dunnettreader + rational_religion   28

Design Arguments for the Existence of God | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Table of Contents -- 1. The Classical Versions of the Design Argument -- a. Scriptural Roots and Aquinas's Fifth Way -- b.The Argument from Simple Analogy -- c. Paley's Watchmaker Argument -- d. Guided Evolution **--** 2. Contemporary Versions of the Design Argument. -- a. The Argument from. -- b. Irreducible Biochemical Complexity -- c. The Argument from Biological Information. -- d. The Fine-Tuning Arguments -- (i) The Argument from Suspicious Improbability -- (ii) The Confirmatory Argument. **--** 3. The Scientifically Legitimate Uses of Design Inferences. **--** 4.References and Further Reading -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  ancient_philosophy  medieval_philosophy  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  philosophy_of_religion  theology  natural_religion  rational_religion  Newtonianism  creation  design-nature  God-existence  God-attributes  Aquinas  analogy  Paley  complexity  cosmology  cosmological-fine-tuning  intelligent_design  creationism  natural_philosophy  evolution  Bible-as-history  bibliography  downloaded 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Hartshorne: Biography and Psychology of Sensation | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
(..) he insisted that metaphysics and empirical science have different aims and methods, each ensuring in its own way a disciplined objectivity. His “neoclassical” or “process” metaphysics is in the same family of speculative philosophy that one finds in the works of CS Peirce and the later writings of AN Whitehead. Although he did not style himself a disciple of either, he made significant contributions to the study of these philosophers even as he developed his own views. Like them, he endeavored in his own metaphysical thinking to give full weight to the dynamic, relational, temporal, and affective dimensions of the universe. He emphasized, as few before him had, in logic and in the processes of nature, the foundational nature of asymmetrical relations. He was also a theist (...) the revival of the ontological or modal argument for God’s existence...He insisted, however, that it was unavailing to appeal to ...any theistic argument) as support for theism without first rethinking the concept of deity. He argued that thinking about God had been handicapped by lack of attention to the logically possible forms of theism, and in place of the unmoved mover of classical theology, he proposed “the most, and best, moved mover.” He endorsed a “dipolar” version of theism according to which God is both necessary and contingent, but in different respects. He sought a “panentheism” in which God includes the creatures without negating their distinctiveness. -- entry also covers his 1st book on perception -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  20thC  metaphysics  philosophy_of_religion  Peirce  Whitehead  theism  Hartshorne  natural_religion  rational_religion  God-attributes  God-existence  analytical_philosophy  logic  logic-Peirce  process_theology  panentheism  ontological_argument  cosmology  Aristotelian  sensation  perception  empiricism  downloaded 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Hartshorne, Charles : Dipolar Theism | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Hartshorne’s views on the existence of a divine reality are treated separately in another article, “Charles Hartshorne: Theistic and Anti-Theistic Arguments.” -- Hartshorne spent much of his career in a philosophical atmosphere in which the question was not so much “Does God exist?” as it was “Does ‘God’ name a coherent idea?” Philosophers from very diverse schools of thought—from Sartre to the Logical Positivists—rejected theism on the basis of alleged inconsistencies in the very idea of deity. Hartshorne himself remarked that there would be fewer atheists if theists had done a better job of making sense of the concept of God. Hartshorne’s response to this situation was to develop his dipolar or neoclassical concept of God. It can plausibly be claimed that Hartshorne accomplished at least two tasks: first, he introduced a sophisticated and religiously important form of theism heretofore unheard of or at least very poorly developed through philosophical argument and, second, he shifted the burden of proof onto those who claim that the concept of God is hopelessly muddled. -- downloaded pdf to Note
philosophy_of_religion  metaphysics  20thC  rational_religion  Whitehead  Hartshorne  God-attributes  analytical_philosophy  Logical_Positivism  existentialism  panentheism  theism  atheism  process_theology  modal_logic  ontological_argument  empiricism  downloaded 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Reformed Epistemology | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
A thesis about the rationality of religious belief. A central claim made by the reformed epistemologist is that religious belief can be rational without any appeal to evidence or argument. There are, broadly speaking, two ways that reformed epistemologists support this claim. The first is to argue that there is no way to successfully formulate the charge that religious belief is in some way epistemically defective if it is lacking support by evidence or argument. The second way is to offer a description of what it means for a belief to be rational, and to suggest ways that religious beliefs might in fact be meeting these requirements. This has led reformed epistemologists to explore topics such as when a belief-forming mechanism confers warrant, the rationality of engaging in belief forming practices, and when we have an epistemic duty to revise our beliefs. As such, reformed epistemology offers an alternative to evidentialism (the view that religious belief must be supported by evidence in order to be rational) and fideism (the view that religious belief is not rational, but that we have non-epistemic reasons for believing). Reformed epistemology was first clearly articulated in a collection of papers called Faith and Rationality edited by Alvin Plantinga and Nicholas Wolterstorff in 1983. However, the view owes a debt to many other thinkers
philosophy_of_religion  epistemology  rational_religion  rationality  evidence  religious_belief  fideism  analytical_philosophy  virtue_epistemology  Protestants 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Hartshorne, Charles: Neoclassical Metaphysics | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy - July 2015
Hartshorne (1897-2000) was an intrepid defender of the claims of metaphysics ...While many influential voices were explaining what speculative philosophy could not accomplish or even proclaiming an end to it, Hartshorne was trying to show what speculative philosophy could accomplish. Metaphysics, he said, has a future as well as a past. He believed that the history of philosophy exhibits genuine, albeit halting and uneven, progress towards a comprehensive understanding of the nature of existence. Philosophy was, for him, a dialogue that spans centuries, with partners whose wisdom has a perennial relevance. The 2 philosophers who most influenced him, and in whose work he found the greatest parallels with his own thinking, were Charles Sanders Peirce and Alfred North Whitehead. Hartshorne was co-editor with Paul Weiss of the first comprehensive edition of Peirce’s philosophical papers, and he served as Whitehead’s assistant during the most metaphysically creative period of the Englishman’s career. (...) there remained important differences between the two philosophers [i.e. H & W]. (..) theism was always a central element of Hartshorne’s metaphysics (addressed briefly here, but see “Charles Hartshorne: Dipolar Theism” and “Charles Hartshorne: Theistic and Anti-theistic Arguments”) whereas Whitehead was preoccupied for much of his career with a philosophy of nature and did not introduce God until he developed the speculative philosophy of his later works. -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  20thC  metaphysics  philosophy_of_religion  Peirce  Whitehead  theism  Hartshorne  natural_religion  rational_religion  God-attributes  God-existence  analytical_philosophy  logic-Peirce  ontological_argument  modal_logic  Quine  process_theology  panentheism  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Margaret C. Jacob - How Radical Was the Enlightenment? What Do We Mean by Radical? | Diametros
Distinguished Professor of History, UCLA Email: mjacob@history.ucla.edu
-- The Radical Enlightenment has been much discussed and its original meaning somewhat distorted. In 1981 my concept of the storm that unleashed a new, transnational intellectual movement possessed a strong contextual and political element that I believed, and still believe, to be critically important. Idealist accounts of enlightened ideas that divorce them from politics leave out the lived quality of the new radicalism born in reaction to monarchical and clerical absolutism. Taking the religious impulse seriously and working to defang it of bellicosity would require years of labor. First all the world’s religions had to be surveyed, see Picart’s seven folio volumes; and Rousseau’s Savoyard vicar had to both preach and live religion simply as true virtue; and finally Jefferson editing the Bible so as to get the irrational parts simply removed, thus making people more fit to grant a complete religious toleration. Throughout the century all these approaches to revealed religion may be legitimately described as radical. Each produced a different recommendation for its replacement. As I have now come to see, the pantheism I identified in 1981 would lead in many directions, among them lay the search to understand all human religiosity and to articulate a universal natural religion. -- Keywords - Atheism materialism absolutism French Protestant refugees Dutch cities religious toleration Bernard Picart Jonathan Israel English freethinkers Papal condemnation Rousseau pantheism Jefferson -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  religious_history  cultural_history  political_history  17thC  18thC  Dutch  British_history  Enlightenment  Radical_Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  political_culture  politics-and-religion  religion-established  religious_belief  comparative_religion  comparative_anthropology  monotheism  natural_religion  natural_philosophy  materialism  tolerance  natural_rights  naturalism  pantheism  atheism  atheism_panic  anticlerical  Absolutism  monarchy  monarchy-proprietary  publishing  public_sphere  Picart  Rousseau  Jefferson  revelation  Biblical_authority  Bible-as-history  Biblical_criticism  Huguenots  free-thinkers  Papacy  papal_infallibility  censorship  Republic_of_Letters  rational_religion  American_colonies  Early_Republic  ecclesiology  querelle_des_rites  virtue  moral_philosophy  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Alfred Caldecott - The Philosophy of Religion in England and America (1901) - Google Books
Downloaded pdf to Note -- interesting from standpoint of how he classifies the philosophical elements - e.g. lumps Bolingbroke with Berkeley and Butler, not with Deists or Hume - clearly doesn't see how similar Bolingbroke and Hume really were, unlike Warburton who grasped it; also doesn't sneer like Leslie Stephen -- a specimen of fin de siècle academic professionalization after the divinity training raison d'être and "vocation" of Anglo-American universities had evaporated
books  etexts  Google_Books  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  intellectual_history  theology  philosophy_of_religion  British_history  US_history  reason  revelation  cosmology  God-attributes  God-existence  creation_ex_nilho  creation  scepticism  theism  Cambridge_Platonists  Locke-religion  Deism  rational_religion  natural_religion  materialism  mind-body  mind-theory_of  idealism-transcendental  subjectivism  Butler  Berkeley  Bolingbroke  theodicy  comparative_religion  comparative_anthropology  monotheism  ecclesiology  Hegelian  British_Idealism  moral_philosophy  moral_sentiments  obligation  intuitionism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Mark Noll, review essay - His Kingdom Stretch from Shore to Shore - Christianity worldwide 16thC-18thC | Books and Culture
Books review : David Hempton, The Church in the Long Eighteenth Century: The I.B.Tauris History of the Christian Church; Dale T. Irvin, ed, History of the World Christian Movement, Vol. 2: Modern Christianity from 1454-1800 -- .. intriguing that books written for such different ends coalesce in making some of the same larger judgments. Both books, thus, stress the delicate interplay between Christian expansion outside Europe and the fragmentation of Christianity within Europe. ...how, as divisions within Europe hardened between Catholics and Protestants, and soon between established churches and sectarian opponents of state churches, Christianity became the genuinely world religion. Hempton is equally perceptive on how 18th-century Europe witnessed intellectual, social, and political "challenges from which Christianity at least among educated elites, has never fully recovered," even as Western Protestants initiated the missionary efforts that successfully planted Christian faith around the globe. Both books also agree that the Jesuits were the era's most farsighted and effective "world Christians." ..the particular disaster for Latin America when Spanish and Portuguese officials sent the Jesuits packing in order to preserve the top-down, exploitative, and often syncretistic faith that best served the colonizers' interests. And they record the significance of the Moravians—so to speak, married Jesuits with children—who pushed Protestants beyond the identification of Christianity as such with European Christianity. The books are also agreed that the great Christian scandal of the early modern era was slavery. - ... both books clarify what most centrally defines the Christian faith itself. For Hempton it is the recognition at "the most profound level that Christianity is in its essence a missionary religion." For Irvin and Sunquist, it is the claim that Christian faith can never be adequately grasped except as a "world movement." Walls describes this dual character as "the indigenous principle" in constant tension with "the pilgrim principle."
books  reviews  religious_history  Christianity  16thC  17thC  18thC  exploration  colonialism  missionaries  Jesuits  Moravians  Reformation  Counter-Reformation  religious_culture  religious_belief  Latin_America  Africa  African_trade  West_Indies  China  querelle_des_rites  theology  heterodoxy  Papacy  sectarianism  slavery  Enlightenment  Spanish_Empire  universalism  monotheism  intellectual_history  social_history  church_history  enthusiasm  spirituality  self  rational_religion  ecclesiology  Protestants  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Lincoln Mullen - Religion in American History: Where Are the Histories of American Irreligion?
Very good historiography post (or more about lack thereof) -- one of the comments has a great bibliography, not just for American history but also people working on Britain and Europe
religious_history  religious_culture  politics-and-religion  religious_belief  18thC  19thC  20thC  US_history  American_colonies  Early_Republic  atheism  atheism_panic  Deism  rational_religion  free-thinkers  secular_humanism  secularism  anti-Trinitarian  bibliography  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Michael Heyd - From a Rationalist Theology to Cartesian Voluntarism: David Derodon and Jean-Robert Chouet | JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 40, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1979), pp. 527-542
Shift from proto Leibniz determinism to extreme Voluntarism - 1660 and later in Geneva - Chouet introduced Cartesian mechanism to French Reformed - a perspective on the relationship between theology and 17thC mechanical philosophy -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  history_of_science  religious_history  science-and-religion  17thC  Geneva  Calvinist  rational_religion  God-attributes  determinism  voluntarism  laws_of_nature  Descartes  Cartesian  mechanism  natural_philosophy  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Online guide to texts in early modern metaethics (Cole Mitchell)
This is an online guide to texts in early modern metaethics, organized by author in rough chronological order, and maintained by Cole Mitchell. I try to keep the focus on topics of metaethical interest: reason and the passions, the status of moral truths and their relation to God, the ‘why be moral?’ question, the relation between morality and self-interest, analogies between morality and other domains (geometry, law, aesthetics), teleology and human nature, etc.
This guide is still pretty rough and messy. Any feedback on this or similar projects would be much appreciated:
website  links  17thC  18thC  intellectual_history  metaphysics  moral_philosophy  metaethics  human_nature  mind-body  reason-passions  natural_religion  rational_religion  Deism  Cambridge_Platonists  Descartes  Malebranche  Hobbes  Locke  Clarke  Leibniz  Butler  Berkeley  Warburton  Hume  Hume-ethics  Bolingbroke  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Anthony J. La Vopa - The Philosopher and the "Schwärmer" from Luther to Kant | JSTOR - Huntington Library Quarterly (1997)
The Philosopher and the "Schwärmer": On the Career of a German Epithet from Luther to Kant -- Huntington Library Quarterly, Vol. 60, No. 1/2, Enthusiasm and Enlightenment in Europe, 1650-1850 (1997), pp. 85-115 -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  religious_history  cultural_history  16thC  17thC  18thC  religious_culture  religious_belief  enthusiasm  Pietist  Reformation  politics-and-religion  sectarianism  Luther  Kant  imagination  rationality  rational_religion  clergy  authority  self  self-knowledge  self-control  public_sphere  public_disorder  status  downloaded 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
The Nature of Early Eighteenth-Century Religious Radicalism | Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts
Citation: Jacob, Margaret . “The Nature of Early Eighteenth-Century Religious Radicalism.” Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 1, no. 1 (May 1, 2009): http://rofl.stanford.edu/node/42. -- in "Rethinking the Republic of Letters" issue -- downloaded pdf to Note In 1981 I had focused on the Dutch-French-English nexus, and saw a select cast of major seventeenth-century thinkers as influencing the arguments put forward by French refugees and English Whigs for religious freedom, republican government, freedom of the press, habeas corpus, and against monarchical absolutism as practiced by the French king and clergy. These arguments appeared in the journals, books, and clandestine manuscripts originating in both London and Amsterdam. The origin of these new polemics owed much to a particular reading of Hobbes, to Locke, to a heretical reading of Newtonian science (Toland’s distinctive contribution), and of course to Bruno, Spinoza, as well as the English republican thinkers of the 1650s. In 2001 all of those influences were collapsed by Jonathan Israel into an ideengeschichte that fixated on the intellectual legacy of Spinoza to the exclusion of any significant English or French component.But if I think that Israel’s simplification of the way intellectual influence and human agency work—an idealist rendering that also effaces the political—will not stand up under scrutiny, so too I think aspects of my own youthful thinking are in need of a reformulation. The power of the Enlightenment—from this early coterie to latter thinkers like Rousseau and Jefferson—lay in understanding the force of organized religion, and then searching for a set of beliefs which deists, and perhaps even atheists of the age, could live with and accept. As I have now come to see, the pantheism I identified in 1981 would lead in many directions, among them the search to understand all human religiosity and to articulate a universal natural religion.
article  intellectual_history  historiography  17thC  18thC  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Radical_Enlightenment  Freemasonry  religious_history  theology  political_philosophy  republicanism  Republic_of_Letters  philosophes  church_history  tolerance  heterodoxy  Spinoza  Hobbes  Locke  Toland  Bayle  Huguenots  Edict_of_Nantes  Louis_XIV  Newtonian  Rousseau  Jefferson  Bolingbroke  Picart  sociology_of_religion  Deism  natural_religion  rational_religion  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader

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