dunnettreader + social_sciences   87

Kathleen Knight - Transformations of the Concept of Ideology in the 20thC (2006) | The American Political Science Review on JSTOR
Kathleen Knight - Barnard & Columbia U -- The American Political Science Review, Vol. 100, No. 4, Thematic Issue on the Evolution of Political Science, in Recognition of the Centennial of the Review (Nov., 2006), pp. 619-626
Ideology has been the subject of a surprising amount of attention during the last half of the 20thC. Although it has been argued that the term has been "thoroughly muddied by diverse uses"(Converse 1964, 207),an empirical investigation of the pages of the Review reveals substantial convergence among political scientists over time on a core definition. This essay traces the use of the concept in the Review since its launch in 1906. It reveals changing fashions in the connotation of the term, but suggests an underlying agreement on the essential components - coherence, stability and contrast - and underlines the centrality of the concept of ideology in political science. - Downloaded via Air
article  jstor  downloaded  intellectual_history  20thC  political_science  social_sciences  social_sciences-post-WWII  ideology  identity  political_culture  political_participation  political_philosophy  sociology_of_knowledge 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Diane Coyle - Adam Ozanne's "Power and economics" - April 2016
My esteemed colleague Adam Ozanne has written a very interesting, short book on the strange absence of the concept of power from mainstream modern economics.… [unfortunately Palgrave has been idiots again and have priced both the paper and ebook editions for libraries not for people who'd actually be interested and would boost sales by word of mouth - not clear that this is likely to find many library buyers either]
Instapaper  books  economic_theory  sociology_of_knowledge  social_sciences  political_economy  power  from instapaper
may 2016 by dunnettreader
Andrew Gelman - The problems with p-values are not just with p-values: My comments on the recent ASA statement - March 2016
His blog Statistical Modeling, Causal Inference, and Social Science -- The American Statistical Association just released a committee report on the use of p-values. I was one of the members of the committee but I did not write the…
Instapaper  quantitative_methods  statistics  social_sciences  uncertainty  probability  methodology-quantitative  scientific_culture  research  publishing-academic  pharma  causation  evidence  from instapaper
march 2016 by dunnettreader
« Lectures. », Mil neuf cent. Revue d'histoire intellectuelle 1/2013 (n° 31) , p. 159-184 - Cairn.info
Titres recensés -- Jacques Julliard, Les gauches françaises, 1762-2012. Histoire, politique et imaginaire, Paris, Flammarion, 2012, 942 p.
Nathalie Richard, Hippolyte Taine. Histoire, psychologie, littérature, Classiques Garnier, 2013, 316 p.
Jean Jaurès, Œuvres, XIII, L’armée nouvelle, Jean-Jacques Becker (ed.), Paris, Fayard, 2013, 574 p.
Olivier Cosson, Préparer la Grande Guerre. L’armée française et la guerre russo-japonaise (1899-1914), Paris, Éd. Les Indes savantes, 2013, 380 p.
Géraldi Leroy, Charles Péguy. L’inclassable, Paris, Armand Colin, 2014, 366 p.
Gabriel Tarde, Sur le sommeil. Ou plutôt sur les rêves, Jacqueline Carroy, Louise Salmon (eds.), Lausanne, Éd. BHMS, 2009, 223 p.
Émile Durkheim, Hobbes a? l’agre?gation. Un cours d’E?mile Durkheim suivi par Marcel Mauss, Paris, Éd. de l’EHESS, coll. « Audiographie », 2011, 64 p.
Michel Murat, Frédéric Worms (eds.), Alain, littérature et philosophie mêlées, Paris, Éd. Rue d’Ulm-Presses de l’École normale supérieure, 2012, 221 p.
Frédéric Audren, Christian Chêne, Nicolas Mathey, Arnaud Vergne (eds.), Raymond Saleilles et au-delà, Paris, Dalloz, coll. « Thèmes
human_rights  representative_institutions  ultramontane  WWII  politics-and-religion  politics-and-literature  WWI  entre_deux_guerres  elites  philosophy-French  radicals  laïcité  socialism  France  anarchism  class_conflict  pre-WWI  republicanism  education  reviews  post-WWII  anti-clericalism  French_Revolution-impact  political_history  political_culture  political_press  materialism  political_philosophy  liberalism  democracy  French_intellectuals  French_Revolution  French_lit  social_theory  books  intellectual_history  cultural_history  political_participation  historiography-19thC  historiography  social_history  education-higher  20thC  Fin-de-Siècle  downloaded  social_sciences  Catholics-France  Bonapartism  justice  rule_if_law  19thC 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Louis Pinto - Un héritage devenu projet : la philosophie sociale de Sartre (2008) - Cairn.info
Les sciences sociales en France doivent compter avec les résistances que lui opposent notamment les philosophes qui se posent en défenseurs de la position éminente de cette discipline dans l’espace des disciplines académiques. À travers ses hiérarchies, ses valeurs et surtout les schèmes cognitifs et rhétoriques qui structurent le travail d’apprentissage, l’École tend à doter les agents d’une conception de la philosophie conforme à la formule scolaire mise au point il y a plus d’un siècle dans un contexte très singulier. Étant la « discipline du couronnement », située au-dessus des savoirs, des autres disciplines, la philosophie se veut discours sur les fondements.
Le cas de Sartre est d’un intérêt majeur en ce qu’il offre une illustration des tensions entre l’héritage scolaire et la quête d’originalité qui peut comporter, entre autres défis, celui d’avoir à se situer sur le terrain des sciences sociales. Si l’intérêt de Sartre pour ces disciplines était très réel, on peut comprendre certains aspects de son œuvre (autrui, la dialectique) comme un effort pour préserver les hiérarchies philosophiques
Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
philosophy_of_history  social_sciences-post-WWII  social_sciences  social_theory  dialectic  sociology_of_knowledge  existentialism  political_philosophy  article  intellectual_history  downloaded  political_culture  moral_philosophy  Sartre  20thC  entre_deux_guerres  intelligentsia 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Louis Pinto - Le débat sur les sources de la morale et de la religion (2004) - Cairn.info
Après la Grande Guerre, le ralliement d’une partie de la droite conservatrice à un régime désormais doté d’une légitimité guerrière et patriotique a pour effet de modifier sensiblement la définition des vertus républicaines jusqu’alors associée à l’alliance entre la démocratie et la science, qui caractérise le durkheimisme aussi bien que l’idéologie laïque. Cette évolution se reflète en partie dans le champ philosophique : dans le livre Les Deux sources de la morale et de la religion (1932), Bergson entend se situer sur les terrains de prédilection de la sociologie durkheimienne. Les oppositions majeures de sa métaphysique se trouvent appliquées à la société, la célèbre opposition entre le « clos » et l’« ouvert » permettant de renvoyer les sociologues du côté du légalisme et de l’utilitarisme étroits, et d’attribuer des qualités nobles et novatrices à des « héros ». On s’intéresse ici à la riposte d’Albert Bayet qui est simultanément celle d’un professeur rationaliste défendant l’héritage des Lumières, celle d’un sociologue d’inspiration durkheimienne et celle d’un militant de la laïcité non résigné à se voir dépouillé de valeurs comme la générosité et l’enthousiasme. Après avoir contesté aussi bien la notion de morale ouverte que l’individualisme métaphysique, il montre le lien entre les prises de position théoriques et leurs conséquences politiques.
cosmology  comparative_religion  cultural_authority  spirituality  intelligentsia  Durkheim  evolution-as-model  sociology_of_knowledge  morality-conventional  Bergson  psychology  utilitarianism  downloaded  political_culture  phenomenology  James_William  social_theory  declinism  France  social_sciences  entre_deux_guerres  irrationalism  morality-divine_command  social_order  article  intellectual_history  politics-and-religion  conservatism  morality-objective 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Muel-Dreyfus - La rééducation de la sociologie sous le régime de Vichy (2004) - Cairn.info
Les polémiques contre la sociologie durkheimienne ont une longue histoire qui remonte aux attaques contre la Nouvelle Sorbonne et à l’affaire Dreyfus. En ce sens, elles font partie de l’« inconscient d’école » propre à l’univers académique français dont ce qu’on pourrait appeler l’« inconscient anti-sociologique » est une des composantes. Leur réactivation sous le régime de Vichy tient à la conjonction de plusieurs facteurs : la mise en œuvre d’une politique scolaire conservatrice qui assimile sociologie/pédagogie/« esprit primaire » dans sa condamnation de l’école républicaine ; la reconquête d’une influence de l’enseignement libre qui vitupère la morale laïque inspirée par la sociologie ; l’expansion d’une science sociale réduite à l’expertise au service de l’ordre moral – psychosociologie de la famille et sociobiologie des « inadaptations » notamment. Ces courants différents ont en commun de refuser toute idée d’historicisation et de détermination sociale des faits, des institutions, des croyances et des destins collectifs ou individuels au profit de différentes formes de naturalisation du social et de différentes idéologies du « don naturel » dont la convergence en période de crise, propice au retour de la raison mythique, impose l’idée d’une éternité de cette vision du mon
conservatism  morality-objective  Vichy  social_order  norms  France  downloaded  article  social_sciences  Catholics-and-politics  Durkheim  intellectual_history  sociology_of_knowledge  20thC  hierarchy  cultural_authority  education  19thC  laïcité  cultural_history  social_theory  political_culture 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Gisèle Sapiro - Défense et illustration de « l'honnête homme » (2094) - Cairn.info
Les arguments du discours anti-sociologique des hommes de lettres, qui ont trouvé leur expression la plus élaborée dans le livre de Pierre Lasserre, La Doctrine officielle de l’Université, illustrent parfaitement la concurrence entre hommes de lettres et sociologues sur le terrain de la morale. En instituant une science des mœurs, la sociologie se place dans une position de stricte observation en dehors de tout jugement de valeur et de normativité. Cet objectivisme et le relativisme qui la conduit à comparer les cultures dites « primitives » à la civilisation occidentale heurtent la vision du monde normative et hiérarchisée de lettrés convaincus que leur culture classique fonde leur supériorité sociale et morale.
objectivity  morality-conventional  scientism  19thC  social_order  social_sciences  article  cultural_capital  intelligentsia  mission_civilatice  Durkheim  political_culture  comparative_anthropology  Fin-de-Siècle  intellectual_history  social_theory  cultural_history  authority  downloaded  France  hierarchy  primitivism  belles-lettres 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Odile Henry and Hervé Serry, « La sociologie, enjeu de lutes. » (2004)
Henry Odile, Serry Hervé, « La sociologie, enjeu de lutes. », Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales 3/2004 (no 153) , p. 5-10 URL : www.cairn.info/revue-actes-de-la-recherche-en-sciences-sociales-2004-3-page-5.htm. DOI : 10.3917/arss.153.0005. Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
19thC  article  progress  morality-conventional  intellectual_history  pre-WWI  Catholics-and-politics  social_theory  social_sciences  anticlerical  relativism  morality-objective  ultramontane  France  downloaded  entre_deux_guerres  republicanism  Fin-de-Siècle  Durkheim  laïcité  morality-divine_command  rationalist 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Gianfranco Poggi , review - Lawrence Scaff, Weber and the Weberians - Books & ideas - Nov 2015
Reviewed: Lawrence Scaff, Weber and the Weberians, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, 199 p. -- Proving his mastery of Weber’s oeuvre, Scaff’s new book considers the imprint left by various aspects of Weber’s work on the imagination and production of three generations of authors from Europe and North America. He shows that the confrontation between contemporary scholars and Weber’s legacy is a show that will run and run… -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  intellectual_history  20thC  Weber  historical_sociology  social_theory  social_sciences  social_sciences-post-WWII  downloaded 
december 2015 by dunnettreader
Jonathan Sheehan - Thinking about Idols in Early Modern Europe - Issue Introduction (2006) | JSTOR - Journal of the History of Ideas
Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 67, No. 4 (Oct., 2006), pp. 561-570 **--** Articles in issue on idolatry *--* Jonathan Sheehan, Introduction: Thinking about Idols in Early Modern Europe (pp. 561-570) *-* Joan-Pau Rubiés, Theology, Ethnography, and the Historicization of Idolatry (pp. 571-596) *--* Carina L. Johnson, Idolatrous Cultures and the Practice of Religion (pp. 597-622) *--* Sabine MacCormack, Gods, Demons, and Idols in the Andes (pp. 623-648) *--* Jonathan Sheehan, The Altars of the Idols: Religion, Sacrifice, and the Early Modern Polity (pp. 649-674) *--* Peter N. Miller, History of Religion Becomes Ethnology: Some Evidence from Peiresc's Africa (pp. 675-696) *--* Martin Mulsow, Idolatry and Science: Against Nature Worship from Boyle to Rüdiger, 1680-1720 (pp. 697-712) -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  journal  jstor  intellectual_history  religious_history  cultural_history  16thC  17thC  18thC  exploration  colonialism  religious_culture  religious_belief  religious_experience  ritual  idolatry  political_philosophy  politics-and-religion  theology  sociology_of_religion  political-theology  science-and-religion  historicism  relativism  demons  devil  Bible-as-history  Biblical_authority  Biblical_criticism  comparative_religion  comparative_history  sacrifice  science_of_man  social_sciences  human_nature  Africa  Latin_America  pagans  nature  natural_religion  nature_worship  religious_imagery  religious_practices  Boyle  Antiquarianism  natural_history  Peiresc  virtuosos  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Brian Z. Tamanaha - Legal Realism in Context :: SSRN in Elizabeth Mertz, ed., New Legal Realism, Vol. 1 (Cambridge UP, 2015 Forthcoming)
“We are all realists now,” it is frequently said, yet what legal realism was about remains vigorously debated by legal theorists and historians. The debate continues because the jurists we think of as core legal realists were not members of a group. Karl Llewellyn said this multiple times in his famous essay detailing realism. (..) Contemporary scholars who make assertions about what the legal realists stood for often fail to account for these passages. Legal realism.. is best understood ... in terms of 3 overlapping complexes of ideas that emerged in the late 19thC and had become widespread by the time of Llewellyn’s article. [(1)] that society was changing rapidly while law, understood as a means to achieve social ends, lagged badly behind, producing an urgent need for legal reform. [(2)] the growing refrain among legal academics that newly developing social sciences should be applied to enhance an understanding of the actual facts surrounding law. [(3)] a vocal backlash against judges for impeding reform, including charges that they were importing class bias into their legal decisions, prompting a broader acknowledgement that the background social attitudes of judges play a role in their decisions. These three themes were interpenetrating: the popular dissatisfaction with the failings of law was manifested in criticism of courts, and resort to social science was the favored academic solution. (..) Realism characterized the new modern age of thinking about law, and it ran much earlier and more broadly than is now commonly recognized. -- PDF File: 47 -- Keywords: Legal history, Jurisprudence, law and the humanities, law and the social sciences
chapter  SSRN  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  19thC  20thC  philosophy_of_law  jurisprudence  legal_theory  legal_reasoning  legal_history  social_sciences  legal_realism  legal_reform  change-social  change-intellectual 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Bourke, R.: Empire and Revolution: The Political Life of Edmund Burke. (eBook and Hardcover)
Drawing on the complete range of printed and manuscript sources, Empire and Revolution offers a vivid reconstruction of the major concerns of this outstanding statesman, orator, and philosopher.In restoring Burke to his original political and intellectual context, this book strips away the accumulated distortions that have marked the reception of his ideas. In the process, it overturns the conventional picture of a partisan of tradition against progress. In place of the image of a backward-looking opponent of popular rights, it presents a multifaceted portrait of one of the most captivating figures in eighteenth-century life and thought. While Burke was a passionately energetic statesman, he was also a deeply original thinker. Empire and Revolution depicts him as a philosopher-in-action who evaluated the political realities of the day through the lens of Enlightenment thought, variously drawing on the ideas of such figures as Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Hume. A boldly ambitious work of scholarship, this book challenges us to rethink the legacy of Burke and the turbulent era in which he played so pivotal a role. -- Richard Bourke is professor in the history of political thought and codirector of the Centre for the Study of the History of Political Thought at Queen Mary University of London. He is the author of Peace in Ireland: The War of Ideas and the coeditor of Political Judgement. -- Big early chunk on Vindication of Natural Society -- TOC and Intro (24 pgs) downloaded to Note
books  buy  biography  kindle-available  Bolingbroke  Burke  18thC  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  social_sciences  British_history  British_politics  British_Empire  British_foreign_policy  imperialism-critique  Ireland  Ireland-English_exploitation  parties  Whigs  Whigs-oligarchy  Whigs-grandees  Parliament  Parliamentary_supremacy  representative_institutions  political_participation  political_press  moral_philosophy  psychology  religion-established  Church_of_England  Catholics-and-politics  Catholics-Ireland  Catholics-England  Catholic_emancipation  aesthetics  Montesquieu  Hume-ethics  Hume-politics  Rousseau  American_colonies  American_Revolution  India  French_Revolution  French_Enlightenment  French_Revolutionary_Wars  politics-and-religion  politics-and-history  Glorious_Revolution  Revolution_Principles  hierarchy  George_III  Pitt_the_Elder  Pitt_the_Younger  English_lit  human_rights  human_nature  philosophical_anthropology  sentimentalism  moral_sentiments  morality-Christian  morality-conventional  Enlightenment-conservative  British_Em 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
CONFÉRENCES MARC BLOCH -- EHESS - Annual lecture series | Canal-U
CONFÉRENCES MARC BLOCH -- Chaque année depuis 1979, l’EHESS invite au mois de juin une personnalité étrangère ou française à prononcer une conférence qui rassemble, dans le grand amphithéâtre de la Sorbonne, les personnels de l’École et leurs invités. Ce cycle de conférences rend hommage à Marc Bloch, fondateur en 1929, avec Lucien Febvre, des Annales d’histoire économique et sociale – la revue autour de laquelle s’est noué le réseau d’historiens à l’origine de la VIe Section de l’École pratique des hautes études, devenue en 1975 l’EHESS.
video  lecture  French_language  social_theory  social_sciences  social_sciences-post-WWII  Annales  history_of_science  history_of_book  sociology_of_knowledge  historiography 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Florent Guénard & Hélène Landemore - Entretien avec Jon Elster - La Vie des idées - 2 juillet 2008.
Florent Guénard & Hélène Landemore , « Le tirage au sort, plus juste que le choix rationnel. Entretien avec Jon Elster », La Vie des idées, 2 juillet 2008. -- Video - transcript downloaded as pdf to Note
social_theory  social_sciences  social_sciences-post-WWII  French_moralists  17thC  Tocqueville  rational_choice  rationality-economics  justice  justice-retributive  fairness  Elster  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Mark Bevir and Asaf Kedar - Concept Formation in Political Science: An Anti-Naturalist Critique of Qualitative Methodology on JSTOR - Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 6, No. 3 (Sep., 2008), pp. 503-517
This article offers an anti-naturalist philosophical critique of the naturalist tendencies within qualitative concept formation as developed most prominently by Giovanni Sartori and David Collier. Whereas naturalism assumes that the study of human life is not essentially different from the study of natural phenomena, anti-naturalism highlights the meaningful and contingent nature of social life, the situatedness of the scholar, and so the dialogical nature of social science. Naturalism encourages concept formation that involves reification, essentialism, and an instrumentalist view of language. Anti-naturalism, conversely, challenges reified concepts for eliding the place of meanings, essentialist concepts for eliding the place of contingency, and linguistic instrumentalism for eliding the situatedness of the scholar and the dialogical nature of social science. Based on this philosophical framework, we subject qualitative concept formation to a philosophical critique. We show how the conceptual strategies developed by Sartori and Collier embody a reification, essentialism, and instrumentalist view of language associated with naturalism. Although Collier's work on concept formation is much more flexible and nuanced than Sartori's, it too remains attached to a discredited naturalism. -- see for bibliography of 168 references -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  political_science  political_philosophy  political_culture  concepts  concepts-change  comparative_politics  social_sciences  social_theory  methodology-qualitative  meaning  bibliography  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Werner Plumpe - The hour of the expert - economic expertise over 4 centuries - Eurozine - October 2012
What constitutes economic expertise? Looking at how European politics has answered this question over the last four centuries, Werner Plumpe argues that, at any given time, economic expertise is judged according to its coincidence with the conjuncture. -- Original in German -- Translation by Samuel Willcocks -- First published in Merkur 9-10/2012 (German version); Eurozine (English version) -- quite amusing, but nice overview that isn't excessively Anglo oriented
economic_history  economic_theory  expertise  sociology_of_knowledge  social_sciences  positivism  social_sciences-post-WWII  macroeconomics  economic_models  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  Europe-Early_Modern  intellectual_history  grand_narrative  narrative-contested  political_economy  economic_culture  economic_policy  capitalism  capitalism-varieties  capitalism-systemic_crisis  laisser-faire  cameralism  government-roles  business_cycles  business-and-politics  Keynesianism  neoclassical_economics  Austrian_economics  liberalism-19thC  finance_capital  bank_runs  financial_crisis  regulation  Marxism  public_enterprise  public_goods  infrastructure  market_fundamentalism  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Frederick Schauer - The Path-Dependence of Legal Positivism (Symposium - Jurisprudence and (Its) History) | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 957 (2015)
My aim in this Article is to focus on the history of thinking about law in the context of 3 topics (..) to show that the continuous development of the theory of legal positivism, however useful it may have been or may still be, has possibly caused us to ignore other aspects of what was originally part of the positivist picture. (..)The first of these dimensions is the relationship between legal theory and legal reform. (..) that an account of the nature of law might be developed not simply as an aid to understanding or accurate description, but instead as a way of facilitating reform of law itself or reform of how a society understands the idea of law. Second, legal positivism, at the time of its late 19thC (or perhaps even earlier) origins, was focused on the importance of coercion, force, and sanctions as central components of law. But as with the creation of legal theories for the purpose of legal reform, this emphasis on the coercive side of law has also been banished to a kind of jurisprudential purgatory, for reasons and with consequences that deserve further examination. The third lost element of earlier versions of legal positivism is its focus on judicial decision making and the role of judges. Modern legal positivists, for whom 1961 is all too often the beginning of useful thought about the nature of law, do not, with few exceptions, consider theories of judicial decision making to be a necessary or even important part of the positivist perspective. But it was not always so. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  philosophy_of_law  jurisprudence  legal_theory  legal_system  political_philosophy  legal_reform  institutional_change  institutions  judiciary  judicial_review  law_enforcement  criminal_justice  punishment  coercion  authority  obligation  policymaking  political_change  social_theory  social_sciences  positivism-legal  positive_law  positivism  justice  Study_and_Uses  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Dan Priel - Toward Classical Legal Positivism (Symposium - Jurisprudence and (Its) History) | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 987 (2015)
I have two major aims: (1) set the historical record straight(...) Hobbes’s and Bentham’s work that seeks to understand their views on law not by isolating it from the rest of their wide-ranging body of work, but by understanding their jurisprudential work as part of a broader project. (2) My main aim is to contribute to contemporary jurisprudential debates and to suggest that the largely neglected approach of earlier positivists is superior to the view held by most contemporary legal positivists. (...) to what extent it is useful for us to call Hobbes and Bentham “legal positivists.” My answer to this question consists of three interrelated points. The first is that we draw an explicit link between their ideas and the view that (some time later) would come to be known as “positivism,” roughly the view that the methods of the “human sciences” are essentially the same as those of the natural sciences. The second point is that the classical legal positivists’ decisive break with natural law ideas prevalent in their day is to be found exactly here, in their views about metaphysics and nature. The third point is that this aspect of their work has been, in my view regrettably, abandoned by contemporary legal positivists. Though all three points are related, in this Article I will say relatively little about the first point, as I discussed it in greater detail elsewhere. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_law  jurisprudence  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  Hobbes  Bentham  natural_law  natural_rights  positivism-legal  analytical_philosophy  metaphysics  natural_philosophy  nature  human_nature  scientific_method  social_theory  social_sciences  positivism  positive_law  Methodenstreit  methodology-quantitative  epistemology  sociology_of_knowledge  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Jeffrey A. Pojanowski - Positivism(s): A Commentary on Priel's "Toward Classical Legal Positivism" | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 1023 (2015)
Anglo-American jurisprudence, before it insulated itself in conceptual analysis and defined itself in opposition to broader questions, was properly a “sociable science,” to use Professor Postema’s phrase from his symposium article. And, in part due to the exemplars of history, so it may become again. By drawing on Bentham and Hobbes, Professor Dan Priel’s Toward Classical Positivism points forward toward more fruitful methods of jurisprudence while illuminating the recent history and current state of inquiry. His article demonstrates the virtues and promise of a more catholic approach to jurisprudence. It also raises challenging questions about the direction to take this rediscovered path, and I am not sure I always agree with his suggested answers. Any misgivings I have about Priel’s particular approach, however, do not diminish my appreciation; I find even the points of disagreement to be live and meaningful, and that itself is refreshing. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_law  jurisprudence  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  Hobbes  Bentham  natural_law  natural_rights  positivism-legal  analytical_philosophy  metaphysics  natural_philosophy  nature  human_nature  scientific_method  social_theory  social_sciences  positivism  positive_law  Methodenstreit  methodology-quantitative  epistemology  sociology_of_knowledge  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
David Luban - Time-Mindedness and Jurisprudence: A Commentary on Postema's "Jurisprudence, the Sociable Science" | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 903 (2015)
Postema offers two general programmatic suggestions for jurisprudence besides greater historical consciousness: sociability and synechism. Sociability, has two dimensions. First, it means interdisciplinarity—a continual dialogue with the study of legal phenomena by the sciences, humanities, and even theology. Second, it means embedding jurisprudence in general philosophy, ... [Sellars]: “not only ‘cabbages and kings’, but numbers and duties, possibilities and finger snaps, aesthetic experience and death.” Synechism is a less familiar idea, drawn from the philosophy of C.S. Peirce. It is the commitment to seek continuity among phenomena. Peirce was metaphysically committed to the existence of actual continua everywhere in nature, history, and human psychology. So synechism will impose a certain demand on all systematic studies, namely discerning those continua.(..) a certain kind of historiography: The historian’s job is to unearth continuities between past and present rather than studying ruptures. This, it seems to me, is a contestable commitment that rules out a great deal of important historical work. Peirce understood synechism to imply that ideas are intrinsically temporal and historical phenomena. Although Postema does not endorse this general thesis, he does argue for a special case of it, namely that law is “intrinsically temporal.” This conclusion is central to his argument against the possibility of time-slice legal systems. It, too, is contestable; but, I shall suggest, Postema can reach his conclusion on grounds other than synechism, and I agree with him about law’s intrinsic temporality. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_law  pragmatism  historiography  historical_change  jurisprudence  legal_theory  legal_system  analytical_philosophy  legal_history  continuity  change-social  change-intellectual  intellectual_history  Peirce  social_sciences  legal_culture  legal_realism  philosophy_of_history  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Gerald J. Postema - Jurisprudence, the Sociable Science (Symposium - Jurisprudence and (Its) History) | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 869 (2015)
Renaissance jurisprudence strove to be a sociable science. Following Ulpian’s lead, it refused to relegate jurisprudence either to pure speculation or to mere practice. Jurisprudence was a science, a matter of knowledge and of theoretical understanding, not merely an applied art or practice of prudence innocent of theory. It was regarded as the very heart of theoretical studies, drawing to itself all that the traditional sciences of theology, metaphysics, and moral philosophy, as well as the newly emerging humanist sciences of philology and hermeneutics, had to offer. No less resolutely, however, it refused to abandon its foothold in the life of practice. (..) Rather than reject philosophical reflection, (..) Renaissance jurists sought to locate it in concrete human life and experience. (..) Philosophy.., was most true to its vocation, and was most engaged in human life, when its reflections were anchored in the social life acknowledged, comprehended, and informed by and informing law. Jurisprudence, vera philosophia, was ...the point at which the theoretical and the practical intersected (..) at its “sociable” best sought to integrate them. Analytic jurisprudence began as self-consciously, even militantly, “unsociable,” and its matured and much-sophisticated descendant, fin de siècle analytic legal philosophy, remained largely if not exclusively so. (..) It may be time, in this period of self-conscious attention to jurisprudential method, to press beyond the current limits of this debate over method to a reassessment of the ambitions of jurisprudence and of philosophy’s role in it. (..) my aim is not critical but constructive. (..) to recover something of the ideal of jurisprudence as a sociable science, to retrieve as much as our disenchanted age can be challenged to embrace, or at least to entertain, of the ambition of jurisprudence as vera philosophia. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jurisprudence  philosophy_of_law  social_theory  social_sciences  intellectual_history  Renaissance  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  common_law  moral_philosophy  morality-conventional  norms  analytical_philosophy  concepts  concepts-change  change-social  change-intellectual  social_order  legal_history  legal_theory  legal_reasoning  pragmatism  Peirce  continuity  historical_change  methodology-qualitative  downloaded 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Lucie Campos interview with Gisèle Sapiro - Geopolitics of Translation in Social Sciences and Humanities - Books & ideas - March 2015 (French original 2014)
Translated by Lucy Garnier -- Tags : translation | publishing | Bourdieu -- As publishing markets become increasingly international, sociology looks at the translation of work in the social sciences and humanities. Gisèle Sapiro shows the effects that the crossover between the academic and publishing spheres has on translation practices. -- Gisèle Sapiro is Director of the European Centre for Sociology and Political Science. She edited the collective volumes Pierre Bourdieu, sociologue (Fayard: 2004) and Pour une histoire des sciences sociales (Fayard: 2004) and has written several books of reference on the sociology of knowledge production, the intellectual field, and the international circulation of ideas, including Translatio. Le marché de la traduction en France à l’heure de la mondialisation (CNRS: 2008), Les Contradictions de la globalisation éditoriale (Nouveau Monde: 2009), and L’Espace intellectuel en Europe, XIXe-XXIe siècles: de la formation des États-nations à la mondialisation (La Découverte: 2009). The author and her research team have published a series of reports on literary exchange in the era of globalisation. After Traduire la littérature et les sciences humaines and Paris-New York the latest of these accounts, "Les Sciences humaines et sociales françaises en traduction" published online in July 2014, presents some of the directions taken by the European project she is coordinating on international cooperation in the social sciences and humanities. -' saved in Instapaper
19thC  20thC  21stC  Republic_of_Letters  intellectual_history  translation  social_theory  sociology_of_knowledge  networks  networks-information  intelligentsia  literary_theory  cultural_influence  cultural_exchange  language-national  humanities  publishing  academia  social_sciences  social_sciences-post-WWII  globalization  cosmopolitanism  circulation-ideas  Bourdieu  Foucault  Derrida  humanities-finance  social_sciences-finance  education-higher  education-finance  universal_language-Latin  universal_language-English  books  Instapaper  from instapaper
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Cécile Nicco-Kerinvel, review essay Spinozisme et sciences sociales - La Vie des idées- 28 avril 2008
Recensé : Spinoza et les sciences sociales, De la puissance de la multitude à l’économie des affects. Sous la direction de Yves Citton et Frédéric Lordon, collection « Caute ! », éditions Amsterdam, 2008. -- Dossier(s) : Pierre Bourdieu et la culture -- Mots-clés : sociologie économique | sciences sociales | spinozisme. -- Quels rapports entre la philosophie de Spinoza et les sciences sociales ? L’ouvrage collectif dirigé par Yves Citton et Frédéric Lordon montre qu’ils sont nombreux et éclairants. Spinoza a en effet pensé des thèmes-clés pour les sciences sociales comme l’économie des affects ou la constitution des corps politiques et leurs crises, et ses concepts peuvent être réinvestis dans des problématiques sociologiques. Il y a donc bien lieu de faire dialoguer Spinoza avec Tarde, Foucault, Bourdieu, Mauss ou Durkheim. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  social_theory  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  political_economy  sociology  government-forms  governmentality  anthropology  17thC  19thC  20thC  economic_sociology  social_sciences  social_order  culture  Spinoza  Durkheim  Foucault  Bourdieu  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Franck Bessis , review essay - André Orléan, L’empire de la valeur - Vers un changement de paradigme en économie ? | June 2012 - La Vie des idées
Recensé : André Orléan, L’empire de la valeur. Refonder l’économie, Paris, Seuil, collection « La couleur des idées », 340 p., 23 €. -- Spécialiste des questions monétaires et financières, André Orléan fournit à travers la synthèse de ses recherches un ouvrage de référence pour renouveler l’analyse économique. Sa démarche invite également à repenser la place de l’économie au sein des sciences sociales et son rapport au politique. -- also available in English, downloaded French pdf to Note
books  reviews  economic_theory  intellectual_history  classical_economics  neoclassical_economics  labor_theory_of_value  marginalists  utility  financial_economics  monetary_theory  macroeconomics  political_economy  social_theory  ontology-social  social_sciences  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Raymond Boudon - "Sociology that Really Matters" - Inaugural Lecture 2001, European Academy of Sociology
Responding to claims that sociology isn't a "science" or that it goes off the rails when its pretensions to scientific status dominate, he discusses 4 ideal-types of sociology -- Cognitive, Expressive, Descriptive (cameral) and Critical. The first, which he claims fits a range of the most important theories in philosophy of science, is represented by Tocqueville, Weber and Durkheim. The produced explanations of puzzling phenomena that linked micro and macro - why particular actions or choices were rational for classes of actors in the sense that the meaning was consistent with their beliefs and experiences given their position in social structures and the tools they had available to understand and control their situation consistent with their values. This type of causal explanation can be used, elaborated and built on for cumulative knowledge. The more popular bestseller works tend to be expressive and/or critical - speaking to people's current experiences, felt anxieties, or ideological orientation so they are useful, but not necessarily true - he gives Foucault on prisons as an example. The descriptive, which is directed towards policy ("cameral" in Schumpeter) grows increasingly dominant as we become increasingly data sensitive and driven. Topics tend to come in waves based on issues that have become prominent and a focus of political debates, social movements, etc. Thus only the cognitive is a truly scientific contribution to cumulative knowledge. Interesting remarks on the type of methodological individualism that's central to the cognitive but both different and sometimes inappropriate in the other ideal-types.
Scribd  social_theory  intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  21stC  social_sciences  philosophy_of_social_science  philosophy_of_science  Tocqueville  Weber  Durkheim  Popper  positivism  individualism-methodology  causation-social  structuralist  agency  agency-structure  Foucault 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Carl Menger - Investigations into the Method of the Social Sciences - Books | Mises Institute
The famed Methodenstreit of the late 19th century was the battle of method. It pitted the emerging Austrian School against the German Historical School over a critically important question: what is the proper way to do social science? Here, Carl Menger, the founder of the School, vindicates the importance of theory, and lays the foundation for later developments by Mises and others. The book was written twelve years after his principles book, and it sought to deal with the hostility with which that book was greeted in the German world. Menger argues that economics can and must be more than an effort at observing, collecting, and assembling data. It can make general observations about the laws of economics that operate independently of time and place. -- No Austrian can overlook this very important treatise on method. This edition includes an introduction by Lawrence White that frames up the debate over method in light of modern trends in economic theory. -- This edition copyright NYU in 1960s and Mises Institute 2009 -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  19thC  intellectual_history  Germany  German_historical_school  German_scholarship  historicism  economic_theory  economic_sociology  social_theory  social_sciences  Methodenstreit  methodology-quantitative  causation-social  covering_laws  Austrian_economics  downloaded 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Biancamaria Fontana - Rethinking the Politics of Commercial Society The Edinburgh Review 1802–1832 (hdbk 1985, pbk & ebook 2008) | Political philosophy | Cambridge University Press
This book explores the sources of modern British liberalism through a study of the Edinburgh Review, the most influential and controversial early nineteenth-century British periodical. Founded by a group of young Scottish intellectuals in 1802, the Review served as a principal channel through which the ideas of the Scottish Enlightenment gained wider currency, and did much to popularize the doctrines of economic and political reform. As Dr Fontana shows in this lucid and keen analysis, the first thirty years in the life of the Review clearly display the new social and economic problems confronting European society in the aftermath of the French Revolution. **--** Introduction *--* 1. Scottish theories of commercial society and the French Revolution *-* 2. Adam Smith's heritage: the Edinburgh reviewers and the Wealth of Nations *-* 3. The definition of political economy: political economy as a social science *-* 4. The Edinburgh reviewers and the Whig party *-* 5. Commercial society and its enemies: the debate on the First Reform Bill *-* Conclusion -- downloaded pdfs of front matter and excerpt to Note
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_economy  18thC  19thC  British_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Revolution-impact  civil_society  commerce  commerce-doux  science_of_man  social_sciences  democracy  mass_culture  political_participation  British_politics  Edinburgh_Review  Whigs  Whigs-Radicals  Whigs-grandees  liberalism  Industrial_Revolution  industrialization  international_political_economy  British_Empire  British_foreign_policy  Napoleonic_Wars  Napoleonic_Wars-impact  social_order  reform-political  reform-social  reform-finance  reform-economic  Reform_Act_1832  Parliament  parties  trade-policy  trade-theory  trade-cultural_transmission  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Anna Plassart - The Scottish Enlightenment and the French Revolution (to be released April 2015) | Ideas in Context series | Cambridge University Press
Historians of ideas have traditionally discussed the significance of the French Revolution through the prism of several major interpretations, including the commentaries of Burke, Tocqueville and Marx. This book argues that the Scottish Enlightenment offered an alternative and equally powerful interpretative framework for the Revolution, which focused on the transformation of the polite, civilised moeurs that had defined the 'modernity' analysed by Hume and Smith in the 18thC. The Scots observed what they understood as a military- and democracy-led transformation of European modern morals and concluded that the real historical significance of the Revolution lay in the transformation of warfare, national feelings and relations between states, war and commerce that characterised the post-revolutionary international order. This book recovers the Scottish philosophers' powerful discussion of the nature of post-revolutionary modernity and shows that it is essential to our understanding of 19thC political thought. **--** Part I. The Burke–Paine Debate and Scotland's Science of Man: 1. The Burke–Paine debate and the Scottish Enlightenment *-* 2. The heritage of Hume and Smith: Scotland's science of man and politics **--** Part II. The 1790s: 3. Scotland's political debate *-* 4. James Mackintosh and Scottish philosophical history *-* 5. John Millar and the Scottish discussion on war, modern sociability and national sentiment *-* 6. Adam Ferguson on democracy and empire **--** Part III. 1802–15: 7. The French Revolution and the Edinburgh Review *-* 8. Commerce, war and empire
books  find  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_economy  18thC  19thC  British_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Revolution  Smith  Hume  Hume-politics  civil_society  civilizing_process  commerce  commerce-doux  science_of_man  social_sciences  IR_theory  French_Revolutionary_Wars  Napoleonic_Wars  nationalism  national_ID  historiography-18thC  historiography-Whig  military  Military_Revolution  mass_culture  levée_en_masse  conscription  sociability  social_order  empires  empire-and_business  imperialism  Great_Powers  balance_of_power  philosophy_of_history  progress  social_theory  change-social  change-economic  Burke  Paine  Mackintosh_James  Millar_John  Edinburgh_Review  British_Empire  British_foreign_policy  Scottish_politics  1790s  1800s  1810s  international_political_economy  international_system  international_law  democracy  morality-conventional  norms  global_economy  mercantilism 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
François Jarrige, « E. P. Thompson, une vie de combat » | La Vie des idées, 6 janvier 2015
Grand historien de la classe ouvrière anglaise, figure intellectuelle majeure des débats sur le marxisme dans les années 1960-1970, militant antinucléaire à l’origine d’une critique écologiste du capitalisme : tels furent les visages multiples d’Edward Palmer Thompson, dont l’œuvre continue d’imprégner en profondeur l’ensemble des sciences sociales. -- the French are (re)discovering Thompson and his particular version of a Marxian approach that was highly allergic to Theory. -- extensive footnotes -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  books  historians  historians-and-politics  historiography  historiography-postWWII  20thC  social_history  Europe-Early_Modern  British_history  British_politics  18thC  19thC  working_class  Thompson_EP  moral_economy  morality-conventional  norms  Industrial_Revolution  Marxist  social_theory  social_sciences  political_philosophy  Marxism  industrialization  Whigs-oligarchy  property_rights  capitalism  capitalism-systemic_crisis  environment  sustainability  downloaded 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Jocelyn Pixley, G.C. Harcourt eds. - Financial crises and the nature of capitalist money: Mutual developments from the work of Geoffrey Ingham (2013) | Palgrave Macmillan
This volume is a debate about a sociology and economics of money: a form of positive trespassing (..) written by scholars of both disciplines (..) starting from the original groundwork laid by Geoffrey Ingham. The contributors look critically at money's institutions and the meanings and history of money-creation and show the cross cutting purposes or incommensurable sides of money and its crises. (...) since money is a promise, understanding this social relation must be a joint though plural task between economics and sociology at the very least. **--** Preface; R. Swedeberg *-* 1. Introduction to Positive Trespassing'; J. F. Pixley and G. C. Harcourt *-* 2. Requirements of a Philosophy of Money and Finance; J. Smithin *-* 3. Ingham and Keynes on the Nature of Money; M. Hayes *-* 4. Money: Instrument of Exchange or Social Institution of Value? A. Orlean and C. Goodhart *-* 5. A New Meme for Money, R. Wray *-* 6. Monetary Surrogates and Money's Dual Nature; D. Woodruff *-* 7. Reforming Money to Exit the Crisis: Examples of Non-capitalist Monetary Systems in Theory and Practice; L. Fantacci *-* 8. The Current Banking Crisis in the UK: an Evolutionary View; V. Chick *-* 9. Money and the State; M. Sawyer *-* 10. The Real (Social) Experience of Monetary Policy; S. Dow *-* 11. Economic Policies of the New Consensus Macroeconomics: A Critical Appraisal; P. Arestis *-* 12. A Socio-economic Systems Model of the 2007+ Global Financial Crisis; T.R. Burns, A. Martinelli and P. Deville *-* 13. Credit Money, Fiat Money and Currency Pyramids: Critical Reflections on the Financial Crisis and Sovereign Debt, B. Jessop *-* 14. Geoffrey Ingham's Theory, Money's Conflicts and Social Change; J. Pixley *-* 15. Reflections on the Two Disciplines' Mutual Work; G. Ingham
books  social_theory  economic_theory  social_sciences  disciplines  money  economic_sociology  economic_culture  macroeconomics  financial_economics  financial_system  banking  financial_crisis  sovereign_debt  monetary_theory  money-Cartelist  money_supply  monetarism  monetary_policy  central_banks  financial_innovation 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Angelica Nuzzo - The Social Dimension of Dialectical Truth: Hegel’s Idea of Objective Spirit « Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 2 (8): 10-25 (2013
Graduate Center and Brooklyn College, CUNY -- Special Issue 2: On the Future Direction of Social Epistemology -- In this essay I argue for the claim that Hegel’s dialectical idea of truth, which is articulated in its pure forms in the Logic as the process of comprehension of partial positions of truth in an ultimate systematic unity, is socially and historically constituted within the structures of what Hegel calls “spirit.” I start by bringing to the fore those controversial issues of the Goldman-Fuller debate on which Hegel has important suggestions to make. In placing Hegel within this debate, my claim is that his theory offers a ‘third way’ of shaping a social epistemology developed on the basis of a dialectic-speculative logic and such as having the notion of spirit at the center. What Hegel has to offer to us is a “dialectical” social epistemology where truth is indeed the fundamental aim of science and yet it is a historical and collective construction of spirit. I examine the access to and the elaboration of truth and knowledge proper, respectively, to subjective and objective spirit: the psychological, individual dimension of subjective spirit, and the social and institutional context of objective spirit. I argue that the dimension of objective spirit is the mediating center that organizes and gives “reality” to all the forms of spirit’s knowledge. I conclude by briefly discussing the role that Bildung plays in shaping and articulating the institutions of knowledge and the activity of science within the social sphere. -- downloaded pdf to Note
social_theory  epistemology  epistemology-social  analytical_philosophy  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science  logic  logic-Hegelian  Hegel  constructivism  dialectic-historical  dialectic  bildung  institutions  social_sciences  Absolute  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Sanford C. Goldberg -“Analytic Social Epistemology” and the Epistemic Significance of Other Minds « Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective, 2 (8): 26-48 (2013)
Sanford C. Goldberg, Northwestern University -- Special Issue 2: On the Future Direction of Social Epistemology. -- In this paper I develop a rationale for pursuing a distinctly “social” epistemology, according to which social epistemology is the systematic study of the epistemic significance of other minds. After articulating what I have in mind with this expression, I argue that the resulting rationale informs work presently being done in the emerging tradition of “Analytic Social Epistemology” (ASE). I go on to diagnose Steve Fuller’s (2012) dismissal of ASE (as “retrograde”) as reflecting a rather deep — and, to date, deeply uncharitable — misunderstanding of the aims and rationale of this emerging tradition. Far from being retrograde, the best of the work in the emerging ASE tradition provides a nice compliment to the best of the social epistemology work in the social science tradition. The key to seeing this point is twofold: we need to recognize the normative orientation of (much of) the work in ASE; and, perhaps more importantly, we need to appreciate the difference between how Fuller (2012) understands the normativity of social epistemology, and how this is understood by theorists within the ASE tradition. I conclude with what I hope will be some constructive suggestions on this score. -- downloaded pdf to Note
analytical_philosophy  social_theory  epistemology  epistemology-social  philosophy_of_language  mind  mind-theory_of  normativity  hygiene-mental  sociology_of_knowledge  social_sciences  philosophy_of_science  social_psychology  social_process  power-knowledge  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
ECONOMICS AS SOCIAL THEORY - Routledge Series edited by Tony Lawson - Titles List
Social theory is experiencing something of a revival within economics. Critical analyses of the particular nature of the subject matter of social studies and of the types of method, categories and modes of explanation that can legitimately be endorsed for the scientific study of social objects, are re-emerging. Economists are again addressing such issues as the relationship between agency and structure, between the economy and the rest of society, and between inquirer and the object of inquiry. There is renewed interest in elaborating basic categories such as causation, competition, culture, discrimination,evolution, money, need, order, organisation, power, probability, process, rationality, technology, time, truth, uncertainty and value, etc. The objective for this series is to facilitate this revival further. In contemporary economics the label `theory' has been appropriated by a group that confines itself to largely a-social, a-historical, mathematical `modelling'. Economics as Social Theory thus reclaims the `theory' label, offering a platform for alternative, rigorous, but broader and more critical conceptions of theorising.
books  social_theory  economic_theory  social_sciences  intellectual_history  political_economy  causation-social  economic_sociology  economic_culture  rationality-economics  rational_choice  rationality-bounded  rational_expectations  critical_realism  evolution-social  history_of_science  historical_sociology  agency-structure  power  power-asymmetric  business-and-politics  capitalism  capital_as_power  Marxist  Post-Keynesian  epistemology  epistemology-social  conventions  social_order  civil_society  public_policy  public_goods  anarchism  competition  financialization  development  economic_growth 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Gary A. Dymski, Jesus Hernandez, and Lisa Mohanty - Race, Power, and the Subprime/Foreclosure Crisis: A Mesoanalysis - Working Paper No. 669 | Levy Economics Institute - May 2011
Economists’ principal explanations of the subprime crisis differ from those developed by noneconomists in that the latter see it as rooted in the US legacy of racial/ethnic inequality, and especially in racial residential segregation, whereas the former ignore race. This paper traces this disjuncture to two sources. What is missing in the social science view is any attention to the market mechanisms involved in subprime lending; and economists, on their side, have drawn too tight a boundary for “the economic,” focusing on market mechanisms per se,to the exclusion of the households and community whose resources and outcomes these mechanisms affect. Economists’ extensive empirical studies of racial redlining and discrimination in credit markets have, ironically, had the effect of making race analytically invisible. Because of these explanatory lacunae, two defining aspects of the subprime crisis have not been well explained. First, why were borrowers that had previously been excluded from equal access to mortgage credit instead super included in subprime lending? Second, why didn’t the flood of mortgage brokers that accompanied the 2000s housing boom reduce the proportion of minority borrowers who were burdened with costly and ultimately unpayable mortgages? This paper develops a mesoanalysis to answer the first of these questions. This analysis traces the coevolution of banking strategies and client communities, shaped by and reinforcing patterns of racial/ethnic inequality. The second question is answered by showing how unequal power relations impacted patterns of subprime lending. Consequences for gender inequality in credit markets are also briefly discussed. -- Associated Program: Monetary Policy and Financial Structure -- Related Topic(s): Discrimination Ethnicity Foreclosures Mesoanalysis Race Redlining Subprime mortgage crisis -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  US_economy  Great_Recession  financial_crisis  bubbles  housing  securitization  banking  shadow_banking  racism  inequality  power-asymmetric  discrimination  ethnic_ID  redlining  financial_economics  social_sciences  interdisciplinarity  financial_access  downloaded 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Vincent Dubois - Les champs de l'action publique (2010) in Hilgers (M.), dir., Utiliser la théorie des champs pour comprendre le monde social
L'analyse des politiques publiques a forgé ses propres notions pour décrire les espaces relationnels dans lesquels les politiques sont conduites. La sociologie des champs demeure en revanche très peu mobilisée dans ce domaine. Elle peut pourtant s'avérer utile pour objectiver l'espace de production des politiques, reconstituer les relations entre cet espace spécifique et ceux auxquels les politiques sont destinées ou, plus largement, ceux qui prennent part aux échanges qui les constituent. Elle offre ce faisant un point d'appui décisif pour la sociologie de l'action publique. -- Politique, Religion, Institutions et Sociétés : Mutations Européennes - Groupe de Sociologie Politique Européenne (PRISME-GSPE) CNRS : UMR7012 – Université de Strasbourg -- Mots-Clés : Politique publique – sociologie des champs – champs – action publique – rapports – domination – légitimation -- site archives HAL-SHS :: [halshs-00498020, version 1] -- downloaded pdf to Note
social_theory  social_sciences  public_policy  sociology_of_fields  public_sphere  legitimacy  domination  political_science  downloaded 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Ansar, Flyvbjerg, Budzier, Lunn - Should We Build More Large Dams? The Actual Costs of Hydropower Megaproject Development (Energy Policy, March 2014, pp.1-14.) :: SSRN
Atif Ansar - University of Oxford - Blavatnik School of Government -- Bent Flyvbjerg - University of Oxford - Said Business School -- Alexander Budzier - University of Oxford - Saïd Business School.-- Daniel Lunn - University of Oxford - Department of Statistics *--* A brisk building boom of hydropower mega-dams is underway from China to Brazil. Whether benefits of new dams will outweigh costs remains unresolved despite contentious debates. We investigate this question with the “outside view” or “reference class forecasting” based on literature on decision-making under uncertainty in psychology. We find overwhelming evidence that budgets are systematically biased below actual costs of large hydropower dams — excluding inflation, substantial debt servicing, environmental, and social costs. Using the largest and most reliable reference data of its kind and multilevel statistical techniques applied to large dams for the first time, we were successful in fitting parsimonious models to predict cost and schedule overruns. The outside view suggests that in most countries large hydropower dams will be too costly in absolute terms and take too long to build to deliver a positive risk-adjusted return unless suitable risk management measures outlined in this paper can be affordably provided. Policymakers, particularly in developing countries, are advised to prefer agile energy alternatives that can be built over shorter time horizons to energy megaprojects. - Number of Pages in PDF File: 14 - Keywords: Large hydropower dams, Schedule & cost estimates, Cost benefit forecasting, Reference class forecasting, Outside -- didn't download
article  SSRN  development  energy  IFIs  business-and-politics  statistics  social_sciences  methodology-quantitative  decision_theory  international_finance  institutional_economics  business-forecasts 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Togy Mundy re Amazon pricing fight - THE PRICE OF BOOKS, THE VALUE OF CIVILIZATION | Pandaemonium
Was head of Atlantic Books -- What has got cheaper in that period is information, which has been subjected during the digital revolution to massive deflationary forces. It is now wonderfully easy to find things out. Another by-product, however, is that book pricing (and especially e-book pricing) has been enveloped by this economy of information. To price a book in the way information is priced is based on a rather one-eyed view of its value. As any textbook author will tell you, information is undoubtedly part of a book’s utility. But that is only part of the story. A second purpose is to provide readers with transporting experiences, usually from reading fiction, which enable us to glimpse oursevles in ‘the other’. (The French philosopher Paul Ricoeur said of this: ‘As a reader, I find myself only my losing myself’.)The third thing a book does is impart current knowledge. When TS Eliot asked plaintively in The Rock, ‘Where is the knowledge we have lost in information?’, he was reminding us that these two things are not the same. Knowledge comes from the interpretation of information, experience and facts. It comes from the stories we tell about those things. Perhaps it is the capacity to create these stories that make us human. Generally speaking, ‘Experiences’ and ‘Knowledge’ have also increased in price over the years, yet publishers have been very slow to reflect that in the prices of their physical books, especially their paperbacks. (Since 1994, consumer prices in the UK have risen by around 105%, whereas the price of a paperback novel seems to have increased by around 15%.) Publishers have been slower still to argue that books are a different class of object, and that they should not be priced (or perhaps given away) like information.
21stC  cultural_critique  books  publishing  information-markets  information  humanities  social_sciences  fiction  political_economy 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Nancy Cartwright - Evidence Where Rigor Matters.pdf
LSE collection of her work, most from her involvement with Templeton project "God's Law, Nature's Laws, Man's Laws" She had a director role and focused on "man" area. She's especially interested in t...
philosophy_of_science  evidence  epistemology  RCTs  statistics  probability  social_sciences  methodology  downloaded  EF-add  from notes
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - The Decline of Natural Right [chapter] (2009) :: SSRN in THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF NINETEENTH CENTURY PHILOSOPHY, Allen Wood and Songsuk Susan Hahn, eds., Cambridge University Press
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 09-38 -- What happened to the doctrine of natural right in the 19thC? We know that it flourished in the 17thC and 18thC. We know that something like it - the doctrine of human rights and new forms of social contract theory - flourished again in the second half of the 20thC and continues to flourish in the 21stC. In between there was a period of decline and hibernation - ... in which to invoke natural right was always to invite intellectual ridicule and accusations of political irresponsibility. Thus article asks: How far can the decline of natural right in the 19thC be attributed to the reaction against the revolution in France? How far it was the effect of independent streams of thought, like positivism and historicism? Why was radical thought so ambivalent about natural right throughout the 19thC, and why was socialist thought in particular inclined to turn its back on it? As a framework for thought, natural right suffered a radical decline in the social and political sciences. But things were not so clear in jurisprudence, and natural right lived on to a much riper old age in the writings of some prominent economists. What is it about this theory that allowed it to survive in these environments, when so much of the rest of intellectual endeavor in the 19thC was toxic or inhospitable to it. Finally, I shall ask how far American thought represents an exception to all of this. Why and to what extent did the doctrine survive as a way of thinking in the United States, long after it had lost its credibility elsewhere. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  SSRN  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  philosophy_of_law  philosophy_of_social_science  natural_law  natural_rights  human_rights  counter-revolution  historicism  positivism  legal_theory  nationalism  national_interest  conservatism  socialism  social_contract  relativism  revolutions  1848_revolutions  French_Revolution  anticlerical  Bentham  Burke  Hume  Jefferson  Kant  Locke  Marx  Mill  Savigny  Spencer_Herbert  George_Henry  US_society  American_exceptionalism  liberalism  social_theory  social_sciences  Social_Darwinism  social_order  mass_culture  political_participation  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - Isaiah Berlin's Neglect of Enlightenment Constitutionalism (2014) :: SSRN
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 14-12 -- One of the most important achievements of the Enlightenment is what I shall call Enlightenment constitutionalism. It transformed our political thinking out of all recognition; it left, as its legacy, not just the repudiation of monarchy and nobility in France in the 1790s but the unprecedented achievement of the framing, ratification, and establishment of the Constitution of the United States. It comprised the work of Diderot, Kant, Locke, Madison, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Sieyes, and Voltaire. It established the idea of a constitution as an intricate mechanism designed to house the untidiness and pluralism of human politics. Yet Isaiah Berlin, supposedly one of our greatest interpreters of the Enlightenment, said almost nothing about it. The paper develops this claim and it speculates as to why this might be so. Certainly one result of Berlin's sidelining of Enlightenment constitutionalism is to lend spurious credibility to his well-known claim that Enlightenment social design was perfectionist, monastic, and potentially totalitarian. By ignoring Enlightenment constitutionalism, Berlin implicitly directed us away from precisely the body of work that might have refuted this view of Enlightenment social design. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  intellectual_history  18thC  political_philosophy  political_culture  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  British_history  British_politics  English_constitution  French_Enlightenment  American_colonies  American_Revolution  French_Revolution  Enlightenment_Project  Berlin_Isaiah  rationalist  perfectibility  progress  Montesquieu  Founders  Madison  US_constitution  bill_of_rights  Glorious_Revolution  constitutionalism  government-forms  Sieyes  separation-of-powers  checks-and-balances  Absolutism  institutions  institutional_change  representative_institutions  tyranny  limited_monarchy  limited_government  rule_of_law  Diderot  Voltaire  Locke-2_Treatises  Kant  historical_sociology  social_sciences  social_process  pluralism  conflict  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Legal Realisms, Old and New :: SSRN (2012 Seegers Lecture in Jurisprudence) - Forthcoming in Valparaiso Law Review (2013)
“Legal Realism” now has sufficient cache that scholars from many different fields and countries compete to claim the mantle of the "Realist program": from political scientists who study judicial behavior, to the "law and society" scholars associated with the Wisconsin New Legal Realism project, to philosophers interested in a naturalized jurisprudence. But what does it mean to be a “legal realist”? What unites the two most famous “old” Legal Realisms — the American and the Scandinavian — with the “new legal realism” invoked, variously, by sociologists, anthropologists, and political scientists, among others? -- I argue that (1) American and Scandinavian Realism have almost nothing in common — indeed, that H.L.A. Hart misunderstood the latter as he did the former, and that the Scandinavians are closer to Hart and even Kelsen than they are to the Americans; (2) all Realists share skepticism about the causal efficacy of legal doctrine in explaining judicial decisions ("the Skeptical Doctrine") (though the Scandinavian skepticism on this score is not at all specific to the legal domain, encompassing all explanation in terms of norms); (3) American Realism almost entirely eschewed social-scientific methods in its defense of the Skeptical Doctrine, contrary to the impression given by much recent work by "new" legal realists; (4) the myth that the American Realists were seriously interested in social science derives mainly from two unrepresentative examples, Underhill Moore's behaviorism and Llewellyn's work with the Cheyenne Indians. -- Keywords: American legal realism, Scandinavian legal realism, Karl Llewellyn, Axel Hagerstrom, Alf Ross, naturalism, H.L.A. Hart, Hans Kelsen, judicial behavior
article  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  social_theory  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  legal_theory  legal_realism  social_sciences  anthropology  sociology_of_law  normativity  norms  causation  causation-social  positivism-legal  naturalism  social_process  judiciary  behavioralism  Hart  Kelsen  US_legal_system  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Comte Destutt de Tracy - Commentaire sur l’Esprit des Lois de Montesquieu [1817] - Online Library of Liberty
Antoine Louis Claude, Comte Destutt de Tracy, Commentaire sur l’Esprit des Lois de Montesquieu; Édition entièrement conforme à celle publiée à Liége en 1817 (Paris: Delaunay, 1819). 07/16/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/968> -- A French version of Destutt de Tracy’s extended commentary on Montesquieu which so impressed Jefferson that he translated it himself. (English translation available on Liberty Fund site) -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  18thC  19thC  intellectual_history  France  social_theory  social_sciences  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  government-forms  Montesquieu  liberalism  Restoration-France  political_press  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Liberty Matters Forum: Tocqueville’s New Science of Politics Revisited (May 2014) - Online Library of Liberty
Aurelian Craiutu argues that Tocqueville was not just an observer of democracy in America but also a theorist of democracy who wanted to create “a new science of politics” suitable to the new world which was beginning to take shape at that time. Craiutu points out four dimensions of Tocqueville’s new science of politics that might help us better understand his thinking. The first is that Tocqueville’s new science of politics is fundamentally cross-disciplinary, at the intersection of political science, sociology, anthropology, history, and philosophy. He then goes on to discuss the other dimensions such as its comparative, normative, and political dimensions. He concludes that his works must therefore be seen as belonging to a larger French tradition of political engagement and political rhetoric in which the writer enters into a subtle and complex pedagogical relationship with his audience, seeking to convince and inspire his readers to political action. This thesis is discussed by Daniel J. Mahoney of Assumption College, Filippo Sabetti of McGill University, and Jeremy R. Jennings of King’s College London. -- downloaded ebook to Note
etexts  18thC  19thC  intellectual_history  France  social_theory  social_sciences  political_philosophy  political_culture  liberalism  republicanism  human_nature  political_science  rhetoric-writing  rhetoric-political  audience  comparative_history  historical_sociology  US_society  US_politics  social_order  historical_change  Tocqueville  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria, An Essay on Crimes and Punishments... With a Commentary by M. de Voltaire - Online Library of Liberty
Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria, An Essay on Crimes and Punishments. By the Marquis Beccaria of Milan. With a Commentary by M. de Voltaire. A New Edition Corrected. (Albany: W.C. Little & Co., 1872). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2193> -- An extremely influential Enlightenment treatise on legal reform in which Beccaria advocates the ending of torture and the death penalty. The book also contains a lengthy commentary by Voltaire which is an indication of high highly French enlightened thinkers regarded the work.
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Beccaria  Voltaire  crime  criminal_justice  punishment  torture  capital_punishment  treason  heresy  tolerance  authority  church_courts  legal_history  legal_system  Absolutism  authoritarian  tyranny  reform-political  reform-legal  social_sciences  social_order  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
John Millar, The Origin of the Distinction of Ranks [1771], ed. Aaron Garrett - Online Library of Liberty
John Millar, The Origin of the Distinction of Ranks; or, An Inquiry into the Circumstances which give rise to Influence and Authority in the Different Members of Society, edited and with an Introduction by Aaron Garrett (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2006). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/287> -- The Origin of the Distinction of Ranks is one of the major products of the Scottish Enlightenment and a masterpiece of jurisprudence and social theory. Millar developed a progressive account of the nature of authority in society by analyzing changes in subsistence, agriculture, arts, and manufacture. The book is perhaps the most precise and compact development of the abiding themes of the liberal wing of the Scottish Enlightenment. Drawing on Smith’s four-stages theory of history and the natural law’s traditional division of domestic duties into those toward servants, children, and women, Millar provides a rich historical analysis of the ways in which progressive economic change transforms the nature of authority. In particular, he argues that, with the progress of arts and manufacture, authority tends to become less violent and concentrated, and ranks tend to diversify. Millar’s analysis of this historical progress is nuanced and sophisticated; for example, his discussion of servants is perhaps the best developed of the “economic” arguments against slavery. -- 1st edition 1771 - he published 2 more in his lifetime, the latest edition being more "scientific", e.g. removing some references that were less reliable, more speculative, or not in keeping with a more sober tone -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  stadial_theories  social_order  social_sciences  social_process  change-social  political_economy  art_history  literary_history  civilizing_process  civil_society  family  authority  hierarchy  commerce  industry  trade  progress  slavery  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Roscoe Pound, The Ideal Element in Law [1948], ed. Stephen Presser - Online Library of Liberty
Roscoe Pound, The Ideal Element in Law, ed. Stephen Presser (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund 2002). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/671> Roscoe Pound, former dean of Harvard Law School, delivered a series of lectures at the University of Calcutta in 1948. In these lectures, he criticized virtually every modern mode of interpreting the law because he believed the administration of justice had lost its grounding and recourse to enduring ideals. Now published in the U.S. for the first time, Pound’s lectures are collected in Liberty Fund’s The Ideal Element in Law, Pound’s most important contribution to the relationship between law and liberty. The Ideal Element in Law was a radical book for its time and is just as meaningful today as when Pound’s lectures were first delivered. Pound’s view of the welfare state as a means of expanding government power over the individual speaks to the front-page issues of the new millennium as clearly as it did to America in the mid-twentieth century. Pound argues that the theme of justice grounded in enduring ideals is critical for America. He views American courts as relying on sociological theories, political ends, or other objectives, and in so doing, divorcing the practice of law from the rule of law and the rule of law from the enduring ideal of law itself. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  intellectual_history  legal_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  social_theory  legal_theory  legal_system  legal_culture  legal_realism  US_legal_system  judiciary  sociology  social_history  social_sciences  liberty  liberalism  welfare_state  historicism  civil_liberties  civil_society  modernity  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Issue devoted to 50th Anniversary of Robert Heilbroner's "The Worldly Philosophers" | JSTOR: Social Research, Vol. 71, No. 2, SUMMER 2004
Quite a roundup of contributors -- From Solow on methodology to Haack on philosophy of science and epistemology, Warren Samuels, Jamie Galbraith, and several papers on intellectual_history, including parallels with Polanyi
journal  jstor  intellectual_history  20thC  economic_history  economic_theory  economic_culture  capitalism  macroeconomics  social_sciences  epistemology  rationality-economics  institutional_economics  social_contract  markets  post-WWII  post-Cold_War  bibliography  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert Prus - Reconceptualizing the Study of Community Life: Emile Durkheim's "Pragmatism and Sociology" | JSTOR: The American Sociologist, Vol. 40, No. 1/2 (March-June 2009), pp. 106-146
Emile Durkheim may be best known as a structuralist and an empiricist of a distinctively quantitative sort, but a comparatively neglected set of lectures on pragmatism presented by Durkheim just prior to his death suggests that this characterization is only partially justified. Interestingly, whereas Durkheim is critical of pragmatism in some very consequential respects, he not only uses pragmatism to indicate the major shortcomings of rationalist and empiricist approaches to the study of human group life but he also builds on pragmatism as an instructive resource in developing his own thoughts on human knowing and acting. These lectures may help scholars appreciate some of the more enduring tensions in Durkheim's scholarship, but they also reveal some of the inadequacies of contemporary "sociological theory" with respect to both depictions of the scholarship of Emile Durkheim and the more fundamental study of human knowing and acting. -- interesting bibliography for intellectual_history -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  social_theory  19thC  20thC  France  Durkheim  epistemology  pragmatism  rationalist  empiricism  social_sciences  action-social  community  quantitative_methods  structuralist  Dewey  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Andrew Cole, The Birth of Theory (pub date June 21 2014) eBook: : Amazon.com
Modern theory needs a history lesson. Neither Marx nor Nietzsche first gave us theory—Hegel did. Andrew Cole presents a refreshingly clear and lively account of the origins and legacy of Hegel’s dialectic as theory. Cole explains how Hegel boldly broke from modern philosophy when he adopted medieval dialectical habits of thought to fashion his own dialectic. While his contemporaries rejected premodern dialectic as outdated dogma, Hegel embraced both its emphasis on language as thought and its fascination with the categories of identity and difference, creating what we now recognize as theory, distinct from systematic philosophy. Hegel also used this dialectic to expose the persistent archaism of modern life itself, establishing a method of social analysis that has influenced everyone from Marx and the nineteenth-century Hegelians, to Nietzsche and Bakhtin, all the way to Deleuze and Jameson. By uncovering these theoretical filiations across time, Cole will not only change the way we read Hegel, but also the way we think about the histories of theory. ... chapters that powerfully reanimate the overly familiar topics of ideology, commodity fetishism, and political economy, ...a groundbreaking reinterpretation of master/slave dialectic, ...places the disciplines of philosophy, literature, and history in conversation with one another. Daring to reconcile the sworn enemies of Hegelianism and Deleuzianism, this timely book will revitalize dialectics for the 21stC.
books  kindle-available  buy  intellectual_history  revisionism  medieval_philosophy  19thC  Hegel  dialectic  philosophy_of_language  difference  identity  20thC  theory  postmodern  Hegelian  Hegelians-French  social_theory  social_sciences  Nietzsche  Bakhtin  Deleuze  literary_theory  literary_history  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Branko Milanovic - globalinequality: Limits of neoclassical economics - June 2014
Great summary of the obvious that unfortunately needs to be said -- When people criticize Piketty for elevating a mere economic identity... to a Fundamental Law of Capitalism they show their inability to go back to economics as a social science [and] transcend neoclassical economics. The share of capital income in total income is not only a reflection of the fact that people with a factor of production B have so much, and people with the factor of production A have the rest.. We are basically saying: 20% of people ..claim 1/2 of national output and they do so without having to work. If it were a question of changing the distribution in favor of factor A (donuts) and against factor B (pecan pies), there would be no reason to be concerned. But here you change the distribution in favor of those who do not need to work, and against those that do. You thereby affect the entire social structure of society. This is where social science comes in, and neoclassical economics goes away. The entire 100 years of neoclassical economics [has made us] us forget this key distinction: between having or not having to work for a living. Hence neoclassicists like to treat capital (and labor) as basically the same thing: factors of production: a donut and a pecan pie...Thence also the attempt to treat labor as human capital. We are all capitalists now: a guy who works at Walmart for less than the minimum wage is a capitalist since he is using his human capital; a broker who makes a million in a day is also a capitalist, he just works with a different type of capital.The true social reality was thus entirely hidden. [Picketty returns us to] social science and you ask yourself questions like, would a society where 20% of non-workers earn 70% of total income be okay? What are the values that such a society would promote? (..more political, moral philosophy Qs)
Piketty  19thC  20thC  21stC  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  social_theory  social_sciences  political_economy  social_order  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  economic_history  economic_theory  macroeconomics  neoclassical_economics  classical_economics  Marx  inequality  distribution-income  capitalism  capital  labor  human_capital  markets_in_everything  class_conflict  economic_culture  political_culture  economic_sociology  bad_economics  memory-group 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Kenan Malik's 2009 Voltaire lecture on 'The Guilt of Science?: Race, Science and Darwinism'
By the end of the eighteenth century, then, scientists had constructed a taxonomy of nature into which humans could be fitted and out of which emerged the categories of race. This seems to lend credibility to the view that it is modernity itself, and in particular the Enlightenment, that give rise both to the idea of race and to the practice of racism. ‘Eighteenth century Europe was the cradle of racism’, the historian George Mosse, argues because ‘racism has its foundations’ in the Enlightenment ‘preoccupation with a rational universe, nature and aesthetics.’ To see why this is not the case, we need to look more closely at how Enlightenment thinkers viewed the concept of human differences. -- If any event could demonstrate the folly of giving into unreason, it is surely Nazism and the Holocaust. Yet now it is regarded as an expression of too much reason.There is no intrinsic link between the idea of race and a rational or scientific view of the world. On the contrary: what made ideas of race plausible were the growth of political sentiments hostile to both the rationalism and the humanism of the Enlightenment.
intellectual_history  cultural_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  racialism  species  biology  evolutionary_biology  Enlightenment  Counter-Enlightenment  Enlightenment_Project  humanism  anti-humanism  reason  Nazis  Holocaust  imperialism  slavery  civilizing_process  human_nature  diversity  historiography-18thC  social_theory  Social_Darwinism  Herder  Linnaeus  Locke  essentialism  essence  climate  stadial_theories  Romanticism  social_order  progress  atheism_panic  authority  class_conflict  bourgeoisie  liberalism  capitalism  equality  stratification  scientism  science_of_man  science-and-religion  positivism  social_sciences  France  Britain  British_Empire  Germany  Great_Powers  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Keith Topper - In Defense of Disunity: Pragmatism, Hermeneutics, and the Social Sciences | JSTOR: Political Theory, Vol. 28, No. 4 (Aug., 2000), pp. 509-539
Opposes Rorty claim of unity of method of inquiry for both natural and social sciences, though Rorty also advocated diversity of objectives. Topper sees pragmatism and hermeneutics as congenial approaches for social sciences -- didn't download
article  jstor  social_theory  social_sciences  methodology  pragmatism  hermeneutics  bibliography  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Leslie Paul Thiele, review essay - Common Sense, Judgment, and the Limits of Political Theory | JSTOR: Political Theory, Vol. 28, No. 4 (Aug., 2000), pp. 565-588
Reviewed work(s): (1) A Third Concept of Liberty: Judgment and Freedom in Kant and Adam Smith by Samuel Fleischacker; *--* (2) Philosophy in a Time of Lost Spirit: Essays on Contemporary Theory by Ronald Beiner; *--* (3) The Orders of Discourse: Philosophy, Social Science, and Politics by John G. Gunnell; *--* (4) Speech and Political Practice: Recovering the Place of Human Responsibility by Murray Jardine; *--* (5) The Claims of Common Sense: Moore, Wittgenstein, Keynes and the Social Sciences by John Coates; *--* (6) Human Judgment and Social Policy: Irreducible Uncertainty, Inevitable Error, Unavoidable Injustice by Kenneth R. Hammond
books  reviews  article  jstor  political_philosophy  social_theory  critical_theory  social_sciences  intellectual_history  18thC  20thC  social_sciences-post-WWII  postmodern  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Patrik Aspers - Nietzsche's Sociology | JSTOR: Sociological Forum, Vol. 22, No. 4 (Dec., 2007), pp. 474-499
Downloaded pdf to Note -- large bibliography looks especially interesting re placing Nietzsche's social constructivism in context of 19thC social sciences and emerging discipline of sociology especially in Germany. -- The aim of this article is to present that part of Friedrich Nietzsche's work that is of special interest to sociologists. To do this, I discuss the relationship between Nietzsche's work and the sociology both of today and of his own time. The most important idea is that he saw reality as a social construction. The idea of social construction is related to the beliefs and values, power and interests of the actors. Nietzsche's discussions of power and of the individual vs. the collective are also analyzed.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  social_theory  social_sciences  19thC  Germany  Nietzsche  sociology  Weber  constructivism  belief  values  power  individualism  subject  civil_society  community  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Johan van der Zande - Statistik and History in the German Enlightenment | JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 71, No. 3 (July 2010), pp. 411-432
Not statistics but the collection and study of information about the states of Europe - connected to cameralism and focus on political economy rather than military -though clearly how to survive and thrive as an independent state in the European system a major impetus. Van der Zande uses analogy of Venetian ambassadors. Gets launched in a big way in 1750s and has ceased to be a separate important discipline by the early 19thC, the apparent victim of Germany's historical age. Interesting view of motives, academic and bureaucratic resources German states within and without the HRE, the European system, alternative philosophies of human nature, happiness, commerce and the roles of the state. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  18thC  Germany  Enlightenment  Austria  historiography-18thC  political_arithmetick  governance  enlightened_absolutism  cameralism  commerce  agriculture  trade  manufacturing  trading_companies  taxes  social_sciences  nation-state  bureaucracy  public_health  demography  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
John G. Gunnell - Dislocated Rhetoric: The Anomaly of Political Theory | JSTOR: The Journal of Politics, Vol. 68, No. 4 (Nov., 2006), pp. 771-782
Although the estranged relationship between mainstream political science and much of the subfield of political theory has been properly attributed to developments during the last half of the twentieth century, the roots of this alienation are historically deeper. Many of the conversations of political theory are the progeny of a discursive form that attended the birth of modern social science. This genre was a legitimating rhetoric situated in the interstices of social science, philosophy, and politics. The study of the history of political thought originated as such a rhetoric, and it constitutes a paradigm case for examining the extent to which such a discourse can be transformed into a practice of knowledge. This field has succeeded to a greater extent than certain other elements of political theory which, transfixed by the tension between their practical aspirations and academic context, have become anomalous appendages to the social scientific study of politics. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_history  social_sciences  political_science  rhetoric-political  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  philosophy_of_social_science  philosophy_of_science  disciplines  discourse-political_theory  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Stephen G. Salkever - "Cool Reflexion" and the Criticism of Values: Is, Ought, and Objectivity in Hume's Social Science | JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 74, No. 1 (Mar., 1980), pp. 70-77
Is the fact/value distinction incompatible with the possibility of a social science which is both objective and evaluative (or normative)? Does support of the latter require rejection of the former and vice versa? This article presents an indirect argument against the incompatibility of the fact/value distinction and an objectively evaluative social science. My procedure is to show that David Hume, whose is/ought distinction is the locus classicus of the fact/value distinction, is committed both to the view that values cannot be derived from facts and to the view that social science is not (and should not be) value-neutral. Furthermore, Hume's position is free from any logical laws. My conclusion is that it is false to say that the fact/value distinction entails a value-neutral social science, and that it is therefore utterly unnecessary for critics of such a science to waste their time attempting to @'bridge the gap@' between facts and values -- didn't download
article  jstor  metaethics  fact-value  intellectual_history  18thC  Hume-ethics  science_of_man  epistemology  moral_philosophy  reason  social_sciences  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
TOC - Polity Forum: Institutions and Institutionalism | JSTOR: Polity, Vol. 28, No. 1, Autumn, 1995
Polity Forum: Institutions and Institutionalism - [Introduction](p. 83) *--* (1) The Common Space of Social Science Inquiry (pp. 85-90) Philip J. Ethington and Eileen L. McDonagh. *--* (2) Order and Change (pp. 91-96) Stephen Skowronek. *--* (3) Ideas and Institutions (pp. 97-101) Karen Orren. *--* (4) Why I Am an Historical Institutionalist (pp. 103-106) Theda Skocpol. *--* (5) Rational Choice and the New(?) Institutionalism (pp. 107-115) Morris Fiorina. *--* (6) The Many Lives of Institutionalism in American Social Science (pp. 117-123) Dorothy Ross. *--* (7) Institutionalism, Rational Choice, and Historical Analysis (pp. 125-128) James T. Kloppenberg. *--* (8) Institutionalism and Institutions in the Stream of History (pp. 129-133) Terrence J. McDonald. *--* (9) Ideas, Institutions, and Strategic Choice (pp. 135-140) Rogers M. Smith
journal  article  jstor  intellectual_history  philosophy_of_social_science  social_theory  social_sciences  political_science  institutions  institutional_change  institutionalization  historical_sociology  rational_choice  scientism  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
James Farr - Political Science and the Enlightenment of Enthusiasm | JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 82, No. 1 (Mar., 1988), pp. 51-69
I provide a narrative of the emergence of an expressly articulated @'political science@' in the Scottish Enlightenment. Political science was designed by Hume, Smith, and others to advance both a Newtonian method for the study of politics and a politics of moderation whose tasks included a critique of enthusiasm. In this way, poltiical science, moderation, and (anti)enthusiasm were conceptually connected. The emergence of political science, understood in this way, required a number of conceptual changes in a structure of argument shaped largely by Locke. These conceptual changes, in turn, fixed a rhetorical framework for persistent debates over the methodological and political identity of political science, even as ideology literally replaced enthusiasm. These persistent debates reveal the relevance of the history of political science as a forum for remembrance, reflection, and critique. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  history_of_science  18thC  social_theory  sociology_of_knowledge  science_of_man  social_sciences  Scottish_Enlightenment  Hume  Smith  enthusiasm  Newtonian  ideology  Locke  rhetoric-political  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
James Farr, John Gunnell, Raymond Seidelman - Can Political Science History Be Neutral? | JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 84, No. 2 (Jun., 1990), pp. 587-607
In the December 1988 issue of this Review, John Dryzek and Stephen Leonard argued the need for @'context-sensitive@' histories of the discipline of political science. In their view, disciplinary history must guide practical inquiry if it is to be most useful. The course of their argument draws the criticisms of three political scientists concerned about the history of political science--James Farr, John Gunnell, and Raymond Seidelman. Dryzek and Leonard respond to their critics and underscore their own rationale for enhanced interest in the history of the discipline. -- sociology_of_knowledge issues, early postmodern theory debates, perils of Whiggish history and sceptical Whiggism a la Scottish Enlightenment -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  historiography  intellectual_history  social_theory  social_sciences  political_science  18thC  19thC  20thC  sociology_of_knowledge  philosophy_of_social_science  ideology  disciplines  discourse  postmodern  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Geoffrey Hawthorn - Plausible Worlds: Possibility and Understanding in History and the Social Sciences (1991) - Cambridge University Press
1 - Counterfactuals, explanation and understanding: Read PDF

pp. 1-38 *--

2 - Plague and fertility in early modern Europe: Read PDF

pp. 39-80 *--

3 - The United States in South Korea: Read PDF

pp. 81-122 *--

4 - Duccio's painting: Read PDF

pp. 123-156 *--

5 - Explanation, understanding and theory: Read PDF

pp. 157-188 *--
books  historiography  counterfactuals  social_sciences 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Gary Saul Morson - Narrativeness | JSTOR: New Literary History, Vol. 34, No. 1 (Winter, 2003), pp. 59-73
Since Descartes trend for subjects of "knowledge" to claim more authoritative explanation if not narrative (including social sciences) -- counter claim that some things require narrative for understanding -- cites to Bakhtin, Tolstoy, Dostoyevsky -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  literary_history  epistemology  humanities  social_theory  social_sciences  scientism  lit_crit  natural_religion  Darwinism  narrative  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Sean Ward, review - (misc) 18thC science of man & geological history to 1750 | JSTOR: Eighteenth-Century Studies, Vol. 32, No. 4 (Summer, 1999), pp. 579-580
Reviewed work(s): (1) Inventing Human Science: Eighteenth-Century Domains by Christopher Fox; Roy Porter; Robert Wokler; (2) When Geologists were Historians, 1665-1750 by Rhoda Rappaport; (3) The Mammoth and the Mouse: Microhistory and Morphology by Florike Egmond; Peter Mason -- didn't download -- The Porter et al looks excellent. High praise for transmission and influence via the Republic of Letters for Rappaport study. Find both
books  reviews  jstor  find  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  social_sciences  medicine  physiology  psychology  political_economy  political_philosophy  geology  Biblical_criticism  Bible-as-history  Genesis  creation_ex_nilho  Buffon  Republic_of_Letters  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Josef W. Konvitz, review essay -Geography and Enlightenment | JSTOR: The American Historical Review, Vol. 105, No. 5 (Dec., 2000), p. 1794
(1) Geography and Enlightenment by David N. Livingstone; Charles W. J. Withers; (2) Geography Unbound: French Geographic Science from Cassini to Humboldt by Anne Marie Claire Godlewska -- downloaded pdf to Note -- brief 1 page but interesting comments on importance of geography through 18thC, marginalized in 19thC compared with statistics and economics (eg difference between Montesquieu and Ricardo), but important advances in cartography in 19thC
books  reviews  jstor  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  geography  social_sciences  French_Enlightenment  Germany  Humboldt  exploration  Montesquieu  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Claude Fischer - Inventing the Social Network | Boston Review Dec 2013
Nice history of how networks became a big thing in social sciences - Americans do network—as they did before they knew they were networking. Only now, thanks to the metaphor from the academic lab, we rely on considerably more technology and tutoring, and do so with far greater self-consciousness.
social_theory  sociology  anthropology  social_sciences  methodology  networks 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
David Sloan Wilson & John M. Gowdy - Evolution as a general theoretical framework for economics and public policy | Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 2013
1st lead article to special issue of same title -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Economic and evolutionary thinking have been entwined throughout their histories, but evolutionary theory does not function as a general theoretical framework for economics and public policy, as it does for the biological sciences. In this lead article for a special issue of the Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, we first describe how evolution functions as a general theoretical framework in the biological sciences. Then we consider four reasons why evolution might not need to be consulted for human-related subjects such as economics and public policy. We conclude that these reasons can be valid in particular cases, but they fail for any sizeable human-related subject area. Hence evolution can and should become a general theoretical framework for economics and public policy. The other articles in the special issue help to substantiate this claim.
paper  journal  economic_theory  economic_models  public_policy  social_theory  social_sciences  evolution-social  evolution-as-model  evo_psych  institutions  institutional_economics  organizations  evolutionary_biology  biocultural_evolution  downloaded  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
“Evolution as a General Theoretical Framework for Economics and Public Policy” - Special Issue | Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization | The Evolution Institute 2013
Special issue editors: David Sloan Wilson, John M. Gowdy, J. Barkley Rosser -- This supplementary issue of the Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization is based on a collaborative project between the Evolution Institute and the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that started in 2009 with a NESCent catalysis meeting titled “The Nature of Regulation: How Evolution Can Inform the Regulation of Large-scale Human Social Interactions”. The meeting led to a 2-year project on integrating economic and evolutionary theory. This project used NESCent’s working group rubric to organize three workshops, whose participants were drawn from a larger advisory group. Other outputs of the project include a white paper submitted to the National Science Foundation and a final workshop titled “The Science-to-Narrative Chain”, which examines how to create a new public narrative based on the evolutionary paradigm. Supplemental material can also be found at our online magazine: This View of Life http://www.thisviewoflife.com/
social_sciences  public_policy  economic_theory  evolution-social  evolution-as-model  evo_psych  institutions  institutional_economics  organizations 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Kenan Malik - HOW HUMAN IS CULTURE? | Pandaemonium Dec 2013
Enlightenment philosophes talked more of ‘civilisation’ than of culture and through that notion they tried to express three key ideas. First, they saw civilisation as a single phenomenon, an expression of human universalities, rather than of human differences. Second they understood it as transformative, as an expression of human agency. Culture was as much about our emancipation from nature as of our embodiment in it. And third, it expressed their belief in progress – technological, moral and social.

The Romantic view of culture developed through the nineteenth century directly in response to such Enlightenment beliefs. Romantics saw not a single civilisation, but a plurality of cultures, each rooted in a particular people’s history and myth. Culture, therefore, was an expression of differences, not of universals; and of a putative past, rather than of a potential future. Anthropologists influenced by this tradition came to view culture as functional rather than as transformative, that is, as something essential for social integration and stability, and hence downplayed the role of agency in human life.
intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  20thC  culture  anthropology  human_nature  evolution  evolution-social  social_theory  social_sciences  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Gabriel Abden: Styles of Sociological Thought: Sociologies, Epistemologies, and the Mexican and U.S. Quests for Truth | Sociological Theory, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Mar., 2006), pp. 1-41
Gabriel Abend
Sociological Theory
Vol. 24, No. 1 (Mar., 2006) (pp. 1-41)
Page Count: 41

Both U.S. and Mexican sociologies allege that they are in the business of making true scientific knowledge claims about the social world. Conventional conceptions of science notwithstanding, I demonstrate that their claims to truth and scientificity are based on alternative epistemological grounds. Drawing a random sample of nonquantitative articles from four leading journals, I show that, first, they assign a different role to theories, and indeed they have dissimilar understandings of what a theory should consist of. Second, whereas U.S. sociology actively struggles against subjectivity, Mexican sociology maximizes the potentials of subjective viewpoints. Third, U.S. sociologists tend to regard highly and Mexican sociologists to eagerly disregard the principle of ethical neutrality. These consistent and systematic differences raise two theoretical issues. First, I argue that Mexican and U.S. sociologies are epistemologically, semantically, and perceptually incommensurable. I contend that this problem is crucial for sociology's interest in the social conditioning of scientific knowledge's content. Second, I suggest four lines of thought that can help us explain the epistemological differences I find. Finally, I argue that sociologists would greatly profit from studying epistemologies in the same fashion they have studied other kinds of scientific and nonscientific beliefs.
article  jstor  social_theory  epistemology  sociology_of_knowledge  social_sciences-post-WWII  social_sciences  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2013 by dunnettreader
Robert Alun Jones: Ambivalent Cartesians: Durkheim, Montesquieu, and Method (1994)
JSTOR: American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 100, No. 1 (Jul., 1994), pp. 1-39 -- Recent scholarship has emphasized Durkheim's early debt to German social science. Why, then, did Durkheim write his Latin thesis on Montesquieu, insisting that the latter had "laid down the principles of the new science"? The answer is twofold: first because Montesquieu himself was extremely ambivalent about the French Enlightenment's confident legacy of Cartesian reationalism and second because this made Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws the "perfect forge" within which Durkheim could explore his own ambivalence about the relative merits of French rationalism and German empiricism, and thus shape the tool-the comparative method-he applied in The Division of Labor in Society.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  social_theory  18thC  19thC  Durkheim  Montesquieu  Cartesian  historicism  France  Germany  French_Enlightenment  social_sciences  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
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