dunnettreader + rationality   45

Stephen Turner - Double Heuristics and Collective Knowledge: the Case of Expertise (2012) - archived on Cosmos + Taxis site
STUDIES IN EMERGENT ORDER VOL 5 (2012): 64-85 -- cases of extreme “information asymmetry” in which members of the audience of the experts have knowledge that is different from the knowledge of experts. The knowledge is often relevant, and the decision by a member of the audience of the expert to accept or reject the expert’s claims is not, as the models imply, based simply on beliefs about the reliability of the experts, but on the knowledge that the member of the audience already has, and has solid grounds for. In these cases, the better model for understanding how the member of the audience assesses the expert involves the content of the knowledge, not merely the evaluation of the expert. (...) I will treat the problem of expert knowledge as a special case of knowledge aggregation. My suggestion will be that the application of specific decision procedures, such as voting, produces, at the collective level, an emergent form of knowledge acquisition with its own features. Nothing about this account, however, requires an appeal to super-individual entities or processes, collective intentionality, and so forth. My point, rather, will be that to understand these processes it is necessary to eliminate some familiar prejudices about knowledge acquisition and our dependence on others. To put it in a slogan, my point is that “collective epistemology” or social epistemology has failed to be either sufficiently social or sufficiently epistemological. My approach will be to bring both back in, without resorting to appeals to collective facts. -- downloaded via Air to DBOX
article  downloaded  social_theory  epistemology  epistemology-social  evidence  rationality  asymmetric_information  emergence 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Dmitri N. Shalin - Critical Theory and theh Pragmatist Challenge (1992) | American Journal of Sociology
AJS Volume 98 Number 2 (September 1992): 237-79 -- Habermas's theory breaks with the Continental tradition that has denigrated pragmatism as an Anglo-Saxon philosophy subservient to technocratic capitalism. While Habermas deftly uses pragmatist insights into communicative rationality and democratic ethos, he shows little sensitivity to other facets of pragmatism. This article argues that incorporating the pragmatist perspective on experience and indeterminacy brings a corrective to the emancipatory agenda championed by critical theorists. The pragmatist alternative to the theory of communicative action is presented, with the discussion centering around the following themes: disembodied reason versus embodied reasonableness, determinate being versus indeterminate reality, discursive truth versus pragmatic certainty, rational consensus versus reasonable dissent, transcendental democracy versus democratic transcendence, and rational society versus sane community. -- downloaded via Air to DBOX - added to Evernote
article  downloaded  social_theory  political_philosophy  critical_theory  pragmatism  Habermas  Peirce  James_William  Dewey  democracy  community  public_sphere  public_reason  rationality  experience  indeterminacy  dissent  consensus  public_opinion  cultural_critique  change-social 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Damien Couet, review - Michael Slote, A Sentimentalist Theory of the Mind - La Vie des idées - 30 décembre 2015
Recensé : Michael Slote, A Sentimentalist Theory of the Mind, Oxford University Press, 2014, 272 p. -- L’éthique du care entend réhabiliter le rôle des émotions occulté par la pensée morale occidentale. Mais elle a besoin pour cela d’une conception sentimentaliste de l’esprit, dont M. Slote souhaite jeter les fondements. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  kindle-available  reviews  moral_philosophy  moral_sentiments  moral_psychology  ethics  ethic_of_care  sympathy  empathy  epistemology  reason-passions  reasons-internalism  reasons-externalism  feminism  mind  rationality  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Étienne Bimbenet, review - Claude Romano, Au cœur de la raison, la phénoménologie - La Vie des idées - 17 décembre 2010
Recensé : Claude Romano, Au cœur de la raison, la phénoménologie. Gallimard (Folio Essais), 2010 ; 1141 p., 13, 50 €. -- Repenser la phénoménologie dans ses présupposés les plus forts, et la transformer de l’intérieur : tel est le geste théorique de Claude Romano qui, à partir des objections formulées par la philosophie analytique et l’empirisme logique, défend une phénoménologie redonnant toute sa place à la sensibilité dans l’analyse de l’expérience et la saisie des essences. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  French_language  intellectual_history  20thC  post-WWII  21stC  continental_philosophy  phenomenology  Heidegger  Merleau-Ponty  Levinas  analytical_philosophy  Logical_Positivism  empiricism  metaphysics  experience  sensation  reason  rationality  epistemology  downloaded 
december 2015 by dunnettreader
Carmen E. Pavel, review - Sharon R. Krause, Freedom Beyond Sovereignty: Reconstructing Liberal Individualism (U of Chicago 2015) | Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews - Sept 2015
King's College London -- What unites these experiences of frustrated freedom? It is certainly not the fact that the protagonists in these examples lack the capacity for rational, intentional control over their actions or face legal impediments to their choices. Krause thus parts ways with a long tradition in western political thought dating back to Locke, Kant and Mill, which locates individual freedom in the rational will and the capacity to exercise intentional choice and control. In fact, the originality of Krause's account is showing how freedom can be undermined despite a generally friendly background of political rights and privileges that guarantee the space for intentional choice. Something subtler is going on, which is why certain dimensions of freedom have been absent from standard accounts of what it means to be free. The quality of our everyday interpersonal exchanges matters quite a lot for individual freedom because these interactions are constitutive of personal agency. Krause argues that a proper understanding of agency is inextricably tied to freedom. Following Bernard Williams, she deploys a two-dimensional conception of agency: agency consists both in deliberation and results. To be an agent is both to plan one's actions and to have a recognizable impact on the world. Agency is thus "the affirmation of one's subjective existence, or personal identity, through concrete action in the world." The efficacy dimension of agency distinguishes it from "mere willing or dreaming." (4) Crucially, however, we are not in complete control of how our actions affect the world. Their effect depends, in significant part, on how others perceive and respond to them.
Instapaper  books  reviews  political_philosophy  political_culture  liberty  liberty-negative  liberty-positive  Berlin_Isaiah  Mill  Kant-ethics  Williams_Bernard  agency  rationality  identity  identity_politics  from instapaper
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Robert O. Keohane, review - Mancur Olson, The Rise and Decline of Nations (1983) | JSTOR
Reviewed Work: The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities. -- Journal of Economic Literature
Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jun., 1983), pp. 558-560 -- quite positive, but useful on where Olson's theory has blind spots -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  bookshelf  reviews  political_economy  economic_history  economic_growth  interest_groups  collective_action  international_political_economy  institutional_economics  rational_choice  rationality-economics  rationality  stagnation  rent-seeking  politics-and-money  status  status_quo_bias  social_order  hierarchy  change-social  change-economic  castes  discrimination  inequality  mobility  post-WWII  downloaded 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Timothy Michael - British Romanticism and the Critique of Political Reason (Dec 2015) | JHU Press
What role should reason play in the creation of a free and just society? Can we claim to know anything in a field as complex as politics? And how can the cause of political rationalism be advanced when it is seen as having blood on its hands? These are the questions that occupied a group of British poets, philosophers, and polemicists in the years following the French Revolution. (..) argues that much literature of the period is a trial, or a critique, of reason in its political capacities and a test of the kinds of knowledge available to it. For Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, Burke, Wollstonecraft, and Godwin, the historical sequence of revolution, counter-revolution, and terror in France—and radicalism and repression in Britain—occasioned a dramatic reassessment of how best to advance the project of enlightenment. The political thought of these figures must be understood, Michael contends, in the context of their philosophical thought. Major poems of the period, including The Prelude, The Excursion, and Prometheus Unbound, are in this reading an adjudication of competing political and epistemological claims. This book bridges for the first time two traditional pillars of Romantic studies: the period’s politics and its theories of the mind and knowledge. Combining literary and intellectual history, it provides an account of British Romanticism in which high rhetoric, political prose, poetry, and poetics converge in a discourse of enlightenment and emancipation.
books  18thC  19thC  intellectual_history  literary_history  British_history  English_lit  political_philosophy  political_culture  Enlightenment  epistemology  moral_philosophy  mind  Romanticism  poetry  French_Enlightenment  French_Revolution  French_Revolution-impact  French_Revolutionary_Wars  Wordsworth  Coleridge  Shelley  Burke  Wollstonecraft  Godwin_Wm  reason  rationality  perception  judgment-political  judgment-independence  Counter-Enlightenment  counter-revolution  political_discourse  poetics  rhetoric-political  freedom  civil_liberties  civil_society  liberty-positive  scepticism 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Reformed Epistemology | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
A thesis about the rationality of religious belief. A central claim made by the reformed epistemologist is that religious belief can be rational without any appeal to evidence or argument. There are, broadly speaking, two ways that reformed epistemologists support this claim. The first is to argue that there is no way to successfully formulate the charge that religious belief is in some way epistemically defective if it is lacking support by evidence or argument. The second way is to offer a description of what it means for a belief to be rational, and to suggest ways that religious beliefs might in fact be meeting these requirements. This has led reformed epistemologists to explore topics such as when a belief-forming mechanism confers warrant, the rationality of engaging in belief forming practices, and when we have an epistemic duty to revise our beliefs. As such, reformed epistemology offers an alternative to evidentialism (the view that religious belief must be supported by evidence in order to be rational) and fideism (the view that religious belief is not rational, but that we have non-epistemic reasons for believing). Reformed epistemology was first clearly articulated in a collection of papers called Faith and Rationality edited by Alvin Plantinga and Nicholas Wolterstorff in 1983. However, the view owes a debt to many other thinkers
philosophy_of_religion  epistemology  rational_religion  rationality  evidence  religious_belief  fideism  analytical_philosophy  virtue_epistemology  Protestants 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Introduction - Online Seminar - Akeel Bilgrami, “Occidentalism, The Very Idea” | 3quarksdaily - September 2008
Table of contents: Akeel Bilgrami: Occidentalism, The Very Idea: An Essay on The Enlightenment and Enchantment. *--* Colin Jager: Literary Thinking: A Comment on Bilgrami *--* Bruce Robbins: Response to Akeel Bilgrami. *--* Justin E. H. Smith: A Comment on Akeel Bilgrami's "Occidentalism, The Very Idea" *--* Steven Levine: A Comment on Bilgrami. *--* Ram Manikkalingam: Culture follows politics: Avoiding the global divide between "Islam and the West" *--* Uday Mehta: Response to Akeel Bilgrami. *--* Akeel Bilgrami: A Reply to Robbins, Jager, Smith, Levine, Manikkalingam, and Mehta
-- downloaded pdf of full seminar to Note -- each contribution also had separate urls
political_philosophy  political_culture  democracy  orientalism  Orientalism-Enlightenment  Enlightenment  disenchantment  fundamentalism  Eurocentrism  red_states  US_politics  religious_culture  religion-fundamentalism  Islamist_fundamentalists  Islamophobia  GWOT  intelligentsia  bad_journalism  post-colonial  ideology  liberalism-post-WWII  clash_of_civilizations  neo-colonialism  capitalism  globalization  rationality  irrationalism  hegemony  cultural_pessimism  cultural_critique  cultural_exchange  cultural_transmission  downloaded 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Roundtable - Romanticism, Enlightenment, and Counter-Enlightenment | Philoctetes Center - April 17, 2010
, 2:30 PM
Romanticism, Enlightenment, and Counter-Enlightenment

Participants: Akeel Bilgrami, Taylor Carman, Garrett Deckel, Colin Jager, Joel Whitebook Isaiah Berlin introduced the work of a range of philosophers in the German romantic and German idealist tradition to the English-speaking world. His fascination with some of their ideas was accompanied by a concomitant anxiety about them. The anxiety issued from his staunch liberal commitment to the orthodox Enlightenment. Yet, the fascination was an implicit acknowledgement on his part of some of the limitations of the Enlightenment's liberal ideas. This roundtable will look at this underlying tension in Berlin, which many liberals feel to this day. Panelists will probe the role of reason, perception, and emotion in our individual and political psychology, and ask the question of whether or not there is something for liberalism to learn from what Berlin—rightly or wrongly—called the "Counter-Enlightenment." -- see YouTube bookmark for direct link -- video also embedded in program page
video  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  Enlightenment  Counter-Enlightenment  Romanticism  Enlightenment_Project  Enlightenment-ongoing  German_Idealism  liberalism  Berlin_Isaiah  reason  rationality  perception  emotions  reason-passions  political_philosophy  political_culture  social_psychology  moral_psychology  nature  nature-mastery  cognition  prejudice  cognitive_bias  mind  mind-body  philosophical_anthropology 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Jean-Claude Monod , review essay - Habermas et la dialectique de la sécularisation | La Vie des idées - 8 décembre 2008
Jürgen Habermas, Entre naturalisme et religion. Les défis de la démocratie, traduit de l’allemand par Christian Bouchindhomme et Alexandre Dupeyrix, Paris, Gallimard, 2008, 380 p. 22, 50€. -- Et si la raison, comme le montre aujourd’hui la logique marchande, était finalement bien plus capable de calculer des moyens que de poser des fins ? Le dernier recueil de Jürgen Habermas, le chantre de la raison communicationnelle, témoigne d’un surprenant revirement vers la religion et le registre compassionnel. -- Mots-clés : communication | religion | raison | sécularisation
books  reviews  political_philosophy  social_theory  secularization  post-secular  post-Cold_War  cultural_critique  political_culture  democracy  democracy_deficit  political_participation  values  communication  rationality  empathy  religious_culture  epistemology  epistemology-naturalism  epistemology-moral  means-justify-ends  dialectic-historical  dialogue  public_sphere  public_goods  community  legitimacy  reason  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Raymond BOUDON - LA RATIONALITÉ DU RELIGIEUX SELON MAX WEBER | JSTOR - L'Année sociologique - Vol. 51, No. 1 (2001), pp. 9-50
LA RATIONALITÉ DU RELIGIEUX SELON MAX WEBER - L'Année sociologique (1940/1948-), Troisième série, Vol. 51, No. 1 (2001), pp. 9-50 -- One of the most striking features of Weber's writings on religion is the frequency with which he uses the word rationality. This derives from the metatheory grounding in his mind the interpretative method. This metatheory asserts that the meaning to an individual of his beliefs should be seen as the main cause explaining why he endorses them. Weber's religion sociology owes its strength to this theoretical framework. His « rational » conception of religious beliefs does not imply that these beliefs derive from deliberation. They are rather transmitted to the social subject in the course of his socialisation. But they are accepted only if they are perceived by the subject as grounded. These principles inspire Weber's pages on magical beliefs, on animism, on the great religions, on the diffusion of monotheism, on theodicy or the world disenchantment. He shows that religious thinking cares on coherence, tends to verify and falsify religious dogmas by confronting them with observable facts. He develops a complex version of evolutionism, explaining the cases of irreversibility registered by the history of religions, but avoiding any fatalism. He rejects any depth psychology and any causalist psychology in his sociology of religion, the common rational psychology being the only one that can be easily made compatible with the notion of "Verstehende Soziologie", i.e. of « interpretative sociology ». Weber analyses the evolution of religious ideas supposing that they follow the same mechanisms as the evolution of ideas in other domains, as law, economics or science. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  sociology_of_religion  Weber  Boudon  rationality  causation  causation-social  religious_history  religious_belief  religious_culture  hermeneutics  social_theory  socialization  social_process  rationality-bounded  disenchantment  causation-evolutionary  psychology  mechanisms-social_theory  downloaded 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Jag Bhalla - Is The 'Tragedy of The Commons' a Myth? | Big Think - May 2015
by Jag Bhalla We are ill-fated idiots. That’s what some “rationalists” believe. An ancient Greek origin myth can avert this modern tragedy of reason (a… -- lots of links
rationality  rationality-economics  public_choice  collective_action  tragedgy_of_the_commons  common_good  resource_allocation  environment  climate-adaptation  links  Instapaper  from instapaper
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Jag Bhalla - Reason Is Larger Than Science | Big Think - May 2015
by Jag Bhalla “Reason is larger than science.” So Leon Wieseltier reminds us (while defending the humanities against Steven Pinker’s science cheerleading). 1.… -- lots of links -- nice use of Wieseltier while noting where W goes off the rails
reason  rationality  rationality-economics  decision_theory  scientism  humanities  education-higher  disciplines  links  Instapaper  from instapaper
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Stephen Turner - Max Weber and the Dispute Over Reason and Value (Routledge, 1984) | bookmark for book abstract - Academia.edu
The problem of the nature of values and the relation between values and rationality is one of the defining issues of twentieth-century thought and Max Weber was one of the defining figures in the debate. In this book, Turner and Factor consider the development of the dispute over Max Weber's contribution to this discourse, by showing how Weber's views have been used, revised and adapted in new contexts. The story of the dispute is itself fascinating, for it cuts across the major political and intellectual currents of the twentieth century, from positivism, pragmatism and value-free social science, through the philosophy of Jaspers and Heidegger, to Critical Theory and the revival of Natural Right and Natural Law. As Weber's ideas were imported to Britain and America, they found new formulations and new adherents and critics and became absorbed into different traditions and new issues. This book was first published in 1984 by Routledge. -- Research Interests: Ethics, Political Theory, Continental Philosophy, Max Weber (Philosophy), Social and Political Philosophy, and Max Weber
books  intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  Weber  social_theory  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  philosophy_of_social_science  epistemology  epistemology-social  positivism  rationality  values  fact-value  constructivism  pragmatism  German_scholarship  German_historical_school  hermeneutics  Heidegger  Frankfurt_School  critical_theory  natural_law  natural_rights  positivism-legal 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Raymond Boudon - Utilité ou Rationalité (2002) | Scribd
21 page article -- Explains why "rational choice" fails as explanatory theory in lots of collective action, public opinion, game theory, etc. -- domains where decisions to act aren't based exclusively on instrumental, consequentialist, cost-benefit calculative, and egoistic (directly concerned with impact on self) forms of, and context for, reasoning. Boudon finds "rational choice" superior to hand-wavy explanations that are speculative "black boxes" -- e.g. (1) sociobiology or evo-devo that we're hardwired, (2) Kahneman and Tversky heuristics and biases -- fascinating observations but aren't explanatory, (3) social/cultural explanations such as "socialization" which are tautological or a black box that provide no mechanisms that can differentiate situations or variations in outcomes. E.g. in Roman Empire peasants were more likely to remain pagan and soldiers were more likely to be attracted to the new religion. "Socialization" doesn't explain why soldiers raised in the traditional religious milieu and belief system were more likely to change their beliefs. Great examples of how rationality includes cognitive processes dealing with (1) non-instrumental contexts - e.g. identification with communitarian concerns ranging from voting to immigration policies, (2) aligning actions with one's judgment of what's more likely "true" based on core beliefs and how one has learned to evaluate "evidence" [e.g. Swedes are even more likely to reject "lump of labor" than Americans!] (3) axiological reasoning, including norms of fairness that may be fairly universal (e.g. reaction to Antigone, ultimatum game) or specific to a culture (e.g. due process in political application of "rule of law") -- see article for his tripartite classification of rationality and types of cognition that "rational choice" rejects in its definition. He thinks Weber and Adam Smith got there before, and better than, Becker.
article  Scribd  social_theory  mechanisms-social_theory  evolutionary_biology  evo_psych  rational_choice  rationality-economics  rationality-bounded  rationality  reasons  Weber  Smith  Becker_Gary  Simon_Herbert  fairness  community  identity  norms  epistemology-social  game_theory  altruism  cognitive_bias  cognition  cognition-social  democracy  citizens  voting  political_participation  collective_action  political_culture  public_choice  public_opinion  common_good  socialization  social_psychology  cost-benefit  self-interest  self-interest-cultural_basis  self-and-other  EF-add 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Panel discussion - Max Weber’s work and its relation to historical writing (Dec 2014) :: German Historical Institute London (GHIL)
Chair: Andreas Gestrich (German Historical Institute London) -- Discussants: David d’Avray, Peter Ghosh and Joachim Radkau -- Max Weber is one of the most prestigious social theorists in recent history. Many of his academic works are modern classics. Even 100 years after his death, his books are still read, edited, translated and interpreted. In recent years a number of biographies have shed new light on Weber’s life and work. In commemoration of Max Weber’s 150th anniversary, the German Historical Institute hosts a discussion with three Weber experts, British historians David d’Avray and Peter Ghosh and German historian Joachim Radkau, on Max Weber’s work and its relation to historical writing. **--** Peter Ghosh is Jean Duffield Fellow in Modern History at St Anne’ College, University of Oxford. His research interests focus primarily on the history of ideas, both social and political theory and also the history of historiography. His latest publication Max Weber and The Protestant Ethic: Twin Histories (Oxford University Press, 2014) offers an intellectual biography of Weber framed along historical lines. **--** David d’Avray, Professor of Medieval History at University College London, has worked on medieval marriage, on preaching, on attitudes to kingship and death, on rationalities, and on ‘longue durée’ structures of papal history. In Rationalities in History: a Weberian Analysis (Cambridge University Press 2010), he writes a new comparative history in the spirit of Max Weber. Reassessing seminal Weberian ideas, he applies value rationality to the comparative history of religion and the philosophy of law. **--** Joachim Radkau is Professor for Modern History at the University of Bielefeld. His latest research interests concentrate on environmental history, the history of nature conservation, and Max Weber’s self and social perception. In his extensive biography Max Weber: Die Leidenschaft des Denkens (Carl Hanser Verlag, 2005) (Max Weber: Passion for thinking), Radkau embeds Weber’s life and work in their historical context. -- MP3 download, 113 min, 64.2 MB -- downloaded to Note
audio  intellectual_history  Weber  social_theory  comparative_history  historiography-19thC  German_historical_school  German_scholarship  historicism  philosophy_of_law  sociology_of_religion  medieval_history  longue_durée  Papacy  biography  political_philosophy  political_culture  religious_culture  religious_history  rationality  environment  ecology-history  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
‘First Philosophy and its Metacritique: The Case of Karl-Otto Apel’ ( 1982) | Piet Strydom - Academia.edu
‘First Philosophy and its Metacritique: The Case of Karl-Otto Apel’, unpublished paper presented to the philosophical society Cogito, University College Cork, 10 December 1982 -- [after noting the recurring battle between metaphysics and anti metaphysics, most recently the strange bedfellows of conservative, liberal and radical from Heidegger to Rorty to Derrida proposes a 4-fold rather than binary model] This quadruple constellation has been in evidence ever since the classical Greek period and can be traced back to the existence side by side of everyday language embodying common sense, the paradigmatically regulated language of science which tends to monopolise rationality as such, philosophical language which claims to embody noetic rationality, and finally the claim of metacritical enlighteners to be able to expose the presuppositions of philosophy and thus to clarify the concept of rationality in its broadest conceivable sense. Accordingly, the following four poles can be seen most basically to determine the dispute between the representative of first philosophy and their metacritics: -- (1) "dogmatic first philosophy", including every form of philosophy of common-sense which elevates conventional forms of language use, cognition and action to the status of criterion of argumentation; (2) "self-critical first philosophy" in the sense of all forms of transcendental philosophy which regard common sense as well as science as explicandum and deduce general conditions for them from an irreducible, final and immutable criterion; -- (3) "dogmatic metacitique" in the sense of the scientistic critique of philosophy which on the basis of a determinate concept of science as final criterion implicitly or explicitly seeks the dissolution of both dogmatic and self-critical forms of first philosophy; -- and, finally, (4) "dialectical metacritique" as that form of critique of philosophy which takes in its stride all the above-mentioned types of philosophy. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  metaphysics  scepticism  rationality  foundationalism  anti-foundationalism  Heidegger  Wittgenstein  Rorty  Derrida  Foucault  deconstruction  postmodern  critical_theory  certainty  epistemology  downloaded 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Isabelle Kalinowski, review essay - Max Weber and Capitalism’s Strange Rationality - Books & ideas - November 2014
translated by Michael C. Behrent -- Reviewed: (1) Michael Löwy, La Cage d’acier. Max Weber et le marxisme wébérien [The Iron Cage: Max Weber and Weberian Marxism], Stock, coll. "Un ordre d’idées", 2013, 200 p., 18€ -- (2) Michel Lallement, Tensions majeures. Max Weber, l’économie, l’érotisme [Major Tensions: Max Weber, Economics, Eroticism], Gallimard, 2013, 288 p., 19.90€. -- interesting discussion of his use of dichotomies that don't resolve into a dialectical synthesis -- also nice re how he uses the forces pushing toward rationalization of two interacting types, formal and substantive, that allows him to deploy it in many different cultures and eras, not just modernity -- Useful references to various pieces of his oeuvre in the footnotes -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  social_theory  Weber  modernity  modernity-emergence  capitalism  Marx  economic_history  economic_sociology  sociology_of_religion  sociology  dialectic-historical  19thC  20thC  Germany  rationalization-institutions  rationality-economics  rationality  downloaded 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Seamus Bradley Imprecise Probabilities (Dec 2014) | Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
It has been argued that imprecise probabilities are a natural and intuitive way of overcoming some of the issues with orthodox precise probabilities. Models of this type have a long pedigree, and interest in such models has been growing in recent years. This article introduces the theory of imprecise probabilities, discusses the motivations for their use and their possible advantages over the standard precise model. It then discusses some philosophical issues raised by this model. There is also a historical appendix which provides an overview of some important thinkers who appear sympathetic to imprecise probabilities. *-* Related Entries -- belief, formal representations of | epistemic utility arguments for probabilism | epistemology: Bayesian | probability, interpretations of | rational choice, normative: expected utility | statistics, philosophy of | vagueness
epistemology  philosophy_of_science  technology  probability  risk  uncertainty  rational_choice  rationality-economics  rationality  rationality-bounded  statistics  Bayesian  linguistics  causation  causation-social  causation-evolutionary  complexity  complex_adaptive_systems  utility  behavioral_economics  behavioralism  neuroscience  vagueness 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Peter Elmer, review - Paul Kleber Monod, Solomon's Secret Arts: the Occult in the Age of Enlightenment (Yale University Press 2013) | Reviews in History
Peter Elmer, University of Exeter -- This important work provides the first informed, well-researched and highly nuanced account of the fortunes of ‘occult’ thought and practice in England from the mid17thC to its demise at the end of the 18thC. Building on the work of a wide range of scholars from various disciplines, (..) the fortunes of the occult are argued to have peaked in the second half of the 17thC, dipped in the period from the Glorious Revolution to 1760, and then re-emerged in the last 4 decades of the 18thC in somewhat different but revitalized form. As Monod shows (..) the occult (defined broadly as alchemy, astrology and natural magic) was rarely perceived as a uniform movement of ideas, its adherents frequently picking and choosing those elements of the ‘occult’ which most appealed to them. It was thus a protean body of ideas, susceptible to frequent re-interpretation according to the personal preoccupations of the initiated. At the same time, while some of its adherents may have (in the earlier period especially) seen it as a body of ideas capable of replacing older systems of science and philosophy, it more often than not was studied and developed alongside other, competing systems of thought. (..) What is invigoratingly original here is Monod’s application of the same accommodating features of occult thinking with regard to Newtonianism and the Enlightenment in the later period. (..) it is hard to disagree with his conclusion that ‘the assumption of many historians, that occult thinking was debunked by experimental science … is essentially wrong’.(..) all the arguments against astrology, alchemy and natural magic had been fully developed long before 1650. This is equally true of witchcraft, (..) The occult was not simply argued out of existence. Only wider factors can help to explain this process. (..) in order to understand this process, we need to pay more heed to the wider social, religious and political context in which these ideas were promoted and debated. -- downloaded as pdf to Note
books  reviews  kindle-available  17thC  18thC  British_history  cultural_history  religious_history  religious_culture  religious_belief  intellectual_history  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_culture  Enlightenment  natural_philosophy  occult  chemistry  alchemy  medicine  Newtonian  astronomy  astrology  magic  hermeticism  esotericism  publishing  Charles_II  court_culture  Church_of_England  witchcraft  political_culture  Tories  dissenters  Evangelical  Whigs  Defoe  Thompson_EP  rationality  reason  social_history  experimental_philosophy  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Pei Wang - A General Theory of Intelligence [an e-book under development] | Home
This eBook is an attempt to establish a theory that identifies the commonality within various forms intelligence, including human intelligence, computer intelligence, animal intelligence, alien intelligence, group intelligence, etc. -- NARS (Non-Axiomatic Reasoning System) - Most of the existing AI inference works with semi-axiomatic systems, which attempt to make partial extension or revision of mathematical logic, while keeping the other parts. What AI really needs are non-axiomatic systems, which do not assume the sufficiency of knowledge and resources in any aspect of the system. NARS is a concrete example of non-axiomatic system which uses a formal language "Narsese" to represent goals, actions, and beliefs.The basic unit of the language is term, which can be thought of as the name or label of a concept in the system. (..) The meaning of a term is determined by its extension and intension, which are the collection of the inheritance relations between this term and other terms, obtained from the experience of the system. NARS includes three variants of the inheritance relation: similarity (symmetric inheritance), implication (derivability), and equivalence (symmetric implication). (..)The meaning of a compound term is partially determined by its logical relations with its components, and partially by the system's experience on the compound term as a whole. Event is a special type of statement that have a time-dependent truth-value. Operation is a special type of event that can occur by the system's decision. Goal is a special type of event, that the system is attempting to realize, by carrying out certain operations. Beside goals to be achieved, NARS can accept tasks that are knowledge to be absorbed and questions to be answered. (..)If a event is judged to imply the achieving of a goal, then the desirability of the event is increased, and the system will also evaluate its plausibility(..). When an event is both desirable and plausible, the system will make the decision to turn the event into a goal to be actually pursued. The basic function of inference rules in NARS is to derive new beliefs from current beliefs.
etexts  books  intelligence  artificial_intelligence  mind  systems-complex_adaptive  systems-reflexive  systems_theory  epistemology-social  cognition  cognition-social  agent-based_models  logic  inference  decision_theory  rationality  rationality-bounded  learning  website  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Hegel's Theory of Mental Activity by Willem A. deVries (pdfs of Cornell University Press 1988)
Hegel's Theory of Mental Activity - Originally copyright Cornell University Press, 1988; Cornell kindly gave me back the copyright when the book went out of print, which change has been duly registered with the Copyright Office. So it is now copyright Willem A. deVries. The files contained here are graphical reproductions of the original text with an invisible text overlay, so they reproduce the look and pagination of the original, but can also be searched using Acrobat's find function. My grateful thanks to Stephen Butterfill for scanning the book and putting it into PDF format.
books  etexts  downloaded  intellectual_history  philosophes  German_Idealism  Hegel  17thC  18thC  19thC  Plato  Aristotle  Kant  empiricism  rationalist  mind  logic  logic-Hegelian  perception  rationality  phenomenology  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Scott J. Shapiro - Authority (2000) :: SSRN
C 2000

Stanford/Yale Jr. Faculty Forum Research Paper 00-05; Cardozo Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 24 -- the so-called "paradox of authority" was first developed in the late 18th Century by the anarchist theorist William Godwin and later popularized by Robert Paul Wolff in the 1960's. Their aim was to demonstrate that legitimate authority is impossible. As they argued, the problem with all authorities is that they claim the right to demand obedience even when they are wrong. However, people should never act in ways they believe to be wrong. Hence, people should never recognize the right of authorities to demand their obedience. This paper discusses the many "solutions" that have been offered on authority's behalf. The responses fall roughly into two groups: those who believe that problems arise due to certain naive views about the nature of authority and rationality and that revision in our understanding is required, and those who maintain that the puzzle can be unraveled without any radical changes. --, the paper accepts that the paradox (or, as it is shown, paradoxes) of authority cannot be solved within standard theories of rationality and morality. Which revisions are necessary, it is claimed, depends on one's underlying theory of legitimacy.
paper  SSRN  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  authority  obligation  legitimacy  instrumentalist  autonomy  action-theory  rationality  decision_theory  deliberation-public  paradox  anarchy  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Alan Goldman - DESIRES AND REASONS | JSTOR: American Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 46, No. 4 (OCTOBER 2009), pp. 291-304
Works through a more elaborate process of how information can interact with desires and deeper concerns to motivate, provide reasons for acting, or for changing desires, preferences or actions (reasons for acting) -- this "modified" internalist view still mostly Humean and doesn't accept premises of externalist that presumes external objective values -- didn't download
article  jstor  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  action-theory  practical_reason  reasons-internalism  reasons-externalism  rationality  values  Hume-ethics  reason-passions  Scanlon  contractualism  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Mark Bevir - Notes Toward an Analysis of Conceptual Change [eScholarship] (2003)
This is an early or unrevised version, and is not definitive, and therefore should not be cited. The Citation is Social Epistemology, 2003, 17, pp. 55-63. -- Extends insights from philosophy and sociology of science to conceptual changes more generally, often triggered by a dilemma that can't be handled well using concepts within existing background knowledge or web of beliefs. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  eScholarship  philosophy_of_science  concepts  epistemology-social  historical_change  psychology  cognition  rationality  holism  belief  Innovation  Kuhn  Popper  sociology_of_knowledge  downloaded 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Mark Bevir - Philosophy, Rhetoric, and Power: A Response to Critics [eScholarship] | Rethinking History (2000)
This is Bevir's response to the roundtable of articles on his book, The Logic of the History of Ideas -- Additional Info: This is an electronic version of an article published in Rethinking History© 2000 Copyright Taylor & Francis; Rethinking History is available online at http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/13642529.asp -- Keywords:
hermeneutics, intentionality, philosophy, power, rationality, rhetoric
article  eScholarship  intellectual_history  philosophy_of_history  concepts  historical_change  historiography  narrative  White_Hayden  power  Foucault  intentionality  meaning  rhetoric  rhetoric-political  rationality  agency  individualism-methodology  philosophy_of_language  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Ivan Ermakoff - Theory of practice, rational choice, and historical change | JSTOR: Theory and Society, Vol. 39, No. 5 (September 2010), pp. 527-553
If we are to believe the proponents of the Theory of Practice and of Rational Choice, the gap between these two paradigmatic approaches cannot be bridged. They rely on ontological premises, theories of motivations and causal models that stand too far apart. In this article, I argue that this theoretical antinomy loses much of its edge when we take as objects of sociological investigation processes of historical change, that is, when we try to specify in theoretical terms how and in which conditions historical actors enact and endorse shifts in patterns of relations as well as shifts in the symbolic and cognitive categories that make these relations significant. I substantiate this argument in light of the distinction between two temporalities of historical change: first, the long waves of gradual change and, second, the short waves of moments of breaks and ruptures. Along the way, I develop an argument about the conditions of emergence of self-limiting norms and the centrality of epistemic beliefs in situations of high disruption. -- see bibliography on jstor information page -- from keywords looks like it uses marriage patterns e.g. endogamy as illustrations -- didn't download
article  jstor  historical_sociology  historical_change  Bourdieu  rational_choice  social_capital  rationality  bibliography  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Anthony J. La Vopa - The Philosopher and the "Schwärmer" from Luther to Kant | JSTOR - Huntington Library Quarterly (1997)
The Philosopher and the "Schwärmer": On the Career of a German Epithet from Luther to Kant -- Huntington Library Quarterly, Vol. 60, No. 1/2, Enthusiasm and Enlightenment in Europe, 1650-1850 (1997), pp. 85-115 -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  religious_history  cultural_history  16thC  17thC  18thC  religious_culture  religious_belief  enthusiasm  Pietist  Reformation  politics-and-religion  sectarianism  Luther  Kant  imagination  rationality  rational_religion  clergy  authority  self  self-knowledge  self-control  public_sphere  public_disorder  status  downloaded 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Hassan Melehy - Silencing the Animals: Montaigne, Descartes, and the Hyperbole of Reason | JSTOR: symplokē, Vol. 13, No. 1/2 (2005), pp. 263-282
Toulmin on Cartesian hyper rationality and Derrida on man animal, Montaigne and Descartes -- useful postmodern bibliography as well as articles in last few decades on whether Descartes was a friend or enemy of animals based on where he drew the boundary.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  modernity  rationality  scepticism  anti-foundationalism  Montaigne  Descartes  animals  humanism  reason  emotions  perception  sensibility  moral_psychology  moral_philosophy  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader

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