dunnettreader + science-public   22

Kristin M. Girten - Unsexed Souls: Natural Philosophy as Transformation in Eliza Haywood's Female Spectator (2009) | JSTOR - Eighteenth-Century Studies
Eighteenth-Century Studies, Vol. 43, No. 1 (FALL 2009), pp. 55-74 -- Though love and marriage are Eliza Haywood's central concerns in The Female Spectator, the first periodical written by a woman with a primarily female audience in mind, in a series of issues devoted to the study of Baconian empiricism, Haywood turns her attention away from such concerns to the natural world. This essay aims to determine what is at stake in the Female Spectator's philosophical interactions with nature. It argues that, for Haywood, natural philosophy is a tool with which women may expand the horizon of, and thereby reshape, the sphere to which they are consigned.-- lots of primary sources from Margaret Cavendish and Robert Boyle through 1st few decades of 18thC plus lit survey on gender, patriarchy etc in last few decades in literary history -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  literary_history  gender_history  17thC  18thC  experimental_philosophy  natural_philosophy  women-intellectuals  empiricism  Haywood  1700s  1710s  Boyle  virtue_epistemology  self-development  self-knowledge  domesticity  science-public  publishing-women  Spectator  Cavendish_Margaret  Astell  bibliography 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
The Evolution of Phylogenetic Systematics - Edited by Andrew Hamilton - E-Book - University of California Press
.. aims to make sense of the rise of phylogenetic systematics—its methods, its objects of study, and its theoretical foundations—with contributions from historians, philosophers, and biologists. (...) an intellectual agenda for the study of systematics and taxonomy in a way that connects classification with larger historical themes in the biological sciences, including morphology, experimental and observational approaches, evolution, biogeography, debates over form and function, character transformation, development, and biodiversity. It aims to provide frameworks for answering the question: how did systematics become phylogenetic? -- the 1st Chapter excerpt is a fabulous history of "waves" of new species identification of primarily mammals tied to intellectual, social, economic, cultural and geopolitical history -- his case study is the shift to N American museums organizing large numbers of surveys collecting many samples that gave data on varieties within same species, varying ecologies, etc in the "inner frontiers" in the late19thC and early 20thC -- possible due to "the logic of capital" (railroads penetrating regions to foreclose competition, land speculators), curators leaving the city to obtain materials for the fashion in diaoramas, patronage newly attracted, white collar middle class embracing self-improvement via nature study on holiday, new conservationist attitudes toward Nature etc.
books  kindle-available  biology  taxonomies  species  natural_history  evolutionary_biology  phylogenetics  history_of_science  18thC  19thC  20thC  public_sphere  science-public  cultural_history  cultural_change  material_culture  frontier  leisure  exploration  colonialism  imperialism  museums  collections  virtuosos  scientific_culture  nature  nature-mastery  conservation  self-development 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Justin E.H. Smith - Nature, Human Nature, and Human Difference: Race in Early Modern Philosophy (2015) | Princeton University Press
People have always been xenophobic, but an explicit philosophical and scientific view of human racial difference only began to emerge during the modern period. Why and how did this happen? Surveying a range of philosophical and natural-scientific texts, dating from the Spanish Renaissance to the German Enlightenment, (Smith) charts the evolution of the modern concept of race and shows that natural philosophy, particularly efforts to taxonomize and to order nature, played a crucial role. Smith demonstrates how the denial of moral equality between Europeans and non-Europeans resulted from converging philosophical and scientific developments, including a declining belief in human nature’s universality and the rise of biological classification. The racial typing of human beings grew from the need to understand humanity within an all-encompassing system of nature, alongside plants, minerals, primates, and other animals. While racial difference as seen through science did not arise in order to justify the enslavement of people, it became a rationalization and buttress for the practices of trans-Atlantic slavery. From the work of François Bernier to Leibniz, Kant, and others, Smith delves into philosophy’s part in the legacy and damages of modern racism. -- Smith is university professor of the history and philosophy of science at the Université Paris Diderot—Paris VII. ...author of Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life (PUP), coeditor and cotranslator of The Leibniz-Stahl Controversy -- downloaded introduction to Note -- only hdbk, will be in ebook
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  cultural_history  racism  racialism  16thC  17thC  18thC  Europe-Early_Modern  exploration  Spanish_Empire  Spain  Renaissance  natural_philosophy  biology  taxonomies  Latin_America  West_Indies  North_America  Native_Americans  indigenous_peoples  slavery  West_Africa  Africa  African_trade  life_sciences  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  French_Enlightenment  Leibniz  Kant  anatomy  Adam  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_culture  science-and-religion  science-public  science_of_man 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Marshall Brown, ed. - The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism: Romanticism, Vol. 5 (pbk 2007) | Cambridge University Press
This latest volume in the celebrated Cambridge History of Literary Criticism addresses literary criticism of the Romantic period, chiefly in Europe. Its seventeen chapters are by internationally respected academics and explore a range of key topics and themes. The book is designed to help readers locate essential information and to develop approaches and viewpoints for a deeper understanding of issues discussed by Romantic critics or that were fundamental to their works. Primary and secondary bibliographies provide a guide for further research. **--** Introduction *-* 1. Classical standards in the Romantic period - Paul H. Fry *-* 2. Innovation and modernity Alfredo De Paz *-* 3. The French Revolution - David Simpson *-* 4. Transcendental philosophy and romantic criticism - David Simpson *-* 5. Nature - Helmut J. Schneider *-* 6. Scientific models - Joel Black *-* 7. Religion and literature - E. S. Shaffer
8. Romantic language theory and the art of understanding - Kurt Mueller-Vollmer *-* 9. The Romantic transformation of rhetoric - David Wellbery *-* 10. Romantic irony - Gary Handwerk *-* 11. Theories of genre - Tilottama Rajan *-* 12. Theory of the novel - Marshall Brown *-* 13. The impact of Shakespeare - Jonathan Arac *-* 14. The vocation of criticism and the crisis of the republic of letters - Jon Klancher *-* 15. Women, gender, and literary criticism - Theresa M. Kelley *-* 16. Literary history and historicism - David Perkins *-* 17. Literature and the other arts - Herbert Lindenberger **--** downloaded pdfs of front matter and excerpt to Note
books  English_lit  Romanticism  literary_history  literary_language  literary_theory  lit_crit  18thC  19thC  British_history  cultural_history  literature-and-morality  politics-and-literature  French_Revolution-impact  sociology_of_knowledge  Enlightenment  religious_lit  genre  gender_history  historicism  art_history  art_criticism  novels  rhetoric  rhetoric-writing  philosophy_of_language  Shakespeare-influence  classicism  modernity  German_Idealism  science-public  reason  irony  professionalization  authors-women  subjectivity  nature  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
John D. Wilkins, review - Neil Postman, Building a Bridge to the 18th Century (1999) | Technology and Society Book Reviews
In Building a Bridge to the 18th Century, Neil Postman weaves an interesting tale on the development of a new "conversation" that Americans should commence. His book was an enjoyable read, and it re-ignites debate over policy questions and knowledge claims in the process of decision making. However, in formulating his arguments, he ran afoul, as so many do, in misconstruing the meaning of social construction and the manner in which society constructs knowledge. At the same time, Postman correctly articulates 'a crisis in narrative' (p.113). His story is best understood in the context of a manifesto that sees current narratives as inadequate for the future development of a healthy society. He sees a loss of meaning in our stories and reminds us that the 18th century is a social location that provides a foundation from which to launch a new conversation in order to restore a more meaningful social life. His manifesto does not seem to be interested in contemplation or conversation as he implies. Instead, I will argue that Postman is looking for efficiency and efficacy, and advocating his perspective from an ethnocentric foundation. I will attempt to provide the notion that there are multiple stories to be told, and that retelling one can be another form of advocating the status quo. In this review, I will focus on Postman's arguments for healthy skepticism, some of his contradictions, the notion of individualism and egoism, and the misconstruction of postmodern thought. -- downloaded as pdf to Note
books  reviews  kindle-available  cultural_critique  21stC  18thC  Enlightenment  philosophes  social_theory  constructivism  intellectual_history  Tocqueville  narrative  narrative-contested  conservation  postmodern  scepticism  scepticism-Academic  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  science-and-politics  science-public  individualism  self-interest  self-interest-cultural_basis  community  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Richard Andrew Berman - The Architects of Eighteenth Century English Freemasonry, 1720 - 1740 (2010 thesis) | University of Exeter
Advisors: Black, Jeremy & Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas -- Date Issued: 2010-09-22 --
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10036/2999 -- Following the appointment of its first aristocratic Grand Masters in the 1720s and in the wake of its connections to the scientific Enlightenment, ‘Free and Accepted’ Masonry rapidly became part of Britain’s national profile and the largest and arguably the most influential of Britain’s extensive clubs and societies. (..) Freemasonry became a vehicle for the expression and transmission of the political and religious views of those at its centre, and for the scientific Enlightenment concepts that they championed. The ‘Craft’ also offered a channel through which many sought to realise personal aspirations: social, intellectual and financial. Through an examination of relevant primary and secondary documentary evidence, this thesis seeks to contribute to a broader understanding of contemporary English political and social culture, and to explore the manner in which Freemasonry became a mechanism that promoted the interests of the Hanoverian establishment and connected and bound a number of élite metropolitan and provincial figures. A range of networks centred on the aristocracy, parliament, the magistracy and the learned and professional societies are studied, and key individuals instrumental in spreading and consolidating the Masonic message identified. The thesis also explores the role of Freemasonry in the development of the scientific Enlightenment. The evidence suggests that Freemasonry should be recognised not only as the most prominent of the many 18thC fraternal organisations, but also as a significant cultural vector and a compelling component of the social, economic, scientific and political transformation then in progress. -- downloaded pdf to Note
thesis  18thC  1720s  1730s  1740s  Walpole  Whigs-oligarchy  British_history  British_politics  Enlightenment  science-public  Scientific_Revolution  science-and-politics  Freemasonry  cultural_history  intellectual_history  networks-social  networks-political  networks-business  sociology_of_science_&_technology  elites  aristocracy  Parliament  MPs  political_nation  economic_sociology  economic_culture  commerce-doux  finance_capital  banking  capital_markets  capital_as_power  history_of_science  historical_sociology  historical_change  center-periphery  provinces  clubs  social_capital  judiciary  professions  professionalization  religious_culture  science-and-religion  latitudinarian  natural_religion  Newtonian  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Patricia Goodson - Questioning the HIV-AIDS Hypothesis: 30 Years of Dissent (2014) | Frontiers of Public Health - Public Health Education and Promotion
Opinion ARTICLE - Frontiers of Public Health, 23 September 2014 | doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2014.00154 -- Patricia Goodson - Department of Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, -- Since 1984, when the hypothesis that HIV-causes-AIDS was announced, many scholars have questioned the premise and offered alternative explanations. Thirty years later, competing propositions as well as questioning of the mainstream hypothesis persist, often supported by prominent scientists. This article synthesizes the most salient questions raised, alongside theories proposing non-viral causes for AIDS. The synthesis is organized according to four categories of data believed to support the HIV-AIDS hypothesis: retroviral molecular markers; transmission electron microscopy (EM) images of retroviral particles; efficacy of anti-retroviral drugs; and epidemiological data. Despite three decades of concerted investments in the mainstream hypothesis, the lingering questions and challenges synthesized herein offer public health professionals an opportunity to reflect on their assumptions and practices regarding HIV/AIDS.
article  scientific_method  lit_survey  health_care  science-and-politics  science-public 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Kieran Fox et al - Is thinking really aversive? Commentary on Wilson et al.’s “Just think: The challenges of the disengaged mind” | Frontiers of Psychology - Cognition
Shoots down silly but highly publicized claim that people would rather undergo electric shocks than sit by themselves and "just think" for 15 minutes. They go through the experiment setups and data sets and show that the experiments demonstrated nothing like the dramatic claims but rather were consistent with prior research. Opinion ARTICLE -- Frontiers of Psychology | doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01427 -- Kieran C. Fox1, Evan Thompson2, Jessica R. Andrews-Hanna4 and Kalina Christoff1, 3* -- Spontaneous thought, often colloquially referred to as ‘daydreaming’ or ‘mind-wandering,’ is increasingly being investigated by scientists (for recent reviews, see Andrews-Hanna et al., 2014; Christoff, 2012; Smallwood and Schooler, 2014). In a recent article published in Science, Wilson et al. (2014) argue in support of the view (e.g., Killingsworth & Gilbert, 2010) that such thinking is predominantly unpleasant, and even emotionally aversive. While we were impressed with the enormous wealth of data collected by Wilson et al. and by the number of experimental manipulations carried out, we found their interpretations surprising in light of prior research. We applaud Wilson et al.’s detailed effort to investigate the content and affective qualities of ‘just thinking’ – but upon examining their dataset, we find little support for their claims. -- didn't download
article  neuroscience  psychology  behavior  mind  bad_journalism  science-public  bad_science  emotions 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
350.org
350.org was founded by a group of university friends in the U.S. along with author Bill McKibben, who wrote one of the first books on global warming for the general public. When we started organizing in 2008, we saw climate change as the most important issue facing humanity — but climate action was mired in politics and all but stalled. We didn’t know how to fix things, but we knew that one missing ingredient was a climate movement that reflected the scale of the crisis. So we started organizing coordinated days of action that linked activists and organizations around the world, including the International Day of Climate Action in 2009, the Global Work Party in 2010, Moving Planet in 2011, and Climate Impacts Day in 2012. We held the “world’s biggest art installation” and “the most widespread day of political action in the planet’s history.” We figured that if we were going to be a movement, then we had to start acting like one. Click here to watch videos of these global mobilisations. Today, 350.org works in almost every country in the world on campaigns like fighting coal power plants in India, stopping the Keystone XL pipeline in the U.S, and divesting public institutions everywhere from fossil fuels. All of our work leverages people power to dismantle the influence and infrastructure of the fossil fuel industry, and to develop people-centric solutions to the climate crisis.
grassroots  alt-globalization  climate  energy  science-public  global_governance  global_system  sustainability  green_economy  US_politics  UN  UNEP 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Khan, B. - An Economic History of Copyright in Europe and the United States | EH.Net Encyclopedia, edited by Robert Whaples. March 16, 2008
The US created a utilitarian market-based model of intellectual property grants which created incentives for invention, with the primary objective of increasing social welfare and protecting the public domain. The checks and balances of interest group lobbies, the legislature and the judiciary worked effectively as long as each institution was relatively well-matched in terms of size and influence. However, a number of scholars are concerned that the political influence of corporate interests, the vast number of uncoordinated users over whom the social costs are spread, and international harmonization of laws have upset these counterchecks, leading to over-enforcement at both the private and public levels. International harmonization with European doctrines introduced significant distortions in the fundamental principles of US copyright and its democratic provisions. One of the most significant of these changes was also one of the least debated: compliance with the precepts of the Berne Convention accorded automatic copyright protection to all creations on their fixation in tangible form. This rule reversed the relationship between copyright and the public domain that the US Constitution stipulated. According to original US copyright doctrines, the public domain was the default, and copyright a limited exemption to the public domain; after the alignment with Berne, copyright became the default, and the rights of the public and of the public domain now merely comprise a limited exception to the primacy of copyright. The pervasive uncertainty that characterizes the intellectual property arena today leads risk-averse individuals and educational institutions to err on the side of abandoning their right to free access rather than invite challenges and costly litigation. Many commentators are also concerned about other dimensions of the globalization of intellectual property rights, such as the movement to emulate European grants of property rights in databases, which has the potential to inhibit diffusion and learning.
article  economic_history  publishing  property  property_rights  legal_history  legal_system  IP  regulation-harmonization  natural_rights  natural_law  copyright  patents  US_constitution  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  international_law  France  French_Revolution  censorship  British_history  authors  artists  playwrights  democracy  knowledge_economy  Internet  globalization  global_economy  digital_humanities  transparency  open_access  scientific_culture  science-public  education  R&D  education-higher  common_law  civil_code  civil_society  civic_humanism  US_legal_system 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Stop Googling your health questions. Use these sites instead. - Vox September 2014
Burden of Proof, a regular column in which Julia Belluz (a journalist) and Steven Hoffman (an academic) join forces to tackle the most pressing health issues -- The group that's done more to further that cause than perhaps any other is the Cochrane Collaboration, an international not-for-profit established in the early 1990s. You've probably never heard of it (incidentally, like the evidence-based medicine movement, it was also co-founded by prudent Canadians) but they're one of the best sources for unbiased medical information in existence and they should be your first stop before you hit Google or WebMD. Their mandate is to create syntheses of science — known as "systematic reviews" — on important clinical questions. The idea is simple and should sound familiar by now: many studies, involving thousands of patients can get us closer to the truth than any single study or anecdote ever could. Basically, independent reviewers use well-established and transparent protocols to search the literature about health questions and then apply statistical methods to combine them so that they can see where the preponderance of evidence lies. The process is called "meta-analysis" and it's repeated at least twice and then published so that others can verify or repeat their steps. After all, not all systematic reviews are created equally.Today at Cochrane, you'll find reviews on everything from the effects of acupuncture for preventing migraines (probably works) and premenstrual syndrome (may not work), to the usefulness of cranberry juice to treat bladder infections (probably doesn't work). The hard-working people behind Cochrane even translate their conclusions into "plain language summaries" and podcasts. -- plus links to a bunch of useful sites
health  health_care  scientific_method  science-public  links 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Nico Voigtländer, Mara Squicciarini, Knowledge elites, enlightenment, and industrialisation | vox 13 July 2014
Although studies of contemporary economies find robust associations between human capital and growth, past research has found no link between worker skills and the onset of industrialisation. This column resolves the puzzle by focusing on the upper tail of the skill distribution, which is strongly associated with industrial development in 18th-century France. -- uses density of subscriptions to the Encyclopédie to analyze spatial distribution of knowledge elites which they find strongly associated with industrialization post 1750.
economic_history  economic_growth  Industrial_Revolution  industrialization  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  18thC  19thC  academies  elite_culture  bourgeoisie  nobility  technology  Innovation  sociology_of_knowledge  knowledge_economy  education  literacy  Encyclopédie  scientific_culture  science-public  Scientific_Revolution  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Kenan Malik - THE SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENT AND ITS SOUL | Pandaemonium - May 2014
The science writer Philip Ball recently published a post on his blog Homunculus in which he wondered why modern scientific instruments seem to lack the beauty and soul of those of centuries past. Stephen Curry, professor of structural biology at Imperial College, wrote in response, on Occam’s Corner, the Guardian-hosted science blog, a wonderful little essay, in which he questioned some of Philip’s assumptions but made also a case for scientists to have more than an instrumental relationship to their instruments. Philip Ball then wrote an equally insightful reply in which he argued that scientific instruments are made not simply to do a job but also to express a certain image of science, to ‘employ a particular visual rhetoric’ in his words. The changing character of scientific instruments, he suggested, reflects the changing image of science that scientists wish to covey. -- Ball re visual rhetoric - what, and who, these instruments were for. Even for Galileo, the scientific experiment was still at least as much a demonstration as it was an exploration: it was a way of showing that your ideas were right. ...And in the earliest of the early modern era, during the late Renaissance, scientific instruments were objects of power. They were used by the virtuosi to delight and entertain their noble patrons, and thereby to imply a command of the occult forces of nature. For such a display, it was important that a device be impressive to look at: elegance was the key attribute of the courtly natural philosopher.
intellectual_history  cultural_history  Renaissance  16thC  17thC  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_culture  science-public  virtuosos  patrons  scientific_method  experimental_philosophy  Galileo  Hooke  links  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Kevin Mitchell - Wiring the Brain: Reductionism! Determinism! Straw-man-ism! - Feb 2014
Good post and comments -- cmnt 1 - I like your juxtaposition of "the system is complex" and "single variants can influence a complex system". One variant at a time studies aren't inherently reductionist. We all want to know what the effects of any variant are independent of genomic background and ecology. This is an important part of genetic architecture and should not be ignored. From my point of view the problem is with the *assumptions* made when investigating the single variant effect on interindividual variation in a biological trait. One assumption (1) is that the system is complex and the single variant analysis will reveal only a piece of that complexity. Another assumption (2) is that the system is complex but can be teased apart as a sum of independent effects. Yet another assumption (3) is that the system appears complex but is really simple and can be explained by a sum of variants. The human genetics and genetic epidemiology disciplines span all of these assumptions in a non-uniform manner. I am old enough to have been a graduate student and beginning assistant professor during the linkage era that began with assumption 3 coming off the successes of Mendelian genetics and positional cloning. This off course shifted to assumption 2 during the GWAS era. I think we are now in the process of shifting toward assumption 1 as digest the largely negative results of using single variant analyses to predict disease susceptibility. I believe this shift in assumptions will continue over the next year as WGS plays out. Thanks for the post! - Jason Moore (Dartmouth)
scientific_method  genetics  biology  science-public  evolutionary_biology  materialism  reductionism  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Francis Bacon And The Modern Dilemma : Loren Eiseley (1962) - Internet Archive
Charming collection of lectures on how extraordinary Bacon was -- lots of lovely quotes from across his works -- corrects dismissal of his inductive method since he recognized the Interplay of both induction and deduction -- also stresses two sided promise and threat of both man's nature and science/technology. Great answer to the Enlightenment_Project folks. Stresses his anthropology and impact of custom I.e. culture -- as well as education for "common man" for both his division of labor and for the culture required for man to use his growing knowledge for good rather than narrow self interest.
books  etexts  intellectual_history  Bacon  17thC  British_history  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_method  science-public  education-higher  technology  morality-conventional  anthropology  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
J. V. Golinski - A Noble Spectacle: Phosphorus and the Public Cultures of Science in the Early Royal Society | JSTOR: Isis, Vol. 80, No. 1 (Mar., 1989), pp. 11-39
Huge bibliography of both primary and secondary literature -- chemistry and link to medicine were important for experimental_philosophy, but the flashiness of experiments for the public could both attract public interest and provide ammunition for enemies -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  history_of_science  17thC  British_history  Royal_Society  sociology_of_knowledge  experimental_philosophy  natural_philosophy  medicine  chemistry  magic  alchemy  Boyle  Hooke  Harvey  science-public  scientific_culture  Scientific_Revolution  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Review by: Peter Harrison - Science and Dissent in England, 1688-1945, ed. Paul Wood | JSTOR: Minerva, Vol. 44, No. 2 (June 2006), pp. 223-227
Looks at extended Merton thesis - that elements of nonconformist theology and social practices were a congenial environment for innovation beyond the limited issue of the connections between Puritans and the Scientific Revolution. No clear answer though some of the studies in the book fit the thesis fairly well. Larry Stewart and another chapter deal with Dussenters in London in public science and coffeehouse philosophy. Their exclusion from the universities was a factor, both in encouraging groups engaged in experimental_philosophy in the city and in anxiety about the potentially volatile mix of religious nonconformity, political radicalism and intellectual innovation. -- didn't download
books  reviews  intellectual_history  history_of_science  science-and-religion  dissenters  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  innovation  experimental_philosophy  science-public  science-and-politics  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Rhoda Rappaport - G.-F. Rouelle: An Eighteenth-Century Chemist and Teacher | JSTOR: Chymia, Vol. 6 (1960), pp. 68-101
Interesting from vantage of Paris public audiences for scientific lectures, both teaching and more society entertainment. Chemistry still closely connected with medicine, pharmacy, apothecary professions. -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  history_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  18thC  France  Paris  French_Enlightenment  chemistry  medicine  science-public  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader

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