dunnettreader + social_psychology   36

Petersen
How do modern individuals form a sense of the vast societies in which they live? Social cognition has evolved to make sense of small, intimate social groups; but in complex mass societies, comparable vivid social cues are scarcer. Extant research on political attitudes and behavior has emphasized media and interpersonal networks as key sources of cues. Extending a classical argument, we provide evidence for the importance of an alternative and internal source: imagination. With a focus on social welfare, we collected survey data from two very different democracies; the United States and Denmark, and conducted several studies using explicit, implicit, and behavioral measures. By analyzing the effects of individual differences in imagination, we demonstrate that political cognition relies on vivid, mental simulations that engage evolved social and emotional decision-making mechanisms. It is in the mind's eye that vividness and engagement are added to people's sense of mass politics. - didn't download
political_spectacle  moral_psychology  jstor  images-political  imagined_communities  political_science  article  imagination  symbols-political  political_culture  social_psychology  mass_culture  discourse-political_theory  comparative_politics  politics-and-aesthetics  political_sociology  bibliography  political_press 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
Deepak Malhotra & J. Keith Murnighan - The Effects of Contracts on Interpersonal Trust (2002)| Administrative Science Quarterly at JSTOR
Administrative Science Quarterly
Vol. 47, No. 3 (Sep., 2002), pp. 534-559
DOI: 10.2307/3094850
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3094850
Topics: Contracts, Cooperation, Trust, Interpersonal interaction, Psychology, Social interaction, Social psychology, Situational attribution, Motivation, Organizational behavior
social_psychology  contracts  article  altruism  moral_psychology  punishment-altruistic  trust  organizations  downloaded  cooperation  firms-organization  motivation 
april 2017 by dunnettreader
Ilkka Pyysiainen - Cognitive Science of Religion: State of the Art (2012) | Academia.edu
Journal for the Cognitive Science of Religion (2012) -- article presents an introduction to the cognitive science of religion. It shows that CSR began with original theoretical approaches within the human sciences and has subsequently developed into a more empirical, interdisciplinary feld of study. The feld is growing rapidly with the appearance of several centers and projects. The most important theories, fndings, and criticisms are presented. Also the various centers of study and recent projects are described. -- Keywords -- cognition, agency, sociality, ritual -- Downloaded to Tab S2
article  downloaded  religion  cognitive_science  sociology_of_religion  religious_belief  religious_experience  religious_culture  comparative_religion  comparative_anthropology  neuroscience  cultural_transmission  cultural_change  cultural_influence  tradition  Innovation  ritual  agency  agency-structure  social_psychology  social_movements 
august 2016 by dunnettreader
Andrew Gelman - More on replication crisis - Statistical Modeling, Causal Inference, and Social Science
The replication crisis in social psychology (and science more generally) will not be solved by better statistics or by preregistered replications. It can only…
Instapaper  scientific_method  social_psychology  evolutionary_biology  evo_psych  statistics  from instapaper
march 2016 by dunnettreader
Farr, Hacker & Kazee - Harold Lasswell, The Policy Scientist of Democracy (2006) | The American Political Science Review
The Policy Scientist of Democracy: The Discipline of Harold D. Lasswell -- James Farr, Jacob S. Hacker and Nicole Kazee -- Vol. 100, No. 4, Thematic Issue on the Evolution of Political Science, in Recognition of the Centennial of the Review (Nov., 2006), pp. 579-587 -- The "policy scientist of democracy" was a model for engaged scholarship invented and embodied by Harold D. Lasswell. This disciplinary persona emerged in Lasswell's writings and wartime consultancies during the 1940s, well before he announced in his APSA presidential address, printed in the Review precisely 50 years ago, that political science was "the policy science par excellence." The policy scientist of democracy knew all about the process of elite decision making, and he put his knowledge into practice by advising those in power, sharing in important decisions, and furthering the cause of dignity. Although Lasswell formulated this ambitious vision near the zenith of his influence, the discipline accorded the ideal—and Lasswell—a mixed reception. Some heralded the policy scientist of democracy; others observed a contradictory figure, at once positivist and value-laden, elitist and democratic, heroic and implausible. The conflicted response exemplifies Lasswell's legacy. The policy scientist of democracy was—and is—too demanding and too contradictory a hero. But the vital questions Lasswell grappled with still must be asked a century into the discipline's development: what is the role of the political scientist in a democratic society? - downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
social_sciences-post-WWII  technocracy  entre_deux_guerres  social_psychology  article  public_intellectuals  jstor  WWII  behavioralism  public_policy  20thC  public_interest  downloaded  political_science  US_history  elites  intellectual_history  bibliography  democracy  civic_virtue 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - Civility and Formality :: SSRN October 2013
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 13-57 -- Civility is a distinctive virtue in social and political relations, not an all-embracing one. In this paper, I suggest that civility is also a "chilly" virtue, associated more with formality than with niceness; that is, I argue that its importance is best accounted for on this basis. I pursue the theme of formality in a number of different areas: formality in market relations; formality in political inclusiveness; formality in the willingness to listen and "stay present" for the articulation of views to which is utterly opposed; and formality in democratic deliberations. So defined, civility is not everything and it may need to be balanced against other principles and requirements of politics. But the account I give of its relation to formality enables us to see it in the distinctive importance that it has, even though its importance may not be absolute. -- Pages in PDF File: 22 -- Keywords: civility, disagreement, difference, formality, legal rights, legislation, markets, inclusiveness, toleration -- downloaded pdf to Note
political_philosophy  political_culture  democracy  civic_virtue  commerce-doux  civility-political  manners  markets-structure  tolérance  deliberation-public  inclusion  social_psychology  norms  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Noah Millnan - Fighting Outrage Porn Addiction | The American Conservative - September 2015
Before writing this post, I took a scroll down my Facebook feed, to see what news stories my friends are linking to. Here are the first four stories I…
Instapaper  US_politics  US_society  social_media  social_psychology  partisanship  tribalism  bad_journalism  empathy  norms  emotions-manipulation  public_opinion  from instapaper
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Thomas Pfau - Romantic Moods: Paranoia, Trauma, and Melancholy, 1790–1840 (2005 hbk only) | JHU Press
Thomas Pfau reinterprets the evolution of British and German Romanticism as a progress through three successive dominant moods, each manifested in the "voice" of an historical moment. Drawing on a multifaceted philosophical tradition ranging from Kant to Hegel to Heidegger—incorporating as well the psychosocial analyses of Freud, Benjamin, and Adorno—Pfau develops a new understanding of the Romantic writer's voice as the formal encryption of a complex cultural condition. Pfau focuses on 3 specific paradigms of emotive experience: paranoia, trauma, and melancholy. Along the trajectory of Romantic thought paranoia characterizes the disintegration of traditional models of causation and representation during the French Revolution; trauma, the radical political, cultural, and economic restructuring of Central Europe in the Napoleonic era; and melancholy, the dominant post-traumatic condition of stalled, post-Napoleonic history both in England and on the continent. (..) positions emotion as a "climate of history" to be interpretively recovered from the discursive and imaginative writing in which it is objectively embodied. (..) traces the evolution of Romantic interiority by exploring the deep-seated reverberations of historical change as they become legible in new discursive and conceptual strategies and in the evolving formal-aesthetic construction and reception of Romantic literature. In establishing this relationship between mood and voice, Pfau moves away from the conventional understanding of emotion as something "owned" or exclusively attributable to the individual and toward a theory of mood as fundamentally intersubjective and deserving of broader consideration in the study of Romanticism.
books  18thC  19thC  intellectual_history  literary_history  lit_crit  Romanticism  social_psychology  self  subjectivity  self-examination  French_Enlightenment  French_Revolution  French_Revolution-impact  French_Revolutionary_Wars  Napoleonic_Wars  Napoleonic_Wars-impact  political_culture  political_discourse  aesthetics  cultural_history  Radical_Enlightenment  radicals  Counter-Enlightenment  counter-revolution  worldviews  social_history  change-social  change-intellectual  poetics  rhetoric-political  prose  facebook 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Roundtable - Romanticism, Enlightenment, and Counter-Enlightenment | Philoctetes Center - April 17, 2010
, 2:30 PM
Romanticism, Enlightenment, and Counter-Enlightenment

Participants: Akeel Bilgrami, Taylor Carman, Garrett Deckel, Colin Jager, Joel Whitebook Isaiah Berlin introduced the work of a range of philosophers in the German romantic and German idealist tradition to the English-speaking world. His fascination with some of their ideas was accompanied by a concomitant anxiety about them. The anxiety issued from his staunch liberal commitment to the orthodox Enlightenment. Yet, the fascination was an implicit acknowledgement on his part of some of the limitations of the Enlightenment's liberal ideas. This roundtable will look at this underlying tension in Berlin, which many liberals feel to this day. Panelists will probe the role of reason, perception, and emotion in our individual and political psychology, and ask the question of whether or not there is something for liberalism to learn from what Berlin—rightly or wrongly—called the "Counter-Enlightenment." -- see YouTube bookmark for direct link -- video also embedded in program page
video  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  Enlightenment  Counter-Enlightenment  Romanticism  Enlightenment_Project  Enlightenment-ongoing  German_Idealism  liberalism  Berlin_Isaiah  reason  rationality  perception  emotions  reason-passions  political_philosophy  political_culture  social_psychology  moral_psychology  nature  nature-mastery  cognition  prejudice  cognitive_bias  mind  mind-body  philosophical_anthropology 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Andrew W. Lo - The Gordon Gekko Effect: The Role of Culture in the Financial Industry | NBER June 2015
NBER Working Paper No. 21267 -- Culture is a potent force in shaping individual and group behavior, yet it has received scant attention in the context of financial risk management and the recent financial crisis. I present a brief overview of the role of culture according to psychologists, sociologists, and economists, and then present a specific framework for analyzing culture in the context of financial practices and institutions in which three questions are answered: (1) What is culture?; (2) Does it matter?; and (3) Can it be changed? I illustrate the utility of this framework by applying it to five concrete situations—Long Term Capital Management; AIG Financial Products; Lehman Brothers and Repo 105; Société Générale’s rogue trader; and the SEC and the Madoff Ponzi scheme—and conclude with a proposal to change culture via “behavioral risk management.” -- check SSRN
paper  paywall  SSRN  financial_instiutions  business_practices  business-norms  risk_management  economic_culture  financial_crisis  financial_regulation  incentives  incentives-distortions  social_psychology  economic_sociology  firms-structure  firms-organization 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Raymond Boudon - Utilité ou Rationalité (2002) | Scribd
21 page article -- Explains why "rational choice" fails as explanatory theory in lots of collective action, public opinion, game theory, etc. -- domains where decisions to act aren't based exclusively on instrumental, consequentialist, cost-benefit calculative, and egoistic (directly concerned with impact on self) forms of, and context for, reasoning. Boudon finds "rational choice" superior to hand-wavy explanations that are speculative "black boxes" -- e.g. (1) sociobiology or evo-devo that we're hardwired, (2) Kahneman and Tversky heuristics and biases -- fascinating observations but aren't explanatory, (3) social/cultural explanations such as "socialization" which are tautological or a black box that provide no mechanisms that can differentiate situations or variations in outcomes. E.g. in Roman Empire peasants were more likely to remain pagan and soldiers were more likely to be attracted to the new religion. "Socialization" doesn't explain why soldiers raised in the traditional religious milieu and belief system were more likely to change their beliefs. Great examples of how rationality includes cognitive processes dealing with (1) non-instrumental contexts - e.g. identification with communitarian concerns ranging from voting to immigration policies, (2) aligning actions with one's judgment of what's more likely "true" based on core beliefs and how one has learned to evaluate "evidence" [e.g. Swedes are even more likely to reject "lump of labor" than Americans!] (3) axiological reasoning, including norms of fairness that may be fairly universal (e.g. reaction to Antigone, ultimatum game) or specific to a culture (e.g. due process in political application of "rule of law") -- see article for his tripartite classification of rationality and types of cognition that "rational choice" rejects in its definition. He thinks Weber and Adam Smith got there before, and better than, Becker.
article  Scribd  social_theory  mechanisms-social_theory  evolutionary_biology  evo_psych  rational_choice  rationality-economics  rationality-bounded  rationality  reasons  Weber  Smith  Becker_Gary  Simon_Herbert  fairness  community  identity  norms  epistemology-social  game_theory  altruism  cognitive_bias  cognition  cognition-social  democracy  citizens  voting  political_participation  collective_action  political_culture  public_choice  public_opinion  common_good  socialization  social_psychology  cost-benefit  self-interest  self-interest-cultural_basis  self-and-other  EF-add 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Rajiv Sethi: On Animal Spirits and Knee-Jerk Reactions | December 2009
Mark Thoma re his trying, when reading Schiller, to overcome a knee-jerk reaction to claims that mass psychology drives markets rather than the reverse. Seth says: I too have the greatest respect for Shiller and consider his 1981 paper on stock price (relative to dividend) volatility to be an absolute classic. But I can't help thinking that too much is being asked of behavioral economics at this time, (..) regularities identified in controlled laboratory experiments with standard subject pools have limited application to environments in which the distribution of behavioral propensities is both endogenous and psychologically rare. This is the case in financial markets (..) Those who enter the profession are unlikely to be psychologically typical, and market conditions determine which behavioral propensities survive and thrive at any point in historical time. If one is to look beyond economics for metaphors and models, why stop at psychology? For financial market behavior, a more appropriate discipline might be evolutionary ecology. This is not a new idea. (..) look at the chapter on "The Ecology of Markets" in Victor Niederhoffer's extraordinary memoir. Or study Hyman Minsky's financial instability hypothesis .. which depends explicitly on the assumption that aggressive financial practices are rapidly replicated during periods of stable growth, eventually becoming so widespread that systemic stability is put at risk. To my mind this reflects an ecological rather than psychological understanding of financial market behavior.
behavioral_economics  financial_economics  financial_system  social_psychology  systems-complex_adaptive  ecology  Minsky  Schiller  animal_spirits  capital_markets  financial_crisis  principal-agent  markets-psychology  markets-structure  contagion 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Miika Vähämaa - Secrets, Errors and Mathematics: Reconsidering the Role of Groups in Social Epistemology « Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 2 (9): 36-51 (2013)
Special Issue 2: On the Future Direction of Social Epistemology (SE) -- This paper claims that analytic social epistemology (ASE) has slowed, if not halted, the development of SE and the social sciences in general. I argue that SE is unavoidably subjective due to its collective nature. SE as it is generally understood, consists of the study of socially shared propositions and how they are understood by those communities. However, socially shared propositions of knowledge are not constrained by propositional logic but are rather enabled by the limited quanta of reason and logic embedded in linguistic structure. From the view of Goldman and his supporters , “real” knowledge is constrained by propositional logic, which is derived from language and is constructed in social settings. This view errs in its attempt to collapse social knowledge into propositional logic, downplaying the many social groups and practices that produce, create, restore and distort knowledge. The “subjective” and group-oriented nature of SE is demonstrated in this text by examples of secrets, errors and mathematics as discrete social domains in which knowledge is created and maintained. Examples in both philosophy and social sciences are important, since they reveal the weaknesses of strict ASE. A simple real-life example may be appealing to emotions and personal experiences of life whereas Wittgensteinian truth tables are rarely matters of personal attachment to anyone. The social in SE can only be properly considered from the viewpoint of social groups. Following an argument presented by Fuller, I show that “knowledge” is not a self-maintaining quality of human life, but rather a qualia that is regenerated situationally. All epistemic activities build upon such reorganization as it is conducted within social groups which seek to regenerate knowledge both to make sense of the world and to make sense of their own selves. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  social_theory  epistemology  epistemology-social  epistemology-naturalism  analytical_philosophy  social_psychology  philosophy_of_language  philosophy_of_social_science  philosophy_of_science  logic  knowledge  constructivism  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Sanford C. Goldberg -“Analytic Social Epistemology” and the Epistemic Significance of Other Minds « Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective, 2 (8): 26-48 (2013)
Sanford C. Goldberg, Northwestern University -- Special Issue 2: On the Future Direction of Social Epistemology. -- In this paper I develop a rationale for pursuing a distinctly “social” epistemology, according to which social epistemology is the systematic study of the epistemic significance of other minds. After articulating what I have in mind with this expression, I argue that the resulting rationale informs work presently being done in the emerging tradition of “Analytic Social Epistemology” (ASE). I go on to diagnose Steve Fuller’s (2012) dismissal of ASE (as “retrograde”) as reflecting a rather deep — and, to date, deeply uncharitable — misunderstanding of the aims and rationale of this emerging tradition. Far from being retrograde, the best of the work in the emerging ASE tradition provides a nice compliment to the best of the social epistemology work in the social science tradition. The key to seeing this point is twofold: we need to recognize the normative orientation of (much of) the work in ASE; and, perhaps more importantly, we need to appreciate the difference between how Fuller (2012) understands the normativity of social epistemology, and how this is understood by theorists within the ASE tradition. I conclude with what I hope will be some constructive suggestions on this score. -- downloaded pdf to Note
analytical_philosophy  social_theory  epistemology  epistemology-social  philosophy_of_language  mind  mind-theory_of  normativity  hygiene-mental  sociology_of_knowledge  social_sciences  philosophy_of_science  social_psychology  social_process  power-knowledge  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Orestis Palermos and Duncan Pritchard - Extended Knowledge and Social Epistemology, Orestis Palermos and Duncan Pritchard « Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective, 2 (8): 105-120 (2013).
University of Edinburgh -- Special Issue 2: On the Future Direction of Social Epistemology -- The place of social epistemology within contemporary philosophy, as well as its relation to other academic disciplines, is the topic of an ongoing debate. One camp within that debate holds that social epistemology should be pursued strictly from within the perspective of individualistic analytic epistemology. In contrast, a second camp holds that social epistemology is an interdisciplinary field that should be given priority over traditional analytic epistemology, with the specific aim of radically transforming the latter to fit the results and methodology of the former. We are rather suspicious of this apparent tension, which we believe can be significantly mitigated by paying attention to certain recent advances within philosophy of mind and cognitive science. Accordingly, we attempt to explain how extended knowledge, the result of combining active externalism from contemporary philosophy of mind with contemporary epistemology, can offer an alternative conception of the future of social epistemology.
analytical_philosophy  social_theory  epistemology  epistemology-social  philosophy_of_language  mind  mind-body  cognition  cognition-social  neuroscience  mind-external  bibliography  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  philosophy_of_science  psychology  social_psychology  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Nitzan, Jonathan and Bichler, Shimshon - The Capitalist Algorithm. Reflections on Robert Harris' "The Fear Index" (2014) | bnarchives
Real-World Economics Review. May 2014. pp. 137-142. -- Alexander Hoffmann is a physicist-turned-financier, a refugee from the particle accelerator complex in CERN who now runs a $10-billion algorithmic hedge fund from nearby Geneva. The fund is managed by VIXAL, Hoffmann’s machine learning algorithm, and is incredibly successful. The company’s statistics boast a consistently huge Alpha – a measure indicating by how much the fund beats the average and exceeds the normal rate of return – and the world’s biggest oligarchs and financial institutions are salivating at the mere thought of being allowed to invest in it. Managing their money has made Hoffmann very rich. In just a few years, he has seen his net worth rise from nothing to over a billion dollars. He has acquired a huge mansion, complete with a beautiful wife and a library full of antique books. There is no limit to what he is set to achieve. But things are not exactly what they seem to be. -- Keywords - automation artificial intelligence capitalization financial markets fear hype power -- downloaded pdf to Note
financial_system  capital_markets  capitalism  power-asymmetric  power-symbolic  capital_as_power  artificial_intelligence  hype  fear  markets-psychology  social_psychology  automation  downloaded  EF-add 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Jesse R. Harrington and Michele J. Gelfand - Tightness–looseness across the 50 united states | PNAS | Mobile
Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD -- This research demonstrates wide variation in tightness–looseness (the strength of punishment and degree of latitude/permissiveness) at the state level in the United States, as well as its association with a variety of ecological and historical factors, psychological characteristics, and state-level outcomes. Consistent with theory and past research, ecological and man-made threats—such as a higher incidence of natural disasters, greater disease prevalence, fewer natural resources, and greater degree of external threat—predicted increased tightness at the state level. Tightness is also associated with higher trait conscientiousness and lower trait openness, as well as a wide array of outcomes at the state level. Compared with loose states, tight states have higher levels of social stability, including lowered drug and alcohol use, lower rates of homelessness, and lower social disorganization. However, tight states also have higher incarceration rates, greater discrimination and inequality, lower creativity, and lower happiness relative to loose states. In all, tightness–looseness provides a parsimonious explanation of the wide variation we see across the 50 states of the United States of America. -- downloaded pdf to Note
culture  culture-American  norms  inequality  discrimination  US_politics  conservatism  liberalism  crime  punishment  deviance  tolerance  social_order  ecology  social_psychology  US_society  creativity  Innovation  happiness  hierarchy  culture_wars  culture-tightness  culture-looseness  prisons  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Chris Dillow - Stumbling and Mumbling: Markets as ideology - May 2014
Report on a dictator game - They found that when the dictator chose competition, the weaker parties were significantly less likely to punish him even if the wealth he transferred was the same as when the dictator chose a unilateral transfer: "A powerful trading party, who could simply dictate the terms of trade, can deflect the blame for unequal outcomes by letting the market decide, i.e., by delegating the determination of the terms of trade to a competitive procedure." All this is consistent with Marx. Market competition can reconcile people to inequalities which they would otherwise reject. There's more. In competition, the weaker parties were more likely to punish each other. In this sense, the dictator's choice to use markets acts (unintentionally) as a "divide and rule" strategy. There is, I fear, a direct analogy here with unskilled white workers blaming immigrants rather than capitalists for their unemployment. These results are also consistent with a McCloskeyan reading - that markets help promote peace and social stability, because they reduce people's inclination to spend resources predating upon others'. In one sense, the McCloskeyan and Marxian interpretations are similar - both predict that markets reduce discontent.
economic_culture  economic_sociology  Marx  capitalism  markets_in_everything  social_psychology  fairness  inequality  accountability  McCloskey  laisser-faire  cognitive_bias  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Philip H. Jos - Moral Autonomy & the Modern Organization | JSTOR: Polity, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Winter, 1988), pp. 321-343
Modern organizations are thought by many to exacerbate the problem of individual ethical integrity by discouraging nonconfirmity and independent judgement. Yet, studies of the effect of organizational structure on individual personality and behaviour have commonly been vague as to the precise nature of the capacities for independent ethical judgement that are endangered and about the structural and situational characteristics of organizations that threaten these capacities. This article seeks to clarify these ambiguities. Borrowing from Aristotle and more recent writers, the author develops a conception of moral autonomy that encompasses concerns about bureaucratic domination and the creation of "organization man." He then addresses the threats posed by organization: the Weberian and Decision Process models. - a lot of Kant - downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  organizations  social_psychology  accountability  Aristotle  virtue_ethics  Kant-ethics  autonomy  bureaucracy  Weber  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert Grafstein - The Failure of Weber's Conception of Legitimacy: Its Causes and Implications | JSTOR: The Journal of Politics, Vol. 43, No. 2 (May, 1981), pp. 456-472
Pins the problem on Weber's "realist" psychology compared with Wittgenstein, Quine more "behaviorist" -- didn't download -- Discusses political philosophers who have found Weber's concept deficient -blaming among other things his attempted fact/value neutrality
article  jstor  political_philosophy  sociology  social_theory  institutions  bureaucracy  legitimacy  governance  Weber  Wittgenstein  Quine  social_psychology  psychology  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Mark E. Warren - Can Participatory Democracy Produce Better Selves? Psychological Dimensions of Habermas's Discursive Model of Democracy | JSTOR: Political Psychology, Vol. 14, No. 2 (Jun., 1993), pp. 209-234
Bibliography on recent democratic theory -- Participatory democrats hold that when individuals participate in democratic processes they are likely to become more tolerant of differences, more attuned to reciprocity, better able to engage in moral discourse and judgment, and more prone to examine their own preferences. These democratic dispositions in turn strengthen democratic processes. Notwithstanding the centrality of this self-transformation thesis to democratic theory, Jürgen Habermas remains the only democratic theorist to have developed an account of transformative processes. This he does by linking democratic discourse to individual development of critical capacities for political judgment, or autonomy. Habermas's account, however, requires reconstruction, since he for the most part addresses his ideas to problems other than those of democratic theory. Such a reconstruction suggests that the self-transformation thesis needs to be qualified: political contexts may elicit, rather than overcome, psychodynamic barriers to autonomy. This and related considerations suggest that democratic transformations of the self are more likely in some kinds of democratic contexts than others. -- didn't download
article  jstor  political_philosophy  social_theory  political_participation  citizens  civic_virtue  democracy  self-development  social_psychology  self  Habermas  discourse_ethics  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Smirnov, Dawes, Fowler, Johnson and McElreath -The Behavioral Logic of Collective Action: Partisans Cooperate and Punish More Than Nonpartisans | JSTOR: Political Psychology, Vol. 31, No. 4 (August 2010), pp. 595-616
Laboratory experiments indicate that many people willingly contribute to public goods and punish free riders at a personal cost. We hypothesize that these individuals, called strong reciprocators, allow political parties to overcome collective action problems, thereby allowing those organizations to compete for scarce resources and to produce public goods for like-minded individuals. Using a series of laboratory games, we examine whether partisans contribute to public goods and punish free riders at a greater rate than nonpartisans. The results show that partisans are more likely than nonpartisans to contribute to public goods and to engage in costly punishment. Given the broad theoretical literature on altruistic punishment and group selection as well as our own formal evolutionary model, we hypothesize that it is being a partisan that makes an individual more likely to be a strong reciprocator and not vice versa. -- didn't download -- interesting bibliography
article  jstor  political_science  political_participation  parties  evolution-social  punishment-altruistic  cooperation  social_psychology  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Joseph Henrich - A cultural species: How culture drove human evolution | Science Brief - Am Psychological Assoc Nov 2011
Recognizing the centrality of culture in human life leads to a novel evolutionary theory of status and status psychology. Evolutionary researchers have tended to assume that human status is merely an extension of primate dominance hierarchies. However, because humans are so heavily dependent on an information economy for survival, our species has evolved a second avenue to social status that operates alongside dominance and has its own suite of cognitive and affective processes. -- This work connects with the emotion literature where prior empirical studies had indicated the existence of two facets for the emotion pride—labeled authentic and hubristic pride. Our ongoing efforts suggest that hubristic pride is associated with dominance-status and authentic pride with prestige-status. -- Much empirical work treats status as a uni-dimensional construct, and then unknowingly operationalizes it as either prestige or dominance, or some mix of the two. -- The cultural evolution of norms over tens or hundreds of thousands of years, and their shaping by cultural group selection, may have driven genetic evolution to create a suite of cognitive adaptations we call norm psychology. -- This suite facilitates, among other things, our identification and learning of social norms, our expectation of sanctions for norm violations, and our ability to internalize normative behavior as motivations. This approach also predicts that humans ought to be inclined to “over-imitate” for two different evolutionary reasons, one informational and the other normative. The informational view hypothesizes that people over-imitate because of an evolved reliance on cultural learning to adaptively acquire complex and cognitively-opaque skills, techniques and practices that have been honed, often in nuanced and subtle ways, over generations. However, because individuals should also “over-imitate” because human societies have long been full of arbitrary norms (behaviors) for which the “correct” performance is crucial to one’s reputation (e.g., rituals, etiquette), we expect future investigations to reveal two different kinds of over-imitation. -- The selection pressures created by reputational damage and punishment for norm-violation may also favour norm-internalization. Neuroeconomic studies suggest that social norms are in fact internalized as intrinsic motivations in people’s brains.
biocultural_evolution  social_psychology  norms  status  power  leaders  learning  children  innate_ideas  incentives  behavioral_economics  moral_psychology  emotions  morality-conventional  sociology_of_religion  trust  cooperation  Innovation  tools  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Joe Henrich - Website | University of British Columbia
Research Program: Coevolution, Development, Cognition & Cultural Learning -- Published Papers and Book Chapters by Category

- Societal Complexity and Cultural Evolution
- Social Norms and Cooperation
- Social Status (Prestige and Dominance)
- Religion
- Methodological Contributions and Population Variations
- Overviews
- Cultural Learning (Models and Evidence)
- Ethnography (Fiji, Machiguenga, Mapuche)
- Chimpanzee Sociality
- General Interest
bibliography  research  paper  biocultural_evolution  culture  social_psychology  anthropology  behavioral_economics  sociology_of_religion  status  norms  morality-conventional  moral_psychology  emotions  networks  institutions  complexity  demography  children  learning  tools  cooperation  competition  Innovation 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Aaron Beim: The Cognitive Aspects of Collective Memory | Symbolic Interaction, Vol. 30, No. 1 (Winter 2007), pp. 7-26
The Cognitive Aspects of Collective Memory
Aaron Beim
Symbolic Interaction
Vol. 30, No. 1 (Winter 2007) (pp. 7-26)
Downloaded pdf to Note

While these conceptions [from research to date] provide powerful frameworks for thinking about group remembrance, they describe exclusively institutional manifestations of collective memory. There are two characteristics of current collective memory research that account for this phenomenon. First, collective memory researchers assume that collective memory is collective only if it is institutionalized; they argue implicitly that collective memory is discernible only in institutionalized objects. Second, collective memory analyses conflate the production of the object and its reception. Objects are analyzed both in terms of their development as cultural objects (Griswold 1986) and in terms of their representativeness of the memory of a given population.

While these conceptions of collective memory are insightful, they preclude the analysis of both collective memory sui generis and the mechanisms of collective memory’s production and reception. I contend that we can undertake these types of analysis by including the cognitive processes that produce schemata that define the past.
article  jstor  social_theory  social_psychology  cognition  collective_memory  lit_survey  bibliography  methodology  institutionalization  sociology-process  symbolic_interaction  culture  cognition-social  cultural_objects  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2013 by dunnettreader
Percy S. Cohen: Theories of Myth (1969)
JSTOR: Man, New Series, Vol. 4, No. 3 (Sep., 1969), pp. 337-353 -- survey of (at least 7) theories of myth -- mid 20thC schools - Levi-Strauss, Malinowski predecessors [pre Geertz?]
article  jstor  social_theory  anthropology  sociology_of_religion  social_psychology  culture  ritual  myth  identity  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Andrew D. Brown: Narcissism, Identity, and Legitimacy (1997)
JSTOR: The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 22, No. 3 (Jul., 1997), pp. 643-686
article  jstor  organizations  social_psychology  identity  legitimacy  myth  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Corey Robin: Reflections on Fear: Montesquieu in Retrieval (2000)
JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 94, No. 2 (Jun., 2000), pp. 347-360 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- According to most scholars, Montesquieu argues that fear threatens a loss of self. Disconnected from the exercise of reason, fear is an emotion that is supposed to prevent the individual from acting with any kind of moral or rational agency. Fear is also premised on the liquidation of civil society; intermediate institutions and plural social structures are destroyed so that despots can act with unmitigated power and violence. I argue that this view does not capture Montesquieu's theory. In my alternative account, fear is intimately connected to our capacity for reason and to our sense of self. It is built on a network of elites, the rule of law, moral education, and the traditional institutions of civil society. I conclude that twentieth-century social science remains too indebted to conventional interpretations of Montesquieu's views, and contemporary theorists would be better served by the alternative analysis proposed here.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  French_Enlightenment  18thC  Montesquieu  political_philosophy  political_culture  social_theory  social_psychology  psychology  self  self-interest  despotism  fear  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Ethan Watters: Why Americans Are the WIERDest People in the World | Pacific Standard February 2013
Long form article: Joe Henrich and his colleagues are shaking the foundations of psychology and economics—and hoping to change the way social scientists think about human behavior and culture.
* * * *
The growing body of cross-cultural research that the three researchers were compiling suggested that the mind’s capacity to mold itself to cultural and environmental settings was far greater than had been assumed. The most interesting thing about cultures may not be in the observable things they do—the rituals, eating preferences, codes of behavior, and the like—but in the way they mold our most fundamental conscious and unconscious thinking and perception.
* * * * This new approach suggests the possibility of reverse-engineering psychological research: look at cultural content first; cognition and behavior second. Norenzayan’s recent work on religious belief is perhaps the best example of the intellectual landscape that is now open for study. 
social_theory  statistics  culture  biocultural_evolution  human_nature  psychology  social_psychology  microeconomics  rational_choice  evo_psych  sociology_of_religion  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Robert Gonzalez: WIERD - Rich, educated westerners could be skewing social science studies | io9.com
Links to debates about psychology, social psych, evo psych, experimental microeconomics etc using subjects from developed Western societies, especially college students, and even worse, psych majors
social_theory  psychology  microeconomics  rational_choice  statistics  culture  social_psychology  sociology_of_religion  biocultural_evolution  evo_psych  human_nature 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Harold Mah: The Epistemology of the Sentence: Language, Civility, and Identity in France and Germany, Diderot to Nietzsche (1994)
JSTOR: Representations, No. 47 (Summer, 1994), pp. 64-84 From special issue on national culture before nationalism

Downloaded pdf to Note

Considerable discussion of French attempts to link epistemology (17thC rationalists and 18thC sensualist) with language structure - especially Condillac and Diderot. Voltaire and Frederick the Great prejudices pro French and anti German and Latin.

Aporia of civility - honnête homme was initially supposed to be transparent re virtue - by mid 18thC and Rousseau the aporia has become a total inversion- sociability as source of vice by encouraging misleading, self promotion etc

Further discusses French attempts to stabilize civility virtue by relegating politesse to the skeevy domain

Follows Herder, Fichte, Hegel who turn German syntax into virtue as closer to sensual experience, which they assert gives Germans access to supersensual and true inner sense of morality that French lack - according to Fichte they're trapped in nihilistic artificiality

Nietzsche shreds the German valorisation of supposed inner depths which aren't connected with transparent form
jstor  article  17thC  18thC  19thC  cultural_history  France  Germany  nationalism  language  epistemology  Diderot  Condillac  Nietzsche  Hegel  Voltaire  Frederick_the_Great  social_theory  politeness  elites  middle_class  salons  Rousseau  social_psychology  virtue_ethics  German_Idealism  society  alienation  moral_philosophy  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
UnderstandingSociety: Lack of character? | June 2013
John Doris argues in Lack of Character: Personality and Moral Behavior that the basic theory of action associated with virtue ethics and the theory of moral character is most likely incorrect. The character theory maintains that individuals have stable traits that lead them to behave similarly in a range of relevant but differing circumstances. A person with the traits of honesty or compassion will behave truthfully or benevolently in a range of circumstances, when it is easy to do so and when it is more difficult.

Situationism is the competing view that maintains that people's actions are more sensitive to features of the situation of action than to enduring underlying traits. Doris largely endorses situationism -- for example, he cites experiments showing that subjects make different choices when confronted with a situation of a need for help by another person, depending on whether or not the subject recently found a small amount of money. Apparently situations that induce a "good mood" make a large difference in benevolent behavior. Rachana Kamtekar does a good job of explaining situationism as presented by moral philosophers such as Gilbert Harman.

Downloaded pdf of Rachana Kamtekar paper in Ethics 2004: Situationism and Virtue Ethics on the Content of Our Character
books  reviews  moral_philosophy  social_psychology  virtue_ethics  downloaded  EF-add 
june 2013 by dunnettreader

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