dunnettreader + slavery   68

Jason Frank - Review essay, Democracy and Domination in America (2012) | Political Theory on JSTOR
Reviewed Works:
In The Shadow of Dubois:Afro-Modern Political Thought in America by Robert Gooding-Williams;
The Undiscovered Dewey:Religion, Morality, and the Ethos of Democracy by Melvin L. Rogers
Review by: Jason Frank
Political Theory
Vol. 40, No. 3 (June 2012), pp. 379-386
Published by: Sage Publications, Inc.
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41703030
Page Count: 8
Downloaded via Air to Dbox
downloaded  books  reviews  19thC  20thC  intellectual_history  US_history  US_politics  Douglass  Dubois  Dewey  political_philosophy  political_participation  domination  liberty  liberalism  republicanism  slavery  racial_discrimination  identity_politics  deliberative_democracy  democracy 
april 2017 by dunnettreader
Anna Foy - Grainger and the ‘Sordid Master’: Plantocratic Alliance in The Sugar-Cane and Its Manuscript (2017) | The Review of English Studies | Oxford Academic
Scholarship on James Grainger’s perceived alliance with the West Indian plantocracy in The Sugar-Cane has so far not assimilated relevant information from the poem’s extant manuscript. In an unpublished comment on Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments, Grainger rejects Smith’s characterization of planters as ‘sordid masters’ and plans his ‘vindication’ of planters accordingly. The published poem largely fulfils this plan: it argues that planters are not heritably incapable of moral sentiment, even as it accepts the Enlightenment’s institutional critique of slavery as a political system that cultivates bad moral habits in slave masters. Grainger relies on conjectural-historical reasoning then typical of Enlightenment moral philosophy, and he posits ‘probity’ as a bulwark against Creole degeneration. Manuscript evidence suggests further that Grainger sought probity in his own philosophical outlook. Although modern scholars have sometimes seen the poem as an attempt to win plantocratic favour, political references confirm that he took a position in the Canada-Guadeloupe controversy opposed to that of the powerful West India Interest. Moreover, during the course of composition, Grainger altered his portraits of planters to make them less flattering and more satirical—an editing process consistent with his apparent desire for philosophical impartiality. -- Downloaded via iPhone to Dbox
Enlightenment  English_lit  Virgil  Scottish_Enlightenment  Kames  poetry  moral_philosophy  article  downloaded  West_Indies  imitation  British_Empire  slavery  18thC  civic_virtue  Smith 
april 2017 by dunnettreader
Christopher Dickey - Confederate Madness Then and Now | The Daily Beast - July 216
Pimping his new book - history of British consul in Charleston who had a front row seat to the arrogant brutality of the slave-holding elite, how they were eager for secession if they didn't dominate the federal government, and thought that since King Cotton ruled the global economy, they'd be able to count on support from the European powers. His lead character, while socializing with the elites sent a steady stream of reports back to Foreign & Colonial about the real situation and the barbaric attitudes and conduct of those elites. - Dickey suggests that his guy's info made a difference in London anytime it looked there might be wavering in British policy- taking into account Britain’s immediate economic pain and/or assessment of how the Union was likely to prevail. He also apparently thinks his guy's reports in a few years before secession helped spur the British to accelerate the search for alternatives to the South as a supply source. -- The hook of the article is getting rid of the Confederate flag - and how, now as then, Southern leaders have been able to stir up racism among the lower class whites to see their culture under existential threat and pursue policies and violence that run counter to their objective interests. He wants to stop the elimination of Confederate commemoration to the flag - and leave the statues and monuments as a way of remembering the hideous moral monsters who drove the South to ruin. He doesn't address the issue of how those monuments will be used to glorify the "heroes" of the Lost Cayse.
Instapaper  US_history  US_politics  British_foreign_policy  US_Civil_War  slavery  abolition  slave_trade  cotton  Industrial_Revolution  US_politics-race  British_Navy  British_Empire  imperialism  global_economy  popular_culture  popular_politics  Southern_states  Confederacy  diplomatic_history  from instapaper
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Nancy L. Rhoden, review - William A. Pettigrew, Freedom's Debt: The Royal African Company and the Politics of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1672-1752 | H-Albion, H-Net Reviews. February, 2015.
As a study of the politics of the RAC and its independent slave trading opponents, this is a successful book. What it does particularly well is offer a “lens of politics” (p. 16) through which to understand the British slave trade, and the victory of separate traders concerning deregulation. It is equally strong on the British political context and its detailed understanding of how post-1688 political institutions and culture shaped responses on the slave trade. These are valuable contributions, particularly the argument that understandings of liberty and popular consent after the Glorious Revolution provided an effective ideology for both the deregulation of and the growth of the slave trade. Less convincing is the argument about the impact of the RAC on later British abolitionism, however much one might admire the attempt. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  17thC  18thC  1690s  1700s  1710s  Harley  British_history  British_politics  Atlantic  Royal_African_Co  slavery  monopolies  Parliament  parties  Glorious_Revolution  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Michael Mann, review essay on 8 books on slavery and abolition, especially in South Asia and British Empire | H-Net Reviews - Jan 2016
Michael Mann. Review of Campbell, Gwyn; Elizabeth Elbourne, Sex, Power, and Slavery and Campbell, Gwyn; Stanziani, Alessandro, Bonded Labour and Debt in the Indian Ocean World and Harms, Robert; Freamon, Bernard K.; Blight, David W., Indian Ocean Slavery in the Age of Abolition and Major, Andrea, Slavery, Abolitionism and Empire in India, 1772-1843 and Miller, Joseph, The Problem of Slavery as History: A Global Approach and Mulligan, William; Bric, Maurice, A Global History of Anti-Slavery Politics in the Nineteenth Century and Retzlaff, Carolin, »Wont the law give me my freedom?«: Sklaverei vor Gericht (1750-1800). H-Soz-u-Kult, H-Net Reviews. January, 2016. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  social_history  economic_history  political_history  18thC  19thC  slavery  Indian_Ocean  South_Asia  British_Empire  abolition  labor_history  globalization  transnational_elites  networks-exchange  networks-information  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Noeleen McIlvenna - The Short Life of Free Georgia: Class and Slavery in the Colonial South | UNC Press
For twenty years in the eighteenth century, Georgia--the last British colony in what became the United States--enjoyed a brief period of free labor, where workers were not enslaved and were paid. The Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia created a "Georgia experiment" of philanthropic enterprise and moral reform for poor white workers, though rebellious settlers were more interested in shaking off the British social system of deference to the upper class. Only a few elites in the colony actually desired the slave system, but those men, backed by expansionist South Carolina planters, used the laborers' demands for high wages as examples of societal unrest. Through a campaign of disinformation in London, they argued for slavery, eventually convincing the Trustees to abandon their experiment. In The Short Life of Free Georgia, Noeleen McIlvenna chronicles the years between 1732 and 1752 and challenges the conventional view that Georgia's colonial purpose was based on unworkable assumptions and utopian ideals. Rather, Georgia largely succeeded in its goals--until self-interested parties convinced England that Georgia had failed, leading to the colony's transformation into a replica of slaveholding South Carolina. -- Noeleen McIlvenna is associate professor of history at Wright State University and author of A Very Mutinous People
books  British_history  US_history  British_politics  18thC  1730s  1740s  1750s  Georgia  colonialism  settler_colonies  slavery  labor_history  labor_standards  wages  Tories  Board_of_Trade  Parliament  planters  plantations  agriculture  hierarchy  elites  philanthropy  political_culture  economic_culture  American_colonies 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Liam Hogan - The Myth of “Irish Slaves” in the Colonies (2015) | - Academia.edu
Recent years have seen the marked growth of the “Irish slaves” narrative, which is itself a subset of the “white slavery” myth. This myth has always existed in ultranationalist and white supremacist circles, and their promotion of it frequently occurs on social media. The myth has recently gone viral, partly due to the decision by popular newspapers and websites to endorse a spurious “Irish Slave Trade” article that conflates indentured servitude or forced labour with chattel slavery. Surprisingly, this claim has gone relatively unchallenged in the public domain, thus this paper will analyse its veracity. -- Research Interests: Irish Studies, Mythology, Slavery, Nationalism, History of Slavery, and 3 more -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  Academia.edu  17thC  18thC  British_history  British_Empire  Ireland-English_exploitation  West_Indies  North_America  American_colonies  colonialism  legal_history  slavery-Africans  slavery  slavery-law  property  Irish_migration  Ireland  racism  social_history  status  plantations  planters  national_tale  nationalism  white_supremacy  US_politics  US_politics-race  downloaded 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Jenny Shaw - Everyday Life in the Early English Caribbean: Irish, Africans, and the Construction of Difference (2013) | UGA Press
Set along both the physical and social margins of the British Empire in the second half of the 17thC, ...explores the construction of difference through the everyday life of colonial subjects. Shaw examines how marginalized colonial subjects — Irish and Africans — contributed to these processes. By emphasizing their everyday experiences Shaw makes clear that each group persisted in its own cultural practices; Irish and Africans also worked within — and challenged—the limits of the colonial regime. Shaw’s research demonstrates the extent to which hierarchies were in flux in the early modern Caribbean, allowing even an outcast servant to rise to the position of island planter, and underscores the fallacy that racial categories of black and white were the sole arbiters of difference in the early English Caribbean. The everyday lives of Irish and Africans are obscured by sources constructed by elites. Through her research, Shaw overcomes the constraints such sources impose by pushing methodological boundaries to fill in the gaps, silences, and absences that dominate the historical record. By examining legal statutes, census material, plantation records, travel narratives, depositions, interrogations, and official colonial correspondence, as much for what they omit as for what they include, Everyday Life in the Early English Caribbean uncovers perspectives that would otherwise remain obscured. This book encourages readers to rethink the boundaries of historical research and writing and to think more expansively about questions of race and difference in English slave societies.
books  kindle-available  17thC  British_history  British_Empire  West_Indies  colonialism  Irish_migration  indentured_labor  slavery  slavery-Africans  cultural_history  cultural_transmission  social_history  hierarchy  elite_culture  historiography  race 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Aubrey Gwynn - Indentured Servants and Negro Slaves in Barbados (1642-1650) | JSTOR - Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review Vol. 19, No. 74 (Jun., 1930)
Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review, Vol. 19, No. 74 (Jun., 1930), pp. 279-294, Published by: Irish Province of the Society of Jesus -- describes contents of a memoir of 3 years in West Indies, Barbados by a returned "gentleman adventurer", published in 1653 and reissued without dedicatiry material 1673 -- trained in engraving, architecture so detailed descriptions as well as drawings -- deals with topography, natural history, planter society with all the different countries of origin, classes, and the sugar industry from the slaves in fields to the machinery -- didn't download
article  jstor  17thC  economic_history  social_history  Atlantic  West_Indies  labor_history  English_Civil_War  plantations  planters  sugar  slavery  indentured_labor  British_history  British_Empire  Ireland-English_exploitation  Irish_migration  memoirs  publishing 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Sandy Levinson - The continuing relevance of Stephen A. Douglas: "Popular sovereignty," federalism, and moral relativism" | Balkinization - June 2015
Consider the following passages from the anguished dissents (..by) Scalia and Alito in Obergefell: [re their "indifference" re substance of SSM - notes how much this clashes with their Catholic beliefs that insist on moral absolutes determined by "natural law"] -- Federalism is (..) as a practical matter, as a means of acknowledging the diverse views we have about matters of political or social morality (..) there's much to said for this as a means for maintaining social peace, albeit at the cost of accepting the maintenance of what many might consider significant injustice in some of the states. But note well that what Scalia and Alito are doing is really reviving the theory of "popular sovereignty" best identified with the Little Giant Sen. Stephen A. Douglas with regard to the issue of slavery. (,.) Douglas professed himself indifferent to the moral critique of slavery. (..) What this translated into was the desirability of letting each state, as it joined the Union, make its own decision as to slavery or freedom. Somewhat more complicated was the right of the pre-state territory to make its own decision, in territorial legislatures, to welcome slaveowners. Douglas, to his political detriment, argued that they could place stumbling blocks in the way of the slaveowners, but, if they chose not to, that was all right too. The important thing was to recognize the fundamentally "federal" nature of the Union, a collection of people with decidedly different views about the legitimacy of owning other human beings as chattels, and to allow that decision to be made locally rather than on a one-size-fits-all national basis.
Instapaper  SCOTUS  constitutional_law  19thC  states_rights  federalism  slavery  morality-conventional  morality-divine_command  morality-Christian  rights-legal  natural_law  natural_rights  positivism-legal  Holmes  Douglas_Stephen  Lincoln  antebellum_era  abolition  marriage  Thomism  Thomism-21stC  Catholics  Papacy  from instapaper
june 2015 by dunnettreader
John Quiggin - John Locke Against Freedom | Jacobin - June 2015
For classical liberals (often called libertarians in the US context), the founding documents of liberalism are John Locke’s Second Treatise on Government and… (.. conclusion) Received ideas change only slowly, and the standard view of Locke as a defender of liberty is likely to persist for years to come. Still, the reassessment is underway, and the outcome is inevitable. Locke was a theoretical advocate of, and a personal participant in, expropriation and enslavement. His classical liberalism offers no guarantee of freedom to anyone except owners of capitalist private property.
Instapaper  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  US_history  political_philosophy  17thC  18thC  Locke-2_Treatises  Locke-religion  tolerance  property  property_rights  Native_Americans  slavery  American_colonies  Founders  liberalism  liberalism-republicanism_debates  liberty  liberty-negative  political_culture  Board_of_Trade  colonialism  from instapaper
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Justin E.H. Smith - Nature, Human Nature, and Human Difference: Race in Early Modern Philosophy (2015) | Princeton University Press
People have always been xenophobic, but an explicit philosophical and scientific view of human racial difference only began to emerge during the modern period. Why and how did this happen? Surveying a range of philosophical and natural-scientific texts, dating from the Spanish Renaissance to the German Enlightenment, (Smith) charts the evolution of the modern concept of race and shows that natural philosophy, particularly efforts to taxonomize and to order nature, played a crucial role. Smith demonstrates how the denial of moral equality between Europeans and non-Europeans resulted from converging philosophical and scientific developments, including a declining belief in human nature’s universality and the rise of biological classification. The racial typing of human beings grew from the need to understand humanity within an all-encompassing system of nature, alongside plants, minerals, primates, and other animals. While racial difference as seen through science did not arise in order to justify the enslavement of people, it became a rationalization and buttress for the practices of trans-Atlantic slavery. From the work of François Bernier to Leibniz, Kant, and others, Smith delves into philosophy’s part in the legacy and damages of modern racism. -- Smith is university professor of the history and philosophy of science at the Université Paris Diderot—Paris VII. ...author of Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life (PUP), coeditor and cotranslator of The Leibniz-Stahl Controversy -- downloaded introduction to Note -- only hdbk, will be in ebook
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june 2015 by dunnettreader
Joseph Adelson, review essay - What Caused Capitalism? | Foreign Affairs - May 2015
Once upon a time, smart people thought the world was flat. As globalization took off, economists pointed to spreading market forces that… Includes new Cambridge History of Capitalism, Mokyr Enlightened Economy, Acemoglu and Robinson Why Nations Fail, and Beckert Empire of Cotton -- contrasts tales that are, in broad brush, optimistic and internalist re origins (especially Mokyr) vs pessimistic and externalist (especially Cotton) -- copied to Instapaper
books  reviews  bookshelf  economic_history  capitalism  Great_Divergence  ancient_history  global_economy  global_history  global_system  Europe-Early_Modern  city_states  Italy  Spain  France  British_history  India  US_history  colonialism  imperialism  empires  institutional_economics  technology  development  Scientific_Revolution  Industrial_Revolution  industrialization  industrial_policy  US_Civil_War  slavery  property  property_rights  mercantilism  mercantilism-violence  Instapaper  markets  political_economy  economic_culture  economic_growth  from instapaper
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Michael Hudson - Finance Capital and Debt Through the Ages - The Unz Review - April 19, 2015
RSS Michael Hudson ColumnsAuthor ArchiveBy Michael Hudson • April 19, 2015 • 5,500 Words -- transcript of interview -YouTube Renegade Economics -- discussing newest book in a series of work over the past 20 years of colloquium organized by Peabody Museum, on development of economies in earliest societies and ancient civilizations --
economic_history  ancient_history  Bronze_Age  archaeology  ancient_Egypt  ancient_Near_East  credit  creditors  debt_crisis  debtors  debt-restructuring  labor_history  landowners  land_tax  public_goods  public_enterprise  property_rights  slavery  Bible-as-history  interest_rates  usury  Instapaper  from instapaper
may 2015 by dunnettreader
The Legacy of the U.S. Civil War: 150 Years Later - roundtable with historians | Cambridge University Press Blog - April 2015
Participants: Kathleen M. Hilliard  is the author of Masters, Slaves, and Exchange .  She is Assistant Professor in the Department of History at Iowa State… Quite interesting, both for their insights and for how the historiography of the US in the 19thC has changed -- not simply looking at social groups (both as actors and victims) who had been ignored, but that historiographical shifts in specialties (e.g. military history, or the connections between legal and political history) have changed or broadened the focus when it comes to the Civil War. Lots of links to CUP books as well as (unlinked) other books and papers. S
US_history  19thC  US_Civil_War  historiography-postWWII  historiography  military_history  social_history  cultural_history  digital_humanities  global_history  global_system  diplomatic_history  legal_history  constitutional_law  US_constitution  Congress  Lincoln  Confederacy  slavery  abolition  African-Americans  Native_Americans  Manifest_Destiny  frontier  industrialization  books  kindle-available  US_society  US_politics  US_government  US_legal_system  bibliography  Instapaper  from instapaper
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Branko Milanovic: Can Black Death explain the Industrial Revolution? | globalinequality - Jan 11 2015
re presentation by a young scholar at Santa Fe suggesting that Why England (and Dutch) due to higher wages in Northern Europe post Black Death in contrast with South where non market repression or property arrangements were able to push adjustment costs inti agricultural workers without impact on wage rates. Milanovic compares with other theoretical approaches ie Pomerantz, Acemoglu & Robinson, Robert Allen etc. Link to 2007 paper by Pamuk Milanovic thinks may be 1st work to seriously look at differential impact of Black Death on northern & southern Europe as distinct from the common story if Western vs Central and Eastern Europe.
economic_history  Great_Divergence  Industrial_Revolution  Black_Death  North-Weingast  landowners  demography  economic_sociology  labor  agriculture  wages  productivity  colonialism  medieval  14thC  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  institutional_economics  capital  capitalism  China  Japan  ancient_Rome  slavery  bibliography 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
WILLIAM A. PETTIGREW and GEORGE W. VAN CLEVE -- PARTING COMPANIES: THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION, COMPANY POWER, AND IMPERIAL MERCANTILISM. (2014). | The Historical Journal, 57, pp 617-638. Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
WILLIAM A. PETTIGREW - University of Kent and GEORGE W. VAN CLEVE - Seattle University School of Law --This article revisits the late seventeenth-century histories of two of England's most successful overseas trading monopolies, the East India and Royal African Companies. It offers the first full account of the various enforcement powers and strategies that both companies developed and stresses their unity of purpose in the seventeenth century. It assesses the complex effects that the ‘Glorious Revolution’ had on these powers and strategies, unearthing much new material about the case law for monopoly enforcement in this critical period and revising existing accounts that continue to assert the Revolution's exclusively deregulating effects and that miss crucial subtleties in the case law and related alterations in company behaviour. It asks why the two companies parted company as legal and political entities and offers an explanation that connects the fortunes of both monopoly companies to their public profile and differing constituencies in the English empire and the varying non-European political contexts in which they operated. -- * We warmly thank Michael R. T. Macnair for his indispensable advice and assistance regarding matters of seventeenth-century English law and are grateful to Clive Holmes for encouraging us to look into these issues and to Simon Douglas and Jeffrey Hackney for initial help in doing so. Paul Halliday, Daniel Hulsebosch, and Philip J. Stern provided helpful responses to specific research queries.
article  paywall  find  17thC  British_history  British_politics  economic_history  Glorious_Revolution  mercantilism  monopolies  trading_companies  East_India_Company  Royal_African_Co  colonialism  slavery  piracy  competition  parties  London  legal_history  judiciary  commercial_law  interest_groups  Whig_Junto  Tories  James_II  William_III  Parliament  institutional_economics  North-Weingast  regulation  West_Indies  ports  shipping  trade-policy  entrepôts  exports  imports  luxury_goods  consumers  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
John Millar, The Origin of the Distinction of Ranks [1771], ed. Aaron Garrett - Online Library of Liberty
John Millar, The Origin of the Distinction of Ranks; or, An Inquiry into the Circumstances which give rise to Influence and Authority in the Different Members of Society, edited and with an Introduction by Aaron Garrett (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2006). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/287> -- The Origin of the Distinction of Ranks is one of the major products of the Scottish Enlightenment and a masterpiece of jurisprudence and social theory. Millar developed a progressive account of the nature of authority in society by analyzing changes in subsistence, agriculture, arts, and manufacture. The book is perhaps the most precise and compact development of the abiding themes of the liberal wing of the Scottish Enlightenment. Drawing on Smith’s four-stages theory of history and the natural law’s traditional division of domestic duties into those toward servants, children, and women, Millar provides a rich historical analysis of the ways in which progressive economic change transforms the nature of authority. In particular, he argues that, with the progress of arts and manufacture, authority tends to become less violent and concentrated, and ranks tend to diversify. Millar’s analysis of this historical progress is nuanced and sophisticated; for example, his discussion of servants is perhaps the best developed of the “economic” arguments against slavery. -- 1st edition 1771 - he published 2 more in his lifetime, the latest edition being more "scientific", e.g. removing some references that were less reliable, more speculative, or not in keeping with a more sober tone -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  stadial_theories  social_order  social_sciences  social_process  change-social  political_economy  art_history  literary_history  civilizing_process  civil_society  family  authority  hierarchy  commerce  industry  trade  progress  slavery  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Fred Clark - This is not good news. This is not salvation. - George Whitefield, slavery advocate | Slacktavist June 2014
When Whitefield first founded his orphanage in 1738, slavery was illegal in the colony of Georgia. The evangelist was certain, however, that “hot countries cannot be cultivated without negroes,” and that legal slavery would be the key to making his endeavors there profitable. So George Whitfield — who was, as Christian History said, “probably the most famous religious figure of the 18th century” — began lobbying the crown and the trustees of the colony to make slavery legal there. Whitefield’s efforts were essential to that cause. Without his hard work, slavery might never have become legal in Georgia. Let that sink in. Ponder that — the immensity of it, the consequences of it, the incalculable toll and immeasurable injustice of it.
18thC  religious_history  religious_culture  British_history  British_politics  American_colonies  Great_Awakening-colonial  Anglican  Church_of_England  Evangelical  Methodist  slavery  Georgia  abolition  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Thomas D. Wilson - The Oglethorpe Plan: Enlightenment Design in Savannah and Beyond: (2012) | Amazon.com: Books
The statesman and reformer James Oglethorpe was a significant figure in the philosophical and political landscape of 18thC British America. His social contributions—all informed by Enlightenment ideals—included prison reform, the founding of the Georgia colony on behalf of the "worthy poor," and stirring the founders of the abolitionist movement. He also developed the famous ward design for the city of Savannah, a design that became one of the most important planning innovations in American history. Multilayered and connecting the urban core to peripheral garden and farm lots, the Oglethorpe Plan was intended by its author to both exhibit and foster his utopian ideas of agrarian equality. The professional planner Thomas D. Wilson reconsiders the Oglethorpe Plan, revealing that Oglethorpe was a more dynamic force in urban planning than has generally been supposed -- the Oglethorpe Plan embodies all of the major themes of the Enlightenment, including science, humanism, and secularism. The vibrancy of the ideas behind its conception invites an exploration of the plan's enduring qualities. In addition to surveying historical context and intellectual origins, this book aims to rescue Oglethorpe’s work from its relegation to the status of a living museum in a revered historic district, and to demonstrate instead potential links with New Urbanism and other more naturally evolving and socially engaged modes of urban development. -- only hdbk
books  18thC  British_history  Atlantic  American_colonies  Georgia  Enlightenment  cultural_history  social_history  intellectual_history  egalitarian  civic_humanism  civic_virtue  slavery  abolition  poverty  Poor_Laws  debtors  agriculture  urban_development  urbanization  prisons  improvement  secularism  republicanism  farmers  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
The Avalon Project : Charter of Georgia : 1732
Original charter for proprietary colony to be governed by trustees -- And our will and pleasure is, that the first president of the said corporation is and shall be our trusty and well-beloved, the said Lord John Viscount Percival; ... And our will and pleasure is, and we, by these presents, for us, our heirs, and successors, grant, ordain, and direct, that the common council of this corporation shall consist of fifteen in number; and we do, by these presents, nominate, constitute, and appoint our right - trusty and well-beloved John Lord Viscount Percival, our trusty and beloved Edward Digby, George Carpenter, James Oglethorpe, George Heathcote, Thomas Laroche, James Vernon, William Beletha, esqrs., and Stephen Hales, Master of Arts, to be the common council of the said corporation, to continue in the said office during their good behavior. And whereas it is our royal intention, that the members of the said corporation should be increased by election, as soon as conveniently may be, to a greater number than is hereby nominated; Our further will and pleasure is, and we do hereby, for us, our heirs and successors, ordain and direct, that from the time of such increase of the members of the said corporation, the number of the said common council shall be increased to twenty-four; ...in order to preserve an indifferent rotation of the several offices, of president of the corporation, and of chairman of the common council of the said corporation we do direct and ordain that all and every the person and persons, members of the said common council for the time being, and no other, being present at such meetings, shall severally and respectively in their turns, preside at the meetings which shall from time to time be held of the said corporation, or of the common council of the said corporation respectively:
etexts  18thC  British_history  Atlantic  American_colonies  Georgia  slavery  1730s  corporate_governance  legal_history  British_Empire-constitutional_structure  UK_government-colonies  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Abigail Swingen, review - Sheryllynne Haggerty. "Merely for Money"? Business Culture in the British Atlantic, 1750-1815 | H-Net Reviews
Haggerty demonstrates that successful merchants in the 18thC British Atlantic world operated in a culture that had socially constructed expectations for their behavior. Those who did not conform to that culture could find themselves left out of it altogether. This is most effectively demonstrated in her chapter on obligation. ...“obligation” did not simply reflect the necessity to pay off a debt. For some larger merchant houses, it meant not calling in debts too quickly especially at times of crisis -- 18thC merchants, although largely self-regulating, expected and desired a certain level of regulation and protection from the British state. This was especially true in terms of overseas and colonial trades. ...merchants felt that the state was “obligated” to protect them, considering the various ways they contributed to the imperial economy. --ultimately one questions how these crises, and the sophisticated ways the merchants responded to them, compared to earlier similar moments of upheaval. Overseas (especially colonial) merchants had formed lobbying groups, both informal and formal, since at least the late17thC, as the work of Alison Olson and Will Pettigrew demonstrates. Because there is little consideration of change over time, however, one does not get a clear sense of the overall significance of the period in question. -- one is left wondering about the broader implications of the ways in which merchants confronted and negotiated with the “formal” empire. The merchants were caught up in a transformative period in the transition to a global capitalist economy. -- high marks for archival work and applying Greif (new institutional_economics) and folks like Hobbit re business concepts
books  reviews  economic_history  18thC  19thC  British_history  British_politics  Atlantic  West_Indies  American_colonies  American_Revolution  slavery  merchants  mercantilism  protectionism  credit  creditors  trade-policy  trade_finance  British_Empire  British_foreign_policy  interest_groups  economic_culture  institutional_economics  obligation  business-and-politics  capitalism  globalization  global_economy  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Mark Noll, review essay - His Kingdom Stretch from Shore to Shore - Christianity worldwide 16thC-18thC | Books and Culture
Books review : David Hempton, The Church in the Long Eighteenth Century: The I.B.Tauris History of the Christian Church; Dale T. Irvin, ed, History of the World Christian Movement, Vol. 2: Modern Christianity from 1454-1800 -- .. intriguing that books written for such different ends coalesce in making some of the same larger judgments. Both books, thus, stress the delicate interplay between Christian expansion outside Europe and the fragmentation of Christianity within Europe. ...how, as divisions within Europe hardened between Catholics and Protestants, and soon between established churches and sectarian opponents of state churches, Christianity became the genuinely world religion. Hempton is equally perceptive on how 18th-century Europe witnessed intellectual, social, and political "challenges from which Christianity at least among educated elites, has never fully recovered," even as Western Protestants initiated the missionary efforts that successfully planted Christian faith around the globe. Both books also agree that the Jesuits were the era's most farsighted and effective "world Christians." ..the particular disaster for Latin America when Spanish and Portuguese officials sent the Jesuits packing in order to preserve the top-down, exploitative, and often syncretistic faith that best served the colonizers' interests. And they record the significance of the Moravians—so to speak, married Jesuits with children—who pushed Protestants beyond the identification of Christianity as such with European Christianity. The books are also agreed that the great Christian scandal of the early modern era was slavery. - ... both books clarify what most centrally defines the Christian faith itself. For Hempton it is the recognition at "the most profound level that Christianity is in its essence a missionary religion." For Irvin and Sunquist, it is the claim that Christian faith can never be adequately grasped except as a "world movement." Walls describes this dual character as "the indigenous principle" in constant tension with "the pilgrim principle."
books  reviews  religious_history  Christianity  16thC  17thC  18thC  exploration  colonialism  missionaries  Jesuits  Moravians  Reformation  Counter-Reformation  religious_culture  religious_belief  Latin_America  Africa  African_trade  West_Indies  China  querelle_des_rites  theology  heterodoxy  Papacy  sectarianism  slavery  Enlightenment  Spanish_Empire  universalism  monotheism  intellectual_history  social_history  church_history  enthusiasm  spirituality  self  rational_religion  ecclesiology  Protestants  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
ANTHONY PAGE - RATIONAL DISSENT, ENLIGHTENMENT, AND ABOLITION OF THE BRITISH SLAVE TRADE | JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 54, No. 3 (SEPTEMBER 2011), pp. 741-772
Following British abolition of the slave trade in 1807, the origins and nature of popular abolitionism have been much debated among historians. Traditionally, religion was seen as the driving force, with an emphasis on the role of Quakers and evangelicals, whilst in the twentieth century social historians began to stress the importance of economic and social change. This article revises both interpretations by helping to recover and analyse the abolitionism of enlightened Rational Dissenters. Legal inequality and their 'rational piety' encouraged heterodox Dissenters to become active in a wide range of reformist causes. Owing to evangelical dominance in the nineteenth century, however, the role of Rational Dissenters was marginalized in histories of abolitionism. Recovering Rational Dissenting abolitionism underlines the importance of religion in the campaign against the slave trade. Since Rational Dissent was to a large extent a religion of the commercial classes, this article also sheds light on the hotly debated relationship between capitalism and abolition. -- extensive bibliography on jstor information page -- paywall Cambridge journals -- a return to Clark's view of radical dissent as revolutionary force in Ancien Regime Britain
article  jstor  paywall  historians-and-religion  revisionism  intellectual_history  religious_history  religious_culture  politics-and-religion  18thC  British_history  British_politics  Atlantic  West_Indies  American_colonies  slavery  dissenters  Radical_Enlightenment  Price_Richard  Priestley  abolition  radicals  reform-political  reform-social  merchants  capitalism  middle_class  ClarkJonathan  Evangelical  conservatism  counter-revolution  bibliography  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
N. Draper - The City of London and Slavery: Evidence from the First Dock Companies, 1795-1800 | JSTOR: The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 61, No. 2 (May, 2008), pp. 432-466
Through analysing the composition of the founding shareholders in the West India and London Docks, this article explores the connections between the City of London and the slave economy on the eve of the abolition of the slave trade. It establishes that over one-third of docks investors were active in slave-trading, slave-ownership, or the shipping, trading, finance, and insurance of slave produce. It argues that the slave economy was neither dominant nor marginal, but instead was fully integrated into the City's commercial and financial structure, contributing materially alongside other key sectors to the foundations of the nineteenth-century City. -- huge bibliography -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  political_economy  economic_history  17thC  18thC  British_history  British_politics  Atlantic  West_Indies  American_colonies  slavery  abolition  London  ports  trade  merchants  planters  investors  shipping  finance_capital  insurance  City  City_politics  Industrial_Revolution  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Nicholas Hudson - "Britons Never Will be Slaves": National Myth, Conservatism, and the Beginnings of British Antislavery | Eighteenth-Century Studies 34.4 (2001) 559-576 - Project MUSE
According to a virtual consensus in modern scholarship on the abolition of slavery, this event marked a historic victory for nonconformist, radical, or otherwise antiestablishment elements in British culture. A recent historian has connected the rise of antislavery with "Wilkite" tendencies in the British middle class, and others have located abolitionism in a "reform complex" devoted to the radical overhaul of the British political system. It has been widely assumed that British slavery was generally excused by the established Anglican church and that the abolitionist movement was dominated by "Quakers, evangelicals and Rational Dissenters." -- This scholarship exemplifies a "Whig" historiography that routinely looks for the sources of social change in the attack of peripheral or nontraditional groups on the center. -- the most resonant voices against slavery during the 18thC belonged to men and women with strong backgrounds in the Anglican Church and conservative views on social and political issues in Britain. These include Samuel Johnson, William Warburton, Edmund Burke, ... -- we find that these humanitarian objections emerged from within the groups and ideologies that conceived of Britain as fundamentally Anglican, royal, and hierarchical. -- it is, in fact, inaccurate to identify mainstream British values with the merchants and colonists who controlled the slave-trade. As I will contend, antislavery took shape amidst an essentially ideological conflict about the very nature of "Britain" between proponents of unbridled free-market capitalism and the essentially conservative and traditionalist outlook of those who wished to contain capitalism within the constraints of morality, religion, and their patriotic image of Britons as a freedom-loving people. -- copy 1st 2 pages in Simple Note
article  Project_MUSE  paywall  find  18thC  British_history  British_politics  Atlantic  West_Indies  American_colonies  slavery  dissenters  Radical_Enlightenment  Whigs-oligarchy  Whigs-Radicals  Whigs-opposition  Tories  national_ID  British_Empire  abolition  plantations  planters  Anglican  Royalists  Wilkes  Johnson  Warburton  Burke  conservatism  historiography-Whig  nationalism  merchants  finance_capital  moral_economy  political_economy  capitalism  patriotism  Patriots  Patriot_King  Bolingbroke  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Common-place: Trevor Burnard - The American Revolution, the West Indies, and the Future of Plantation British America
Conference presentation -- One lesson that British imperialists refused to learn from the American Revolution was that the prejudices of settler elites needed to be respected...The British Empire from the 1780s onward became more, not less, authoritarian and became ever more dependent upon metropolitan direction exercised tightly among a close group of initiates experienced in plantation affairs... Such imperial obstinacy proved especially problematic for West Indian planters. Britain acted less consultatively and less in the interests of West Indians after the American Revolution than before. In 1784, for example, against strong West Indian protests, they severed the West Indies economically from North America by insisting on recognizing the United States of America as a foreign nation whose ships should be banned from British ports. For the first time in the 18thC, and increasingly thereafter, West Indian lobbyists in London found themselves unable to get their way in West Indian policy matters. This diminished political influence, moreover, was combined with a British tendency to see West Indian planters less as gauche nouveau riches who brought material benefits to the Empire than as crude, cruel, sexually lascivious deviants. Metropolitan opinion saw West Indian planters as given to "mongrelisation" in their relations with black women. As a consequence, they were thought to be intellectually and morally bankrupt. It was not economics but politics that was the real problem facing the West Indies after the American Revolution.
18thC  19thC  British_politics  British_Empire  British_Empire-constitutional_structure  West_Indies  planters  plantations  slavery  Parliament  Parliamentary_supremacy  trade-policy  racialism  abolition  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Common-place: Kathleen DuVal - A Revolutionary Future
Presentation from conference - Historians' second goal in changing the terms of debate is to write new synthetic narratives, to tell the whole story differently. -- I would start with the question of how North Americans on the eve of the Revolution expected the future to look. I think we would find startling agreement across North America, if we maintain a sufficiently broad focus. People expected multiple sovereignties to rule the continent, as had been the case long before Europeans and Africans arrived. -- Slavery would continue, as most people believed it had throughout the world since the beginning of time, but few would have imagined either the huge scale of antebellum plantation slavery or the movement to abolish slavery altogether. -- From that starting place, we might explore various paths through the Revolutionary War and beyond, keeping an eye on different people's visions of what the world should be like (a question inherently both self-interested and ideological) through the vagaries of a war that might change those visions and ambitions along the way. The punchline would be that almost all of these visions were wrong. The republican empire that came out of the American Revolution and early republic developed both a power over the continent that no one predicted and the kind of rhetoric and promise that attracted immigration from around the world. In some ways, I would argue, the most important story of the American Revolution is how the more likely nineteenth century failed to come about.
historiography  US_history  American_colonies  American_Revolution  Early_Republic  18thC  19thC  nation-state  institution-building  Native_Americans  Manifest_Destiny  slavery  abolition 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Common-place: Ed Countryman - What Changed During the American Revolution?
Presentation at conference - included neat stories re colonial maps contesting space as colonial administrators, local elites and various Indian tribes claimed the same spaces From the beginning, Europe's children in America connected themselves with both Native people and Africans. The mature colonial order presented one set of such connections, turning ultimately on space; the young Republic presented another set, turning ultimately on slavery. Neither was a European problem at all. The Revolution replaced a colonial-era landscape of contested spaces with triumphalist notions about an Empire of Liberty, Manifest Destiny, and the Moving Frontier, in which Native people became mere "Indians Not Taxed" and, later, "domestic dependent nations." It also turned slavery from an accepted, universal fact into a pressing issue, opening a breach into which Black Americans stepped, and raising the question of whether, should slavery end, they would belong to the Republic as citizens or, like Indians, be excluded from it.
US_history  18thC  American_colonies  American_Revolution  British_Empire-constitutional_structure  British_Empire  Board_of_Trade  diplomatic_history  sovereignty  indigenous_peoples  Native_Americans  slavery  African-Americans  citizens  Manifest_Destiny  landowners  maps  historiography  spatial  geography  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Lincoln Mullen · Mapping the Spread of American Slavery - May 2014
As I see it, one of the main problems for the historians’ method today is the problem of scale. How can we understand the past at different chronological and geographical scales? How can we move intelligibly between looking at individuals and looking at the Atlantic World, between studying a moment and studying several centuries? Maps can help, especially interactive web maps that make it possible to zoom in and out, to represent more than one subject of interest, and to set representations of the past in motion in order to show change over time. I have created an interactive map of the spread of slavery in the United States from 1790 to 1860. Using Census data available from the NHGIS, the visualization shows the population of slaves, of free African Americans, of all free people, and of the entire United States. It also shows those subjects as population densities and percentages of the population. For any given variable, the scales are held constant from year to year so that the user can see change over time.
historiography  digital_humanities  US_history  slavery  18thC  19thC  maps  change-social  historical_sociology  spatial  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Kenan Malik's 2009 Voltaire lecture on 'The Guilt of Science?: Race, Science and Darwinism'
By the end of the eighteenth century, then, scientists had constructed a taxonomy of nature into which humans could be fitted and out of which emerged the categories of race. This seems to lend credibility to the view that it is modernity itself, and in particular the Enlightenment, that give rise both to the idea of race and to the practice of racism. ‘Eighteenth century Europe was the cradle of racism’, the historian George Mosse, argues because ‘racism has its foundations’ in the Enlightenment ‘preoccupation with a rational universe, nature and aesthetics.’ To see why this is not the case, we need to look more closely at how Enlightenment thinkers viewed the concept of human differences. -- If any event could demonstrate the folly of giving into unreason, it is surely Nazism and the Holocaust. Yet now it is regarded as an expression of too much reason.There is no intrinsic link between the idea of race and a rational or scientific view of the world. On the contrary: what made ideas of race plausible were the growth of political sentiments hostile to both the rationalism and the humanism of the Enlightenment.
intellectual_history  cultural_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  racialism  species  biology  evolutionary_biology  Enlightenment  Counter-Enlightenment  Enlightenment_Project  humanism  anti-humanism  reason  Nazis  Holocaust  imperialism  slavery  civilizing_process  human_nature  diversity  historiography-18thC  social_theory  Social_Darwinism  Herder  Linnaeus  Locke  essentialism  essence  climate  stadial_theories  Romanticism  social_order  progress  atheism_panic  authority  class_conflict  bourgeoisie  liberalism  capitalism  equality  stratification  scientism  science_of_man  science-and-religion  positivism  social_sciences  France  Britain  British_Empire  Germany  Great_Powers  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Other People's Pathologies - Ta-Nehisi Coates - The Atlantic
Chait endorses a blunter approach: "The circa-2008 Ta-Nehisi Coates was neither irresponsible nor immoral. Rather, he had grown up around cultural norms that inhibited economic success. People are the products of their environment. Environments are amenable to public policy. Some of the most successful anti-poverty initiatives, like the Harlem Children’s Zone or the KIPP schools, are designed around the premise that children raised in concentrated poverty need to be taught middle class norms." No, they need to be taught that all norms are not transferable into all worlds. In my case, physical assertiveness might save you on the street but not beyond it. At the same time, other values are transferrable and highly useful. The "cultural norms" of my community also asserted that much of what my country believes about itself is a lie. In the spirit of Frederick Douglass, Ida B. Wells, and Malcolm X, it was my responsibility to live, prosper, and attack the lie. Those values saved me on the street, and they sustain me in this present moment. People who take a strict binary view of culture ("culture of privilege = awesome; culture of poverty = fail") are afflicted by the provincialism of privilege and thus vastly underestimate the dynamism of the greater world. They extoll "middle-class values" to the ignorance and exclusion of all others. To understand, you must imagine what it means to confront algebra in the morning and "Shorty, can I see your bike?" in the afternoon. It's very nice to talk about "middle-class values" when that describes your small, limited world. But when your grandmother lives in one hood and your coworkers live another, you generally need something more than "middle-class values." You need to be bilingual.
US_history  slavery  cultural_capital  culture-American  poverty  cities  middle_class  US_Civil_War  Jim_Crow  racism  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Patchen Markell - The Insufficiency of Non-Domination | JSTOR: Political Theory, Vol. 36, No. 1 (Feb., 2008), pp. 9-36
This essay argues that the neo-Roman republican principle of "non-domination," as developed in the recent work of Philip Pettit, cannot serve as a single overarching political ideal, because it responds to only one of two important dimensions of concern about human agency. Through critical engagements with several aspects of Pettit's work, ranging from his philosophical account of freedom as "discursive control" to his appropriation of the distinction between dominium and imperium, the essay argues that the idea of domination, which responds to concerns about "control," needs to be supplemented by the idea of usurpation, which responds to questions about "involvement"; and it shows how attention to both domination and usurpation (and to the interaction between them) can shed light on such phenomena as imperialism, slavery, and democracy. -- didn't download
article  jstor  political_philosophy  neo-republicanism  Pettit  domination  liberty-positive  imperialism  slavery  democracy  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Horacio Spector - Four Conceptions of Freedom | JSTOR: Political Theory, Vol. 38, No. 6 (December 2010), pp. 780-808
Contemporary political philosophers discuss the idea of freedom in terms of two distinctions: Berlin's famous distinction between negative and positive liberty, and Skinner and Pettit's divide between liberal and republican liberty. In this essay I proceed to recast the debate by showing that there are two strands in liberalism, Hobbesian and Lockean, and that the latter inherited its conception of civil liberty from republican thought. I also argue that the contemporary debate on freedom lacks a perspicuous account of the various conceptions of freedom, mainly because it leaves aside the classic contrast between natural liberty and civil liberty. Once we consider both the negative/positive distinction and the natural/civil one, we can classify all conceptions of freedom within four basic irreducible categories. In light of the resulting framework I show that there are two distinct conceptions of republican liberty, natural and civil, and that the former is coupled with an ideal of individual self-control. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  liberty  liberalism  liberalism-republicanism_debates  republicanism  neo-republicanism  liberty-negative  liberty-positive  domination  slavery  natural_rights  civil_liberties  Hobbes  Locke  Berlin_Isaiah  Skinner  Pettit  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Rowan Strong - A Vision of an Anglican Imperialism: The Annual Sermons of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts 1701–1714 | Journal of Religious History 2006 - Wiley Online Library
This article examines the first two decades of the oldest continuing Anglican missionary society, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, founded in 1710. It argues that, contrary to the prevailing historiography of the British missionary movement, this early eighteenth-century society was genuinely evangelistic and marks the real beginning of that movement. The society also marks the beginning of a formal, institutional engagement by the Church of England with the British Empire. In the Society's annual anniversary sermons, and influenced by the reports sent by its ordained missionaries in North America, the Church of England's metropolitan leadership in England constructed an Anglican discourse of empire. In this discourse the Church of England began to fashion the identities of colonial populations of Indigenous peoples, white colonists, and Black slaves through a theological Enlightenment understanding.
article  Wiley  paywall  religious_history  church_history  imperialism  18thC  1700s  1710s  British_Empire  Church_of_England  missionaries  Evangelical  slavery  ethnic_ID  American_colonies  Berkeley  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
James Farr - Locke, Natural Law, and New World Slavery | JSTOR: Political Theory, Vol. 36, No. 4 (Aug., 2008), pp. 495-522
This essay systematically reformulates an earlier argument about Locke and new world slavery, adding attention to Indians, natural law, and Locke's reception. Locke followed Grotian natural law in constructing a just-war theory of slavery. Unlike Grotius, though, he severely restricted the theory, making it inapplicable to America. It only fit resistance to "absolute power" in Stuart England. Locke was nonetheless an agent of British colonialism who issued instructions governing slavery. Yet they do not inform his theory--or vice versa. This creates hermeneutical problems and raises charges of racism. If Locke deserves the epithet "racist," it is not for his having a racial doctrine justifying slavery. None of this makes for a flattering portrait. Locke's reputation as the champion of liberty would not survive the contradictions in which new world slavery ensnared him. Evidence for this may be found in Locke's reception, including by Southern apologists for slavery.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  17thC  British_history  colonialism  American_colonies  West_Indies  indigenous_peoples  Native_Americans  Africa  slavery  Locke  Grotius  natural_law  just_war  conquest  liberty  individualism  liberalism  Southern_states  abolition  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Review by: Janet Sorensen - Poems of Nation, Anthems of Empire: English Verse in the Long 18thC by Suvir Kaul | JSTOR: The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, Vol. 102, No. 3 (Jul., 2003), pp. 444-446
Looks quite interesting - sees historicist and colonial interlinked - close readings get at both a nationalist imperialism, anxiety re imperialism, the translatio imperii tradition, and concerns of empire,slavery, over extension etc -- starts with Marvell and Dryden, works through the long baggy poems, looking at their different roles and status relative to other writing by the close of the 18thC
books  reviews  17thC  18thC  English_lit  poetry  British_Empire  commerce  nationalism  national_ID  imperialism  colonialism  slavery  Marvell  Dryden  Pope  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Joshua Foa Dienstag - Serving God and Mammon: The Lockean Sympathy in Early American Political Thought | JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 90, No. 3 (Sep., 1996), pp. 497-511
This paper seeks to revive the old theory of a "Lockean consensus" in early American political thought against the prevailing "republican" view. The language of "virtue" and "slavery," which was pervasive at the time of the founding, and which many have been eager to take as evidence for the influence of civic humanism, in fact has a perfectly plain Lockean provenance. This is established first through a reexamination of Locke that links his account of virtue to a Christian asceticism (i.e., the Protestant Ethic) rather than republican philosophy. That the founders understood virtue in this way is then established through an exploration of Adams and Jefferson. In both cases, it was a Lockean slavery which they feared and a Lockean virtue which they sought. A Lockean sympathy did exist among the founders; in order to understand it, however, it must be distinguished from modern liberalism, with which it has only tenuous connections.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  American_colonies  American_Revolution  Early_Republic  Jefferson  Adams_John  slavery  civic_virtue  Locke  liberalism-republicanism_debates  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Eric Herschthal, review: JMacG Burns, Fire and Light: How the Enlightenment Transformed Our World - American Enlightenment! Which American Enlightenment? « The Junto
See comments thread for interesting historiography remarks -- Every historian struggles with when to end his narrative; Burns is no different. But by including much of the nineteenth century, he sets himself up with a challenge few would bother to take on. Capitalism and industrialization defined the century, and preceding century’s Enlightenment ideas—Adam Smith’s notion of free trade; the scientific method—undeniably set its foundations. But Burns fails to distinguish between what ideas have their roots in the Enlightenment, and what actually constitutes the Enlightenment itself. Lacking any coherent definition, even Karl Marx makes the cut: after all, Burns argues, wasn’t he also optimistic about social progress?, about the promise of education?, that economics could be a science? With abstractions like these, the Enlightenment can mean almost anything...... Despite Burns’ progressive spirit—no clearer than in his frequent attention to the poor—Fire and Light ultimately basks in a certain cultural smugness. Democracy, and all the principles upon which it’s based, are the West’s unique heritage. Anyone fighting against authoritarian regimes, be it capitalism or despotism, are now fighting for our cause. For Burns, the Arab Spring is a case in point. In truth the struggle against oppression is nothing unique to the West, and the battles in Aleppo and Cairo are certainly about much more than democracy. But by Burns’ logic, others can do all the fighting, but the West should get the credit. It is exactly this sense of superiority that the Enlightenment fortified in many of its thinkers that blinded them to their own destructive habits. Burns simply absorbs and perpetuates this attitude, blinded by all the fire and light.
books  kindle-available  reviews  intellectual_history  political_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  US_history  British_history  British_Empire  American_colonies  American_Revolution  French_Revolution  Jacobins  egalitarian  democracy  slavery  Founders  US_constitution  Western_civ  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Kenan Malik - A BOOK IN PROGRESS [PART 3]: ON STOICISM, FREE WILL & FATE | Pandaemonium April 2011
Nice summary of the Stoic origins of the theodicy, fate,beneficent Providence, and free will tangle - distinction between free will as responsibility and as agency in sense of changing the world - difference in approach to virtue and material condition from Aristotle's aristocratic approach - poor or slave as potentially virtuous
intellectual_history  moral_philosophy  ancient_philosophy  Stoicism  fate  Providence  determinism  free_will  slavery  elites  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Robert E. Brown – How did America’s Political Rhetoric Become so Biblical? | The Marginalia Review of Books Oct 2013
At first glance James Byrd’s Sacred Scripture, Sacred War and Eran Shalev’s American Zion bear little connection to King’s rhetorical strategy, not to mention his pacifism. And yet, they show how early forms of national discourse set the stage for the religiously-inflected political language that has characterized American life for the better part of two centuries. They also illuminate, by way of contrast, the rather dramatic shift away from such rhetoric within the public square in the last half of the twentieth century as religion has become a less plausible means of building consensus for civic causes
books  reviews  US_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  American_colonies  American_Revolution  Early_Republic  political_culture  politics-and-religion  rhetoric  politics-and-history  rhetoric-political  communitarian  individualism  chosen_people  slavery  EF-add 
october 2013 by dunnettreader
JONATHAN KAY, review: Jesse Walker, "The United States of Paranoia: A Conspiracy Theory" - A Nation of Birthers | The American Conservative August 2013
Jesse Walker, books editor for Reason, supplies a needed counterpoint in The United States of Paranoia. The author does not try to defend the unhinged theories spouted by the likes of Jones and Glenn Beck. Instead, he argues that U.S. political culture, on all sides, has been infused with a spirit of wild-eyed fear-mongering since the nation’s founding. Paranoia isn’t a hallmark of conservatism. It’s a hallmark of America.

The Founding Fathers themselves were big-time conspiracy-mongers, Walker reports. George Washington, for instance, accused the Brits of hatching “a regular Systematick Plan” to turn colonists into “tame & abject Slaves.” Much of this over-the-top language found its way into the Declaration of Independence, which presented George III as a sort of 18th-century Stalin.
books  reviews  US_history  US_politics  American_colonies  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  paranoid_politics  Puritans  slavery  American_Revolution  Early_Republic  Native_Americans  libertarianism  Obama  conservatism  right-wing  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Eliga H. Gould - Entangled Atlantic Histories: A Response from the Anglo-American Periphery (2007)
JSTOR: The American Historical Review, Vol. 112, No. 5 (Dec., 2007), pp. 1415-1422 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- overview of shifts in Atlantic historiography re center periphery relations and much more going on in periphery especially where interacts with indigenous populations and other empires
article  jstor  historiography  American_colonies  West_Indies  British_Empire  Three_Kingdoms  Ireland  Scotland  Spanish_Empire  Africa  Dutch  Native_Americans  slavery  political_history  political_culture  British_politics  maritime_history  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Paul E. Lovejoy and David Richardson: 'This Horrid Hole': Royal Authority, Commerce and Credit at Bonny, 1690-1840 (2004)
JSTOR: The Journal of African History, Vol. 45, No. 3 (2004), pp. 363-392 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- This article suggests that differences in local political structures and credit protection regimes largely account for Bonny's displacement of Old Calabar as the principal slave port of the Bight of Biafra in the eighteenth century, despite Bonny's reputation for being particularly unhealthy for Europeans. We argue that this displacement occurred in the 1730s, several decades earlier than previously thought. We suggest that this was made possible by the early growth and consolidation of royal authority at Bonny. The use of state authority to enforce credit arrangements in Bonny proved more effective than the mechanisms adopted at its closest rival, Old Calabar, where, in the absence of a centralized political authority similar to the monarchy at Bonny, credit protection before 1807 was based on pawnship.
article  jstor  economic_history  economic_sociology  institutional_economics  17thC  18thC  19thC  Africa  Britain  British_Empire  slavery  trade  credit  finance_capital  Atlantic  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Robert Brenner and Christopher Isett: England's Divergence from China's Yangzi Delta: Property Relations, Microeconomics, and Patterns of Development (2002)
JSTOR: The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 61, No. 2 (May, 2002), pp. 609-662 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- a Marxian attack on Pomeranz moving the Divergence to the 19thC and assigning imperialism access to resources, especially slave economies, for difference
article  jstor  Great_Divergence  economic_history  economic_growth  social_history  social_theory  historical_sociology  property  imperialism  American_colonies  Early_Republic  US_economy  Atlantic  British_Empire  India  China  slavery  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Franco Venturi: Oriental Despotism (1963)
JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Jan. - Mar., 1963), pp. 133-142 -- Venturi extends the tale told by Koebnerbeyond Montesquieu and Voltaire to the Physiocrats who tried to use it in a positive fashion that didn't take, and then works by French and English travelers with long experience in the purported Oriental despotic empires. They tried to disprove the exaggerated and false notions of political despotism. The debates further focused on property rights, and how close an analogy to feudalism was appropriate. The discussion continued into 19thC especially re British Empire relations with areas that came under imperial control. But the Oriental despotism meme now seems eternal myth that will not die.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  historiography  Ottomans  China  India  imperialism  despotism  property_rights  liberty  feudalism  slavery  17thC  18thC  19thC  France  British_Empire  Montesquieu  Hobbes  Voltaire  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Common-place: Web Library
American Antiquarian Society: The Common-place Web Library reviews and lists online resources and Websites likely to be of interest to our viewers. Each quarterly issue will feature one or more brief site reviews. The library itself will be an ongoing enterprise with regular new additions and amendments.
Atlantic  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  colonialism  imperialism  British_Empire  France  Spain  US_history  slavery  links  historiography  social_history  cultural_history 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Darcy R. Fryer: The Challenges of Studying, and Teaching, Atlantic World History | Common-place Summer 2013
American Antiquarian Society webzine ...
Designing an Atlantic world course, which I first taught in 2006-2007, was an intellectual experiment for me, as I imagine it is for most who teach Atlantic world history. As a graduate student, I specialized in early American history and did my supporting coursework in early modern European history; I never opened a book on colonial Latin America, and although the Caribbean figured regularly in seminar discussions, I didn't study it in a systematic way. When, around 2005, I searched the Web for sample syllabi, it struck me that other historians were suffering from similar limitations. Most of the "Atlantic World" syllabi I found were really syllabi of the British Atlantic; others were essentially syllabi of the French Atlantic. Few crossed national lines in more than a token manner.
bibliography  Atlantic  16thC  17thC  18thC  colonialism  British_Empire  British_history  US_history  Spain  France  Latin_America  slavery  West_Indies  social_history  cultural_history  economic_history  historiography  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Climate, ecosystem resilience, and the slave trade | vox
Fascinating. Warmer years reduced agricultural productivity. Since reduced ability of local elites to extract resources needed to manage slave trade, reduced number of slaves exported. Which improved odds of long-term development, despite the negative impact on development of the reduced climate-induced productivity and increased mortality.
economic_history  economic_growth  Africa  slavery  climate  elites  population  social_theory 
june 2013 by dunnettreader

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