dunnettreader + science_of_man   11

Jonathan Sheehan - Thinking about Idols in Early Modern Europe - Issue Introduction (2006) | JSTOR - Journal of the History of Ideas
Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 67, No. 4 (Oct., 2006), pp. 561-570 **--** Articles in issue on idolatry *--* Jonathan Sheehan, Introduction: Thinking about Idols in Early Modern Europe (pp. 561-570) *-* Joan-Pau Rubiés, Theology, Ethnography, and the Historicization of Idolatry (pp. 571-596) *--* Carina L. Johnson, Idolatrous Cultures and the Practice of Religion (pp. 597-622) *--* Sabine MacCormack, Gods, Demons, and Idols in the Andes (pp. 623-648) *--* Jonathan Sheehan, The Altars of the Idols: Religion, Sacrifice, and the Early Modern Polity (pp. 649-674) *--* Peter N. Miller, History of Religion Becomes Ethnology: Some Evidence from Peiresc's Africa (pp. 675-696) *--* Martin Mulsow, Idolatry and Science: Against Nature Worship from Boyle to Rüdiger, 1680-1720 (pp. 697-712) -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  journal  jstor  intellectual_history  religious_history  cultural_history  16thC  17thC  18thC  exploration  colonialism  religious_culture  religious_belief  religious_experience  ritual  idolatry  political_philosophy  politics-and-religion  theology  sociology_of_religion  political-theology  science-and-religion  historicism  relativism  demons  devil  Bible-as-history  Biblical_authority  Biblical_criticism  comparative_religion  comparative_history  sacrifice  science_of_man  social_sciences  human_nature  Africa  Latin_America  pagans  nature  natural_religion  nature_worship  religious_imagery  religious_practices  Boyle  Antiquarianism  natural_history  Peiresc  virtuosos  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Justin E.H. Smith - Nature, Human Nature, and Human Difference: Race in Early Modern Philosophy (2015) | Princeton University Press
People have always been xenophobic, but an explicit philosophical and scientific view of human racial difference only began to emerge during the modern period. Why and how did this happen? Surveying a range of philosophical and natural-scientific texts, dating from the Spanish Renaissance to the German Enlightenment, (Smith) charts the evolution of the modern concept of race and shows that natural philosophy, particularly efforts to taxonomize and to order nature, played a crucial role. Smith demonstrates how the denial of moral equality between Europeans and non-Europeans resulted from converging philosophical and scientific developments, including a declining belief in human nature’s universality and the rise of biological classification. The racial typing of human beings grew from the need to understand humanity within an all-encompassing system of nature, alongside plants, minerals, primates, and other animals. While racial difference as seen through science did not arise in order to justify the enslavement of people, it became a rationalization and buttress for the practices of trans-Atlantic slavery. From the work of François Bernier to Leibniz, Kant, and others, Smith delves into philosophy’s part in the legacy and damages of modern racism. -- Smith is university professor of the history and philosophy of science at the Université Paris Diderot—Paris VII. ...author of Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life (PUP), coeditor and cotranslator of The Leibniz-Stahl Controversy -- downloaded introduction to Note -- only hdbk, will be in ebook
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  cultural_history  racism  racialism  16thC  17thC  18thC  Europe-Early_Modern  exploration  Spanish_Empire  Spain  Renaissance  natural_philosophy  biology  taxonomies  Latin_America  West_Indies  North_America  Native_Americans  indigenous_peoples  slavery  West_Africa  Africa  African_trade  life_sciences  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  French_Enlightenment  Leibniz  Kant  anatomy  Adam  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_culture  science-and-religion  science-public  science_of_man 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Biancamaria Fontana - Rethinking the Politics of Commercial Society The Edinburgh Review 1802–1832 (hdbk 1985, pbk & ebook 2008) | Political philosophy | Cambridge University Press
This book explores the sources of modern British liberalism through a study of the Edinburgh Review, the most influential and controversial early nineteenth-century British periodical. Founded by a group of young Scottish intellectuals in 1802, the Review served as a principal channel through which the ideas of the Scottish Enlightenment gained wider currency, and did much to popularize the doctrines of economic and political reform. As Dr Fontana shows in this lucid and keen analysis, the first thirty years in the life of the Review clearly display the new social and economic problems confronting European society in the aftermath of the French Revolution. **--** Introduction *--* 1. Scottish theories of commercial society and the French Revolution *-* 2. Adam Smith's heritage: the Edinburgh reviewers and the Wealth of Nations *-* 3. The definition of political economy: political economy as a social science *-* 4. The Edinburgh reviewers and the Whig party *-* 5. Commercial society and its enemies: the debate on the First Reform Bill *-* Conclusion -- downloaded pdfs of front matter and excerpt to Note
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_economy  18thC  19thC  British_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Revolution-impact  civil_society  commerce  commerce-doux  science_of_man  social_sciences  democracy  mass_culture  political_participation  British_politics  Edinburgh_Review  Whigs  Whigs-Radicals  Whigs-grandees  liberalism  Industrial_Revolution  industrialization  international_political_economy  British_Empire  British_foreign_policy  Napoleonic_Wars  Napoleonic_Wars-impact  social_order  reform-political  reform-social  reform-finance  reform-economic  Reform_Act_1832  Parliament  parties  trade-policy  trade-theory  trade-cultural_transmission  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Anna Plassart - The Scottish Enlightenment and the French Revolution (to be released April 2015) | Ideas in Context series | Cambridge University Press
Historians of ideas have traditionally discussed the significance of the French Revolution through the prism of several major interpretations, including the commentaries of Burke, Tocqueville and Marx. This book argues that the Scottish Enlightenment offered an alternative and equally powerful interpretative framework for the Revolution, which focused on the transformation of the polite, civilised moeurs that had defined the 'modernity' analysed by Hume and Smith in the 18thC. The Scots observed what they understood as a military- and democracy-led transformation of European modern morals and concluded that the real historical significance of the Revolution lay in the transformation of warfare, national feelings and relations between states, war and commerce that characterised the post-revolutionary international order. This book recovers the Scottish philosophers' powerful discussion of the nature of post-revolutionary modernity and shows that it is essential to our understanding of 19thC political thought. **--** Part I. The Burke–Paine Debate and Scotland's Science of Man: 1. The Burke–Paine debate and the Scottish Enlightenment *-* 2. The heritage of Hume and Smith: Scotland's science of man and politics **--** Part II. The 1790s: 3. Scotland's political debate *-* 4. James Mackintosh and Scottish philosophical history *-* 5. John Millar and the Scottish discussion on war, modern sociability and national sentiment *-* 6. Adam Ferguson on democracy and empire **--** Part III. 1802–15: 7. The French Revolution and the Edinburgh Review *-* 8. Commerce, war and empire
books  find  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_economy  18thC  19thC  British_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Revolution  Smith  Hume  Hume-politics  civil_society  civilizing_process  commerce  commerce-doux  science_of_man  social_sciences  IR_theory  French_Revolutionary_Wars  Napoleonic_Wars  nationalism  national_ID  historiography-18thC  historiography-Whig  military  Military_Revolution  mass_culture  levée_en_masse  conscription  sociability  social_order  empires  empire-and_business  imperialism  Great_Powers  balance_of_power  philosophy_of_history  progress  social_theory  change-social  change-economic  Burke  Paine  Mackintosh_James  Millar_John  Edinburgh_Review  British_Empire  British_foreign_policy  Scottish_politics  1790s  1800s  1810s  international_political_economy  international_system  international_law  democracy  morality-conventional  norms  global_economy  mercantilism 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Destutt de Tracy, “Of Society” (1817) - The Best of the OLL no. 65: |Online Library of Liberty
Antoine Louis Claude, Comte Destutt de Tracy, The Best of the OLL No. 65: Destutt de Tracy, “Of Society” (1817) (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2014). 08/23/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2635> -- This is part of “The Best of the Online Library of Liberty” which is a collection of some of the most important material in the OLL. A thematic list with links to HTML versions of the texts is available here. This extract comes from Destutt de Tracy’s Treatise on Political Economy (1817) which so impressed Thomas Jefferson that he had it translated into English and published in America. Here he argues that commerce, or voluntary exchanges, is the glue which binds society together.
books  etexts  18thC  19thC  intellectual_history  France  social_theory  science_of_man  political_economy  commerce-doux  markets 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Kenan Malik's 2009 Voltaire lecture on 'The Guilt of Science?: Race, Science and Darwinism'
By the end of the eighteenth century, then, scientists had constructed a taxonomy of nature into which humans could be fitted and out of which emerged the categories of race. This seems to lend credibility to the view that it is modernity itself, and in particular the Enlightenment, that give rise both to the idea of race and to the practice of racism. ‘Eighteenth century Europe was the cradle of racism’, the historian George Mosse, argues because ‘racism has its foundations’ in the Enlightenment ‘preoccupation with a rational universe, nature and aesthetics.’ To see why this is not the case, we need to look more closely at how Enlightenment thinkers viewed the concept of human differences. -- If any event could demonstrate the folly of giving into unreason, it is surely Nazism and the Holocaust. Yet now it is regarded as an expression of too much reason.There is no intrinsic link between the idea of race and a rational or scientific view of the world. On the contrary: what made ideas of race plausible were the growth of political sentiments hostile to both the rationalism and the humanism of the Enlightenment.
intellectual_history  cultural_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  racialism  species  biology  evolutionary_biology  Enlightenment  Counter-Enlightenment  Enlightenment_Project  humanism  anti-humanism  reason  Nazis  Holocaust  imperialism  slavery  civilizing_process  human_nature  diversity  historiography-18thC  social_theory  Social_Darwinism  Herder  Linnaeus  Locke  essentialism  essence  climate  stadial_theories  Romanticism  social_order  progress  atheism_panic  authority  class_conflict  bourgeoisie  liberalism  capitalism  equality  stratification  scientism  science_of_man  science-and-religion  positivism  social_sciences  France  Britain  British_Empire  Germany  Great_Powers  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter, review - Christopher Janaway, Beyond Selflessness: Reading Nietzsche's Genealogy // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // (2007)
.. this intelligent and illuminating book, which aims to defend two rather precise theses about reading Nietzsche's On the Genealogy of Morality: first, that Nietzsche's method of writing is intended to engage the reader emotionally or affectively; and second, that such affective engagement is a necessary precondition for altering the reader's views about evaluative questions -- that "without the rhetorical provocations, without the revelation of what we find gruesome, shaming, embarrassing, comforting, and heart-warming we would neither comprehend nor be able to revalue our current values". -- Janaway and I are farther apart with respect to Nietzsche's conception of human agency and freedom. Janaway takes the passage on "the sovereign individual" (GM II:2) as giving expression to Nietzsche's "positive conception of free will" as "involv[ing] acting fully within one's character, knowing its limits and capabilities, and valuing oneself for what one is rather than for one's conformity to an external standard or to what one ought to be". It seems to me a mistake, however, to read this passage as articulating a kind of ideal of agency or selfhood; in context, I think it is far more plausible to understand the passage as being wholly ironic and mocking. -- very useful re Leiter view of both Hume and Nietzsche's "science of man" based on "speculative naturalism"
books  reviews  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  Germany  Nietzsche  Hume  naturalism  science_of_man  moral_psychology  free_will  causation  agency  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
James Conniff - Hume's Political Methodology: A Reconsideration of "That Politics May Be Reduced to a Science" | JSTOR: The Review of Politics, Vol. 38, No. 1 (Jan., 1976), pp. 88-108
Nice opening anecdote re James Mill (utilitarian psychology as basis of political science) attacked by Macaulay who insists history is key, and both were Hume fanboys. Denies Hume's essay on the science of politics is inconsistent with his history based methods re politics in later works. This may be making things a bit too complicated since, beyond contemporary experience with observing behavior and self reflection, the most important evidence for the "science of man" is historical. -- extensive bibliography, especially earlier 20thC -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  18thC  Hume-politics  Hume-historian  science_of_man  Macaulay  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Stephen G. Salkever - "Cool Reflexion" and the Criticism of Values: Is, Ought, and Objectivity in Hume's Social Science | JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 74, No. 1 (Mar., 1980), pp. 70-77
Is the fact/value distinction incompatible with the possibility of a social science which is both objective and evaluative (or normative)? Does support of the latter require rejection of the former and vice versa? This article presents an indirect argument against the incompatibility of the fact/value distinction and an objectively evaluative social science. My procedure is to show that David Hume, whose is/ought distinction is the locus classicus of the fact/value distinction, is committed both to the view that values cannot be derived from facts and to the view that social science is not (and should not be) value-neutral. Furthermore, Hume's position is free from any logical laws. My conclusion is that it is false to say that the fact/value distinction entails a value-neutral social science, and that it is therefore utterly unnecessary for critics of such a science to waste their time attempting to @'bridge the gap@' between facts and values -- didn't download
article  jstor  metaethics  fact-value  intellectual_history  18thC  Hume-ethics  science_of_man  epistemology  moral_philosophy  reason  social_sciences  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
James Farr - Political Science and the Enlightenment of Enthusiasm | JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 82, No. 1 (Mar., 1988), pp. 51-69
I provide a narrative of the emergence of an expressly articulated @'political science@' in the Scottish Enlightenment. Political science was designed by Hume, Smith, and others to advance both a Newtonian method for the study of politics and a politics of moderation whose tasks included a critique of enthusiasm. In this way, poltiical science, moderation, and (anti)enthusiasm were conceptually connected. The emergence of political science, understood in this way, required a number of conceptual changes in a structure of argument shaped largely by Locke. These conceptual changes, in turn, fixed a rhetorical framework for persistent debates over the methodological and political identity of political science, even as ideology literally replaced enthusiasm. These persistent debates reveal the relevance of the history of political science as a forum for remembrance, reflection, and critique. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  history_of_science  18thC  social_theory  sociology_of_knowledge  science_of_man  social_sciences  Scottish_Enlightenment  Hume  Smith  enthusiasm  Newtonian  ideology  Locke  rhetoric-political  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader

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