Universities 16,2 (2000): 1-31 -- Publication Date: Jan 1, 2000 -- Publication Name: HISTORY OF UNIVERSITIES-OXFORD-
Research Interests: Rhetoric, Sociology of Knowledge, 17th-Century Studies, History of Universities, Restoration and Eighteenth-Century English Literature, 18th Century British Literature, 17th Century British (Literature), University of Oxford, and Academic Satire
article  Academia.edu  17thC  18thC  cultural_history  British_history  university  Oxford  education-higher  satire  English_lit  rhetoric  sociology_of_knowledge  identity-institutions  downloaded  institution-building  intellectual_history  status  cultural_critique  cultural_capital  Amhurst  Craftsman  Bolingbroke  Bourdieu 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Edward Slingerland - What Science Offers the Humanities: Integrating Body and Culture | Cambridge University Press (2008)
What Science Offers the Humanities examines some of the deep problems facing current approaches to the study of culture. It focuses especially on the excesses of postmodernism, but also acknowledges serious problems with postmodernism's harshest critics. In short, Edward Slingerland argues that in order for the humanities to progress, its scholars need to take seriously contributions from the natural sciences—and particular research on human cognition—which demonstrate that any separation of the mind and the body is entirely untenable. The author provides suggestions for how humanists might begin to utilize these scientific discoveries without conceding that science has the last word on morality, religion, art, and literature. Calling into question such deeply entrenched dogmas as the "blank slate" theory of nature, strong social constructivism, and the ideal of disembodied reason, Slingerland replaces the human-sciences divide with a more integrated approach to the study of culture. --
Introduction
Part I. Exorcising the Ghost in the Machine:
1. The disembodied mind
2. They live among us
3. Pulling the plug
Part II. Embodying Culture:
4. Embodying culture
Part III. Defending Vertical Integration:
5. Defending the empirical
6. Who's afraid of reductionism?
Conclusion.
Edward Slingerland, University of British Columbia, Vancouver - taught in the School of Religion and Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures at USC.... currently Associate Professor of Asian Studies at the University of British Columbia and is Canada Research Chair in Chinese Thought and Embodied Cognition. His previous books include The Annalects of Confucius and Effortless Action: Wu-wei as Conceptual Metaphor and Spiritual Ideal in Early China, which won the American Academy of Religion's 2003 Best First Book in the History of Religions Award. -- downloaded Intro
books  kindle-available  downloaded  humanities  philosophy_of_social_science  cognition  mind  philosophy_of_religion  human_nature  Chinese_thought  embodied_cognition  naturalism  reductionism  postmodern  two_cultures  constructivism  cultural_history  religious_history  social_theory  sociology_of_knowledge 
june 2016 by dunnettreader
Peter Taylor - A Short Response to Lynch’s Counter-Criticisms| Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective (2016)
Last in series of Lynch paper, Taylor comment, Lynch response and Taylor counter comment Taylor (U Mass Boston) is apparently even more disdainful than Lynch of Fuller, but he's sceptical of the Darwinian "selection" model (not the "natural' part apparently) and would go after Fuller without being completely wedded to Darwin, whereas Lynch sees questioning Darwinian basis of emerging multilevel evolutionary process as just begging for the sort of unholy alliance between fundies and "prigressive" apocalyptic types like Fuller. Downloaded the 4 pieces. (1) Lynch, William T. “Darwinian Social Epistemology: Science and Religion as Evolutionary Byproducts Subject to Cultural Evolution.” Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 5, no. 2 (2016): 26-68. (2) Taylor, Peter J. “Questioning the Darwinism that Lynch Presents as a Viable Basis for Humans to Pursue Science.” Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 5, no. 2 (2016): 85-87. (3) Lynch, William T. “Complexity, Natural Selection, and Cultural Evolution.” Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 5, no. 3 (2016): 64-72.
evolution  sociology_of_knowledge  forum  Darwinism  intelligent_design  epigenetics  downloaded  gene-culture_coevolution  complexity  sociology_of_religion  genetics  emergence  sociology_of_science_ 
may 2016 by dunnettreader
William T. Lynch - Darwinian Social Epistemology: Science and Religion as Evolutionary Byproducts Subject to Cultural Evolution (Feb 2016) | Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective
Key to Steve Fuller’s recent defense of intelligent design is the claim that it alone can explain why science is even possible. By contrast, Fuller argues that Darwinian evolutionary theory posits a purposeless universe which leaves humans with no motivation to study science and no basis for modifying an underlying reality. I argue that this view represents a retreat from insights about knowledge within Fuller’s own program of social epistemology. I show that a Darwinian picture of science, as also of religion, can be constructed that explains how these complex social institutions emerged out of a process of biological and cultural evolution. Science and religion repurpose aspects of our evolutionary inheritance to the new circumstances of more complex societies that have emerged since the Neolithic revolution.  - downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
sociology_of_religion  animals  theodicy  cosmology  gene-culture_coevolution  constructivism  intelligent_design  human_nature  transhumanism  imago_dei  intellectual_history  Darwinism  epistemology-social  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_ 
may 2016 by dunnettreader
Steve Fuller - Social Epistemology for Theodicy without Deference: Response to William Lynch (pages 207-218) | Symposion. Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Scien - April 2016ces
ABSTRACT: This article is a response to William Lynch’s, ‘Social Epistemology Transformed: Steve Fuller’s Account of Knowledge as a Divine Spark for Human Domination,’ an extended and thoughtful reflection on my Knowledge: The Philosophical Quest in History. I grant that Lynch has captured well, albeit critically, the spirit and content of the book – and the thirty-year intellectual journey that led to it. In this piece, I respond at two levels. First, I justify my posture towards my predecessors and contemporaries, which Lynch shrewdly sees as my opposition to deference. However, most of the response concerns an elaboration of my theodicy-focussed sense of social epistemology, which is long-standing but only started to become prominent about ten years ago, in light of my involvement in the evolution controversies. Here I aim to draw together a set of my abiding interests – scientific, theological and philosophical – in trying to provide a normative foundation for the future of humanity. - downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
sociology_of_knowledge  artificial_intelligence  downloaded  constructivism  Innovation  risk-mitigation  transhumanism  article  human_nature  epistemology-social  sociology_of_science_ 
may 2016 by dunnettreader
William T. Lynch - Steve Fuller’s Account of Knowledge as a Divine Spark for Human Domination (pages 191-205) | Symposion. Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences - April 2016
ABSTRACT: In his new book, Knowledge: The Philosophical Quest in History, Steve Fuller returns to core themes of his program of social epistemology that he first outlined in his 1988 book, Social Epistemology. He develops a new, unorthodox theology and philosophy building upon his testimony in Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District in defense of intelligent design, leading to a call for maximal human experimentation. Beginning from the theological premise rooted in the Abrahamic religious tradition that we are created in the image of God, Fuller argues that the spark of the divine within us distinguishes us from animals. I argue that Fuller’s recent work takes us away from key insights of his original work. In contrast, I advocate for a program of social epistemology rooted in evolutionary science rather than intelligent design, emphasize a precautionary and ecological approach rather than a proactionary approach that favors risky human experimentation, and attend to our material and sociological embeddedness rather than a transhumanist repudiation of the body. - Asst Prof of History at Wayne State - 2001 Stanford book on early Riyal Society
theodicy  anthropocentrism  posthumanism  intelligent_design  gnostic  downloaded  sociology_of_knowledge  books  Innovation  Darwinism  risk_management  risk-mitigation  imago_dei  transhumanism  populism  social_costs  article  epistemology-social  norms  technology  social_contract  constructivism  sociology_of_science_ 
may 2016 by dunnettreader
Philip Ball - Worlds Without End | Public Domain Review - Dec 2015
At the end of the 19th century, inspired by radical advances in technology, physicists asserted the reality of invisible worlds — an idea through which they…
Instapaper  history_of_science  19thC  Fin-de-Siècle  cultural_history  physics  quantum_physics  epistemology-naturalism  epistemology  scientific_method  sociology_of_knowledge  spiritualism  paranormal  occult  from instapaper
may 2016 by dunnettreader
Diane Coyle - Adam Ozanne's "Power and economics" - April 2016
My esteemed colleague Adam Ozanne has written a very interesting, short book on the strange absence of the concept of power from mainstream modern economics.… [unfortunately Palgrave has been idiots again and have priced both the paper and ebook editions for libraries not for people who'd actually be interested and would boost sales by word of mouth - not clear that this is likely to find many library buyers either]
Instapaper  books  economic_theory  sociology_of_knowledge  social_sciences  political_economy  power  from instapaper
may 2016 by dunnettreader
Ian Hacking - On Boyd (response to Boyd's essay commenting on Hacking re natural kinds) | JSTOR - (1991)
Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition, Vol. 61, No. 1/2, The Twenty-Ninth Oberlin Colloquium in Philosophy (Feb., 1991), pp. 149-154 -- colloquium on Realism and Relativism -- all 3 downloaded to Note
article  jstor  natural_kinds  constructivism  nominalism  Locke-Essay  epistemology  epistemology-social  Mill  Wittgenstein  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  downloaded 
march 2016 by dunnettreader
Vincent Citot - Pourquoi les intellectuels n'aiment pas le libéralisme de Raymond Boudon, et quelques problèmes épistémologiques (2005) - Cairn.info
Raymond boudon, Pourquoi les intelectuels n’aiment pas le libéralisme. Odile Jacob, 2004
1 - Le poids du libéralisme sur le marché des idées et le problème du politiquement correct
2 - Questions de méthode et problèmes épistémologiques
Citot Vincent, « Pourquoi les intellectuels n'aiment pas le libéralisme de Raymond Boudon, et quelques problèmes épistémologiques. », Le Philosophoire 1/2005 (n° 24) , p. 124-131
URL : www.cairn.info/revue-le-philosophoire-2005-1-page-124.htm.
DOI : 10.3917/phoir.024.0124.
Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
political_economy  intellectual_history  neoliberalism  books  reviews  French_intellectuals  downloaded  post-Cold_War  liberalism  sociology_of_knowledge 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Louis Pinto - La philosophie, un « objet » pour le sociologue ? (2013) - Cairn.info
Est-il possible de soumettre la philosophie à un ensemble de démarches usuelles en sociologie, tout en tenant compte de sa spécificité ? Peut-on échapper à l’alternative du réductionnisme externaliste et du renoncement à parler de ce qui est présumé interne ? En quoi une approche sociologique déjouant pareille alternative serait-elle intéressante pour le philosophe ? Pour répondre à de tels questionnements, trois points sont envisagés à travers des illustrations. Le premier point concerne la sociologie (historique) de l’interprétation des textes. Un deuxième point est la façon sociologique d’aborder la question, à laquelle s’attachent traditionnellement les commentateurs, de l’unité et de la cohérence d’une œuvre. Le troisième point est celui du rapport entre classements sociaux et classements théoriques.
downloaded  philosophy_of_social_science  sociology_of_knowledge  methodology  intelligentsia  cultural_capital  social_theory  philosophy_of_science  cultural_authority  article  disciplines  social_capital 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Louis Pinto - Un héritage devenu projet : la philosophie sociale de Sartre (2008) - Cairn.info
Les sciences sociales en France doivent compter avec les résistances que lui opposent notamment les philosophes qui se posent en défenseurs de la position éminente de cette discipline dans l’espace des disciplines académiques. À travers ses hiérarchies, ses valeurs et surtout les schèmes cognitifs et rhétoriques qui structurent le travail d’apprentissage, l’École tend à doter les agents d’une conception de la philosophie conforme à la formule scolaire mise au point il y a plus d’un siècle dans un contexte très singulier. Étant la « discipline du couronnement », située au-dessus des savoirs, des autres disciplines, la philosophie se veut discours sur les fondements.
Le cas de Sartre est d’un intérêt majeur en ce qu’il offre une illustration des tensions entre l’héritage scolaire et la quête d’originalité qui peut comporter, entre autres défis, celui d’avoir à se situer sur le terrain des sciences sociales. Si l’intérêt de Sartre pour ces disciplines était très réel, on peut comprendre certains aspects de son œuvre (autrui, la dialectique) comme un effort pour préserver les hiérarchies philosophiques
Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
philosophy_of_history  social_sciences-post-WWII  social_sciences  social_theory  dialectic  sociology_of_knowledge  existentialism  political_philosophy  article  intellectual_history  downloaded  political_culture  moral_philosophy  Sartre  20thC  entre_deux_guerres  intelligentsia 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Louis Pinto - Le débat sur les sources de la morale et de la religion (2004) - Cairn.info
Après la Grande Guerre, le ralliement d’une partie de la droite conservatrice à un régime désormais doté d’une légitimité guerrière et patriotique a pour effet de modifier sensiblement la définition des vertus républicaines jusqu’alors associée à l’alliance entre la démocratie et la science, qui caractérise le durkheimisme aussi bien que l’idéologie laïque. Cette évolution se reflète en partie dans le champ philosophique : dans le livre Les Deux sources de la morale et de la religion (1932), Bergson entend se situer sur les terrains de prédilection de la sociologie durkheimienne. Les oppositions majeures de sa métaphysique se trouvent appliquées à la société, la célèbre opposition entre le « clos » et l’« ouvert » permettant de renvoyer les sociologues du côté du légalisme et de l’utilitarisme étroits, et d’attribuer des qualités nobles et novatrices à des « héros ». On s’intéresse ici à la riposte d’Albert Bayet qui est simultanément celle d’un professeur rationaliste défendant l’héritage des Lumières, celle d’un sociologue d’inspiration durkheimienne et celle d’un militant de la laïcité non résigné à se voir dépouillé de valeurs comme la générosité et l’enthousiasme. Après avoir contesté aussi bien la notion de morale ouverte que l’individualisme métaphysique, il montre le lien entre les prises de position théoriques et leurs conséquences politiques.
cosmology  comparative_religion  cultural_authority  spirituality  intelligentsia  Durkheim  evolution-as-model  sociology_of_knowledge  morality-conventional  Bergson  psychology  utilitarianism  downloaded  political_culture  phenomenology  James_William  social_theory  declinism  France  social_sciences  entre_deux_guerres  irrationalism  morality-divine_command  social_order  article  intellectual_history  politics-and-religion  conservatism  morality-objective 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Muel-Dreyfus - La rééducation de la sociologie sous le régime de Vichy (2004) - Cairn.info
Les polémiques contre la sociologie durkheimienne ont une longue histoire qui remonte aux attaques contre la Nouvelle Sorbonne et à l’affaire Dreyfus. En ce sens, elles font partie de l’« inconscient d’école » propre à l’univers académique français dont ce qu’on pourrait appeler l’« inconscient anti-sociologique » est une des composantes. Leur réactivation sous le régime de Vichy tient à la conjonction de plusieurs facteurs : la mise en œuvre d’une politique scolaire conservatrice qui assimile sociologie/pédagogie/« esprit primaire » dans sa condamnation de l’école républicaine ; la reconquête d’une influence de l’enseignement libre qui vitupère la morale laïque inspirée par la sociologie ; l’expansion d’une science sociale réduite à l’expertise au service de l’ordre moral – psychosociologie de la famille et sociobiologie des « inadaptations » notamment. Ces courants différents ont en commun de refuser toute idée d’historicisation et de détermination sociale des faits, des institutions, des croyances et des destins collectifs ou individuels au profit de différentes formes de naturalisation du social et de différentes idéologies du « don naturel » dont la convergence en période de crise, propice au retour de la raison mythique, impose l’idée d’une éternité de cette vision du mon
conservatism  morality-objective  Vichy  social_order  norms  France  downloaded  article  social_sciences  Catholics-and-politics  Durkheim  intellectual_history  sociology_of_knowledge  20thC  hierarchy  cultural_authority  education  19thC  laïcité  cultural_history  social_theory  political_culture 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Louis Pinto - (Re)traductions -Phénoménologie et «philosophie allemande» dans les années 1930, Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales 5/2002 - Cairn.info
Pinto Louis, « (Re)traductions. Phénoménologie et « philosophie allemande » dans les années 1930», Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales 5/2002 (no 145) , p. 21-33
URL : www.cairn.info/revue-actes-de-la-recherche-en-sciences-sociales-2002-5-page-21.htm.
DOI : 10.3917/arss.145.0021.
Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
intellectual_history  social_capital  Heidegger  article  politics-and-religion  France  networks-social  Bourdieu  phenomenology  cultural_history  cultural_capital  entre_deux_guerres  downloaded  sociology_of_knowledge 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Kathleen Knight - Transformations of the Concept of Ideology in the Twentieth Century | JSTOR- The American Political Science Review - Centennial Issue )2006)
Transformations of the Concept of Ideology in the Twentieth Century
Kathleen Knight
The American Political Science Review
Vol. 100, No. 4, Thematic Issue on the Evolution of Political Science, in Recognition of the Centennial of the Review (Nov., 2006), pp. 619-626
Ideology has been the subject of a surprising amount of attention during the lat half of the twentieth century. Although it has been argued that the term has been "thoroughly muddied by diverse uses" (Converse 1964, 207), an empirical investigation of the pages of the Review reveals substantial convergence among political scientists over time on a core definition. This essay traces the use of the concept in the Review since its launch in 1906. It reveals changing fashions in the connotation of the term, but suggests an underlying agreement on the essential components—coherence, stability and contrast—and underlines the centrality of the concept of ideology in political science. - downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
downloaded  article  social_theory  Marxist  political_science  Cold_War  social_sciences-post-WWII  sociology_of_knowledge  US_history  20thC  political_participation  elites  identity  bibliography  parties  jstor  post-Cold_War  partisanship  intellectual_history  political_history  ideology 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
John Gunnell - Dislocated Rhetoric: The Anomaly of Political Theory | JSTOR The Journal of Politics (2006)
Dislocated Rhetoric: The Anomaly of Political Theory
John G. Gunnell
The Journal of Politics
Vol. 68, No. 4 (Nov., 2006), pp. 771-782
Although the estranged relationship between mainstream political science and much of the subfield of political theory has been properly attributed to developments during the last half of the twentieth century, the roots of this alienation are historically deeper. Many of the conversations of political theory are the progeny of a discursive form that attended the birth of modern social science. This genre was a legitimating rhetoric situated in the interstices of social science, philosophy, and politics. The study of the history of political thought originated as such a rhetoric, and it constitutes a paradigm case for examining the extent to which such a discourse can be transformed into a practice of knowledge. This field has succeeded to a greater extent than certain other elements of political theory which, transfixed by the tension between their practical aspirations and academic context, have become anomalous appendages to the social scientific study of politics. - downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
downloaded  sociology_of_knowledge  political_philosophy  political_science  political_discourse  behavioralism  article  public_policy  intellectual_history  US_history  disciplines  entre_deux_guerres  public_intellectuals  jstor  social_theory  social_sciences-post-WWII  20thC  philosophy_of_social_science 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
John Gunnell - American Political Science, Liberalism, and the Invention of Political Theory | JSTOR The American Political Science Review (1988)
American Political Science, Liberalism, and the Invention of Political Theory
John G. Gunnell
The American Political Science Review
Vol. 82, No. 1 (Mar., 1988), pp. 71-87 -- The contemporary estrangement of political theory from political science is in large measure the product of a quarrel that originated in the challenge to the values of U.S. political science initiated by emigre scholars during the 1940s. The behavioral revolution was in an important respect a conservative rebellion in defense of the values of liberalism and related notions of science, relativism, and historical progress that had traditionally informed the discipline. This controversy in the context of political science fundamentally structured the discourse of academic political theory and the contemporary constitution of the field both as a division of political science and as a wider interdisciplinary enterprise.
political_discourse  political_science  university-contemporary  jstor  liberalism  sociology_of_knowledge  social_sciences-post-WWII  20thC  behaviorism  downloaded  article  political_philosophy  disciplines  intellectual_history 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Nile Green - The Love of Strangers: What Six Muslim Students Learned in Jane Austen’s London | Princeton University Press
In July 1815, six Iranian students arrived in London under the escort of their chaperone, Captain Joseph D’Arcy. Their mission was to master the modern sciences behind the rapid rise of Europe. Over the next four years, they lived both the low life and high life of Regency London, from being down and out after their abandonment by D’Arcy to charming their way into society and landing on the gossip pages. Drawing on the Persian diary of the student Mirza Salih and the letters of his companions, Nile Green vividly describes how these adaptable Muslim migrants learned to enjoy the opera and take the waters at Bath. But there was more than frivolity to their student years in London. Burdened with acquiring the technology to defend Iran against Russia, they talked their way into the observatories, hospitals, and steam-powered factories that placed England at the forefront of the scientific revolution.The Love of Strangers chronicles the frustration and fellowship of six young men abroad to open a unique window onto the transformative encounter between an Evangelical England and an Islamic Iran at the dawn of the modern age. This is that rarest of books about the Middle East and the West: a story of friendships. Nile Green is professor of history at UCLA. His many books include Sufism: A Global History. -- Intro downloaded pdf to Note
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  religious_history  cultural_history  19thC  British_history  British_Empire  Industrial_Revolution  technology_transfer  Iran  Islam  London  Austen  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  networks-social  networks-information  British_foreign_policy  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
M. Ali Khan, The Irony in/of Economic Theory | JSTOR - MLN Vol. 108, No. 4 (Sep., 1993)
MLN, Vol. 108, No. 4, French Issue (Sep., 1993), pp. 759-803 -- DOI: 10.2307/2904961 -- via Eric Schliesser, attack on lack of reflexive thought by economists about the nature of their own enterprise and the assumptions undergirding their work -- starts with Samuelson's justification of the language of mathematics, and includes discussion of Kenneth Boulding's attack on his own profession for its failure to engage in philosophy of science, referring back positively to Veblen's critique -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_social_science  economic_theory  economic_models  history_of_science  history-and-social_sciences  economic_history  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science  mathematization  Methodenstreit  Samuelson  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Jonathan Kaplan and Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - Realism, Antirealism, and Conventionalism about Race , Philosophy of Science, Dec 2014 | via Researchgate
Philosophy of Science (Impact Factor: 0.83). 12/2014; 81(5):1039-1052. DOI: 10.1086/678314 -- ABSTRACT -- This paper distinguishes three concepts of " race " : bio-genomic cluster/race, biological race, and social race. We map out realism, antirealism, and conventionalism about each of these, in three important historical episodes: Frank Livingstone and Theodosius Dobzhansky in 1962, A. W. F. Edwards's 2003 response to Lewontin's 1972 paper, and contemporary discourse. Semantics is especially crucial to the first episode, while normativity is central to the second. Upon inspection, each episode also reveals a variety of commitments to the metaphysics of race. We conclude by interrogating the relevance of these scientific discussions for political positions and a post-racial future. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_science  biology  genetics  race  anthropology  kinds  ontology-social  racism  racialism  sociobiology  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science  sociology_of_science_&_technology  constructivism  politics-and-science  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - James and Dewey on Abstraction, The Pluralist, 07/2014 | via Researchgate
elucidates the abstraction-reification account diagnosed by James and Dewey and locates it in contemporary scientific work. Section 2 -- the complex process of abstraction in James and Dewey, and with a nod to CS Peirce. Identifying 3 stages in the abstraction process— singling out, symbolizing, and systematizing—clarifies the parallels between James’s and Dewey’s analyses. Section 3 -- pragmatists’ warnings against committing abstractionist fallacies. Identifies pernicious reification as neglecting 3 kinds of context: functional, historical, and analytical-level. Both philosophers implored everyday reasoners, scientists, and philosophers to attend to context. Reification, qua pathology of abstraction, results in disease symptoms such as universalized, narrowed, and/ or ontologized abstractions. Acknowledging the importance of biographical and social conditions, the genealogy and mutual influence of James’s and Dewey’s perspectives are traced, especially in endnotes. Section 4 -- how James and Dewey avoid reifying the very distinction with which they are weaving their analysis: the abstract vs. the concrete. Conclusion -- following the pragmatic forward-looking attitude, a gesture is made toward developing medicines (pluralism and assumption archaeology) out of the abstraction-reification account. After all, pernicious reification is to abstraction as disease is to health. Such treatments permit de-reifying ill models in contemporary science. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  pragmatism  James_William  Dewey  Peirce  epistemology  logic-Dewey  abstraction  essence  essentialism  reification  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science  sociology_of_science_&_technology  scientific_method  scientific_culture  induction  modelling  reason  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Guillaume Calafat & Éric Monnet - Le retour de l’histoire économique ? - La Vie des idées - 5 janvier 2016
Le récent succès d’ouvrages d’histoire économique, alors même que cette spécialité paraît souvent négligée à l’université, ainsi que des évolutions disciplinaires simultanées, font espérer de nouveaux rapprochements entre l’histoire et l’économie. -- downloaded pdf to Note
economic_history  economic_theory  Great_Divergence  Industrial_Revolution  trade  trade-cultural_transmission  networks-information  networks-business  development  sociology_of_knowledge  economic_sociology  economic_culture  econometrics  consumer_revolution  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Arnaud Esquerre, review - Lorraine Daston et Peter Galison, Objectivité (Fr trans 2012) - La Vie des idées
Recensé : Lorraine Daston et Peter Galison, Objectivité. Préface de Bruno Latour, traduction de Sophie Renaut et Hélène Quiniou. Paris, Les Presses du Réel, 2012, 582 p., 28 €. -- La manière dont nous concevons ce qui est ou non objectif a plusieurs fois changé depuis le XVIIe siècle. Pour explorer ces variations, Lorraine Daston et Peter Galison étudient les « atlas » que formeraient les usages scientifiques de l’image. Ces illustrations de plantes, de planètes, de méduses ou de flocons de neige en disent long, en effet, sur les régimes de l’objectivité – avec à l’horizon du XXIe siècle, la possible disparition des représentations dans les pratiques scientifiques. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  French_language  bookshelf  intellectual_history  history_of_science  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  objectivity  representation-epistemology  scientific_method  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  instruments  images  images-scientific  downloaded 
december 2015 by dunnettreader
Thierry Hoquet - Paul Feyerabend, anarchiste des sciences (career retrospective) - La Vie des idées - April 2015
Paul Feyerabend ne cessa de critiquer le rationalisme et l’approche abstraite de la philosophie des sciences, enfermée dans son jargon et son logicisme. Quitte à prêter le flanc au relativisme et à passer pour « le pire ennemi de la science » ? -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  French_language  intellectual_history  20thC  post-WWII  philosophy_of_science  epistemology  scepticism  methodology  Feyerabend  Popper  Laktos  Wittgenstein  scientific_method  Galileo  physics  astronomy  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_culture  sociology_of_knowledge  downloaded 
december 2015 by dunnettreader
THE WARBURG INSTITUTE: Translation
Translation and the Circulation of Knowledge in Early Modern Science

Friday 28 June 2013
Programme - Poster

In recent decades, scholars have offered myriad new insights into the exchange and propagation of scientific ideas in the early modern Republic of Letters. Within this vibrant field, however, the part played by translation and translators remains little studied. This colloquium will explore the role of translation in early modern science, providing a forum for discussion about translations as well as the translators, mediators, agents, and interpreters whose role in the intellectual history of the period remains ill defined and deserves greater attention.

Organized by: Sietske Fransen (Warburg Institute) and Niall Hodson (Durham University)

Keynote speaker: Sven Dupré (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science and Freie Universität Berlin)

Speakers: Felicity Henderson (Royal Society), Charles van den Heuvel (Huygens ING), Niall Hodson (Durham University), Ana Carolina Hosne (Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg), Jan van de Kamp (Independent), Clare Griffin (UCL), Margaret O. Meredith (Maastricht University), José Maria Pérez Fernandez (Universidad de Granada), Iolanda Plescia (Sapienza – Università di Roma), Fabien Simon (Université Paris Diderot – Paris 7)
history_of_science  conference  sociology_of_knowledge  video  YouTube  networks-information  translation  Republic_of_Letters  17thC  intellectual_history  natural_philosophy 
december 2015 by dunnettreader
Joanna Picciotto - Reforming the Garden: The Experimentalist Eden and "Paradise Lost" (2005) | JSTOR - ELH
ELH, Vol. 72, No. 1 (Spring, 2005), pp. 23-78 -- very long article with vast numbers of references to literary, naturao philosophy, and religious works of 17thC and early 18thC plus lit survey of work on sociology of knowledge, English lit since the cultural turn, and religious culture. Downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  religious_history  cultural_history  17thC  18thC  British_history  English_lit  experimental_philosophy  Bacon  Boyle  Locke  Milton  Royal_Society  Evelyn  religious_culture  religious_lit  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  microscope  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_culture  science-and-religion  scientific_method  curiosity  Fall  original_sin  Paradise_Lost  improvement  instruments  Hooke  Donne  poetry  virtuosos  epistemology  virtue_epistemology  nature-mastery  bibliography  downloaded 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
Robert Goulding - Histories of Science in Early Modern Europe: Introduction to special issue (2006) | JSTOR - Journal of the History of Ideas
Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 67, No. 1 (Jan., 2006), pp. 33-40 **--** Articles in the issue *--* James Steven Byrne, Humanist History of Mathematics? Regiomontanus's Padua Oration in Context (pp. 41-61) *--* Robert Goulding, Method and Mathematics: Peter Ramus's Histories of the Sciences (pp. 63-85) *--* Nicholas Popper, "Abraham, Planter of Mathematics": Histories of Mathematics and Astrology in Early Modern Europe (pp. 87-106) *--* Lauren Kassell, "All Was This Land Full Fill'd of Faerie," or Magic and the past in Early Modern England (pp. 107-122) -- helpful on recent historiography on humanists, science and history writing -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  14thC  15thC  16thC  17thC  history_of_science  mathematics  historiography-Renaissance  historiography-17thC  humanism  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  astrology  magic  education-higher  natural_philosophy  reading  rhetoric-moral_basis  rhetoric-writing  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Beatrice Kobow - How to Do Things with Fictions: Reconsidering Vaihinger for a Philosophy of Social Sciences (2013) | Philosophy of the Social Sciences 44: 201 via Cambridge Realist Workshop
The article reconstructs three key concepts of Hans Vaihinger: the idea of mental fictions as self-contradictory, provisory, conscious, and purposeful; the law of the devolution of ideas stating that an idea oscillates between dogma, hypothesis, or fiction; and the underlying assumption about human consciousness that the psyche constructs thoughts around perceptions like an oyster produces a pearl. In a second, constructive part, these concepts are applied in a discussion of John Searle’s social ontologically extended theory of speech acts. The article introduces the Vaihingerian as-if to Searle’s account of declarations. The explanatory work in a model of social reality as Searle has proposed it rests on the ability to show a necessary connection between collective and individual intentionality facilitated through linguistic structure. The methodological individualism of the model requires that motivational assumptions about collective structures be realized in individual brains. The as-if stance of the declarer provides just this connection. -- Keywords as-if, fiction, status function declarations, double direction of fit, deonticity, collective intentionality, speech act theory, social ontology, Vaihinger, Searle - downloaded to iPhone from http://www.csog.econ.cam.ac.uk/Cambridge-Realist-Workshop/realist-images/HowtoDoThingswithFictions.pdf/at_download/file
article  ontology-social  cognition-social  fiction-cognition  methodological_individualism  critical_realism  perception  downloaded  hypothesis  Searle  as-if  speech_acts  logic  sociology_of_knowledge  cognition  philosophy_of_social_science 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Objective Principles of Economics by Egmont Kakarot-Handtke :: SSRN - April 2014, update March 2015
University of Stuttgart - Institute of Economics and Law -- Economists have the habit of solving the wrong problem. They speculate circumstantially about the behavior of agents and do not come to grips with the behavior of the monetary economy. This is the consequence of the methodological imperative that all explanations must run in terms of the actions and reactions of individuals. The critical point is that no way leads from the understanding of the interaction of the individuals to the understanding of the working of the economy as a whole. The solution consists in moving from subjective-behavioral axioms to objective-structural axioms, i.e., from proto-scientific past to scientific future. -- Pages in PDF File: 19 -- Keywords: new framework of concepts, structure-centric, axiom set, methodology, complex adaptive system, profit -- for references downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  economic_theory  macroeconomics  microfoundations  methodological_individualism  behavioralism  complex_adaptive_systems  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  Kuhn  Laktos  scientific_method  bibliography  downloaded 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Romer - Solow’s Choice ("After the Phillips Curve" Conference) | August 2015
Several economists, including Brad DeLong and Paul Krugman, have commented on how macroeconomics developed in the late 1970s. There are many points on which we… Romer's post us a very useful illustration of how the myths of the New Classical "Revolution" by Lucas and Sargent were formulated and maintained. Even Romer, who has only recently seen the light that the "freshwater" folks are not playing by the rules of scientific inquiry, can still place the "who started it" blame on the "saltwater" folks by singling out Solow’s refusal to accept the starting assumptions of Lucas et al, since he found them (as they have proven to be after 3+decades) prima facia absurd. The text Romer highlights as Solow’s failure to follow "the rules of Science" by being sarcastic, is for anyone who didn't believe the "freshwater" version of history, not appallingly dismissive, but a mild and mostly respectful response to the hysterical attacks that were even at the time demonstrably false (and enormously disrespectful). It's Romer's "critical moment" when the "freshwater" guys left the path of scientific integrity. But it was precisely the extreme denigration and open rejection of the macroeconomic mainstream that the "freshwater" school used as its rhetorical stance in order to launch its attempt to monopolize macroeconomics -- their insistence on their own purity, untainted by mainstream macro. It was exclusive and cultish from the get-go. And though Romer is reporting on his "close reading" of the texts from the conference where the Revolution was announced and Solow pushed back, Romer can't see what he's reading because he filters it all through the myth. Downloaded pdf of conference papers to Note
Instapaper  conference  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  intellectual_history-distorted  intellectual_history  20thC  post-WWII  macroeconomics  economic_theory  neoclassical_economics  Lucas_critique  rational_expectations  Keynesianism  Kuhn  myth  scientific_method  Romer  downloaded  from instapaper
august 2015 by dunnettreader
David Glaser - Romer v. Lucas | Uneasy Money - August 13 2015
If the social functions of science were being efficiently discharged, this rather obvious replacement of problem solving by question begging would not have escaped effective challenge and opposition. But Lucas was able to provide cover for this substitution by persuading the profession to embrace his microfoundational methodology, while offering irresistible opportunities for professional advancement to younger economists who could master the new analytical techniques that Lucas and others were rapidly introducing, thereby neutralizing or coopting many of the natural opponents to what became modern macroeconomics. So while Romer considers the conquest of MIT by the rational-expectations revolution, despite the opposition of Robert Solow, to be evidence for the advance of economic science, I regard it as a sign of the social failure of science to discipline a regressive development driven by the elevation of technique over substance.
prices  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science  neoclassical_economics  Keynesianism  RBC  economic_models  macroeconomics  Kuhn  Romer  Laktos  economic_theory  Solow  New_Keynesian  sociology_of_science_&_technology  equilibrium  microfoundations  rational_expectations  mathematization  from instapaper
august 2015 by dunnettreader
CONFÉRENCES MARC BLOCH -- EHESS - Annual lecture series | Canal-U
CONFÉRENCES MARC BLOCH -- Chaque année depuis 1979, l’EHESS invite au mois de juin une personnalité étrangère ou française à prononcer une conférence qui rassemble, dans le grand amphithéâtre de la Sorbonne, les personnels de l’École et leurs invités. Ce cycle de conférences rend hommage à Marc Bloch, fondateur en 1929, avec Lucien Febvre, des Annales d’histoire économique et sociale – la revue autour de laquelle s’est noué le réseau d’historiens à l’origine de la VIe Section de l’École pratique des hautes études, devenue en 1975 l’EHESS.
video  lecture  French_language  social_theory  social_sciences  social_sciences-post-WWII  Annales  history_of_science  history_of_book  sociology_of_knowledge  historiography 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Kocku von Stuckrad, "The Scientification of Religion: An Historical Study of Discursive Change, 1800-2000" (De Gruyter, 2014)
Kocku von Stuckrad, Professor of Religious Studies at the University of Groningen, demonstrates how the construction of what constitutes 'religion' and 'science' was a relational process that emerged with the competition between various systems of knowledge. He traces the transformation and perpetuation of religious discourses as a result of their entanglement with secular academic discourses. In the first half of the book, he presents the discursive constructions of 'religion' and 'science' through the disciplines of astrology, astronomy, psychology, alchemy, chemistry, and scientific experimentation more generally. The second half of the book explores the power of academic legitimization of knowledge in emerging European modernities. Here, the discursive entanglements of professional and participant explanations of modern practices shaped and solidified those realities. Key figures in the history of the field of Religious Studies, such as Martin Buber, Gershom Scholem, Rudolf Otto, and Mircea Eliade, played instrumental roles in legitimizing the authority of mysticism, goddess worship, and shamanism. Ultimately, what we discover is that 'religion' and 'science' are not so much distinctive spheres but elastic systems that arise within the particular circumstances of secular modernity. In our conversation we discussed discursive approaches to the study of religion, the Theosophical Society, marginalized forms of knowledge, the occult sciences, Jewish mysticism, secularization, nature-focused spiritualities, experiential knowledge, pagan religious practices, and 'modern' science
books  interview  audio  intellectual_history  religious_history  sociology_of_religion  sociology_of_knowledge  science-and-religion  19thC  20thC  mysticism  secularization  ritual  pagans  hermeticism  Kabbalah  alchemy  astrology  astronomy  experimental_philosophy  scientific_method 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Newall (2005) - History and Philosophy of Science - Recommended Reading - Recommended Reading - Resources - Resources - The Galilean Library
There are plenty of works in the history and philosophy of science worth studying, but perhaps too many to know where to start. This introduction gives an historical overview, explaining the relevance of some of the better-known tomes. -- A bit dated, and nothing from Shapin et al, though he defends Feyerband, but nice thumbnail on why each on his list was or is important, or accessible -- downloaded page as pdf to Note
books  bibliography  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  epistemology  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  Kuhn  Popper  scientific_method  Scientific_Revolution  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Newall interview with John Wilkins: Biology and Philosophy (2008) - The Galilean Library
John S. Wilkins is a sessional lecturer at the University of Queensland in philosophy. He runs a philosophy of biology blog, Evolving Thoughts, which is part of the Seed Magazine stable of science blogs. John worked in publishing and printing for 25 years while he eventually finished his philosophy studies with a PhD from the University of Melbourne. He used to boast that he had never learned anything of direct practical use, which is a bit of a stretch as he also has a computing diploma. -- author of my Kindle book, Species. -- converted page for downloaded pdf to Note
interview  history_of_science  intellectual_history  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  biology  evolutionary_biology  species  metaphysics  epistemology  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Alan Jacobs - climate science and public scrutiny | Text Patterns ' July 2015
Praise for Hansen's' approach -- his conclusions may be "alarmist" or a truly significant shift in possibility of catastrophe -- but he's showing his work and providing full access to the data he's using so that other scientists can participate, whether to find holes or to build on his work -- he should be praised for the ethical stance and for modeling the behavior that the scientific community should be adopting
Pocket  climate  climate-models  ocean  scientific_culture  scientific_method  science-and-politics  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  epistemology-moral  epistemology-social  virtue_epistemology  from pocket
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Elizabeth Popp Berman - Creating the Market University: How Academic Science Became an Economic Engine | Princeton University Press - 2012, ebook 2015
US universities today serve as economic engines, performing the scientific research that will create new industries, drive economic growth, and keep the US globally competitive. But only a few decades ago, these same universities self-consciously held themselves apart from the world of commerce. Drawing on extensive historical research, EPB shows how the government--influenced by the argument that innovation drives the economy--brought about this transformation. Americans have a long tradition of making heroes out of their inventors. But before the 1960s and '70s neither policymakers nor economists paid much attention to the critical economic role played by innovation. However, during the late 1970s, a confluence of events--industry concern with the perceived deterioration of innovation in the US, a growing body of economic research on innovation's importance, and the stagnation of the larger economy--led to a broad political interest in fostering invention. The policy decisions shaped by this change were diverse, influencing arenas from patents and taxes to pensions and science policy, and encouraged practices that would focus specifically on the economic value of academic science. By the early 1980s, universities were nurturing the rapid growth of areas such as biotech entrepreneurship, patenting, and university-industry research centers. -- She is assistant professor of sociology at the SUNY-Albany. -- downloaded excerpt to Note
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  economic_history  20thC  21stC  post-WWII  post-Cold_War  US_politics  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  university  research  research-funding  Innovation  innovation-government_policy  R&D  science-and-politics  urban_development  economic_growth  IP  incentives  incentives-distortions  public-private_partnerships  public_goods  market_fundamentalism  public_policy  -priorities  risk_capital  local_government  state_government  state-and-science  education-finance  academia-governance  managerialism  technology  technology-history  commercialization  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Thomas Grillot - Jack Goody’s Historical Anthropology: The Need to Compare - Books & ideas - 4 February 2013
translated by John Zvesper - French version Nov 2012 -- A highly respected figure in African studies, Jack Goody has become a distinctive voice in the torrent of academic critiques of western ethnocentrism. His work, spanning more than sixty years, has been based on a single ambition: comparison, for the sake of more accurately locating European history within Eurasian and world history. -- serves as a useful intro to stages of debates within the post-WWII social sciences -- he retired in 1984, though a very active retirement -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  20thC  post-WWII  social_sciences-post-WWII  anthropology  Sub-Saharan_Africa  oral_culture  literacy  language-history  writing  alphabet  ancient_Greece  comparative_anthropology  comparative_history  world_history  Eurocentrism  Eurasia  Eurasian_history  cultural_change  cultural_transmission  cultural_exchange  historiography  historiography-postWWII  historicism  epistemology-history  sociology_of_knowledge  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Werner Plumpe - The hour of the expert - economic expertise over 4 centuries - Eurozine - October 2012
What constitutes economic expertise? Looking at how European politics has answered this question over the last four centuries, Werner Plumpe argues that, at any given time, economic expertise is judged according to its coincidence with the conjuncture. -- Original in German -- Translation by Samuel Willcocks -- First published in Merkur 9-10/2012 (German version); Eurozine (English version) -- quite amusing, but nice overview that isn't excessively Anglo oriented
economic_history  economic_theory  expertise  sociology_of_knowledge  social_sciences  positivism  social_sciences-post-WWII  macroeconomics  economic_models  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  Europe-Early_Modern  intellectual_history  grand_narrative  narrative-contested  political_economy  economic_culture  economic_policy  capitalism  capitalism-varieties  capitalism-systemic_crisis  laisser-faire  cameralism  government-roles  business_cycles  business-and-politics  Keynesianism  neoclassical_economics  Austrian_economics  liberalism-19thC  finance_capital  bank_runs  financial_crisis  regulation  Marxism  public_enterprise  public_goods  infrastructure  market_fundamentalism  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Dan Priel - Toward Classical Legal Positivism (Symposium - Jurisprudence and (Its) History) | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 987 (2015)
I have two major aims: (1) set the historical record straight(...) Hobbes’s and Bentham’s work that seeks to understand their views on law not by isolating it from the rest of their wide-ranging body of work, but by understanding their jurisprudential work as part of a broader project. (2) My main aim is to contribute to contemporary jurisprudential debates and to suggest that the largely neglected approach of earlier positivists is superior to the view held by most contemporary legal positivists. (...) to what extent it is useful for us to call Hobbes and Bentham “legal positivists.” My answer to this question consists of three interrelated points. The first is that we draw an explicit link between their ideas and the view that (some time later) would come to be known as “positivism,” roughly the view that the methods of the “human sciences” are essentially the same as those of the natural sciences. The second point is that the classical legal positivists’ decisive break with natural law ideas prevalent in their day is to be found exactly here, in their views about metaphysics and nature. The third point is that this aspect of their work has been, in my view regrettably, abandoned by contemporary legal positivists. Though all three points are related, in this Article I will say relatively little about the first point, as I discussed it in greater detail elsewhere. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_law  jurisprudence  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  Hobbes  Bentham  natural_law  natural_rights  positivism-legal  analytical_philosophy  metaphysics  natural_philosophy  nature  human_nature  scientific_method  social_theory  social_sciences  positivism  positive_law  Methodenstreit  methodology-quantitative  epistemology  sociology_of_knowledge  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Jeffrey A. Pojanowski - Positivism(s): A Commentary on Priel's "Toward Classical Legal Positivism" | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 1023 (2015)
Anglo-American jurisprudence, before it insulated itself in conceptual analysis and defined itself in opposition to broader questions, was properly a “sociable science,” to use Professor Postema’s phrase from his symposium article. And, in part due to the exemplars of history, so it may become again. By drawing on Bentham and Hobbes, Professor Dan Priel’s Toward Classical Positivism points forward toward more fruitful methods of jurisprudence while illuminating the recent history and current state of inquiry. His article demonstrates the virtues and promise of a more catholic approach to jurisprudence. It also raises challenging questions about the direction to take this rediscovered path, and I am not sure I always agree with his suggested answers. Any misgivings I have about Priel’s particular approach, however, do not diminish my appreciation; I find even the points of disagreement to be live and meaningful, and that itself is refreshing. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_law  jurisprudence  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  Hobbes  Bentham  natural_law  natural_rights  positivism-legal  analytical_philosophy  metaphysics  natural_philosophy  nature  human_nature  scientific_method  social_theory  social_sciences  positivism  positive_law  Methodenstreit  methodology-quantitative  epistemology  sociology_of_knowledge  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Mark Buchanan - Paul Romer mis-handles atomic physics | Medium - June 2015
He thinks that some of the core mathematical models of modern economics are every bit as sound and scientific as Niels Bohr’s 1913 model of the atom. It’s not… The tale of Bohr's work within a community of theorists and experimental scientists trying to come up with an explanation for confounding experimental results of electron behavior is the exact opposite of the development of the Arrow-Debreu theorem, and the opposite of how the "midel" was subsequently used by theorists in the given domain. A perfect indictment of how "mathiness" has contaminated the entire field of macroeconomic theory.
Instapaper  scientific_method  physics  history_of_science  sociology_of_science_&_technology  sociology_of_knowledge  macroeconomics  economic_theory  economic_models  from instapaper
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Justin E.H. Smith - Nature, Human Nature, and Human Difference: Race in Early Modern Philosophy (2015) | Princeton University Press
People have always been xenophobic, but an explicit philosophical and scientific view of human racial difference only began to emerge during the modern period. Why and how did this happen? Surveying a range of philosophical and natural-scientific texts, dating from the Spanish Renaissance to the German Enlightenment, (Smith) charts the evolution of the modern concept of race and shows that natural philosophy, particularly efforts to taxonomize and to order nature, played a crucial role. Smith demonstrates how the denial of moral equality between Europeans and non-Europeans resulted from converging philosophical and scientific developments, including a declining belief in human nature’s universality and the rise of biological classification. The racial typing of human beings grew from the need to understand humanity within an all-encompassing system of nature, alongside plants, minerals, primates, and other animals. While racial difference as seen through science did not arise in order to justify the enslavement of people, it became a rationalization and buttress for the practices of trans-Atlantic slavery. From the work of François Bernier to Leibniz, Kant, and others, Smith delves into philosophy’s part in the legacy and damages of modern racism. -- Smith is university professor of the history and philosophy of science at the Université Paris Diderot—Paris VII. ...author of Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life (PUP), coeditor and cotranslator of The Leibniz-Stahl Controversy -- downloaded introduction to Note -- only hdbk, will be in ebook
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  cultural_history  racism  racialism  16thC  17thC  18thC  Europe-Early_Modern  exploration  Spanish_Empire  Spain  Renaissance  natural_philosophy  biology  taxonomies  Latin_America  West_Indies  North_America  Native_Americans  indigenous_peoples  slavery  West_Africa  Africa  African_trade  life_sciences  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  French_Enlightenment  Leibniz  Kant  anatomy  Adam  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_culture  science-and-religion  science-public  science_of_man 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Christophe Litwin, review essay - Stéphane Van Damme on Living the Enlightenment | Books & ideas -- French original June 2014, translation May 2015 by Michael C. Behrent
Original French http://www.laviedesidees.fr/La-vie-des-Lumieres.html -- Stéphane Van Damme, À toutes voiles vers la vérité [On Course to the Truth]: Une autre histoire de la philosophie au temps des Lumières, Seuil, 2014, 386 p., 24 €.Van Damme’s project is to write an alternative history of philosophy (...) not by writing a history of ideas, but rather a “historian’s history” of philosophy. Rather than beginning with a canonical body of texts or doctrines (the selection of which is frequently incomplete or ideological), Van Damme, building on Bruno Latour’s work in the history of science and Antoine Lilti’s and Etienne Anheim’s work in the journal Annales, (and..) the historical geographer Jean-Marc Besse, approaches the history of philosophy in a manner that is decidedly contextual, material, and pragmatic. Unlike literature, art, and science, Van Damme notes, philosophy had, until the past decade, largely avoided cultural history’s probing gaze. (..) the recent literature in the field is daunting—(see the..)abundant critical and bibliographical apparatus (305-375)—a history of philosophy conceived as an early modern cultural practice had yet to be written. Where, when, how, and in what circumstances were the activities we refer to by such terms as “knowing,” “living philosophically,” “being a philosopher,” and “teaching,” “doing,” “reading,” and “writing” philosophy practiced? Can the tools and methods of cultural history offer insight, in this way, into Enlightenment philosophy’s distinctive “truth regime”? (..)This pragmatic approach covers a remarkably wide range of topics and methodologies (many in) previously published articles (organized..) by situating philosophical practice in 3 types of spaces: the public sphere, geography, and politics. -- downloaded pdf to Note for both languages
books  reviews  amazon.fr  buy  intellectual_history  cultural_history  18thC  France  Enlightenment  Republic_of_Letters  public_sphere  geography  political_history  political_culture  sociology_of_knowledge  philosophy  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_history  natural_philosophy  epistemology  epistemology-social  bibliography  downloaded 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
L'Europe des Lumières - Classiques Garnier - collection directors Michel Delon, Jacques Berchtold et Christophe Martin
De ce qu'on appelle la crise de la conscience européenne à la Révolution française, la littérature et la pensée ont pour espace une Europe, souvent francophone, éprise d'idées nouvelles et d'expérimentations formelles. La collection rend compte de recherches qui sollicitent des disciplines et des méthodes diverses pour mieux connaître et comprendre la vie intellectuelle, scientifique, artistique et littéraire du XVIIIe siècle, ainsi que l'histoire des idées et des représentations. -- From what has been designated as a "crisis of conscience" to the Revolution, literature and thought play in a European space, often French-speaking, entranced by new ideas and formal experiments. The collection covers research which calls on a variety of disciplines and methods in order to better know and understand the intellectual, scientific, artistic and literary life of the 18th century, as well as the history of ideas and representations.
books  18thC  Europe-Early_Modern  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  intellectual_history  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  natural_philosophy  art_history  literary_history  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_culture  philosophes  Republic_of_Letters  public_sphere  publishing 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
François Duchesneau - La Physiologie des Lumières - Empirisme, modèles et théories (2012) | Classiques Garnier, coll. Histoire et philosophie des sciences
Cet ouvrage décrit et analyse les modèles de l'être vivant qui, dans le cadre de la révolution scientifique des Temps modernes, ont dessiné un parcours intellectuel menant à l'invention de la biologie comme science. Tout au long du xviiie siècle, la physiologie définit ses méthodes et ses concepts fondamentaux. Mobilisant les savoirs empiriques disponibles, elle en extrait les principes d'une véritable science des corps organisés. -- ISBN 978-2-8124-0783-3 -- 739 pages -- mostly Germans and French, including Leibniz and Wolff and Maupertuis and Buffon as significant stages in the debates
books  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  natural_philosophy  biology  anatomy  physiology  scientific_method  17thC  18thC  life_sciences  empiricism  Leibniz  Wolff_Christian  Maupertuis  Buffon 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Anne-Lise Rey, ed. - Méthode et histoire - Quelle histoire font les historiens des sciences et des techniques? (2014) | Classiques Garnier, coll.Histoire et philosophie des sciences
Les méthodes utilisées pour analyser la science d'hier et d'aujourd'hui peuvent-elles s'enrichir du débat, puis du dialogue des unes avec les autres? C'est le pari de cet ouvrage qui présente la pluralité des approches méthodologiques en histoire des sciences et des techniques et interroge son épistémologie. -- Can the methods used to analyse the science of yesterday and today be mutually enriched through debate and dialogue with each other? That is the wager of this book which presents the plurality of methodological approaches within the history of science and technology, and interrogates its epistemology. -- ISBN 978-2-8124-1419-0 -- 513 pages -- from TOC looks like several very interesting papers
books  history_of_science  historiography  sociology_of_knowledge  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_social_science  epistemology-history  epistemology 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Frédérique Aït-Touati, Stephen Gaukroger, Le monde en images. Voir, représenter, savoir, de Descartes à Leibniz (2015) | Classiques Garnier, coll. « Histoire et philosophie des sciences »
Frédérique Aït-Touati, Stephen Gaukroger, Le monde en images. Voir, représenter, savoir, de Descartes à Leibniz, Paris, Classiques Garnier, coll. « Histoire et philosophie des sciences », 2015, 128 p., ISBN : 978-2-8124-2589-9. -- Dans les débats classiques des 17thC-18thC, la représentation est considérée avant tout comme une question rhétorique et psychologique, mais à la fin du 18thC, elle devient une question épistémologique. Cet ouvrage explore le contexte de cette transformation et ses sources. l’émergence du problème de la représentation -- not edited collection, but co-authored study of a bit over 100 pages -- Chapters in TOC -- 1. Rhétorique et théorie de l’image vive 2. la révolution cartésienne  3. représenter l’invisible - Philosophie naturelle et visualisation chez Robert Hooke   4. les limites de la visualisation - Le débat entre Newton et Leibniz sur l’algèbre (a) La géométrie contre l’analyse  (b) L’analyse infnitésimale et la question de la preuve directe (c) La géométrie contre le calcul diférentiel  (d) Visualisation et capacités cognitives humaines  (e) Visualisation -- online pruce 19€
books  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  natural_philosophy  astronomy  ontology  epistemology  17thC  18thC  Descartes  representation-metaphysics  ideas-theories  Hooke  Leibniz  Newton  scientific_method  scientific_culture  instruments  microscope  telescope  unobservables  mathematics  geometry  calculus  cognition  analysis-logic  images  rhetoric  rhetoric-visual 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Andrew Zangwill - The education of Walter Kohn and the creation of density functional theory | arxiv.org [1403.5164] (Submitted on 20 Mar 2014)
The theoretical solid-state physicist Walter Kohn was awarded one-half of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his mid-1960's creation of an approach to the many-particle problem in quantum mechanics called density functional theory (DFT). In its exact form, DFT establishes that the total charge density of any system of electrons and nuclei provides all the information needed for a complete description of that system. This was a breakthrough for the study of atoms, molecules, gases, liquids, and solids. Before DFT, it was thought that only the vastly more complicated many-electron wave function was needed for a complete description of such systems. Today, fifty years after its introduction, DFT (in one of its approximate forms) is the method of choice used by most scientists to calculate the physical properties of materials of all kinds. In this paper, I present a biographical essay of Kohn's educational experiences and professional career up to and including the creation of DFT. -- via Philip Ball who notes Zangwill doesn't see DFT as something in the air, part of the Zeitgeist, and Kohn was operating in a scientific culture where discipline walls hadn't yet become so impermeable -- Kohn got his Nobel in Chemistry though he's a physicist -- which raises questions re whether sciences as now organized would be unlikely to produce the sort of individual curiosity and multidisciplinary creativity to produce this sort of transformative thinking, testing erc -- didn't download
paper  intellectual_history  20thC  physics  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  Innovation  technology  innovation-government_policy  sociology_of_science_&_technology 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Arnold C. Harberger - The Search for Relevance in Economics - The Richard Ely Lecture | JSTOR - The American Economic Review (May 1993)
Arnold C. Harberger, Professor of Economics, UCLA & Catholic University of Chile -- The American Economic Review, Vol. 83, No. 2, Papers and Proceedings of the Hundred and Fifth Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association (May, 1993), pp. 1-16 -- focus is on "practicing economists" (e.g, in central banks, IFIs, government departments and agencies, especially in developing countries) on analogy to "practitioners of medicine" within the medical profession. The medical profession is demonstrably better at both preparing their members in graduate school for what they will undertake in the real world, and in producing ongoing research, publications etc by academics that are relevant to practitioners. Follows on the heels of a high status Krueger Commission on Graduate Education, which reflected some of the problems he identifies, such as graduates with highly developed technical, principally math, skills, but little training in how to apply to real world problems that won't be framed in a way the technical skills can be readily applied. Lots of overlap from both the Commission and Harberger with the criticisms of economic education post the 2008 financial crisis. Although the sense that there was a consensus re the economic theories that needed to be taught seems to not have yet been challenged, at least to the same degree as 15 years later. The issue, rather, was "relevance" -- which doesn't seem to have improved in 15 years, but now made worse by challenges to the core content and failure to incorporate "specialties" like finance and agent-based modeling into the "core" or Kuhn's normal science. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  economic_theory  economic_sociology  sociology_of_knowledge  professionalization  policy  economic_models  economic_policy  education-higher  policymaking  political_economy  development 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Lucie Campos interview with Gisèle Sapiro - Geopolitics of Translation in Social Sciences and Humanities - Books & ideas - March 2015 (French original 2014)
Translated by Lucy Garnier -- Tags : translation | publishing | Bourdieu -- As publishing markets become increasingly international, sociology looks at the translation of work in the social sciences and humanities. Gisèle Sapiro shows the effects that the crossover between the academic and publishing spheres has on translation practices. -- Gisèle Sapiro is Director of the European Centre for Sociology and Political Science. She edited the collective volumes Pierre Bourdieu, sociologue (Fayard: 2004) and Pour une histoire des sciences sociales (Fayard: 2004) and has written several books of reference on the sociology of knowledge production, the intellectual field, and the international circulation of ideas, including Translatio. Le marché de la traduction en France à l’heure de la mondialisation (CNRS: 2008), Les Contradictions de la globalisation éditoriale (Nouveau Monde: 2009), and L’Espace intellectuel en Europe, XIXe-XXIe siècles: de la formation des États-nations à la mondialisation (La Découverte: 2009). The author and her research team have published a series of reports on literary exchange in the era of globalisation. After Traduire la littérature et les sciences humaines and Paris-New York the latest of these accounts, "Les Sciences humaines et sociales françaises en traduction" published online in July 2014, presents some of the directions taken by the European project she is coordinating on international cooperation in the social sciences and humanities. -' saved in Instapaper
19thC  20thC  21stC  Republic_of_Letters  intellectual_history  translation  social_theory  sociology_of_knowledge  networks  networks-information  intelligentsia  literary_theory  cultural_influence  cultural_exchange  language-national  humanities  publishing  academia  social_sciences  social_sciences-post-WWII  globalization  cosmopolitanism  circulation-ideas  Bourdieu  Foucault  Derrida  humanities-finance  social_sciences-finance  education-higher  education-finance  universal_language-Latin  universal_language-English  books  Instapaper  from instapaper
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Stéphane Van Damme - Laborieuse Nature: Penser le travail des sciences exactes avec Simon Schaffer | May 2014 - La Vie des idées
English translation March 2015 -- Comment naissent les découvertes et les progrès scientifiques ? Contre une vision idéaliste et triomphaliste de l’histoire des sciences, toute l’œuvre de Simon Schaffer a consisté à observer la science en train de se faire, au plus près des pratiques et des acteurs. Loin de diminuer son prestige, cette approche lui restitue la place centrale qu’elle occupait dans les sociétés d’Ancien Régime. -- downloaded pdf to Note
history_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  16thC  17thC  18thC  historiography  Innovation  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Niccolò Tempini -- Book Review: “Raw Data” is an Oxymoron, edited by Lisa Gitelman | LSE Review of Books
“Raw Data” is an Oxymoron. Lisa Gitelman (ed.). MIT Press. March 2013. -- We live in the era of Big Data, with storage and transmission capacity measured not just in terabytes but in petabytes. Data collection is constant and even insidious, with every click and every “like” stored somewhere for something. This edited collection seeks to remind us that data is anything but “raw”, that we shouldn’t think of data as a natural resource but as a cultural one that needs to be generated, protected, and interpreted. Niccolò Tempini finds that all of the matters discussed in this book are as inherently political as they are urgent. -- the book review is excellent -- helpful sketch of each contribution, many very interesting -- starting with etymology of "data", which seems initially used in rhetoric, as the "given" supplied by the orator from which persuasive argument would be built -- review copied to Pocket
books  kindle-available  reviews  epistemology-social  statistics  data  databases  sociology_of_knowledge  intellectual_history  constructivism  digital_humanities  history_of_science  economic_history  evidence  media  cultural_history  print_culture  texts  rhetoric  technology  Pocket 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Piet Strydom - Discourse and Knowledge: The Making of Enlightenment Sociology, Liverpool University Press, 2000. | -00 Academia.edu
This book offers an original interpretation of the rise of sociology from a contemporary point of view that is both theoretically and historically informed. Rather than assuming the ‘dual revolution’ as watershed, it goes back behind the French Revolution and the industrial revolution in order to start from the more pervasive communication revolution. The central theme of the book is the currently topical one of the role played by discourse in the construction of knowledge. It is substantively developed through an investigation of a neglected period in the history of sociology. By closely analysing the contributions of such theorists as More, Hobbes, Vico, Montesquieu, Ferguson and Millar to the emergence of sociology in its original form, the argument follows the discursive construction of sociology in the context of the society-wide early modern practical discourse about violence and rights – what is here called the rights discourse. Parallels with the nineteenth- and twentieth-century discourse about poverty and justice and the contemporary discourse about risk and responsibility allow the author to reflect not only on the generation of knowledge through discourse, but also on the role that sociology itself plays in this process. The argument draws on the latest epistemological, theoretical and methodological advances. Constructivism is explored, Habermas and Foucault are creatively synthesised to arrive at a new formulation of the theory of discourse, and a finely elaborated frame and discourse analysis is applied – thus making a substantial contribution to the currently emerging cognitive sociology. The contemporary relevance of the analysis lies in its linking of early sociology’s critique of modern society to the need under current conditions of an open history, contingency and uncertainty for cultivating a culture of contradictions and a participatory politics of conflict, contestation and compromise. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  Europe-Early_Modern  sociology  discourse  discourse-political_theory  discourse_ethics  cognition-social  public_sphere  violence  rights-legal  rights-political  sociology_of_knowledge  cultural_critique  Hobbes  Montesquieu  Scottish_Enlightenment  civil_society  civility-political  politeness  commerce-doux  conflict  political_participation  political_discourse  constructivism  Habermas  Foucault  epistemology-social  epistemology-moral  downloaded 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Piet Strydom - Inferential Dialectics: On Dialectical Reasoning in Critical Social Science and the Sociocultural World, (2015) | Academia.edu
Unpublished preliminary study for "Towards a New Cognitive Social Science" (book in progress) -- In this paper, I take as my starting point Norman Fairclough’s treatment of critical social analysis as a form of dialectical reasoning. While generally concurring with this equivalency despite a host of smaller disagreements on which I do not dwell, I venture to fill in a largely blank space in his argument by focusing on the internal workings of dialectical reasoning. The reference point for the core of my argument is the fact that Fairclough regards critical social analysis as based on epistemological dialectics which forms part of a larger set of relations, yet passes over the explication of the place and role of this basic form of dialectics in this constellation in favour of focusing on its practical dialectical nature. The point is, however, that an adequate grasp of practical dialectics requires the simultaneous consideration of the principal operative features of epistemological dialectics, not just in critical social analysis but more basically still also in social life itself. My proposal is that this could be done by introducing the inferential stance in order to consider what I call the dialectics of inference or inferential dialectics. This perspective forms part of a broader cognitive sociological approach that focuses on the cognitive processes – of which discourse is but one – on which the construction and structuring of society depend and which pervade the latter’s every fibre. -- Key words: Abduction, Badiou, Brandom, cognitive sociology, critical realism, critical social analysis, Critical Theory, deduction, dialectics, Fairclough, Hegel, induction, inference, Peirce, reasoning, social theory -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  social_theory  sociology_of_knowledge  cognition-social  constructivism  logic  logic-Peirce  deduction  abduction  inference  logic-Hegelian  dialectic  Brandom  critical_theory  critical_realism  pragmatism  induction  downloaded 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Steve Shapin - The Virtue of Scientific Thinking | Boston Review - Jan 2015
scientific reeearch may not make you more vitruous, or scientists as a group better people, but the disenchantment (severing assumed link between divine design of the cosmos and our ability to learn more and better understand how man fits in) described hy Weber in Vocation priduces a few worrisome trends. One is the hubris of "playing God" scientism, The Sam Harris and Steve Pinker types that think science can explain enough about hiw humans got to whete we are and how we function in modernity to be philosopher-kings on defining moral values and how our political and social structures should operate for what ends. The other disturbing consequence of cutting the link is the loss of discipline via internalized norms of the religious and miral worth of disinyetested inquiry. As profit and funding increasingly drive all levels of scientific research, and the rnds are increasingly narrowed to technology that can be exploited for profit or power (or both in the military-industrial-( academia) complex, what's to distinguish scientists from bankers. The foundation of trust in scientific results is at extreme risk. The only positive, which ashapin doesn't drvelop, is scepticism re the trustworthiness of the scientific enterprise may threaten the future of the planet via climate change, but few will be eager to put their trust in tge claims of the candidates nominating themselves as philosopher-kings.
Social_Darwinism  Pocket  cosmology  18thC  morality  virtue  scientism  post-WWII  moral_philosophy  17thC  21stC  19thC  history_of_science  mioitary-industrial_complex  20thC  cultural_history  Cold_War  morality-objective  curiosity  is-ought  natural_theology  norms  Reformation  intellectual_history  sociology_of_knowledge  morality-conventional 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
James Chandler, ed. - The Cambridge History of English Romantic Literature (pbk 2012) | Cambridge University Press
The Romantic period was one of the most creative, intense and turbulent periods of English lit (..) revolution, reaction, and reform in politics, and by the invention of imaginative literature in its distinctively modern form. (..) an engaging account of 6 decades of literary production around the turn of the 19thC. Reflecting the most up-to-date research, (..) both to provide a narrative of Romantic lit and to offer new and stimulating readings of the key texts. (...) the various locations of literary activity - both in England and, as writers developed their interests in travel and foreign cultures, across the world. (..) how texts responded to great historical and social change. (..) a comprehensive bibliography, timeline and index, **--** Choice: 50 years ago, lit studies was awash in big theories of Romanticism, (e.g. M. H. Abrams, Geoffrey Hartman, Harold Bloom); 2 decades later, Marilyn Butler argued that the very label "Romantic" was "historically unsound." This collection suggests that no consensus has yet emerged: instead, the best of the essays suggest continuities with periods before and after. Rather than big theories, (..) kaleidoscopic snapshots of individual genres (the novel, the "new poetry," drama, the ballad, children's literature); larger intellectual currents (Brewer ... on "sentiment and sensibility"); fashionable topics (imperialism, publishing history, disciplinarity); and--most interesting--the varying cultures of discrete localities (London, Ireland, Scotland).(..) an excellent book useful not as a reference resource, (..) but for its summaries of early-21st-century thinking about British lit culture 1770s-1830s. -- downloaded pdfs of front matter and excerpt to Note
books  English_lit  Romanticism  literary_history  literary_language  literary_theory  lit_crit  18thC  19thC  British_history  cultural_history  literature-and-morality  politics-and-literature  French_Revolution-impact  sociology_of_knowledge  Enlightenment  religious_lit  genre  gender_history  historicism  art_history  art_criticism  novels  rhetoric-writing  intellectual_history  morality-conventional  norms  sensibility  social_order  public_sphere  private_life  lower_orders  publishing  publishing-piracy  copyright  British_politics  British_Empire  Scotland  Scottish_Enlightenment  Ireland  Ireland-English_exploitation  landed_interest  landowners-Ireland-Anglo_elite  authors  authors-women  political_culture  elite_culture  aesthetics  subjectivity  self  self-fashioning  print_culture  readership  fashion  credit  poetry  literary_journals  historical_fiction  historical_change  reform-political  reform-social  French_Revolution  anti-Jacobin  Evangelical  literacy  theater  theatre-sentimental  theatre-politics  actors  downloaded 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Marshall Brown, ed. - The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism: Romanticism, Vol. 5 (pbk 2007) | Cambridge University Press
This latest volume in the celebrated Cambridge History of Literary Criticism addresses literary criticism of the Romantic period, chiefly in Europe. Its seventeen chapters are by internationally respected academics and explore a range of key topics and themes. The book is designed to help readers locate essential information and to develop approaches and viewpoints for a deeper understanding of issues discussed by Romantic critics or that were fundamental to their works. Primary and secondary bibliographies provide a guide for further research. **--** Introduction *-* 1. Classical standards in the Romantic period - Paul H. Fry *-* 2. Innovation and modernity Alfredo De Paz *-* 3. The French Revolution - David Simpson *-* 4. Transcendental philosophy and romantic criticism - David Simpson *-* 5. Nature - Helmut J. Schneider *-* 6. Scientific models - Joel Black *-* 7. Religion and literature - E. S. Shaffer
8. Romantic language theory and the art of understanding - Kurt Mueller-Vollmer *-* 9. The Romantic transformation of rhetoric - David Wellbery *-* 10. Romantic irony - Gary Handwerk *-* 11. Theories of genre - Tilottama Rajan *-* 12. Theory of the novel - Marshall Brown *-* 13. The impact of Shakespeare - Jonathan Arac *-* 14. The vocation of criticism and the crisis of the republic of letters - Jon Klancher *-* 15. Women, gender, and literary criticism - Theresa M. Kelley *-* 16. Literary history and historicism - David Perkins *-* 17. Literature and the other arts - Herbert Lindenberger **--** downloaded pdfs of front matter and excerpt to Note
books  English_lit  Romanticism  literary_history  literary_language  literary_theory  lit_crit  18thC  19thC  British_history  cultural_history  literature-and-morality  politics-and-literature  French_Revolution-impact  sociology_of_knowledge  Enlightenment  religious_lit  genre  gender_history  historicism  art_history  art_criticism  novels  rhetoric  rhetoric-writing  philosophy_of_language  Shakespeare-influence  classicism  modernity  German_Idealism  science-public  reason  irony  professionalization  authors-women  subjectivity  nature  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Sven Ove Hansson -Risk (updated 2011) | Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Since the 1970s, studies of risk have grown into a major interdisciplinary field of research. Although relatively few philosophers have focused their work on risk, there are important connections between risk studies and several philosophical subdisciplines. This entry summarizes the most well-developed of these connections and introduces some of the major topics in the philosophy of risk. It consists of six sections dealing with the definition of risk and with treatments of risk related to epistemology, the philosophy of science, the philosophy of technology, ethics, and the philosophy of economics.
1. Defining risk [including objective vs subjective and risk vs uncertainty - the latter comparison mostly formalized in decision tgeory]
2. Epistemology
3. Philosophy of science
4. Philosophy of technology
5. Ethics
6. Risk in economic analysis
Related Entries -- causation: in the law | causation: probabilistic | consequentialism | contractarianism | economics, philosophy of | game theory | luck: justice and bad luck | scientific knowledge: social dimensions of | technology, philosophy of
philosophy  epistemology  epistemology-social  epistemology-moral  causation  causation-social  probability  Bayesian  moral_philosophy  utilitarianism  utility  rights-legal  game_theory  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_social_science  economic_theory  behavioral_economics  financial_economics  sociology_of_knowledge  philosophy_of_law  risk  risk-mitigation  risk_management  uncertainty  rational_choice  rationality-economics 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
John D. Wilkins, review - Neil Postman, Building a Bridge to the 18th Century (1999) | Technology and Society Book Reviews
In Building a Bridge to the 18th Century, Neil Postman weaves an interesting tale on the development of a new "conversation" that Americans should commence. His book was an enjoyable read, and it re-ignites debate over policy questions and knowledge claims in the process of decision making. However, in formulating his arguments, he ran afoul, as so many do, in misconstruing the meaning of social construction and the manner in which society constructs knowledge. At the same time, Postman correctly articulates 'a crisis in narrative' (p.113). His story is best understood in the context of a manifesto that sees current narratives as inadequate for the future development of a healthy society. He sees a loss of meaning in our stories and reminds us that the 18th century is a social location that provides a foundation from which to launch a new conversation in order to restore a more meaningful social life. His manifesto does not seem to be interested in contemplation or conversation as he implies. Instead, I will argue that Postman is looking for efficiency and efficacy, and advocating his perspective from an ethnocentric foundation. I will attempt to provide the notion that there are multiple stories to be told, and that retelling one can be another form of advocating the status quo. In this review, I will focus on Postman's arguments for healthy skepticism, some of his contradictions, the notion of individualism and egoism, and the misconstruction of postmodern thought. -- downloaded as pdf to Note
books  reviews  kindle-available  cultural_critique  21stC  18thC  Enlightenment  philosophes  social_theory  constructivism  intellectual_history  Tocqueville  narrative  narrative-contested  conservation  postmodern  scepticism  scepticism-Academic  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  science-and-politics  science-public  individualism  self-interest  self-interest-cultural_basis  community  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Sarah Dry - True or false? Ten myths about Isaac Newton | OUPblog July 2014
She's the author of The Newton Papers which tells the story of the trove of manuscripts Newton left that erten't made part if what he chisr as his official papers for posterity - The mythical Newton abounds in contradictions; he is a semi-divine genius and a mad alchemist, a somber and solitary thinker and a passionate religious heretic. Myths usually have an element of truth to them but how many Newtonian varieties are true? Here are ten of the most common, debunked or confirmed by the evidence of his own private papers, kept hidden for centuries and now freely available online.
books  kindle-available  17thC  18thC  British_history  Newton  Socinian  Bible-as-history  Scientific_Revolution  physics  history_of_science  19thC  20thC  sociology_of_knowledge  fiscal-military_state  intellectual_history 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Faulkner - Two-Stage Reliabilism, Virtue Reliabilism, Dualism and the Problem of Sufficiency « Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 2 (8): 121-138 (2013)
University of Sheffield -- Special Issue 2: On the Future Direction of Social Epistemology -- Social epistemology should be truth-centred, argues Goldman. Social epistemology should capture the ‘logic of everyday practices’ and describe socially ‘situated’ reasoning, says Fuller. Starting from Goldman’s vision of epistemology, this paper aims to argue for Fuller’s contention. Social epistemology cannot focus solely on the truth because the truth can be got in lucky ways. The same too could be said for reliability. Adding a second layer of epistemic evaluation helps only insofar as the reasons thus specified are appropriately connected to reliability. These claims are first made in abstract, and then developed with regard to our practice of trusting testimony, where an epistemological investigation into the grounds of reliability must inevitably detail the ‘logic of everyday practices’. -- looks like interesting fit with the virtue focus and collective knowledge practices of Boyle, Locke et al -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  epistemology  epistemology-social  analytical_philosophy  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science  reliabilism  testimony  evidence  Royal_Society  Boyle  Locke  empiricism  virtue_epistemology  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Angelica Nuzzo - The Social Dimension of Dialectical Truth: Hegel’s Idea of Objective Spirit « Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 2 (8): 10-25 (2013
Graduate Center and Brooklyn College, CUNY -- Special Issue 2: On the Future Direction of Social Epistemology -- In this essay I argue for the claim that Hegel’s dialectical idea of truth, which is articulated in its pure forms in the Logic as the process of comprehension of partial positions of truth in an ultimate systematic unity, is socially and historically constituted within the structures of what Hegel calls “spirit.” I start by bringing to the fore those controversial issues of the Goldman-Fuller debate on which Hegel has important suggestions to make. In placing Hegel within this debate, my claim is that his theory offers a ‘third way’ of shaping a social epistemology developed on the basis of a dialectic-speculative logic and such as having the notion of spirit at the center. What Hegel has to offer to us is a “dialectical” social epistemology where truth is indeed the fundamental aim of science and yet it is a historical and collective construction of spirit. I examine the access to and the elaboration of truth and knowledge proper, respectively, to subjective and objective spirit: the psychological, individual dimension of subjective spirit, and the social and institutional context of objective spirit. I argue that the dimension of objective spirit is the mediating center that organizes and gives “reality” to all the forms of spirit’s knowledge. I conclude by briefly discussing the role that Bildung plays in shaping and articulating the institutions of knowledge and the activity of science within the social sphere. -- downloaded pdf to Note
social_theory  epistemology  epistemology-social  analytical_philosophy  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science  logic  logic-Hegelian  Hegel  constructivism  dialectic-historical  dialectic  bildung  institutions  social_sciences  Absolute  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Sanford C. Goldberg -“Analytic Social Epistemology” and the Epistemic Significance of Other Minds « Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective, 2 (8): 26-48 (2013)
Sanford C. Goldberg, Northwestern University -- Special Issue 2: On the Future Direction of Social Epistemology. -- In this paper I develop a rationale for pursuing a distinctly “social” epistemology, according to which social epistemology is the systematic study of the epistemic significance of other minds. After articulating what I have in mind with this expression, I argue that the resulting rationale informs work presently being done in the emerging tradition of “Analytic Social Epistemology” (ASE). I go on to diagnose Steve Fuller’s (2012) dismissal of ASE (as “retrograde”) as reflecting a rather deep — and, to date, deeply uncharitable — misunderstanding of the aims and rationale of this emerging tradition. Far from being retrograde, the best of the work in the emerging ASE tradition provides a nice compliment to the best of the social epistemology work in the social science tradition. The key to seeing this point is twofold: we need to recognize the normative orientation of (much of) the work in ASE; and, perhaps more importantly, we need to appreciate the difference between how Fuller (2012) understands the normativity of social epistemology, and how this is understood by theorists within the ASE tradition. I conclude with what I hope will be some constructive suggestions on this score. -- downloaded pdf to Note
analytical_philosophy  social_theory  epistemology  epistemology-social  philosophy_of_language  mind  mind-theory_of  normativity  hygiene-mental  sociology_of_knowledge  social_sciences  philosophy_of_science  social_psychology  social_process  power-knowledge  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Orestis Palermos and Duncan Pritchard - Extended Knowledge and Social Epistemology, Orestis Palermos and Duncan Pritchard « Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective, 2 (8): 105-120 (2013).
University of Edinburgh -- Special Issue 2: On the Future Direction of Social Epistemology -- The place of social epistemology within contemporary philosophy, as well as its relation to other academic disciplines, is the topic of an ongoing debate. One camp within that debate holds that social epistemology should be pursued strictly from within the perspective of individualistic analytic epistemology. In contrast, a second camp holds that social epistemology is an interdisciplinary field that should be given priority over traditional analytic epistemology, with the specific aim of radically transforming the latter to fit the results and methodology of the former. We are rather suspicious of this apparent tension, which we believe can be significantly mitigated by paying attention to certain recent advances within philosophy of mind and cognitive science. Accordingly, we attempt to explain how extended knowledge, the result of combining active externalism from contemporary philosophy of mind with contemporary epistemology, can offer an alternative conception of the future of social epistemology.
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november 2014 by dunnettreader
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