dunnettreader + professions   8

David Gentilcore, Review Article: Health in Europe 1500-1800 [ Peter Elmer, ed. of Open University essay collection and companion source book] | Reviews in History - Nov 2004
Dr David Gentilcore, University of Leicester -- (..) a chapter in the first volume on, say, the care and cure of mental illness provides us with a general introduction to and historical survey of the theme, as well as several case studies. (..) The documents alone are worth the price of the 2 books. Not only do they represent the first such collection of sources on early modern medicine, but their coverage is very broad indeed: from early-15thC Italian letters of medical advice to 18thC Parisian surgical instruction; from the published writings of a French midwife to the rules of an English voluntary hospital; from a treatise on the duties of the Christian physician during time of plague to a newspaper account of smallpox inoculation. Hitherto sources of this type have been available in a very few journals, (..) It is the first volume(..) which merits our attention, marking as it does the coming of age of the social and cultural history of medicine. It is the culmination of some 30 years of research that has transformed writing and teaching in the history of medicine. This has meant a shift away from the ‘great men’ focus towards attention to marginalised or neglected groups in society; away from an exclusive interest in medical practitioners towards the experiences of sufferers and patients; away from the allure of retro-diagnosis (that is, applying modern biomedical knowledge to the illnesses of the ‘rich and famous’ of the past) and towards how contemporaries understood disease in their own time; and away from a university- and hospital-centred account of medical knowledge and practice towards one influenced by notions of medical pluralism (the co-existence of alternative or complementary therapies and systems of belief). The essays in this book succeed in providing a cross-section of this research, addressing recent issues and debates in a thematic way. (..) without jettisoning the achievements of previous generations of scholarship. Thus the ‘ideas’ focus of the great men tradition, all too often seen as a worthy end in itself, is not abandoned here (as if the ideas themselves no longer mattered to our understanding of the past), but is re-configured as an exploration of how these ideas were transmitted and put into practice at different levels of society. -- downloaded as pdf to Note
books  reviews  16thC  17thC  18thC  Europe-Early_Modern  medicine  cultural_history  social_history  intellectual_history  sources  disease  mental_health  professions  history_of_science  historiography  Innovation  religious_culture  science-and-religion  alchemy  anatomy  natural_history  biology  hospitals  public_health  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Richard Andrew Berman - The Architects of Eighteenth Century English Freemasonry, 1720 - 1740 (2010 thesis) | University of Exeter
Advisors: Black, Jeremy & Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas -- Date Issued: 2010-09-22 --
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10036/2999 -- Following the appointment of its first aristocratic Grand Masters in the 1720s and in the wake of its connections to the scientific Enlightenment, ‘Free and Accepted’ Masonry rapidly became part of Britain’s national profile and the largest and arguably the most influential of Britain’s extensive clubs and societies. (..) Freemasonry became a vehicle for the expression and transmission of the political and religious views of those at its centre, and for the scientific Enlightenment concepts that they championed. The ‘Craft’ also offered a channel through which many sought to realise personal aspirations: social, intellectual and financial. Through an examination of relevant primary and secondary documentary evidence, this thesis seeks to contribute to a broader understanding of contemporary English political and social culture, and to explore the manner in which Freemasonry became a mechanism that promoted the interests of the Hanoverian establishment and connected and bound a number of élite metropolitan and provincial figures. A range of networks centred on the aristocracy, parliament, the magistracy and the learned and professional societies are studied, and key individuals instrumental in spreading and consolidating the Masonic message identified. The thesis also explores the role of Freemasonry in the development of the scientific Enlightenment. The evidence suggests that Freemasonry should be recognised not only as the most prominent of the many 18thC fraternal organisations, but also as a significant cultural vector and a compelling component of the social, economic, scientific and political transformation then in progress. -- downloaded pdf to Note
thesis  18thC  1720s  1730s  1740s  Walpole  Whigs-oligarchy  British_history  British_politics  Enlightenment  science-public  Scientific_Revolution  science-and-politics  Freemasonry  cultural_history  intellectual_history  networks-social  networks-political  networks-business  sociology_of_science_&_technology  elites  aristocracy  Parliament  MPs  political_nation  economic_sociology  economic_culture  commerce-doux  finance_capital  banking  capital_markets  capital_as_power  history_of_science  historical_sociology  historical_change  center-periphery  provinces  clubs  social_capital  judiciary  professions  professionalization  religious_culture  science-and-religion  latitudinarian  natural_religion  Newtonian  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Langford - The Uses of Eighteenth-Century Politeness | JSTOR: Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Sixth Series, Vol. 12 (2002), pp. 311-331
Politeness is a 'key word' for historians of eighteenth-century Britain. It implied a distinguishing vision of wider social concerns and less constricted cultural tastes than was attributed to earlier ages. What part it played in identifiable shifts of behaviour is harder to judge. Among people who served the growing commercial and professional needs of the day, its influence seems well attested. More problematic was its impact on plebeian life. Yet even here, there is evidence to suggest some degree of 'polishing' in line with contemporary expectations, to the extent that politeness itself ceased to describe social aspirations and became synonymous with basic standards of civil behaviour.
article  jstor  cultural_history  social_history  18thC  British_history  London  urbanization  professions  commerce-doux  politeness  elites  middle_class  lower_orders  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
John Tosh - Gentlemanly Politeness and Manly Simplicity in Victorian England | JSTOR: Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Sixth Series, Vol. 12 (2002), pp. 455-472
Between the late eighteenth century and the mid-nineteenth century the notion of the 'polite gentleman' lost its political purchase. 'Manliness' became the identifying code of both the business class and the 'respectable' working class. The virtues of rugged individualism and personal integrity were emphasised at the expense of sociability and ease of manner. In the political sphere debates about who should be included in the franchise were permeated by the language of manliness, and the politicians with the greatest popular following were hailed as 'plain men' possessing a 'simple manliness'. -- lots of good stuff on contrast between 18thC and 19thC that helps explain part of hostility towards Bolingbroke as representing the unmanliness of the polite aristocrat both in his politics (easily accused of hypocrisy, a major Victorian sin), his sociability, (especially his relations with women) to say nothing of his religion, which wasn't serious enough,no struggle with faith or conscience -- just a fribble overall whose charisma counted against him as well as against those who were gulled by him -- Disraeli a throwback -- useful references -- didn't download
article  jstor  cultural_history  social_history  18thC  19thC  British_history  Victorian  political_culture  working_class  bourgeoisie  professions  independence  individualism  competition  masculinity  politeness  manners  Evangelical  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
E. A. J. Johnson: The Place of Learning, Science, Vocational Training, and "Art" in Pre-Smithian Economic Thought - JSTOR: The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Jun., 1964), pp. 129-144
The Place of Learning, Science, Vocational Training, and "Art" in Pre-Smithian Economic Thought
E. A. J. Johnson
The Journal of Economic History
Vol. 24, No. 2 (Jun., 1964) (pp. 129-144)
Page Count: 16
Downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  17thC  18thC  economic_culture  classes  British_history  education  Labor_markets  professions  Scientific_Revolution  status  downloaded  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Daniel Little - Understanding Society: Who made economics? [re Marion Fourcade and use of Bourdieu]
One of the most interesting people taking on questions like these is Marion Fourcade. Her Economists and Societies: Discipline and Profession in the United States, Britain, and France, 1890s to 1990s was discussed in an earlier post (link). An early place where she expressed her views on these topics is in her 2001 article, “Politics, Institutional Structures, and the Rise of Economics: A Comparative Study” (link).

?... Fourcade's topic seems to be one that is tailor-made for treatment within the terms of Bourdieu's theory of a field. And in fact some of Fourcade's analysis of the institutional factors that influenced the success or failure of academic economists in Britain, Germany, or the US fits Bourdieu's theory very well. Bourdieu's book Homo Academicus appeared in 1984 in French and 1988 in English. But Fourcade does not make use of Bourdieu's ideas at all in the 2001 article -- some 17 years after Bourdieu's ideas were published. Reference to elements of Bourdieu's approach appears only in the 2009 book.
books  reviews  kindle-available  economic_theory  economic_history  professions  university  disciplines  social_theory  social_sciences-post-WWII  sociology_of_knowledge  Bourdieu  cultural_capital  EF-add 
november 2013 by dunnettreader

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