dunnettreader + science-and-politics   9

Jonathan Louli, review - Emmanuel Fureix, François Jarrige, La modernité désenchantée - La Vie des idées - 10 juin 2015
Recensé : Emmanuel Fureix, François Jarrige, La modernité désenchantée, La Découverte 2015, 390 p., 25 €. -- Le XIXe siècle a longtemps été tenu pour le siècle du progrès. L’historiographie récente est plus attentive à ses contradictions et à ses aléas. Deux historiens proposent une histoire de l’histoire du XIXe siècle, illustrant la manière dont notre société se regarde elle-même. -- Ceci n’est pas un manuel sur le XIXe siècle, pourrait-on dire, en paraphrasant Magritte, à la première lecture de La modernité désenchantée. L’ouvrage des deux dix-neuvièmistes reconnus que sont E. Fureix et F. Jarrige est autrement plus ambitieux, et cherche à « esquisser un état des lieux (incomplet) de la façon dont les historiens d’aujourd’hui renouvellent les lectures du XIXe siècle, dans sa singularité » -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  French_language  intellectual_history  19thC  historiography  historiography-19thC  modernity  modernity-emergence  progress  cultural_history  cultural_change  cultural_critique  Enlightenment  Enlightenment_Project  Counter-Enlightenment  French_Revolution  Industrial_Revolution  science-and-religion  science-and-politics  French_politics  working_class  bourgeoisie  national_ID  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Alan Jacobs - climate science and public scrutiny | Text Patterns ' July 2015
Praise for Hansen's' approach -- his conclusions may be "alarmist" or a truly significant shift in possibility of catastrophe -- but he's showing his work and providing full access to the data he's using so that other scientists can participate, whether to find holes or to build on his work -- he should be praised for the ethical stance and for modeling the behavior that the scientific community should be adopting
Pocket  climate  climate-models  ocean  scientific_culture  scientific_method  science-and-politics  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  epistemology-moral  epistemology-social  virtue_epistemology  from pocket
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Elizabeth Popp Berman - Creating the Market University: How Academic Science Became an Economic Engine | Princeton University Press - 2012, ebook 2015
US universities today serve as economic engines, performing the scientific research that will create new industries, drive economic growth, and keep the US globally competitive. But only a few decades ago, these same universities self-consciously held themselves apart from the world of commerce. Drawing on extensive historical research, EPB shows how the government--influenced by the argument that innovation drives the economy--brought about this transformation. Americans have a long tradition of making heroes out of their inventors. But before the 1960s and '70s neither policymakers nor economists paid much attention to the critical economic role played by innovation. However, during the late 1970s, a confluence of events--industry concern with the perceived deterioration of innovation in the US, a growing body of economic research on innovation's importance, and the stagnation of the larger economy--led to a broad political interest in fostering invention. The policy decisions shaped by this change were diverse, influencing arenas from patents and taxes to pensions and science policy, and encouraged practices that would focus specifically on the economic value of academic science. By the early 1980s, universities were nurturing the rapid growth of areas such as biotech entrepreneurship, patenting, and university-industry research centers. -- She is assistant professor of sociology at the SUNY-Albany. -- downloaded excerpt to Note
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  economic_history  20thC  21stC  post-WWII  post-Cold_War  US_politics  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  university  research  research-funding  Innovation  innovation-government_policy  R&D  science-and-politics  urban_development  economic_growth  IP  incentives  incentives-distortions  public-private_partnerships  public_goods  market_fundamentalism  public_policy  -priorities  risk_capital  local_government  state_government  state-and-science  education-finance  academia-governance  managerialism  technology  technology-history  commercialization  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
John D. Wilkins, review - Neil Postman, Building a Bridge to the 18th Century (1999) | Technology and Society Book Reviews
In Building a Bridge to the 18th Century, Neil Postman weaves an interesting tale on the development of a new "conversation" that Americans should commence. His book was an enjoyable read, and it re-ignites debate over policy questions and knowledge claims in the process of decision making. However, in formulating his arguments, he ran afoul, as so many do, in misconstruing the meaning of social construction and the manner in which society constructs knowledge. At the same time, Postman correctly articulates 'a crisis in narrative' (p.113). His story is best understood in the context of a manifesto that sees current narratives as inadequate for the future development of a healthy society. He sees a loss of meaning in our stories and reminds us that the 18th century is a social location that provides a foundation from which to launch a new conversation in order to restore a more meaningful social life. His manifesto does not seem to be interested in contemplation or conversation as he implies. Instead, I will argue that Postman is looking for efficiency and efficacy, and advocating his perspective from an ethnocentric foundation. I will attempt to provide the notion that there are multiple stories to be told, and that retelling one can be another form of advocating the status quo. In this review, I will focus on Postman's arguments for healthy skepticism, some of his contradictions, the notion of individualism and egoism, and the misconstruction of postmodern thought. -- downloaded as pdf to Note
books  reviews  kindle-available  cultural_critique  21stC  18thC  Enlightenment  philosophes  social_theory  constructivism  intellectual_history  Tocqueville  narrative  narrative-contested  conservation  postmodern  scepticism  scepticism-Academic  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  science-and-politics  science-public  individualism  self-interest  self-interest-cultural_basis  community  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Richard Andrew Berman - The Architects of Eighteenth Century English Freemasonry, 1720 - 1740 (2010 thesis) | University of Exeter
Advisors: Black, Jeremy & Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas -- Date Issued: 2010-09-22 --
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10036/2999 -- Following the appointment of its first aristocratic Grand Masters in the 1720s and in the wake of its connections to the scientific Enlightenment, ‘Free and Accepted’ Masonry rapidly became part of Britain’s national profile and the largest and arguably the most influential of Britain’s extensive clubs and societies. (..) Freemasonry became a vehicle for the expression and transmission of the political and religious views of those at its centre, and for the scientific Enlightenment concepts that they championed. The ‘Craft’ also offered a channel through which many sought to realise personal aspirations: social, intellectual and financial. Through an examination of relevant primary and secondary documentary evidence, this thesis seeks to contribute to a broader understanding of contemporary English political and social culture, and to explore the manner in which Freemasonry became a mechanism that promoted the interests of the Hanoverian establishment and connected and bound a number of élite metropolitan and provincial figures. A range of networks centred on the aristocracy, parliament, the magistracy and the learned and professional societies are studied, and key individuals instrumental in spreading and consolidating the Masonic message identified. The thesis also explores the role of Freemasonry in the development of the scientific Enlightenment. The evidence suggests that Freemasonry should be recognised not only as the most prominent of the many 18thC fraternal organisations, but also as a significant cultural vector and a compelling component of the social, economic, scientific and political transformation then in progress. -- downloaded pdf to Note
thesis  18thC  1720s  1730s  1740s  Walpole  Whigs-oligarchy  British_history  British_politics  Enlightenment  science-public  Scientific_Revolution  science-and-politics  Freemasonry  cultural_history  intellectual_history  networks-social  networks-political  networks-business  sociology_of_science_&_technology  elites  aristocracy  Parliament  MPs  political_nation  economic_sociology  economic_culture  commerce-doux  finance_capital  banking  capital_markets  capital_as_power  history_of_science  historical_sociology  historical_change  center-periphery  provinces  clubs  social_capital  judiciary  professions  professionalization  religious_culture  science-and-religion  latitudinarian  natural_religion  Newtonian  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Patricia Goodson - Questioning the HIV-AIDS Hypothesis: 30 Years of Dissent (2014) | Frontiers of Public Health - Public Health Education and Promotion
Opinion ARTICLE - Frontiers of Public Health, 23 September 2014 | doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2014.00154 -- Patricia Goodson - Department of Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, -- Since 1984, when the hypothesis that HIV-causes-AIDS was announced, many scholars have questioned the premise and offered alternative explanations. Thirty years later, competing propositions as well as questioning of the mainstream hypothesis persist, often supported by prominent scientists. This article synthesizes the most salient questions raised, alongside theories proposing non-viral causes for AIDS. The synthesis is organized according to four categories of data believed to support the HIV-AIDS hypothesis: retroviral molecular markers; transmission electron microscopy (EM) images of retroviral particles; efficacy of anti-retroviral drugs; and epidemiological data. Despite three decades of concerted investments in the mainstream hypothesis, the lingering questions and challenges synthesized herein offer public health professionals an opportunity to reflect on their assumptions and practices regarding HIV/AIDS.
article  scientific_method  lit_survey  health_care  science-and-politics  science-public 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Beryl Lieff Benderly, book review - Academia's Crooked Money Trail | Science Careers Jan 2012
“Follow the money!” -- The strategy also serves Georgia State University economist Paula Stephan extremely well in her illuminating and accessible new book, How Economics Shapes Science. A leading expert on the scientific labor market, Stephan isn’t looking to sniff out high-level government corruption. Rather, using the “tool bag” economics provides for “analyzing the relationships between incentives and costs,” she penetrates the financial structure of university-based science, explaining the motivation and behavior of everyone from august university presidents and professors to powerless and impecunious graduate students and postdocs. Undergraduates also carry an increasing share of the load, she adds: Their tuition, often paid with student loans, rises as more funds go to research. Their teachers, meanwhile, increasingly are cut-rate adjuncts rather than the famous professors the recruiting brochures boast about.
books  reviews  US_society  US_government  scientific_culture  science-and-politics  education-higher  Innovation  Labor_markets  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Review by: Peter Harrison - Science and Dissent in England, 1688-1945, ed. Paul Wood | JSTOR: Minerva, Vol. 44, No. 2 (June 2006), pp. 223-227
Looks at extended Merton thesis - that elements of nonconformist theology and social practices were a congenial environment for innovation beyond the limited issue of the connections between Puritans and the Scientific Revolution. No clear answer though some of the studies in the book fit the thesis fairly well. Larry Stewart and another chapter deal with Dussenters in London in public science and coffeehouse philosophy. Their exclusion from the universities was a factor, both in encouraging groups engaged in experimental_philosophy in the city and in anxiety about the potentially volatile mix of religious nonconformity, political radicalism and intellectual innovation. -- didn't download
books  reviews  intellectual_history  history_of_science  science-and-religion  dissenters  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  innovation  experimental_philosophy  science-public  science-and-politics  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Issue TOC - Science and Civilization under William and Mary | JSTOR: Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 43, No. 2, Jul., 1989
TOC -- (1) The Crown, the Public and the New Science, 1689-1702 (pp. 99-116) M. C. W. Hunter. (2) William III and His Two Navies (pp. 117-132) J. R. Bruijn. (3) 'Bright Enough for All Our Purposes': John Locke's Conception of a Civilized Society (pp. 133-153) J. M. Dunn. (4) Clockmaking in Britain and the Netherlands (pp. 155-165)
J. H. Leopold. (5) The Glorious Revolution and Medicine in Britain and the Netherlands (pp. 167-190) Simon Schaffer. (6) Leeuwenhoek and Other Dutch Correspondents of the Royal Society (pp. 191-207) L. C. Palm. (7) Christiaan Huygens and Newton's Theory of Gravitation (pp. 209-222) H. A. M. Snelders. (8) Huygens' 'Traité de la Lumière' and Newton's 'Opticks': Pursuing and Eschewing Hypotheses (pp. 223-247) A. E. Shapiro. (9) The Leeuwenhoek Lecture, 1988. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek 1632-1723 (pp. 249-273) A. R. Hall
article  jstor  intellectual_history  sociology_of_knowledge  history_of_science  science-and-politics  17thC  18thC  British_history  Dutch  Glorious_Revolution  Republic_of_Letters  Royal_Society  community-virtual  Locke  British_Navy  William_III  Nine_Years_War  technology  instruments  Huygens  Newton  medicine  university  optics  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader

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