dunnettreader + psychology   90

Consciousness (pages 11-18) | Symposion. Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences - Jan 2015
Nicholas Rescher

ABSTRACT: Consciousness is sometimes viewed as a particular parametric factor in the analogy of blood pressure or electric charge. The paper argues that this is an erroneous conception becomes consciousness involves a varied assortment of different phenomena that have no single unified commonality. And so even as ‘abnormal psychology’ has to be a disjointed assembly of diverse specialties so will ‘consciousness studies’ have to be.
neuroscience  article  mind-body  philosophy_of_science  reductionism  human_nature  psychology  downloaded  consciousness  mind 
may 2016 by dunnettreader
Ruairidh James Macleod - The Concept of Temporality in John Dewey's Early Works (2015 thesis) - Academic Commons
Ruairidh James Macleod, 2015, The Concept of Temporality in John Dewey's Early Works, Columbia University Academic Commons, http://dx.doi.org/10.7916/D8M044XW : -- It is well understood that a concept of temporality is central to Dewey’s later work, finding its culmination in his essay “Time and Individuality” (1938). What has not been either acknowledged or established is the fact that a detailed and sophisticated concept of temporality, one which is fully in accord with his later work, was already present in Dewey’s early work, particularly in his essay “The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology” (1896). This thesis therefore seeks to demonstrate not only that such a concept of temporality exists in Dewey’s early work, but also the nuanced nature of that concept of temporality, particularly in its function as a central, grounding component of the preconditions required for Dewey’s concept of experience. (..) this thesis argues that it in fact constitutes a key contribution to a tradition of philosophy of temporality which starts with the work of Henri Bergson, continues with the philosophy of Martin Heidegger (most saliently with Being and Time), and finds its full contemporary statement in Gilles Deleuze’s work on time, based on his concept of ‘the virtual.’ The fact that Dewey’s concept of temporality, as with that of Deleuze, is based on a sophisticated understanding of contemporary scientific findings is also explored, with the argument made that possessing such a foundation in scientific thought allows Dewey’s concept of temporality to become fully compatible to current research in psychology, particularly as it concerns educational psychology. -- downloaded pdf to Note
thesis  downloaded  intellectual_history  18thC  20thC  philosophical_anthropology  mind  consciousness  time  time-perception  subjectivity  Dewey  pragmatism  psychology  physiology  neuroscience  Bergson  Heidegger  Deleuze  education  learning 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Leo Damrosh - The Enlightenment: Invention of the Modern Self | The Great Courses
Enlightenment Invention of the Modern Self - from opening views in 17thC, through stages of the Enlightenment - a road to its (inevitable?) backlash in Romanticism
24 lectures
Only available as Audio download (and streaming) - list price $130
Rave reviews
Uses literary works and philosophical texts together
Frex completes the 2 lectures on British empiricism (focus on Locke and Hume re the self) with how Pope struggles with capturing complex psychology within the empiricist framework
After an introduction of 17thC religious and secular conceptions of the self, starts with 2 on La Princesse de Clèves
After empiricism, 2 on Voltaire and theodicy in Candide
3 lectures on Diderot and Jacques le fataliste
A lot of Rousseau - not the novels but the autobiographical works - how he analyzes himself in Confessions and Solitary Walker
Lots of biography, with Boswell's Johnson the vehicle
Some Franklin and Smith
Finishes with Laclos and Blake
Romanticism  bibliography  reason-passions  poetry  Boswell  self  moral_psychology  French_Enlightenment  Enlightenment  English_lit  French_Revolution-impact  Rousseau  free_will  Locke-education  buy  human_nature  Diderot  Blake_William  Locke  Hume-causation  autobiography  17thC  Rousseau-self  Hume-ethics  altruism  Johnson  Voltaire  novels  empiricism  18thC  moral_philosophy  Locke-Essay  intellectual_history  cultural_history  Pope_Alexander  courses  French_lit  Smith  Hume  determinism  epistemology  emotions  character  audio  psychology 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Nicolas Duvoux - Les grammaires de la modernité. Notices bibliographiques autour de trois débats essentiels (2005) - Cairn.info
Plan de l'article
Une clarification sémantique préalable
I - La querelle de la sécularisation et l’interprétation de la modernité
II - Malaise dans la civilisation post-moderne
III - La modernité sortie de la modernité ?
Duvoux Nicolas, « Les grammaires de la modernité. Notices bibliographiques autour de trois débats essentiels», Le Philosophoire 2/2005 (n° 25) , p. 135-152
URL : www.cairn.info/revue-le-philosophoire-2005-2-page-135.htm.
DOI : 10.3917/phoir.025.0135.
Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
multiculturalism  modernity  psychoanalysis  poststructuralist  social_capital  structuralism  cultural_critique  relativism  modernity-emergence  intellectual_history  identity  French_Enlightenment  constructivism  political_philosophy  subjectivity  alienation  agency-structure  bibliography  social_sciences-post-WWII  classes  community  change-social  phenomenology  mass_culture  popular_culture  secularization  communication  anti-modernity  article  Counter-Enlightenment  downloaded  ideology  Habermas  modernization  mobility  public_sphere  French_intellectuals  political_science  psychology  social_theory  consumerism 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Nicholas Poirier - Entretien avec Marcel Gauchet (2003) - Cairn.info
Entretien préparé et réalisé par Fouré Lionel, Entretien préparé et réalisé par Poirier Nicolas, « Entretien avec Marcel Gauchet. », Le Philosophoire 1/2003 (n° 19) , p. 23-37
URL : www.cairn.info/revue-le-philosophoire-2003-1-page-23.htm.
DOI : 10.3917/phoir.019.0023.
Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
representative_institutions  metaphysics  democracy  Gauchet  change-social  Freud  phenomenology  France  social_theory  cultural_critique  psychology  political_philosophy  philosophy_of_social_science  poststructuralist  French_intellectuals  19thC  governance  social_sciences-post-WWII  subjectivity  common_good  nation-state  republicanism  Lacan  social_history  philosophy_of_history  modernity  German_Idealism  structuralism  civil_liberties  human_nature  downloaded  epistemology  interview  Foucault  intellectual_history  Lefort  political_participation  epistemology-social  citizenship  community 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Louis Pinto - Le débat sur les sources de la morale et de la religion (2004) - Cairn.info
Après la Grande Guerre, le ralliement d’une partie de la droite conservatrice à un régime désormais doté d’une légitimité guerrière et patriotique a pour effet de modifier sensiblement la définition des vertus républicaines jusqu’alors associée à l’alliance entre la démocratie et la science, qui caractérise le durkheimisme aussi bien que l’idéologie laïque. Cette évolution se reflète en partie dans le champ philosophique : dans le livre Les Deux sources de la morale et de la religion (1932), Bergson entend se situer sur les terrains de prédilection de la sociologie durkheimienne. Les oppositions majeures de sa métaphysique se trouvent appliquées à la société, la célèbre opposition entre le « clos » et l’« ouvert » permettant de renvoyer les sociologues du côté du légalisme et de l’utilitarisme étroits, et d’attribuer des qualités nobles et novatrices à des « héros ». On s’intéresse ici à la riposte d’Albert Bayet qui est simultanément celle d’un professeur rationaliste défendant l’héritage des Lumières, celle d’un sociologue d’inspiration durkheimienne et celle d’un militant de la laïcité non résigné à se voir dépouillé de valeurs comme la générosité et l’enthousiasme. Après avoir contesté aussi bien la notion de morale ouverte que l’individualisme métaphysique, il montre le lien entre les prises de position théoriques et leurs conséquences politiques.
cosmology  comparative_religion  cultural_authority  spirituality  intelligentsia  Durkheim  evolution-as-model  sociology_of_knowledge  morality-conventional  Bergson  psychology  utilitarianism  downloaded  political_culture  phenomenology  James_William  social_theory  declinism  France  social_sciences  entre_deux_guerres  irrationalism  morality-divine_command  social_order  article  intellectual_history  politics-and-religion  conservatism  morality-objective 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Todd K Shackelford and James R Liddle - An overview of evolutionary psychology, Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Cognitive science (2014) | via Researchgate
Understanding the mind from an evolutionary perspective: An overview of evolutionary psychology, Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Cognitive science, 05/2014; 5(3). DOI: 10.1002/wcs.1281 (Impact Factor: 0.79). -- ABSTRACT --
The theory of evolution by natural selection provides the only scientific explanation for the existence of complex adaptations. The design features of the brain, like any organ, are the result of selection pressures operating over deep time. Evolutionary psychology posits that the human brain comprises a multitude of evolved psychological mechanisms, adaptations to specific and recurrent problems of survival and reproduction faced over human evolutionary history. Although some mistakenly view evolutionary psychology as promoting genetic determinism, evolutionary psychologists appreciate and emphasize the interactions between genes and environments. This approach to psychology has led to a richer understanding of a variety of psychological phenomena, and has provided a powerful foundation for generating novel hypotheses. Critics argue that evolutionary psychologists resort to storytelling, but as with any branch of science, empirical testing is a vital component of the field, with hypotheses standing or falling with the weight of the evidence. Evolutionary psychology is uniquely suited to provide a unifying theoretical framework for the disparate subdisciplines of psychology. An evolutionary perspective has provided insights into several subdisciplines of psychology, while simultaneously demonstrating the arbitrary nature of dividing psychological science into such subdisciplines. Evolutionary psychologists have amassed a substantial empirical and theoretical literature, but as a relatively new approach to psychology, many questions remain, with several promising directions for future research. For further resources related to this article, see the WIREs website. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  Wiley  evolutionary_biology  biocultural_evolution  evo_psych  psychology  mind  neuroscience  natural_selection  bibliography  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Alex Wetmore - Sympathy Machines: Men of Feeling and the Automaton (2009) | JSTOR - Eighteenth-Century Studies
Eighteenth-Century Studies, Vol. 43, No. 1 (FALL 2009), pp. 37-54 -- Recent discussions of the automaton in eighteenth-century British culture have situated this figure in relation to shifting concepts of feminine identity. However, comparatively little attention has been spent on the automaton's relation to masculinity. In light of this, my essay considers parallels between automata and representations of men of feeling in the sentimental novels of Sterne, Smollett, and Mackenzie. Juxtaposing these novels with spectacles of automata like Cox's Museum reveal at least two interesting insights: (1) the man of feeling's automatically-reactive sensibility destabilizes eighteenth-century conceptual boundaries between humans and machines; and (2) in breaching these boundaries, men of feeling point to important shifts in the relationship between the mechanical and the virtuous as the century progresses. -- looks like a useful lit survey -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  cultural_history  18thC  Enlightenment  natural_philosophy  mechanism  materialism  psychology  physiology  moral_philosophy  automatons  sensibility  man-of-feeling  moral_sentiments  masculinity  sentimentalism  novels  Sterne  Smollett  social_theory  civil_society  politeness  manners  authenticity  self  self-knowledge  bibliography  downloaded 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
Table of contents - John Sellars, ed. - The Routledge Handbook of the Stoic Tradition (Feb 2016) | Academia.edu
Introduction | Stoicism in Rome | Stoicism in Early Christianity | Plotinus and the Platonic Response to Stoicism | Augustine’s Debt to Stoicism in the Confessions | Boethius and Stoicism | Stoic Themes in Peter Abelard and John of Salisbury | Stoic Influences in the Later Middle Ages | The Recovery of Stoicism in the Renaissance | Stoicism in the Philosophy of the Italian Renaissance | Erasmus, Calvin, and the Faces of Stoicism in Renaissance and Reformation Thought | Justus Lipsius and Neostoicism | Shakespeare and Early Modern English Literature | Medicine of the Mind in Early Modern Philosophy | Stoic Themes in Early Modern French Thought | Spinoza and Stoicism | Leibniz and the Stoics: Fate, Freedom, and Providence | The Epicurean Stoicism of the French Enlightenment | Stoicism and the Scottish Enlightenment | Kant and Stoic Ethics | Stoicism in Nineteenth Century German Philosophy | Stoicism and Romantic Literature | Stoicism in Victorian Culture | Stoicism in America | Stoic Themes in Contemporary Anglo-American Ethics | Stoicism and Twentieth Century French Philosophy | The Stoic Influence on Modern Psychotherapy
books  intellectual_history  Stoicism  ancient_philosophy  Epictetus  Seneca  Early_Christian  late_antiquity  Neoplatonism  Augustine  Abelard  John_of_Salisbury  medieval_philosophy  Renaissance  Italian_Renaissance  Italy  Shakespeare  Shakespeare-influence  Erasmus  Reformation  Calvin  Justus_Lipsius  Neostoicism  philosophy-as-way-of-life  psychology  self  self-examination  self-knowledge  self-development  early_modern  Europe-Early_Modern  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  Spinoza  Leibniz  fate  determinism  Providence  free_will  freedom  French_Enlightenment  Epicurean  Scottish_Enlightenment  Kant-ethics  German_Idealism  German_scholars  neo-Kantian  Romanticism  literary_history  analytical_philosophy  psychoanalysis  phenomenology 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
John Sellars - Shaftesbury, Stoicism, and Philosophy as a Way of Life (2015) | Academia.edu
Publication Name: Sophia (in press) -- This paper examines Shaftesbury’s reflections on the nature of philosophy in his Askêmata notebooks, which draw heavily on the Roman Stoics Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius. In what follows I introduce the notebooks, outline Shaftesbury’s account of philosophy therein, compare it with his discussions of the nature of philosophy in his published works, and conclude by suggesting that Pierre Hadot’s conception of ‘philosophy as a way of life’ offers a helpful framework for thinking about Shaftesbury’s account of philosophy. -- Keywords: Stoicism, Shaftesbury, Philosophy as a way of life, and Pierre Hadot -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  Academia.edu  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Rome  Stoicism  Epictetus  philosophy-as-way-of-life  Marcus_Aurelius  Hadot_Pierre  Shaftesbury  moral_philosophy  psychology  passions  emotions  downloaded 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
Bourke, R.: Empire and Revolution: The Political Life of Edmund Burke. (eBook and Hardcover)
Drawing on the complete range of printed and manuscript sources, Empire and Revolution offers a vivid reconstruction of the major concerns of this outstanding statesman, orator, and philosopher.In restoring Burke to his original political and intellectual context, this book strips away the accumulated distortions that have marked the reception of his ideas. In the process, it overturns the conventional picture of a partisan of tradition against progress. In place of the image of a backward-looking opponent of popular rights, it presents a multifaceted portrait of one of the most captivating figures in eighteenth-century life and thought. While Burke was a passionately energetic statesman, he was also a deeply original thinker. Empire and Revolution depicts him as a philosopher-in-action who evaluated the political realities of the day through the lens of Enlightenment thought, variously drawing on the ideas of such figures as Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Hume. A boldly ambitious work of scholarship, this book challenges us to rethink the legacy of Burke and the turbulent era in which he played so pivotal a role. -- Richard Bourke is professor in the history of political thought and codirector of the Centre for the Study of the History of Political Thought at Queen Mary University of London. He is the author of Peace in Ireland: The War of Ideas and the coeditor of Political Judgement. -- Big early chunk on Vindication of Natural Society -- TOC and Intro (24 pgs) downloaded to Note
books  buy  biography  kindle-available  Bolingbroke  Burke  18thC  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  social_sciences  British_history  British_politics  British_Empire  British_foreign_policy  imperialism-critique  Ireland  Ireland-English_exploitation  parties  Whigs  Whigs-oligarchy  Whigs-grandees  Parliament  Parliamentary_supremacy  representative_institutions  political_participation  political_press  moral_philosophy  psychology  religion-established  Church_of_England  Catholics-and-politics  Catholics-Ireland  Catholics-England  Catholic_emancipation  aesthetics  Montesquieu  Hume-ethics  Hume-politics  Rousseau  American_colonies  American_Revolution  India  French_Revolution  French_Enlightenment  French_Revolutionary_Wars  politics-and-religion  politics-and-history  Glorious_Revolution  Revolution_Principles  hierarchy  George_III  Pitt_the_Elder  Pitt_the_Younger  English_lit  human_rights  human_nature  philosophical_anthropology  sentimentalism  moral_sentiments  morality-Christian  morality-conventional  Enlightenment-conservative  British_Em 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Emmanuel Bezy, review - Pascale Gillot, L’esprit, figures classiques et contemporaines - Histoire du mind-body problem - La Vie des idées - 10 janvier 2008
Pascale Gillot, L’esprit, figures classiques et contemporaines, Paris, CNRS Editions, 2007, 315 p., 30 euros. -- Si l’esprit et le corps sont des substances séparées et distinctes, comment peuvent-ils agir l’un sur l’autre ? P. Gillot montre dans son ouvrage les différentes réponses que la philosophie de l’esprit a apportées au problème ainsi formulé par Descartes. Mais ces réponses parviennent difficilement, selon elle, à s’affranchir totalement du cartésianisme. -- L’ouvrage de Pascale Gillot peut se lire de deux manières, qui ne sont pas exclusives l’une de l’autre : il constitue à la fois une introduction à la philosophie de l’esprit et une mise en perspective de la philosophie de l’esprit contemporaine, telle qu’elle s’est développée aux Etats-Unis depuis le tournant cognitiviste. Pascale Gillot expose la construction du problème du corps et de l’esprit, puis elle met en évidence les rémanences de cette problématique de William James à Jaegwon Kim. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  French_language  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  20thC  21stC  mind  mind-body  cogito  Cartesian  Descartes  James_William  dualism  cognition  neuroscience  psychology  metaphysics  essence  substance  human_nature  analytical_philosophy  naturalism  reductionism  thinking_matter  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Thomas G. Pavel - The Lives of the Novel: A History. (2013 hdbk, 2015 obk) | Princeton University Press
This is a bold and original original history of the novel from ancient Greece to the vibrant world of contemporary fiction. In this wide-ranging survey, Pavel argues that the driving force behind the novel's evolution has been a rivalry between stories that idealize human behavior and those that ridicule and condemn it. Impelled by this conflict, the novel moved from depicting strong souls to sensitive hearts and, finally, to enigmatic psyches. Pavel analyzes more than a hundred novels from Europe, North and South America, Asia, and beyond, resulting in a provocative reinterpretation of its development. According to Pavel, the earliest novels were implausible because their characters were either perfect or villainous. In the 18thC and 19thC, novelists strove for greater credibility by describing the inner lives of ideal characters in minute detail (as in Richardson's case), or by closely examining the historical and social environment (as Scott and Balzac did). Yet the earlier rivalry continued: Fielding held the line against idealism, defending the comic tradition with its flawed characters, while Charlotte Brontë and George Eliot offered a rejoinder to social realism with their idealized vision of strong, generous, and sensitive women. In the twentieth century, modernists like Proust and Joyce sought to move beyond this conflict and capture the enigmatic workings of the psyche. Pavel concludes his compelling account by showing how the old tensions persist even within today's pluralism, as popular novels about heroes coexist with a wealth of other kinds of works, from satire to social and psychological realism. -- Prof. of French, Comparative Literature, and Social Thought at the U. of Chicago, also "Fictional Worlds" and "The Spell of Language." -- downloaded introduction to Note
books  kindle-available  literary_history  literary_theory  lit_crit  novels  fiction  Greek_lit  Latin_lit  Medieval  Renaissance  Cervantes  Fielding  Richardson  Defoe  Scott_Sir_Walter  Balzac  Eliot_George  Proust  satire  cultural_critique  politics-and-literature  cultural_history  sentimentalism  character-fiction  psychology  historical_fiction  realism-literature  Modernism  romances  downloaded 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Noah Millman - Was Origen the Caitlyn Jenner of the Transabled? | The American Conservative - June 2015
I’m afraid I’m going to re-enter the fray. Rod Dreher has a piece today wondering whether the next step in our cultural development (or decline) will be the… Another superb piece by Millman illustrating how Dreher's hostility to changing cultural norms gets wrapped in a blanket condemnation of "modernity" (and liberalism, individualism, autonomy, and generally Enlightenment values) yet Dreher is committed to Enlightenment benefits of increased knowledge, and insists on liberalism's commitment to personal religious liberty. So it basically comes down to liberty for me but not for thee, with the Church authority for norm-setting both impervious to scientific and cultural change, and claiming an extension over those who don't recognize the Chyrch's authority. The example of Origen, whose spiritual commitment led to self-castration, and who wasn't condemned by the senior hierarchy (prior to the Church legislating on a range of norms dealing with the body and especially sexuality and gender, which was one reason Origen was never made a saint). Millman also has a lengthy passage from Tolstoy about a priest, sexual tension, spiritual demands and self-mutilation, with Tolstoy's final conclusion that this sort of psychological turmoil wasn’t the praiseworthy attitudes and action of a saint but self-absorbed cintra Christ's teaching. Tl; dr -- Dreher can't have it both ways (or in his case what seems like an ever-growing laundry list of contradictory ways). -- saved to Instapaper
Instapaper  sexuality  gender  gender-and-religion  norms  Early_Christian  theology  declinism  modernity  liberalism  Orthodox_Christianity  authority  individualism  autonomy  culture_wars  culture-American  cultural_change  cultural_authority  psychology  identity  biology  physiology  neuroscience  Tolstoy  religious_experience  religious_culture  religion-established  civil_liberties  bill_of_rights  from instapaper
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Caroline Jacot Grapa - Dans le vif du sujet - Diderot, corps et âme ( 2009) | Classiques Garnier - collection L'Europe des Lumières
Ce livre est un essai sur le style du matérialisme de Diderot, sa psychologie, sa métaphysique et sur les figures de l'intériorité des Lumières. La langue de l'intériorité, apanage de la spiritualité, se retrempe au contact sensible des métaphores de l'époque. Elles donnent accès à un savoir nouveau de la vie corporelle. L'actualité de cet essai tient au dialogue qu'il engage avec la phénoménologie et les neurosciences. -- This work is an essay on the style of Diderot's materialism, his psychology and his metaphysics. Its modern pertinence stems from the dialogue established with phenomenology and neurosciences. -- ISBN 978-2-8124-0046-9 -- 504 pages -- looks extremely interesting -- tracking reception of British empiricism, debates over various Cartesian proposals for dealing with animals, and the new directions taken both in life sciences and psychology and the metaphysics of materialism -- downloaded TOC as pdf to Note
books  find  amazon.fr  libraries  intellectual_history  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  natural_philosophy  18thC  France  Diderot  d'Alembert  d'Holbach  Cartesian  Locke  Newton  Newtonian  Encyclopédie  Republic_of_Letters  philosophes  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Vitalism  psychology  thinking_matter  anatomy  physiology  scientific_method  organism  subject  subjectivity  phenomenology  neuroscience  materialism  metaphysics  mind  mind-body  soul  human_nature  metaphor  French_language  French_lit  downloaded 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Raymond BOUDON - LA RATIONALITÉ DU RELIGIEUX SELON MAX WEBER | JSTOR - L'Année sociologique - Vol. 51, No. 1 (2001), pp. 9-50
LA RATIONALITÉ DU RELIGIEUX SELON MAX WEBER - L'Année sociologique (1940/1948-), Troisième série, Vol. 51, No. 1 (2001), pp. 9-50 -- One of the most striking features of Weber's writings on religion is the frequency with which he uses the word rationality. This derives from the metatheory grounding in his mind the interpretative method. This metatheory asserts that the meaning to an individual of his beliefs should be seen as the main cause explaining why he endorses them. Weber's religion sociology owes its strength to this theoretical framework. His « rational » conception of religious beliefs does not imply that these beliefs derive from deliberation. They are rather transmitted to the social subject in the course of his socialisation. But they are accepted only if they are perceived by the subject as grounded. These principles inspire Weber's pages on magical beliefs, on animism, on the great religions, on the diffusion of monotheism, on theodicy or the world disenchantment. He shows that religious thinking cares on coherence, tends to verify and falsify religious dogmas by confronting them with observable facts. He develops a complex version of evolutionism, explaining the cases of irreversibility registered by the history of religions, but avoiding any fatalism. He rejects any depth psychology and any causalist psychology in his sociology of religion, the common rational psychology being the only one that can be easily made compatible with the notion of "Verstehende Soziologie", i.e. of « interpretative sociology ». Weber analyses the evolution of religious ideas supposing that they follow the same mechanisms as the evolution of ideas in other domains, as law, economics or science. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  sociology_of_religion  Weber  Boudon  rationality  causation  causation-social  religious_history  religious_belief  religious_culture  hermeneutics  social_theory  socialization  social_process  rationality-bounded  disenchantment  causation-evolutionary  psychology  mechanisms-social_theory  downloaded 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Works by Kenneth Burke | KB Journal - Bibliographies
Lengthy -- divided into categories, e.g. books (non-fiction), essays, poetry, fiction -- notes the main changes and additions to each edition of his major works, including tracking hardback and paperback versions, which is almost impossible to sort out on Amazon -- they note the bibliographies are updated (probably mostly the secondary works page) -- downloaded as pdf to Note
Burke_Kenneth  bibliography  US_history  20thC  intellectual_history  cultural_history  cultural_critique  social_theory  economic_theory  lit_crit  literary_theory  literary_language  rhetoric  rhetoric-political  rhetoric-writing  rhetoric-moral_basis  political_culture  political_sociology  action-theory  philosophy_of_language  epistemology  epistemology-social  dialectic  dialogue  historiography  English_lit  Shakespeare  poetry  poetics  theater  psychology  meaning  perspectivism  pragmatism  progressivism  socialism  communism  entre_deux_guerres  post-WWII  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
How (not) to bring psychology and biology together | Scientia Salon
By Mark Feydk -- Published in Philosophical Studies, February 2014. -- Evolutionary psychologists often try to ‘‘bring together’’ biology and psychology by making predictions about what specific psychological mechanisms exist from theories about what patterns of behaviour would have been adaptive in the EEA for humans. This paper shows that one of the deepest methodological generalities in evolutionary biology—that proximate explanations and ultimate explanations stand in a many-to-many relation—entails that this inferential strategy is unsound. Ultimate explanations almost never entail the truth of any particular proximate hypothesis. But of course it does not follow that there are no other ways of ‘‘bringing together’’ biology and psychology. Accordingly, this paper explores one other strategy for doing just that, the pursuit of a very specific kind of consilience. However, I argue that inferences reflecting the pursuit of this kind of consilience with the best available theories in contemporary evolutionary biology indicate that psychologists should have a preference for explanations of adaptive behavior in humans that refer to learning and other similarly malleable psychological mechanisms—and not modules or instincts or any other kind of relatively innate and relatively non-malleable psychological mechanism. -- Downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_science  evo_psych  evolutionary_biology  gene-culture_coevolution  psychology  human_nature  downloaded 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul A. Lewis - The Emergence of 'Emergence' in the Work of F.A. Hayek: An Historical Analysis (revised Jan 2015) :: SSRN
King's College London - Department of Political Economy -- presented at Cambridge Realist Workshop -- This paper addresses a puzzle in the history of economic thought. The puzzle is simply stated: Hayek’s analysis of the mind arguably relies heavily on the philosophical notions of emergence and emergent properties. However, Hayek invokes the philosophical notion of emergence explicitly only once, and then relatively late in his career (in his 1964 paper on ‘The Theory of Complex Phenomena’.) The question arises, therefore, of where lie the origins of Hayek’s use of the notions of emergence and emergent properties. This paper attempts to solve this puzzle by examining the history of Hayek’s use of the concept of emergence, implicit or otherwise, and attempting to identify the sources through which notions of ‘emergence’ and ‘emergent properties’ entered his thought in general and, in particular, his theoretical psychology. -- Number of Pages in PDF File: 46 -- Keywords: Hayek, emergence, emergent properties, theoretical psychology -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  intellectual_history  20thC  Hayek  Austrian_economics  economic_theory  social_theory  ontology-social  equilibrium  social_order  social_process  emergence  complex_adaptive_systems  coordination  markets-psychology  mind  psychology  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Getting Grief Right - NYTimes.com Jan 2015
Re a woman who had lost her daughter to SIDS and thought she was "failing" because she couldn't eork heg way past the assigned stages. What was initially a comfort to help people bettef understand the process they were giong through has become a strait-jacket of prrsonal & social expectations that you can only fail.
health  culture  psychology 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
IEEE Xplore Abstract Franklin, S.; Madl, T. ; D'mello, S. ; Snaider, J. - LIDA: A Systems-level Architecture for Cognition, Emotion, and Learning (2014)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development, (Volume:6 , Issue: 1 ) Page(s):19 - 41 DOI:10.1109/TAMD.2013.2277589 -- We describe a cognitive architecture learning intelligent distribution agent (LIDA) that affords attention, action selection and human-like learning intended for use in controlling cognitive agents that replicate human experiments as well as performing real-world tasks. LIDA combines sophisticated action selection, motivation via emotions, a centrally important attention mechanism, and multimodal instructionalist and selectionist learning. Empirically grounded in cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience, the LIDA architecture employs a variety of modules and processes, each with its own effective representations and algorithms. LIDA has much to say about motivation, emotion, attention, and autonomous learning in cognitive agents. In this paper, we summarize the LIDA model together with its resulting agent architecture, describe its computational implementation, and discuss results of simulations that replicate known experimental data. We also discuss some of LIDA's conceptual modules, propose nonlinear dynamics as a bridge between LIDA's modules and processes and the underlying neuroscience, and point out some of the differences between LIDA and other cognitive architectures. Finally, we discuss how LIDA addresses some of the open issues in cognitive architecture research. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  neuroscience  psychology  brain  consciousness  cognition  emotions  learning  memory  attention  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Catherine E. Kerr et al - Mindfulness starts with the body: somatosensory attention and top-down modulation of cortical alpha rhythms in mindfulness meditation (2013) | Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Review ARTICLE - Frontiers of Human Neuroscience, 13 February 2013 | doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00012 -- Catherine E. Kerr1*, Matthew D. Sacchet2,3, Sara W. Lazar4, Christopher I. Moore5 and Stephanie R. Jones4,5 - authors from Brown, Stanford and Mass General -- Using a common set of mindfulness exercises, mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) have been shown to reduce distress in chronic pain and decrease risk of depression relapse. These standardized mindfulness (ST-Mindfulness) practices predominantly require attending to breath and body sensations. Here, we offer a novel view of ST-Mindfulness's somatic focus as a form of training for optimizing attentional modulation of 7–14 Hz alpha rhythms that play a key role in filtering inputs to primary sensory neocortex and organizing the flow of sensory information in the brain. (..) Our computational model predicts ST-Mindfulness enhances top-down modulation of alpha by facilitating precise alterations in timing and efficacy of SI thalamocortical inputs. We conclude by considering how the framework aligns with Buddhist teachings that mindfulness starts with “mindfulness of the body.” Translating this theory into neurophysiology, we hypothesize that with its somatic focus, mindfulness' top-down alpha rhythm modulation in SI enhances gain control which, in turn, sensitizes practitioners to better detect and regulate when the mind wanders from its somatic focus. This enhanced regulation of somatic mind-wandering may be an important early stage of mindfulness training that leads to enhanced cognitive regulation and metacognition. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  neuroscience  brain  perception  psychology  pain  Buddhism  meditation  physiology  health  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Kieran Fox et al - Is thinking really aversive? Commentary on Wilson et al.’s “Just think: The challenges of the disengaged mind” | Frontiers of Psychology - Cognition
Shoots down silly but highly publicized claim that people would rather undergo electric shocks than sit by themselves and "just think" for 15 minutes. They go through the experiment setups and data sets and show that the experiments demonstrated nothing like the dramatic claims but rather were consistent with prior research. Opinion ARTICLE -- Frontiers of Psychology | doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01427 -- Kieran C. Fox1, Evan Thompson2, Jessica R. Andrews-Hanna4 and Kalina Christoff1, 3* -- Spontaneous thought, often colloquially referred to as ‘daydreaming’ or ‘mind-wandering,’ is increasingly being investigated by scientists (for recent reviews, see Andrews-Hanna et al., 2014; Christoff, 2012; Smallwood and Schooler, 2014). In a recent article published in Science, Wilson et al. (2014) argue in support of the view (e.g., Killingsworth & Gilbert, 2010) that such thinking is predominantly unpleasant, and even emotionally aversive. While we were impressed with the enormous wealth of data collected by Wilson et al. and by the number of experimental manipulations carried out, we found their interpretations surprising in light of prior research. We applaud Wilson et al.’s detailed effort to investigate the content and affective qualities of ‘just thinking’ – but upon examining their dataset, we find little support for their claims. -- didn't download
article  neuroscience  psychology  behavior  mind  bad_journalism  science-public  bad_science  emotions 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeroen J. A. van Boxtel, Naotsugu Tsuchiya and Christof Koch - Consciousness and Attention: On Sufficiency and Necessity | Consciousness Research
Review ARTICLE - Frontiers of Psychology, 20 December 2010 | doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00217 - authors from or affiliated with CalTech (biology and humanities) and Tsuchiya is connected with both CalTech and brain institutes at Tamagawa University, Tokyo, Japan and Korea University, Seoul, Korea -- Recent research has slowly corroded a belief that selective attention and consciousness are so tightly entangled that they cannot be individually examined. In this review, we summarize psychophysical and neurophysiological evidence for a dissociation between top-down attention and consciousness. The evidence includes recent findings that show subjects can attend to perceptually invisible objects. More contentious is the finding that subjects can become conscious of an isolated object, or the gist of the scene in the near absence of top-down attention; we critically re-examine the possibility of “complete” absence of top-down attention. We also cover the recent flurry of studies that utilized independent manipulation of attention and consciousness. These studies have shown paradoxical effects of attention, including examples where top-down attention and consciousness have opposing effects, leading us to strengthen and revise our previous views. Neuroimaging studies with EEG, MEG, and fMRI are uncovering the distinct neuronal correlates of selective attention and consciousness in dissociative paradigms. These findings point to a functional dissociation: attention as analyzer and consciousness as synthesizer. Separating the effects of selective visual attention from those of visual consciousness is of paramount importance to untangle the neural substrates of consciousness from those for attention. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  neuroscience  psychology  mind  perception  consciousness  attention  unconscious  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Tim Gard et al - Potential self-regulatory mechanisms of yoga for psychological health | Frontiers in Human Neuroscience Sept 2014
Tim Gard1,2,3†, Jessica J. Noggle4†, Crystal L. Park5†, David R. Vago6*† and Angela Wilson7† -- authors from variety of prestigious Boston institutions from Harvard to Mass General and sleep Institute at Brigham and Women's plus one from Germany and Maastricht -- Research suggesting the beneficial effects of yoga on myriad aspects of psychological health has proliferated in recent years, yet there is currently no overarching framework by which to understand yoga’s potential beneficial effects. Here we provide a theoretical framework and systems-based network model of yoga that focuses on integration of top-down and bottom-up forms of self-regulation. We begin by contextualizing yoga in historical and contemporary settings, and then detail how specific components of yoga practice may affect cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and autonomic output under stress through an emphasis on interoception and bottom-up input, resulting in physical and psychological health. The model describes yoga practice as a comprehensive skillset of synergistic process tools that facilitate bidirectional feedback and integration between high- and low-level brain networks, and afferent and re-afferent input from interoceptive processes (somatosensory, viscerosensory, chemosensory). From a predictive coding perspective we propose a shift to perceptual inference for stress modulation and optimal self-regulation. We describe how the processes that sub-serve self-regulation become more automatized and efficient over time and practice, requiring less effort to initiate when necessary and terminate more rapidly when no longer needed. To support our proposed model, we present the available evidence for yoga affecting self-regulatory pathways, integrating existing constructs from behavior theory and cognitive neuroscience with emerging yoga and meditation research. This paper is intended to guide future basic and clinical research, specifically targeting areas of development in the treatment of stress-mediated psychological disorders. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  neuroscience  brain-development  plasticity  habit  self-regulation  neuro-endocrine_system  psychology  yoga  health  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Denis Larrivee and Adriana Gini - Neuroplasticity and the Reemergence of Virtue | Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 2014
Opinion ARTICLE - Front. Hum. Neurosci., 18 September 2014 | doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00731 -- Is the philosophical construct of “habitus operativus bonus” compatible with the modern neuroscience concept of human flourishing through neuroplasticity? A consideration of prudence as a multidimensional regulator of virtue - Denis Larrivee1* and Adriana Gini2 - 1Educational Outreach Office, Catholic Diocese of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA - 2Neuroradiology Division, Neuroscience Department, San Camillo-Forlanini Medical Center, Rome, Italy Unlike ancient Greece where personal virtue was the route to fulfillment, modern man typically seeks to improve human well-being by external means, in a process known as the medicalization of society. The apparent novelty of recent proposals in psychological theory to develop character strength, therefore, lies in their reemphasis on a personal implementation of positive values. Among the factors contributing to a new look at self-determination has been the capacity for the neural substrate to selectively alter itself via neuroplasticity. Indeed, the confluence of past and contemporary thinking may presage a consideration of neurobiological instantiation within which virtuous behavior may be enhanced in accord with principles governing neuroplastic change. But what are virtues and positive traits? And to what extent can these conceptions inform our growing understanding of the neural contribution to human behavior? -- full title is enormous, referring to Aquinas formula and written by at least one author committed to Catholic Thomism - discussion of Aristotle also -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy  ancient_philosophy  Aristotle  Aquinas  Thomism-21stC  moral_philosophy  mind  habit  neuroscience  cognition  plasticity  prudence  practical_reason  character  virtue  psychology  brain  brain-development  self-development  self-regulation  phronesis  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Bernacer J and Murillo JI - The Aristotelian conception of habit and its contribution to human neuroscience (2014) | Frontiers of Human Neuroscience. 8:883. - doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00883 Frontiers | The Aristotelian conception of habit and its contribut
Mind-Brain Group, Institute for Culture and Society, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain, Edited by: Jose Angel Lombo, Pontifical University of the Holy Cross, Italy -- Reviewed by: Katie A. Jennings, University of Oxford, UK - Carol Seger, Colorado State University, USA - Hypothesis & Theory ARTICLE - The notion of habit used in neuroscience is an inheritance from a particular theoretical origin, whose main source is William James. Thus, habits have been characterized as rigid, automatic, unconscious, and opposed to goal-directed actions. This analysis leaves unexplained several aspects of human behavior and cognition where habits are of great importance.(..) We summarize the current notion of habit in neuroscience, its philosophical inspiration and the problems that arise from it, mostly centered on the sharp distinction between goal-directed actions and habitual behavior. We then introduce the Aristotelian view and compare it with that of James. For Aristotle, a habit is an acquired disposition to perform certain types of action. If this disposition involves an enhanced cognitive control of actions, it can be considered a “habit-as-learning”. The current view of habit in neuroscience, which lacks cognitive control and we term “habit-as-routine”, is also covered by the Aristotelian conception. He classifies habits into three categories: (1) theoretical, or the retention of learning understood as “knowing that x is so”; (2) behavioral, through which the agent achieves a rational control of emotion-permeated behavior (“knowing how to behave”); and (3) technical or learned skills (“knowing how to make or to do”). Finally, we propose new areas of research where this “novel” conception of habit could serve as a framework concept, from the cognitive enrichment of actions to the role of habits in pathological conditions. In all, this contribution may shed light on the understanding of habits as an important feature of human action. Habits, viewed as a cognitive enrichment of behavior, are a crucial resource for understanding human learning and behavioral plasticity. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  human_nature  behavior  habit  psychology  epistemology  learning  neuroscience  cognition  brain-development  memory  Aristotle  Aristotelian  James_William  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Simon M. G. Braun and Sebastian Jessberger - Adult neurogenesis: mechanisms and functional significance (2014) | Development - online Journal of development biology
DEVELOPMENT AT A GLANCE -- Abstract - New neurons are generated throughout life in distinct regions of the mammalian brain. This process, called adult neurogenesis, has been implicated in physiological brain function, and failing or altered neurogenesis has been associated with a number of neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms governing the neurogenic process in the adult brain and describe how new neurons may contribute to brain function in health and disease.
article  neuroscience  brain-development  brain  genetics  epigenetics  physiology  psychology  plasticity  neurogenesis  primates  molecular_biology  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Verena Wolfram and Richard A. Baines - Blurring the boundaries: developmental and activity-dependent determinants of neural circuits (2013
Trends in Neuroscience. Oct 2013; 36(10): 610–619. - doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2013.06.006
PMCID: PMC3794160 -- Abstract - The human brain comprises approximately 100 billion neurons that express a diverse, and often subtype-specific, set of neurotransmitters and voltage-gated ion channels. Given this enormous complexity, a fundamental question is how is this achieved? The acquisition of neurotransmitter phenotype was viewed as being set by developmental programs ‘hard wired’ into the genome. By contrast, the expression of neuron-specific ion channels was considered to be highly dynamic (i.e., ‘soft wired’) and shaped largely by activity-dependent mechanisms. Recent evidence blurs this distinction by showing that neurotransmitter phenotype can be altered by activity and that neuron type-specific ion channel expression can be set, and perhaps limited by, developmental programs. Better understanding of these early regulatory mechanisms may offer new avenues to avert the behavioral changes that are characteristic of many mental illnesses. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  neuroscience  neuro-endocrine_system  brain  plasticity  psychology  genetics  epigenetics  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
David L. Molfese - Advancing Neuroscience through Epigenetics: Molecular Mechanisms of Learning and Memory (2011)
Dev Neuropsychol. Oct 2011; 36(7): 810–827. - doi: 10.1080/87565641.2011.606395 PMCID: PMC3191880 - NIHMSID: NIHMS325838 -- Abstract - Humans share 96% of our 30,000 genes with Chimpanzees. The 1,200 genes that differ appear at first glance insufficient to describe what makes us human and them apes. However, we are now discovering that the mechanisms that regulate how genes are expressed tell a much richer story than our DNA alone. Sections of our DNA are constantly being turned on or off, marked for easy access, or secluded and hidden away, all in response to on-going cellular activity. In the brain, neurons encode information – in effect memories – at the cellular level. Yet while memories may last a lifetime, neurons are dynamic structures. Every protein in the synapse undergoes some form of turnover, some with half-lives of only hours. How can a memory persist beyond the lifetimes of its constitutive molecular building blocks? Epigenetics – changes in gene expression that do not alter the underlying DNA sequence – may be the answer. In this article, epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation and acetylation or methylation of the histone proteins that package DNA are described in the context of animal learning. Through the interaction of these modifications a “histone code” is emerging wherein individual memories leave unique memory traces at the molecular level with distinct time courses. A better understanding of these mechanisms has implications for treatment of memory disorders caused by normal aging or diseases including schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s, depression, and drug addiction. -- downloaded pdf to Note - Keywords: epigenetics, genes, memory, learning, histone, hippocampus, behavior
article  genetics  epigenetics  memory  learning  brain  neuroscience  molecular_biology  primates  psychology  human_nature  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Orestis Palermos and Duncan Pritchard - Extended Knowledge and Social Epistemology, Orestis Palermos and Duncan Pritchard « Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective, 2 (8): 105-120 (2013).
University of Edinburgh -- Special Issue 2: On the Future Direction of Social Epistemology -- The place of social epistemology within contemporary philosophy, as well as its relation to other academic disciplines, is the topic of an ongoing debate. One camp within that debate holds that social epistemology should be pursued strictly from within the perspective of individualistic analytic epistemology. In contrast, a second camp holds that social epistemology is an interdisciplinary field that should be given priority over traditional analytic epistemology, with the specific aim of radically transforming the latter to fit the results and methodology of the former. We are rather suspicious of this apparent tension, which we believe can be significantly mitigated by paying attention to certain recent advances within philosophy of mind and cognitive science. Accordingly, we attempt to explain how extended knowledge, the result of combining active externalism from contemporary philosophy of mind with contemporary epistemology, can offer an alternative conception of the future of social epistemology.
analytical_philosophy  social_theory  epistemology  epistemology-social  philosophy_of_language  mind  mind-body  cognition  cognition-social  neuroscience  mind-external  bibliography  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  philosophy_of_science  psychology  social_psychology  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Gary Lachman on Iain McGilchrist, The Master and His Emissary - Oppositional Thinking | The Los Angeles Review of Books 2013
Gary Lachman on Iain McGilchrist, The Master and His Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World -- But even if you don't accept McGilchrist's thesis, the book is a fascinating treasure trove of insights into language, music, society, love, and other fundamental human concerns. One of his most important suggestions is that the view of human life as ruthlessly driven by "selfish genes" and other "competitor" metaphors may be only a ploy of left brain propaganda, and through a right brain appreciation of the big picture, we may escape the remorseless push and shove of "necessity." I leave it to the reader to discover just how important this insight is. Perhaps if enough do, we may not have to settle for what's left when there's no right.
books  reviews  kindle-available  history_of_science  neuroscience  psychology  phenomenology  mind  mind-body  creativity  imagination  mechanism  holism  cultural_history  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  technology 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Kevin Mitchell -- Wiring the Brain: Exciting findings in schizophrenia genetics – but what do they mean? - July 2014
Study of genome in huge number of people (with the disease and controls) doesn't solve the question of the architecture, but locates lots of areas to look at for not just mutations but interactions
genetics  neuroscience  psychology 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Lennon, Thomas M., Stainton, Robert J. (Eds.) 2008 The Achilles of Rationalist Psychology
Downloaded Introduction pdf to Note -- Series: Studies in the History of Philosophy of Mind, Vol. 7 -- newly written papers addressing each of the main contributors to the discussion of the Achilles. Despite the historical importance and intrinsic interest of the argument, very little has been written about it. *--* Contents. *--* Did Plato Articulate the Achilles Argument?. *-- Aristotle on the Unity of Consciousness. *-- The Neoplatonic Achilles. *-- The Unity of the Soul and Contrary Appetites in Medieval Philosophy. *-- Hume, Spinoza and the Achilles Inference. *-- Locke and the Achilles Argument. *-- The Reverse Achilles in Locke. *-- Cudworth and Bayle: An Odd Couple?. *-- The Achilles Argument and the Nature of Matter in the Clarke Collins Correspondence. *-- Leibniz’s ‘Achilles’. *-- Hume’s Reply to the Achilles Argument. *-- Kant and Mendelssohn on the Implications of the ‘I Think’. *-- Kant on the Achilles Argument. *-- William James and the Achilles Argument. *-- The Binding Problem: Achilles in the 21st Century.
books  intellectual_history  mind  mind-body  consciousness  perception  thinking_matter  materialism  soul  immortality  substance  Plato  Neoplatonism  Aristotle  Aquinas  Duns_Scotus  Ockham  Augustine  Descartes  Spinoza  Malebranche  Cartesian  Bayle  Locke  Clarke  Collins_Anthony  Leibniz  Hume  Kant  Mendelssohn  Fichte  cognition  neuroscience  psychology  natural_philosophy  metaphysics  rationalist  James_William  history_of_science  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Nietzsche's Philosophy of Action (2009) :: SSRN - in Blackwell Companion to Philosophy of Action, 2010
U of Chicago, Public Law Working Paper No. 270 -- Nietzsche holds that people lack freedom of the will in any sense that would be sufficient for ascriptions of moral responsibility; that the conscious experience we have of willing is actually epiphenomenal with respect to the actions that follow that experience; and that our actions largely arise through non-conscious processes (psychological and physiological) of which we are only dimly aware, and over which we exercise little or no conscious control. At the same time, Nietzsche, always a master of rhetoric, engages in a “persuasive definition” (Stevenson 1938) of the language of “freedom” and “free will,” to associate the positive valence of these terms with a certain Nietzschean ideal of the person unrelated to traditional notions of free will. -- No of Pages: 18 -- Keywords: Nietzsche, free will, moral responsibility, freedom, philosophy of action, epiphenomenalism -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  books  SSRN  intellectual_history  19thC  Germany  action-theory  Nietzsche  free_will  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  mind  consciousness  physiology  psychology  naturalism  responsibility  guilt  freedom  epiphenomenal  aesthetics  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - The Hermeneutics of Suspicion: Recovering Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud (2005) :: SSRN
U of Texas Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 72 -- Paul Ricoeur famously dubbed that great triumvirate of late nineteenth - and early twentieth-century thought - Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud - "the school of suspicion," by which he meant those thinkers who taught us to regard with suspicion our conscious understandings and experience, whether the deliverances of ordinary psychological introspection about one's desires.., or the moral categories political leaders and ordinary citizens apply to themselves and the social world they inhabit... "Beneath" or "behind" the surface lay causal forces that explained the conscious phenomena precisely because they laid bare the true meaning of those phenomena -- I shall argue that, in fact, all three of the great practitioners of the hermeneutics of suspicion have suffered at the hands of moralizing interpreters who have resisted the essentially naturalistic thrust of their conception of philosophical practice. As a matter of both textual exegesis and intellectual importance, Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud are best read as primarily naturalistic thinkers, that is thinkers who view philosophical inquiry as continuous with a sound empirical understanding of the natural world and the causal forces operative in it. When one understands conscious life naturalistically, in terms of its real causes, one contributes at the same time to a critique of the contents of consciousness: that, in short, is the essence of a hermeneutics of suspicion. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  social_theory  human_nature  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  19thC  20thC  21stC  hermeneutics_of_suspicion  causation-social  psychology  moral_psychology  historical_change  normativity  morality-Nietzche  Marx  Marxist  Freud  motivation  action-theory  naturalism  empiricism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Selections from the Scottish Philosophy of Common Sense, edited, with an introduction by G.A. Johnston [1910] - Online Library of Liberty
Thomas Reid, Selections from the Scottish Philosophy of Common Sense, edited, with an introduction by G.A. Johnston (Chicago: Open Court, 1915). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2044> The selections in this volume are reprinted from the following editions:— Reid’s Works, edited by Sir William Hamilton, sixth edition, 1863. Beattie’s Essay on the Nature and Immutability of Truth, seventh edition, 1807. Ferguson’s Principles of Moral and Political Science, 1792. Stewart’s Collected Works, edited by Sir William Hamilton, 1854-1858.
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  Common_Sense  Locke  Hume  Kant  Reid  Stewart_Dugald  Ferguson  metaphysics  epistemology  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  mind  mind-body  soul  dualism  ideas-theories  psychology  perception  scepticism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Lord Kames, Elements of Criticism, 2 vols. [1762], ed. Peter Jones - Online Library of Liberty
Henry Home, Lord Kames, Elements of Criticism, Edited and with an Introduction by Peter Jones (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005). 2 vols. 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1860> -- A two volume work on the “science of criticism” by one of the leading figures of the Scottish Enlightenment. Kames argues that criticism of art and literature is a rational science as well as a matter of taste. In volume 1 he explores the nature and causes of the emotions and passions. In volume 2 he explores the principles of rhetoric and literary appreciation, and discusses the formation of our standards of taste.
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Kames  aesthetics  lit_crit  literary_history  art_history  art_criticism  human_nature  emotions  passions  psychology  moral_psychology  rhetoric  rhetoric-writing  taste  high_culture  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
George Turnbull, The Principles of Moral and Christian Philosophy. Vol. 1: The Principles of Moral Philosophy, ed. Alexander Broadie - Online Library of Liberty
George Turnbull, The Principles of Moral and Christian Philosophy. Vol. 1: The Principles of Moral Philosophy, ed. and with an Introduction by Alexander Broadie (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1342> The Principles of Moral and Christian Philosophy presents the first masterpiece of Scottish Common Sense philosophy. This two-volume treatise is important for its wide range of insights about the nature of the human mind, the foundations of morals, and the relationship between morality and religion. In order to understand the Enlightenment in Scotland, Turnbull’s work must be put next to that of Francis Hutcheson. In the first volume, The Principles of Moral Philosophy, Turnbull presents a detailed study of the faculties of the human mind and their interrelations. He contends that moral philosophy should be treated as one part, the highest part, of natural philosophy, and not as a field requiring its own distinctive methodology.
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Turnbull_George  Hutcheson  Shaftesbury  Berkeley  Butler  moral_philosophy  Common_Sense  human_nature  moral_psychology  moral_sentiments  mind  psychology  natural_philosophy  ideas-theories  empiricism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
George Turnbull, The Principles of Moral and Christian Philosophy, 2 vols. [1740], ed. Alexander Broadie - Online Library of Liberty
George Turnbull, The Principles of Moral and Christian Philosophy, ed. and with an Introduction by Alexander Broadie (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005). 2 vols. 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1821> -- The Principles of Moral and Christian Philosophy presents the first masterpiece of Scottish Common Sense philosophy. This two-volume treatise is important for its wide range of insights about the nature of the human mind, the foundations of morals, and the relationship between morality and religion. In order to understand the Enlightenment in Scotland, Turnbull’s work must be put next to that of Francis Hutcheson. In the first volume, The Principles of Moral Philosophy, Turnbull presents a detailed study of the faculties of the human mind and their interrelations. He contends that moral philosophy should be treated as one part, the highest part, of natural philosophy, and not as a field requiring its own distinctive methodology. - Vol 1 downloaded to Note
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Turnbull_George  Hutcheson  Shaftesbury  Berkeley  Butler  moral_philosophy  Common_Sense  human_nature  moral_psychology  moral_sentiments  mind  psychology  natural_philosophy  ideas-theories  empiricism  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Daniel D. Hutto - Consciousness Demystified: A Wittgensteinian Critique of Dennett’s Project | 1995. The Monist. 78:4. 464–478. - Academia.edu
I challenge the idea that the 'reductive character' of Dennett's project is in any way Wittgensteinian in spirit. I suggest that at a crucial point in their philosophy their views diverge significantly. That is to say, although they are good travelling companions up to an important cross-roads, in the end, their incompatible concerns take them in different directions. Furthermore, by reviewing Dennett's project of 'explaining' consciousness, we might begin to see some good reasons for preferring Wittgenstein's 'road less travelled'. Thus, although Dennett's account of consciousness is often given a centre stage in what follows, my ultimate aim is to throw light on the nature Wittgenstein's philosophical psychology by using Dennett as a foil. This should help us to see precisely how the former's approach differs importantly from those advanced by many of today's philosophers and cognitive scientists. -- downloaded pdf to Note
mind  reductionism  Dennett  Wittgenstein  consciousness  cognition  neuroscience  psychology  downloaded  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Susan Royal, review - Matthew Milner. The Senses and the English Reformation | H-Net Reviews
Milner points outthat the scholarship on this topic has inherited “protestant” views of late medieval sensuality... the first half of the book is devoted to a deep analysis of the senses and sensual experiences of worship prior to the Reformation. Chapter 1 lays out late medieval theories of sensing, explaining the usurpation of Augustinian principles by the revival of Aristotelian thought (chiefly Thomist). Milner explains the way sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch affected the components of tripartite anthropology, the body, spirit, and soul. -- ... the Renaissance rationalization of sense experiences, detailing the critique of medieval epistemological hierarchies and ...a shift from the tripartite anthropology of body, spirit, and soul to a dualist model of body and mind. Milner demonstrates the persistence of Aristotelian sensory theories in Tudor thought, -- Chapter 6 focuses mainly on the 1530s and 1540s, ...how reformers grappled with their position on sensual affectivity: while it was easy to reject aspects of traditional piety, it was much harder to describe how English churchgoers were supposed to connect sensibly with newly reformed practices. ...the senses into early doctrinal debates over justification and sanctification that would not be resolved until late in Elizabeth’s reign. ... -- the transition from recognizing abuse and misuse of traditional religion to its complete rejection with iconoclasm as the antidote. ...how parishioners were taught to replace traditional Eucharistic piety with spiritual communion, arguing that this in fact offered an even more sensuous experience of the sacred. -- the complex debates among conformists and nonconformists about sensing during worship in Elizabethan England. Milner argues that divisions ...concerning extemporaneous prayer, set readings, and even preaching were firmly rooted in concerns about hearing practices, and that the vestment controversy and arguments over the sign of the cross at baptism were connected to tensions about sight. Sitting somewhat awkwardly among all of these debates were those evangelicals receptive to the notion of adiaphora,..another source of conflict between conformists and nonconformists.
books  reviews  religious_history  church_history  intellectual_history  15thC  16thC  British_history  Church_of_England  religious_culture  liturgy  Puritans  perception  psychology  moral_psychology  soul  mind-body  Augustinian  Aristotelian  Thomism  Renaissance  salvation  piety  sacraments  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Kevin Mitchell - Wiring the Brain: The genetics of emergent phenotypes - March 2013
Nifty discussion of emergence in dynamic systems - he claims the higher level phenomena are reducible to lower level factors (post hoc explanation) but not deducible from the lower level. However the dynamic elements that change relations at or among higher level elements (which will change relations at lower levels) seem to be doing most of the explanatory work -- Why are some brain disorders so common? Schizophrenia, autism and epilepsy each affect about 1% of the world’s population, over their lifetimes. Why are the specific phenotypes associated with those conditions so frequent? More generally, why do particular phenotypes exist at all? What constrains or determines the types of phenotypes we observe, out of all the variations we could conceive of? Why does a system like the brain fail in particular ways when the genetic program is messed with? Here, I consider how the difference between “concrete” and “emergent” properties of the brain may provide an explanation, or at least a useful conceptual framework. --
genetics  medicine  psychology  physiology  neuroscience  mind  materialism  emergence  systems-complex_adaptive  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Edouard Machery - Concepts Are Not a Natural Kind* | JSTOR: Philosophy of Science, Vol. 72, No. 3 (July 2005), pp. 444-467
In cognitive psychology, concepts are those bodies of knowledge that are stored in long‐term memory and are used by default in human beings’ higher cognitive processes (categorization, inductive and deductive reasoning, etc.). Most psychologists of concepts assume that these mental representations share many scientifically important properties, and the psychology of concepts is expected to describe those properties. Psychologists assume thereby that concepts constitute a natural kind. I call this assumption the natural kind assumption. This article challenges the natural kind assumption. It is argued that a growing body of evidence suggests that concepts do not constitute a natural kind. Hence, the notion of concept is inappropriate, if one aims at formulating scientifically relevant inductive generalizations about the human mind. -- an early paper that's developed in his recent book -- didn't download
article  jstor  philosophy_of_science  psychology  cognition  neuroscience  concepts  kinds  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Denis Dutton, "Aesthetics and Evolutionary Psychology" in The Oxford Handbook for Aesthetics, edited by Jerrold Levinson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003).
Starts with Aristotle and Hume - common elements of human nature that would make certain aspects of poetics common across cultures and over time and make visual and aural experiences aestheticly pleasing. Attacks 20thC extreme blank slate as cultural relativism. Goes through evolutionary psychology theories about sexual selection and fitness, including costliness of effort and display. Returns to Kant re limits on evolutionary psychology that the more reductionist of evo-devo types seem incapable of understanding.
article  books  aesthetics  intellectual_history  Aristotle  Hume  Kant  human_nature  cultural_history  relativism  judgment-aesthetics  taste  evolutionary_biology  psychology  evo_psych  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Special Issue -Living Alone Together [Introduction and key article by Tzvetan Todorov] | JSTOR: New Literary History, Vol. 27, No. 1, Winter, 1996
Issue Introduction - Living Alone Together (pp. 1-14) Tzvetan Todorov and Marilyn Gaddis Rose. *--*--* Replies to Introduction *--* (1) Community and Individuality (pp. 15-24) Patricia H. Werhane. *--* (2) A Reply to Tzvetan Todorov's "Living Alone Together" (pp. 25-34) Frances Ferguson. *--* (3) "Living Together Alone or Together": Commentary on Tzvetan Todorov's "Living Alone Together" (pp. 35-41) Stephen A. Mitchell. *--* (4) [downloaded] Todorov's Otherness (pp. 43-55) Robert Wokler. *--* (5) Misanthropology (pp. 57-72) Gary Saul Morson. *--* (6) Conflict and Sociability in Hegel, Freud, and Their Followers: Tzvetan Todorov's "Living Alone Together" (pp. 73-82) Daniel Burston. *--* (7) Regarding Others (pp. 83-93) Stewart Justman. *--*--* Response *--* The Gaze and the Fray (pp. 95-106) Tzvetan Todorov and Marilyn Gaddis Rose. *--*--* A. Self and Others in Culture. *--* Keeping the Self Intact during the Culture Wars: A Centennial Essay for Mikhail Bakhtin (pp. 107-126) Caryl Emerson. *--* Cultural Dreaming and Cultural Studies (pp. 127-144) Marianne DeKoven. *--* Orality, Literacy, and Their Discontents (pp. 145-159) Denis Donoghue.
journal  article  jstor  intellectual_history  literary_history  lit_crit  literary_theory  human_nature  social_theory  moral_philosophy  psychology  sociability  self  self-love  self-development  bildung  self-and-other  ancient_philosophy  Plato  Platonism  Socrates  Aristotle  Cicero  community  individualism  authenticity  constructivism  Rousseau  Hegel  Freud  conflict  Bakhtin  conversation  dialogue  literacy  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Mark Bevir - Notes Toward an Analysis of Conceptual Change [eScholarship] (2003)
This is an early or unrevised version, and is not definitive, and therefore should not be cited. The Citation is Social Epistemology, 2003, 17, pp. 55-63. -- Extends insights from philosophy and sociology of science to conceptual changes more generally, often triggered by a dilemma that can't be handled well using concepts within existing background knowledge or web of beliefs. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  eScholarship  philosophy_of_science  concepts  epistemology-social  historical_change  psychology  cognition  rationality  holism  belief  Innovation  Kuhn  Popper  sociology_of_knowledge  downloaded 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert Grafstein - The Failure of Weber's Conception of Legitimacy: Its Causes and Implications | JSTOR: The Journal of Politics, Vol. 43, No. 2 (May, 1981), pp. 456-472
Pins the problem on Weber's "realist" psychology compared with Wittgenstein, Quine more "behaviorist" -- didn't download -- Discusses political philosophers who have found Weber's concept deficient -blaming among other things his attempted fact/value neutrality
article  jstor  political_philosophy  sociology  social_theory  institutions  bureaucracy  legitimacy  governance  Weber  Wittgenstein  Quine  social_psychology  psychology  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Steven Shapin - Descartes the Doctor: Rationalism and Its Therapies | JSTOR: The British Journal for the History of Science, Vol. 33, No. 2 (Jun., 2000), pp. 131-154
During the Scientific Revolution one important gauge of the quality of reformed natural philosophical knowledge was its ability to produce a more effective medical practice. Indeed, it was sometimes thought that philosophers who pretended to possess new and more potent philosophical knowledge might display that possession in personal health and longevity. René Descartes repeatedly wrote that a better medical practice was a major aim of his philosophical enterprise. He said that he had made important strides towards achieving that aim and, on that basis, he offered practical medical advice to others and advertised the expectation that, taking his own advice, he would live a very long time. This paper describes what Cartesian medicine looked like in practice and what that practice owed to the power of modernist Reason. -- huge bibliography -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  history_of_science  medicine  17thC  Descartes  Bacon  natural_philosophy  physiology  psychology  emotions  mind-body  diet  aging  humours  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Maria Popova - An Antidote to the Age of Anxiety: Alan Watts on Happiness and How to Live with Presence | Brainpickings Jan 2014
Extensive quotes from Watts 1951 essay collection. Quite existentialist - focus on presence, moment within flux. Paradox of sense of single fixed self reflecting on fluidity of identity, psychology -- looks pretty anti transcendental. Stress on reconnecting mind-body against over excessive intellectualism - though contra self-help fashion for happiness or Puritan excision of sin in thought and deed.
books  reviews  intellectual_history  20thC  existentialism  mind-body  happiness  Heraclitus  identity  psychology  self-development  secular_humanism 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Eyal Chowers - The Physiology of the Citizen: The Present-Centered Body and Its Political Exile | JSTOR: Political Theory, Vol. 30, No. 5 (Oct., 2002), pp. 649-676
Shift from civic humanism's optimistic view of man's capacity to build for the future and control sociopolitical environment to pessimistic view of capacity of citizens under raison d'Etat -- 16thC and 17thC increasingly focused on multipart, shifting self and passions vs reason rather than the development of a stable character that Renaissance humanism concerned with. Ties shift to new views of anatomy (eg Harvey) and connections between physiology and psychology and impact on different notions of time relative to self, society and politics. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  cultural_history  natural_philosophy  15thC  16thC  17thC  British_history  France  Italy  Italian_Wars  Renaissance  humanism  civic_humanism  civic_virtue  republicanism  raison-d'-état  Absolutism  emotions  physiology  psychology  medicine  self  time  Machiavelli  Montaigne  Descartes  Gassendi  Hobbes  Locke  Harrington  Harvey  identity  character  mechanism  thinking_matter  mind  mind-body  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Christine Stevenson - Robert Hooke's Bethlem | JSTOR: Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 55, No. 3 (Sep., 1996), pp. 254-275
Bethlem Hospital for lunatics, built to the designs of Robert Hooke between 1674 and 1676 in London, is a singularly famous building that has been little studied. This article summarizes the available written evidence, including the minutes of the Court of Governors' deliberations during Bethlem construction and contemporary prose and poetic celebrations of the result, to show that one conventional rhetorical use of the building, as a monstrous emblem of vanity, may be suprisingly apposite given the governors' preoccupation with how it be viewed, both literally and figuratively. However, they seem to have expected that post-Fire and post-Restoration London would be willing to entertain a conception of a lunatic asylum more polysemous than has been possible since, possibly because Bethlem created the type. Hooke's application of the domestic gallery, in particular, not only introduced a wide range of associations with health, hospitality, instruction, and pleasure, it permitted a plan that was concurrently applauded as inherently curative. It is, however, Bethlem's façade which soon became notorious; the article concludes with an explanation for the significance of its grandeur, and for the failure of the signification. -- splendidly illustrated -- over 100 references, covers through 1733 -- didn't download
article  jstor  social_history  cultural_history  English_lit  architecture  17thC  18thC  British_history  London  Hooke  medicine  psychology  madness  poetry  satire  charity  elites  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Carole Rawcliffe - 'Delectable Sightes and Fragrant Smelles': Gardens and Health in Late Medieval and Early Modern England | JSTOR: Garden History, Vol. 36, No. 1 (Spring, 2008), pp. 3-21
In an age before the development of the microscope and the advent of modern medicine, gardens constituted a frontline defence in the battle against disease. This was in part because of the religious symbolism of the 'Fall' and of the expulsion from Paradise. But Englishmen and women were also becoming increasingly familiar with Classical Greek medical theory, which emphasized the close relationship between health and the environment, while also stressing the dramatic impact of both scent and sight upon human physiology and psychology. Whereas foul odours (miasmas) were believed to spread sickness, floral perfume, fresh air and a verdant landscape helped to prevent it by promoting physical and mental stability. The onset of plague (1348-50) created a rapidly expanding popular market for advice literature, which, in turn, informed manuals on the design and cultivation of gardens. A study of late medieval monastic houses and hospitals reveals the extent to which these ideas were translated into practice, so that the sick might enjoy the medicinal benefits of green space, and the healthy engage in recreation for mind and body. -- didn't download
article  jstor  British_history  medieval  16thC  17thC  cultural_history  history_of_science  medicine  botany  gardens  psychology  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Sean Ward, review - (misc) 18thC science of man & geological history to 1750 | JSTOR: Eighteenth-Century Studies, Vol. 32, No. 4 (Summer, 1999), pp. 579-580
Reviewed work(s): (1) Inventing Human Science: Eighteenth-Century Domains by Christopher Fox; Roy Porter; Robert Wokler; (2) When Geologists were Historians, 1665-1750 by Rhoda Rappaport; (3) The Mammoth and the Mouse: Microhistory and Morphology by Florike Egmond; Peter Mason -- didn't download -- The Porter et al looks excellent. High praise for transmission and influence via the Republic of Letters for Rappaport study. Find both
books  reviews  jstor  find  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  social_sciences  medicine  physiology  psychology  political_economy  political_philosophy  geology  Biblical_criticism  Bible-as-history  Genesis  creation_ex_nilho  Buffon  Republic_of_Letters  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
John Dewey: How We Think (1910) | George Herbert Mead Project
John Dewey. How we think. Lexington, Mass: D.C. Heath, (1910)

Part One: The Problem of Training Thought

Chapter One: What is Thought?

Chapter Two: The Need for Training Thought

Chapter Three: Natural Resources in the Training of Thought

Chapter Four: School Conditions and the Training of Thought

Chapter Five: The Means and End of Mental Training: The Psychological and The Logical

Part Two: Logical Considerations

Chapter Six: The Analysis of a Complete Act of Thought

Chapter Seven: Systematic Inference: Induction and Deduction

Chapter Eight: Judgment: the Interpretation of Facts

Chapter Nine: Meaning: or Conceptions and Understanding

Chapter Ten: Concrete and Abstract Thinking

Chapter Eleven: Empirical and Scientific Thinking

Part Three: The Training of Thought

Chapter Twelve: Activity and the Training of Thought

Chapter Thirteen: Language and the Training of Thought

Chapter Fourteen: Observation and Information in the Training of Mind

Chapter Fifteen: The Recitation and the Training of Thought

Chapter Sixteen: Some General Conclusions

Notes
books  online_texts  Dewey  intellectual_history  20thC  US_history  mind  psychology  thought  logic  language  education  meaning  concepts  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
John Dewey: From Absolutism to Experimentalism [intellectual autobiography] (1930) | George Herbert Mead Project
Originally published as: John Dewey. "From Absolutism to Experimentalism." In George P. Adams and Wm. Pepperell Montague (eds). Contemporary American Philosophy: Personal Statements. Russell and Russell (1930): 13-27.
online_texts  intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  US_history  Dewey  neo-Hegelian  neo-Kantian  pragmatism  James_William  psychology  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
George Herbert Mead: The Social Self (1913) | George Herbert Mead Project
Originally published as: George Herbert Mead. "The Social Self", Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 10, (1913): 374- 380.

Assuming as I do the essentially social character of the ethical end, we find in moral reflection a conflict in which certain values find a spokesman in the old self or a dominant part of the old self, while other values answering to other tendencies and impulses arise in opposition and find other spokesmen to present their cases. To leave the field to the values represented by the old self is exactly what we term selfishness. The justification for the term is found in the habitual character of conduct with reference to these values. Attention is not claimed by the object and shifts to the subjective field where the affective responses are identified with the old self. The result is that we state the other conflicting ends in subjective terms of other selves and the moral problem seems to take on the form of the sacrifice either of the self or of the others.

Where, however, the problem is objectively considered, although the conflict is a social one, it should not resolve itself into a struggle between selves, but into such a reconstruction of the situation that different and enlarged and more adequate personalities may emerge. A tension should be centered on the objective social field.
online_texts  intellectual_history  20thC  Mead  pragmatism  philosophy  social_theory  moral_philosophy  psychology  epistemology  sociology  self  mind  human_nature  self-interest  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
George Herbert Mead: Review of "Philosophy des Geldes [Money]" by Georg Simmel | George Herbert Mead Project
Originally published as: George H. Mead. "Review of Philosophie des Geldes by Georg Simmel," Journal of Political Economy 9, (1900-1): 616-9.

Editors' notes: This is the fourth of four articles in which Mead outlines his critique of measurement in psychology
online_texts  19thC  20thC  intellectual_history  philosophy  sociology  economic_sociology  psychology  political_economy  money  Simmel  Mead 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
William James (1904): The Chicago School | Classics in the History of Psychology -- James (1904c)
First published in Psychological Bulletin, 1, 1-5. Review essay - Studies in Logical Theory, John Dewey, with the coöperation of members and fellows of the Department of Philosophy. The Decennial Publications, second series, Volume XI., Chicago. The University of Chicago Press, 1903. 2. The Definition of the Psychical, George H. Mead. 3. Existence, Meaning and Reality, A. W. Moore. 4. Logical Conditions of a Scientific Treatment of Morality, John Dewey. 5. The Relations of Philosophy to Philosophy, James Rowland Angell. Reprints from Volume III. of the first series of Decennial Publications, ibid., 1903.

It seems a promising via media between the empiricist and transcendentalist tendencies of our time. Like empiricism, it is individualistic and phenomenalistic; it places truth in rebus, and not ante rem. It resembles transcendentalism, on the other hand, in making value and fact inseparable, and in standing for continuities and purposes in things. It employs the genetic method to which both schools are now accustomed. · It coincides remarkably with the simultaneous movement in favor of 'pragmatism' or 'humanism' set up quite independently at Oxford by Messrs. Schiller and Sturt. -- There are two great gaps in the system, which none of the Chicago writers have done anything to fill, and until they are filled, the system, as a system, will appear defective. There is no cosmology, no positive account of the order of physical fact, as contrasted with mental fact, and no account of the fact (which I assume the writers to believe in) that different subjects share a common object-world. These lacunae can hardly be inadvertent -- we shall. doubtless soon see them filled in some way by one or another member of the school.
online_texts  intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  philosophy  psychology  epistemology  pragmatism  empiricism  idealism  James_William  Dewey  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Corey Robin: Reflections on Fear: Montesquieu in Retrieval (2000)
JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 94, No. 2 (Jun., 2000), pp. 347-360 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- According to most scholars, Montesquieu argues that fear threatens a loss of self. Disconnected from the exercise of reason, fear is an emotion that is supposed to prevent the individual from acting with any kind of moral or rational agency. Fear is also premised on the liquidation of civil society; intermediate institutions and plural social structures are destroyed so that despots can act with unmitigated power and violence. I argue that this view does not capture Montesquieu's theory. In my alternative account, fear is intimately connected to our capacity for reason and to our sense of self. It is built on a network of elites, the rule of law, moral education, and the traditional institutions of civil society. I conclude that twentieth-century social science remains too indebted to conventional interpretations of Montesquieu's views, and contemporary theorists would be better served by the alternative analysis proposed here.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  French_Enlightenment  18thC  Montesquieu  political_philosophy  political_culture  social_theory  social_psychology  psychology  self  self-interest  despotism  fear  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Charles Lindholm: The Rise of Expressive Authenticity (2013)
Project MUSE - Charles Lindholm. "The Rise of Expressive Authenticity." Anthropological Quarterly 86.2 (2013): 361-395 -- in issue devoted to "Authenticity" -- The quotes above are characteristic 19th century testimonials to the value of personal authenticity as "the reigning value of a society bereft of divine sanction and dissatisfied with the false comforts of modern life" (Jay 2011:9). In the rest of this special collection, a number of scholars will present ethnographic case studies and theoretical perspectives that situate the pursuit and instantiation of authenticity in cultural terms. In so doing, they expand upon recent work by anthropologists who have explored authenticity in its various forms, trajectories, and consequences.However, this is not my purpose. Rather, my contribution is a preliminary one, setting the stage for the more specific articles that follow. In it, I will outline some of the major ways in which one aspect of authenticity, in the particular form of "being thyself," came to serve as a prevalent trope for transcendence in the Western world. My (necessarily simplified) foray into social, intellectual, and literary history is intended to provide a useful survey of the philosophical and aesthetic context and the social circumstances in which the value of personal expressive authenticity has arisen and taken hold of modern consciousness. With this background drawn in, the later, more ethnographically informed articles should gain greater purchase as they fit within, and critique, the larger cultural-historical narrative about authenticity and its realizations. I have another agenda as well: to demonstrate that Western philosophy, aesthetics, and literature are fair game for anthropological analysis which expands the traditional boundaries of our discipline.
article  Project_MUSE  intellectual_history  cultural_history  self  psychology  sensibility  18thC  19thC  20thC  Romanticism  paywall  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Sharon Stanley: Retreat from Politics: The Cynic in Modern Times (2006)
JSTOR: Polity, Vol. 39, No. 3 (Jul., 2007), pp. 384-407 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- from her dissertation dealing with cynicism in the Enlightenment and postmodernism
article  jstor  intellectual_history  cultural_history  political_culture  cynicism  aesthetics  psychology  18thC  20thC  21stC  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Diderot  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Harro Maas: Where Mechanism Ends: Thomas Reid on the Moral and the Animal Oeconomy (2003)
Project MUSE - History of Political Economy Volume 35, Annual Supplement, 2003 pp. 338-360 | Theories of life have consequences for how the social order is conceptualized. I pursue this theme in the work of the Aberdeen philosopher of mind Thomas Reid (1710–96), or more accurately, in his reactions to others' views. Reid typically developed his own ideas into a coherent view in juxtaposition to ideas to which he took exception. This means entering into a number of apparently discrete contexts before the unifying threads can be made plain. Let me introduce my theme with a not untypical example of Reid's way of clarifying by accentuating difference.
article  Project_MUSE  paywall  intellectual_history  18thC  Scottish_Enlightenment  human_nature  physiology  psychology  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  Reid  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Harold J. Cook: The History of Medicine and the Scientific Revolution (2011)
JSTOR: Isis, Vol. 102, No. 1 (March 2011), pp. 102-108 -- Issue Focus: Between and Beyond “Histories of Science” and “Histories of Medicine” -- downloaded pdf to Note -- The “new philosophy” of the seventeenth century has continued to be explained mainly on its own terms: as a major philosophical turn. Twentieth-century modernism gave pride of place to big ideas and reinforced the tendency to explain the rise of science in light of new ideas. Such orientations subordinated medicine (and technology) to sciences that appeared to be more theoretical. In attempts to persuade historians of science of the importance of medicine, then, many authors took an approach arguing that the major changes in the history of medicine during the so-called scientific revolution arose from philosophical commitments. Yet because medicine is also intimately connected to other aspects of life, its histories proved to be recalcitrant to such reductions and so continue to offer many possibilities for those who seek fresh means to address histories of body and mind united rather than divided.
article  jstor  historiography  history_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  medicine  biology  natural_philosophy  metaphysics  17thC  18thC  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  mind-body  psychology  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  cultural_history  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
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