dunnettreader + poverty   83

Brad DeLong - link to WP - Robert Allen (2004): Progress and Poverty in Early Modern Europe
Robert Allen (2004): Progress and Poverty in Early Modern Europe: "At the end of the middle ages, the urban, manufacturing core of Europe was on the Mediterranean with an important offshoot in Flanders... -- downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
improvement  development  urbanization  social_history  Europe-Early_Modern  paper  economic_history  inequality  poverty  progress  downloaded  trade  economic_growth 
january 2017 by dunnettreader
Cummins, N., Kelly, M. and Ó Gráda, C - Living standards and plague in London, 1560–1665 - The Economic History Review (2016) - Wiley Online Library
Cummins, N., Kelly, M. and Ó Gráda, C. (2016), Living standards and plague in London, 1560–1665. The Economic History Review, 69: 3–34. doi:10.1111/ehr.12098This article uses individual records of 930,000 burials and 630,000 baptisms to reconstruct the spatial and temporal patterns of birth and death in London from 1560 to 1665, a period dominated by recurrent plague. The plagues of 1563, 1603, 1625, and 1665 appear of roughly equal magnitude, with deaths running at five to six times their usual rate, but the impact on wealthier central parishes falls markedly through time. Tracking the weekly spread of plague, we find no evidence that plague emerged first in the docks, and in many cases elevated mortality emerges first in the poor northern suburbs. Looking at the seasonal pattern of mortality, we find that the characteristic autumn spike associated with plague continued into the early 1700s. Natural increase improved as smaller crises disappeared after 1590, but fewer than half of those born survived childhood. -- downloaded via Air to DBOX
article  downloaded  social_history  economic_history  16thC  17thC  British_history  England  London  demography  urbanization  sanitation  plague  poverty 
august 2016 by dunnettreader
Rafael La Porta and Andrei Shleifer - "Informality and Development" (2014) Journal of Economic Perspectives
In developing countries, informal firms account for up to half of economic activity. They provide livelihood for billions of people. Yet their role in economic development remains controversial with some viewing informality as pent-up potential and others viewing informality as a parasitic organizational form that hinders economic growth. In this paper, we assess these perspectives. We argue that the evidence is most consistent with dual models, in which informality arises out of poverty and the informal and formal sectors are very different. It seems that informal firms have low productivity and produce low- quality products; and, consequently, they do not pose a threat to the formal firms. Economic growth comes from the formal sector, that is, from firms run by educated entrepreneurs and exhibiting much higher levels of productivity. The expansion of the formal sector leads to the decline of the informal sector in relative and eventually absolute terms. A few informal firms convert to formality, but more generally they disappear because they cannot compete with the much more-productive formal firms.
Citation -La Porta, Rafael and Andrei Shleifer. 2014. "Informality and Development." Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28(3): 109-26.
structural_adjustment  informal_economy  LDCs  access_to_finance  article  Labor_markets  doing_business  productivity  tax_avoidance  regulation  poverty_reduction  poverty  tax_policy  access_to_services  conditionality  entrepreneurs  economic_growth  aid  development  formal_economy  industrialization  downloaded 
august 2016 by dunnettreader
What It's Worth - Building a Strong Financial Future
Americans everywhere struggle to build strong financial futures for themselves and their families. The new book, What It's Worth, provides a roadmap for what families, communities and our nation can do to move forward on the path to financial well-being.
Collection of essays by people working on financial inclusion, asset-building etc. - downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
gig_economy  education-finance  philanthropy  credit  usury  financial_innovation  US_society  inequality-wealth  local_government  pensions  corporate_citizenship  mobility  banking  wages  health_care  access_to_finance  housing  financial_regulation  report  social_entrepreneurs  poverty  downloaded  welfare  US_economy  US_politics  families  mortgages  segregation  inequality  NBFI  unemployment  US_government 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Charles Kenny - Aiming High - setting the new Sustainable Development Goals -- Finance & Development, June 2015, Vol. 52, No. 2
2015 marks the deadline for the MDGs... And while it might come as a surprise to those in Japan, Europe, or North America, the past 15 years may have been the period of greatest progress in humanity’s quality of life. Not least, the available data suggest that we have seen the fastest declines in global child mortality and absolute poverty in recorded history. As a result, we have far surpassed the first MDG—to halve the number of people worldwide living on less than $1.25 a day. 2015 is also the starting date for the SDGs to be agreed at the UN this fall. These goals outline a vision of progress to 2030 covering poverty, health, education, security, the environment, governance, gender equality, and much more. ..at Addis Ababa in July this year will try to finance that new agenda. ... at the UN Climate Change Conference in Paris in December, countries will pledge to cut greenhouse gas emissions, with the hope of setting us on a path away from catastrophic global warming. A strong agreement in Addis Ababa and progress toward the SDGs depend on advanced economies’ understanding that the issue is not altruism but naked self-interest. In 2002, when rich countries ... discussed global cooperation to meet the MDGs, these countries may have asked, “What can we do for them?” This time around the process can only be seen as “What can we do for each other?” Even though developing countries need global ties to make progress, at issue now is not persuading cash-strapped OECD finance ministers to be a little less skinflint but tackling a set of global problems that can be resolved only with the support of the developing world. -- in F&D issue downloaded as pdf to Note
article  sustainability  development  globalization  global_governance  global_system  climate  environment  trade  trade-policy  trade-agreements  global_value_chains  SDGs  poverty  aid  health  OECD_economies  public_finance  public_goods  cross-border  tax_collection  technical_assistance  technology_transfer  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Is the Glass Half Empty Or Half Full? : Issues in Managing Water Challenges and Policy Instruments | IMF Staff Discussion Notes No. 15/11, June 08, 2015
Author/Editor: Kalpana Kochhar ; Catherine A. Pattillo ; Yan Sun ; Nujin Suphaphiphat ; Andrew Swiston ; Robert Tchaidze ; Benedict J. Clements ; Stefania Fabrizio ; Valentina Flamini ; Laure Redifer ; Harald Finger -- Summary: This paper examines water challenges, a growing global concern with adverse economic and social consequences, and discusses economic policy instruments. Water subsidies provided through public utilities are estimated at about $456 billion or 0.6 percent of global GDP in 2012. The paper suggests that getting economic incentives right, notably by reforming water pricing, can go a long way towards encouraging more efficient water use and supporting needed investment, while enabling policies that protect the poor. It also discusses pricing reform options and emphasizes an integrated and holistic approach to manage water, going beyond the water sector itself. The IMF can play a helpful role in ensuring that macroeconomic policies are conducive to sound water management. -- Subject(s): Water resources | Economic policy | Subsidies | Water supply | Supply and demand | Policy instruments | Fund role -- paper summary in F&D issue, June 2015 (downloaded to Note) -- didn't download Staff Discussion Note
paper  IMF  water  development  LDCs  emerging_markets  aid  public_finance  economic_policy  economic_reform  economic_sociology  subsidies  sustainability  poverty  access_to_services  utilities  incentives  incentives-distortions  investment  infrastructure  public-private_partnerships  public_goods  downloaded  Aiviq 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Montfort Mlachila, René Tapsoba, and Sampawende Tapsoba - A Quest for Quality [of economic growth] -- Finance & Development, June 2015, Vol. 52, No. 2
Despite consensus in the economics profession that growth alone does not lead to better social outcomes (Ianchovichina and Gable, 2012), quality growth still lacks a rigorous definition or formal quantification. In a recent paper, we develop a quality of growth index (QGI) that captures both the intrinsic nature of growth and its social dimension. Our premise is that not all growth produces favorable social outcomes. How growth is generated is critical to its sustainability and ability to create decent jobs, enhance living standards, and reduce poverty. We aim in our design of the QGI to capture these multidimensional features of growth by focusing on its very nature and desired social outcomes. -- in F&D issue downloaded as pdf to Note
article  development  economic_growth  political_economy  LDCs  emerging_markets  GDP  GDP-alternatives  inequality  participation-economic  inclusion  marginalized_groups  access_to_services  access_to_finance  SMEs  micro-enterprises  Innovation  innovation-government_policy  rent-seeking  informal_sectors  living_standards  poverty  health_care  education  sustainability  unemployment  common_good  statistics  economic_policy  economic_sociology  economic_reform  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
POPE PAUL VI - Populorum Progressio (March 26, 1967) - ENCYCLICAL ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PEOPLES | Vatican
The progressive development of peoples is an object of deep interest and concern to the Church. This is particularly true in the case of those peoples who are trying to escape the ravages of hunger, poverty, endemic disease and ignorance; of those who are seeking a larger share in the benefits of civilization and a more active improvement of their human qualities; of those who are consciously striving for fuller growth. -- downloaded pdf to Note
religious_history  20thC  post-WWII  Catholics  Papacy  Vatican_II  religious_belief  religious_culture  social_thought  social_problem  social_theory  modernity  poverty  inequality  justice  development  progress  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Pius XI, Quadragesimo Anno (May 151931) - ENCYCLICAL ON RECONSTRUCTION OF THE SOCIAL ORDER | Vatican
Forty years have passed since Leo XIII's peerless Encyclical, On the Condition of Workers, first saw the light, and the whole Catholic world, filled with grateful recollection, is undertaking to commemorate it with befitting solemnity. Other Encyclicals of Our Predecessor had in a way prepared the path for that outstanding document and proof of pastoral care: ...against the tenets of Socialism[5] against false teachings on human liberty,[6] and others of the same nature fully expressing the mind of Leo XIII. Yet the Encyclical, On the Condition of Workers, compared with the rest had this special distinction that at a time when it was most opportune and actually necessary to do so, it laid down for all mankind the surest rules to solve aright that difficult problem of human relations called "the social question." For toward the close of the 19thC, the new kind of economic life that had arisen and the new developments of industry had gone to the point in most countries that human society was clearly becoming divided more and more into two classes. One class, very small in number, was enjoying almost all the advantages which modern inventions so abundantly provided; the other, embracing the huge multitude of working people, oppressed by wretched poverty, was vainly seeking escape from the straits wherein it stood.
religious_history  economic_history  church_history  19thC  20thC  Catholics  Papacy  Industrial_Revolution  Gilded_Age  labor  labor_history  working_class  poverty  modernity  social_thought  social_problem  social_theory  socialism  liberty  religious_culture  religious_belief  entre_deux_guerres  laisser-faire  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Leo XIII - Rerum Novarum - ENCYCLICAL ON CAPITAL AND LABOR (1892) | Vatican
Rights and Duties of Capital and Labor -- That the spirit of revolutionary change, which has long been disturbing the nations of the world, should have passed beyond the sphere of politics and made its influence felt in the cognate sphere of practical economics is not surprising. The elements of the conflict now raging are unmistakable, in the vast expansion of industrial pursuits and the marvellous discoveries of science; in the changed relations between masters and workmen; in the enormous fortunes of some few individuals, and the utter poverty of the masses; the increased self reliance and closer mutual combination of the working classes; as also, finally, in the prevailing moral degeneracy. The momentous gravity of the state of things now obtaining fills every mind with painful apprehension; wise men are discussing it; practical men are proposing schemes; popular meetings, legislatures, and rulers of nations are all busied with it - actually there is no question which has taken deeper hold on the public mind. -- downloaded pdf to Note
religious_history  economic_history  19thC  capitalism  Industrial_Revolution  Gilded_Age  labor  labor_history  labor_standards  human_rights  dignity  poverty  political_economy  religious_culture  Catholics  Papacy  social_theory  social_thought  social_problem  social_gospel  working_class  laisser-faire  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Steve Knepper - Pope Francis and Humane Ecology | The Hedgehog Review - July 2015
Pope Francis’s new encyclical calls for a holistic ethic, an “integral ecology” that insists on the dignity of both human and nonhuman nature and on the shared roots of ecological and social problems. This ethic holds that “everything is connected. Concern for the environment thus needs to be joined to a sincere love for our fellow human beings and an unwavering commitment to resolving the problems of society.” Many responses to Laudato Si’ have focused on Francis’s treatment of particular issues, such as air conditioning or carbon credits. Yet the call for an integral ecology is what makes the encyclical truly distinctive. (..) Patrick Deneen claimed that Laudato Si’ develops “a Thomistic and Aristotelian theme: ‘how human beings live in and with and through nature, in ways that do not fall into what Pope Francis calls, again and again, the twin temptations of, on the one hand, viewing human beings as separate from nature in our capacity to dominate nature, [and] on the other side, a kind of anti-humanism which regards human beings as equally foreign to nature, but now as a kind of virus that has to—in some ways—be eliminated.” Francis’s integral ecology thus challenges some tendencies on both the right and the left. It does so by staying resolutely focused on the poor.
Instapaper  Pope_Francis  Papacy  climate  environment  poverty  human_rights  humanism  human_condition  Thomism-21stC  Aristotelian  nature  nature-mastery  ecology  ecology-economic  anti-humanism  green_economy  green_finance  energy  energy-markets  water  climate-adaptation  LDCs  economic_growth  economic_culture  theology  creation_ex_nilho  conservation  dignity  empathy  from instapaper
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Pope Francis - Lumen Fidei (29 June 2013) - ENCYCLICAL LETTER ON FAITH | Vatican
Thanks to faith we have come to understand the unique dignity of each person, something which was not clearly seen in antiquity. In the second century the pagan Celsus reproached Christians for an idea that he considered foolishness and delusion: namely, that God created the world for man, setting human beings at the pinnacle of the entire cosmos. "Why claim that [grass] grows for the benefit of man, rather than for that of the most savage of the brute beasts?"[46] "If we look down to Earth from the heights of heaven, would there really be any difference between our activities and those of the ants and bees?"[47] At the heart of biblical faith is God’s love, his concrete concern for every person, and his plan of salvation which embraces all of humanity and all creation, culminating in the incarnation, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. Without insight into these realities, there is no criterion for discerning what makes human life precious and unique. Man loses his place in the universe, he is cast adrift in nature, either renouncing his proper moral responsibility or else presuming to be a sort of absolute judge, endowed with an unlimited power to manipulate the world around him.
religious_history  21stC  Catholics  Papacy  faith  revelation  reason  religious_belief  Biblical_exegesis  church_history  Early_Christian  Old_Testament  New_Testament  Augustine  human_rights  human_nature  creation  soteriology  dignity  imago_dei  nature  nature-mastery  modernity  environment  social_thought  poverty  religious_experience  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Era Dabla-Norris et al - Causes and Consequences of Income Inequality : A Global Perspective | IMF Research - June 2015
Era Dabla-Norris ; Kalpana Kochhar ; Nujin Suphaphiphat ; Frantisek Ricka ; Evridiki Tsounta -- This paper analyzes the extent of income inequality from a global perspective, its drivers, and what to do about it. The drivers of inequality vary widely amongst countries, with some common drivers being the skill premium associated with technical change and globalization, weakening protection for labor, and lack of financial inclusion in developing countries. We find that increasing the income share of the poor and the middle class actually increases growth while a rising income share of the top 20 percent results in lower growth—that is, when the rich get richer, benefits do not trickle down. This suggests that policies need to be country specific but should focus on raising the income share of the poor, and ensuring there is no hollowing out of the middle class. To tackle inequality, financial inclusion is imperative in emerging and developing countries while in advanced economies, policies should focus on raising human capital and skills and making tax systems more progressive. (Duh!) -- didn't download
paper  IMF  economic_growth  inequality  OECD_economies  LDCs  emerging_markets  fiscal_policy  labor  labor_standards  supply-side  tax_policy  access_to_finance  poverty  working_class  middle_class  trickle-down 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Bert Useem and Anne Morrison Piehl - Prison State: The Challenge of Mass Incarceration | Cambridge University Press - March 2008
Bert Useem, Purdue University, Indiana -- Anne Morrison Piehl, Rutgers University, New Jersey -- Paperback isbn: 9780521713399 -- Within the past 25 years, the prison population in America shot upward to reach a staggering 1.53 million by 2005. This book takes a broad, critical look at incarceration, the huge social experiment of American society. The authors investigate the causes and consequences of the prison buildup, often challenging previously held notions from scholarly and public discourse. By examining such themes as social discontent, safety and security within prisons, and impact on crime and on the labor market, Piehl and Useem use evidence to address the inevitable larger question, where should incarceration go next for American society, and where is it likely to go? **--** Table of Contents -- 1. The buildup to mass incarceration -- 2. Causes of the prison buildup -- 3. More prison, less crime? -- 4. Prison buildup and disorder -- 5. The buildup and inmate release -- 6. Implications of the buildup for labor markets -- 7. Conclusion: right-sizing prison. -- via Mark Kleiman re after a certain percentage of the population incarcerated, each marginal convict you add actually increases the crime rate, due to both internal factors (prisons breed criminals) and external impacts on the community from which prisoners are being taken -- excerpt downloaded pdf to Note
books  US_history  US_society  US_legal_system  US_politics  social_history  20thC  21stC  crime  criminal_justice  prisons  Labor_markets  racism  discrimination  poverty  inequality  law_enforcement  privatization  police  legislation  judiciary  state_government  urban_politics  cities-governance  downloaded 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Georges Gloukoviezoff - Les banques face à leurs clients: Salariés de banque et inclusion bancaire | La Vie des idées - 28 janvier 2013
English translation March 2014 -- http://www.booksandideas.net/When-French-Banks-Encounter-their.html -- Most banks have now abandoned their previous function of providing advice. Instead, they view their services as products designed to maximize profits. They have started invoking the client’s autonomy as a way of passing on the risk of financial exclusion to their customers. In what ways have bank employees reacted to these new circumstances? -- Georges Gloukoviezoff est docteur en économie et spécialiste des questions d’inclusion financière des particuliers. Il est membre de l’Observatoire national de la pauvreté et de l’exclusion sociale. Il a publié en octobre 2010 aux Presses Universitaires de France "L’Exclusion bancaire. Le Lien social à l’épreuve de la rentabilité". Il tient également un blog sur la page d’Alternatives Economiques. -- downloaded French version as pdf to Note
article  France  financial_system  banking  access_to_finance  access_to_services  labor  labor-service_sector  consumer_protection  risk_management  risk_shifting  knowledge_economy  knowledge_workers  financial_innovation  advisory_services  business_practices  business-norms  profit  profit_maximization  financial_regulation  customer_relations  exclusion  exclusion-economic  economic_sociology  poverty  workforce  know-how  services  services-worker_autonomy  managerialism  productivity  incentives-distortions  consumer-know-how  downloaded 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Grateful in Baltimore | Economic Principals
The news from Baltimore had seemed pretty bleak until Friday, when a 35-year-old city prosecutor brought charges against six police officers involved in the death of Freddie Gray last month. An attorney for the Fraternal Order of Police in Baltimore complained of an “egregious rush to judgment.” Those developments got me thinking about some other measures that have been taken over the years to improve civic life in the United States. Baltimore State’s Attorney Marilyn James Mosby grew up in the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston. He mother, father, aunts, and uncles were Boston police officers. Her grandfather, Prescott Thompson, helped organize the Massachusetts Association of Minority Law Enforcement Officers, in 1968. -- Walsh tracks the steps Mosby took to get her where she now is -- a combination of hard work, talent, and deliberate openings of opportunities that had been foreclosed to women and blacks. He ebds, after a series of stats that show conditions, despite being dreadful in Freddie Gray's neighborhood, have improved significantly due to hard work of reformers over decades and changes in government policies. He ends with a blast at those who would blame the financial crisis on CRA -- instead he thinks that the implementation (albeit too little and too slow) has been one of great policy success stories in halting and beginning to reverse the deliberate, racist obstacles to wealth accumulation of African-Americans. -- saved to Instapaper
US_history  US_economy  US_politics  US_politics-race  urban_politics  War_on_Poverty  affirmative_action  segregation  discrimination  housing  African-Americans  poverty  middle_class  banking  credit  access_to_finance  savings  central_government  local_government  local_politics  Instapaper  from instapaper
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Shire Publications - The Cottage Garden (2011)
Author: Twigs Way -- Hollyhocks and cabbages, roses and runner beans: the English cottage garden combined beauty and utility, pride and productivity. But what was the reality of the space immortalised in images of thatched cottages with floral borders and ducks on the path? For many the garden was crucial in keeping food on the table, for many simply a status symbol and blaze of colour; and gardens did not just appeal to the senses, but played a philosophical and moral role in society, and thus in our social history. Visions of the rural cottager were never far from the mind of the Victorian middle classes, whether as a shining example to the indigent urban poor or as an aesthetic and social ideal of a utopian ‘merrie England’. The Cottage Garden is the history of this varied and important phenomenon and its myriad concepts and incarnations. **--** Productive Poverty. *-* Growing for Show and Beauty. *-* The Cottage Ornée. *-* Victorian Morality and Idealism. *-* A Border of Romantics. *-* Rus in Urbe. *-* Plants for the Cottage Garden. *-* Further Reading. *-* Places to Visit. **--** Paperback; April 2011; 64 pages; ISBN: 9780747808183
books  British_history  cultural_history  social_history  gardens  elite_culture  popular_culture  leisure  country_homes  nostalgia  Victorian  lower_orders  poverty  moral_reform  botany  work_ethic  self-sufficiency  Bolingbroke-family 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Solutions Journalism - Toolkit for Reporting Internationally
Downloaded guide to iPhone -- This meaty guidebook has two objectives: (1) to highlight and dissect the solutions-oriented work of four Pulitzer Center grantees; and (2) to offer general guidance about howto report on solutions stories internationally – and how to get your story idea funded. This guidebook has been produced in partnership with the Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting, which supports international journalism across media platforms.
report  downloaded  journalism  narrative  public_sphere  public_policy  development  urbanism  family  migration  public_health  education  women-education  public_disorder  racism  civil_wars  environment  climate  poverty  access_to_services  labor  labor_standards  political_participation  gender  violence  norms 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Krugmam blog - Recent History in One Chart (Branko Milanovic global inequality trends) | NYTimes.com Jan 2015
A number of people have been putting up candidates for chart of the year. For me, the big chart of 2014 wasn’t actually from 2014 — it was from earlier work (pdf) by Branko Milanovic, which I somehow didn’t see until a few months ago. It shows income growth since 1988 by percentiles of the world income distribution (as opposed to national distributions): {chart} What you see is the surge by the global elite (the top 0.1, 0.01, etc. would be doing even better than his top 1), plus the dramatic rise of many but not all people in emerging markets. In between is what Branko suggests corresponds to the US lower-middle class, but what I’d say corresponds to advanced-country working classes in general, at least if you add post-2008 data with the effects of austerity. I’d call it the valley of despond, and I think it’s going to be a crucial factor in developments over the next few years.
economic_history  post-Cold_War  globalization  20thC  21stC  economic_growth  inequality  labor  wages  middle_class  OECD_economies  emerging_markets  LDCs  capital  profit  plutocracy  China  India  political_economy  poverty  stagnation  downloaded 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Dave Johnson - The Cost To Our Economy From Republican Obstruction And Sabotage | Campaign for America's Future - September 2014
After listing key filibusters -- What would it have meant for the economy and jobs to launch a post-stimulus effort to maintain and modernize our infrastructure? How about reversing the tax structure that pays companies to move jobs out of the country? How about equal pay for women? How about a minimum wage increase? How about hundreds of thousands of teachers and first responders going back to work? How about being able to organize into unions to fight for wages, benefits and safer working conditions? How about relief from crushing student loan debt? -- In the House GOP leadership has been following the “Hastert Rule” to obstruct bills that would win with a majority vote. -- So instead of looking at what has been blocked in the House, we should look at what has passed. What has passed is a record of economic sabotage. Noteworthy is the GOP “Path to Prosperity Budget” (“Ryan budget”), described as “Cuts spending & implements pro-growth reforms that boost job creation.” It dramatically cuts taxes on the rich. It privatizes Medicare. It cuts spending on infrastructure, health care for the poor, education, research, public-safety, and low-income programs. It turns Medicaid, food stamps, and other poverty programs into state block grants. And lo and behold, this GOP budget that passed the House cuts taxes and cuts funding for even maintaining – never mind modernizing – our vital infrastructure needs. This is a budget of economic sabotage. Other GOP House “jobs” bills, listed at Boehner’s “jobs” page include: -- horrifyingly awful policies with Orwellian titles or red meat specials -- special attention to keeping oil & gas subsidies flowing and eviserating regulation, especially EPA -- Johnson stresses, the voters are unaware of all this thanks in part to the MSM which is ballanced re political parties, pro business & anti labor, and guilty of mindlessly peddling what Wren-Lewis calls mediamacro. Good links
US_economy  US_politics  Congress  Great_Recession  GOP  unemployment  public_finance  public_goods  state_government  welfare  social_insurance  poverty  infrastructure  Obama_administration  health_care  women-rights  women-work  wages  fiscal_policy  fiscal_drag  taxes  1-percent  energy  climate  regulation-environment  R&D  Senate  House_of_Representatives  polarization  student_debt  education-finance  education-privatization  corporate_tax  labor_law  unions  trickle-down 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Janice Peterson - Welfare Reform and Inequality: The TANF and UI Programs | JSTOR: Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 34, No. 2 (Jun., 2000), pp. 517-526
The threat was already well known that Clinton welfare reform gains were a result of the booming economy, still left beneficiaries in the working poor world, and would create major problems in an economic downturn -- especially since it reinforced the hierarchy of 20thC social support programs that devalued and discriminated against women's work, removed some safeguards for especially vulnerable poor women with children who had fragile attachment to the labor market, and failed to forsee perverse interaction between the employment requirements of TANF qualifications and eligibility for unemployment insurance. The article reviews literature already emerging on the destructive features of the program design - which were exacerbated in the Great Recession by block grants to states with pro-cyclical budget constraints and in Red States interested only in further reducing welfare rolls and recipients of unemployment insurance, and a Congress hijacked by the Tea Party antagonistic to any countercyclical fiscal policy, especially for poor and unemployed. Short article, didn't download
article  jstor  US_economy  US_politics  state_government  welfare  poverty  women-work  poor-working  unemployment  gender_gap  1990s  Clinton_Administration  Democrats  social_insurance 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
David H. Ciscel - The Living Wage Movement: Building a Political Link from Market Wages to Social Institutions | JSTOR: Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 34, No. 2 (Jun., 2000), pp. 527-535
Plus çà change - even in the good times of the 1990s boom, low wages were not keeping up with maintaining minimum living standards without supplemental government assistance -- Looks at attempts in late 1990s to build political pressure for an increased minimum wage - already the low end service sector was seeing growing between their stagnant wages and growing GNP, with gains going to upper cohorts. Special issues already including (1) service sector jobs with lots of women, so degraded status, (2) outsourcing of jobs that would have been low end civil service, reducing both pay and benefits plus job security. Gives a history of the periodic movements for defining minimum wage levels to incorporate the costs of reproducing the labor force, from health care, child care, nutrition etc. Early 20thC movement was for a "family wage" pushed by unions, but problems for feminists that the focus on family defined women's roles in the home as part of determining what employment should produce as base compensation for maintaining the family, with women's work uncompensated. Short article, didn't download
article  jstor  economic_history  political_economy  economic_culture  US_economy  20thC  Progressive_Era  1990s  wages  wages-minimum  women-work  feminism  feminist_economics  unions  inequality  Democrats  productivity-labor_share  gender_gap  alliances-political  movements-political  US_politics  poor-working  poverty 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Chetna Vijay Sinha How to build an entrepreneur - microcredit for women in India | The World Economic Forum Blog - Sep 12 2014
Story of a cooperative microfinance bank founded in 1997 for women in the village of Mhaswad, in the Satara district of India. Women wanted to save, but no bank would accept the tiny sums they could deposit. Today, the Mann Deshi Mahila Bank, run by and for women, has over 2,000,000 clients in many districts of Maharashtra state. But launching it in 1997 was far from straightforward. Applying for a bank licence revealed how many societal barriers there are for impoverished women. Yet it also showed that it is often the women themselves who have answers to the problems they face. -- The women now had a microbank, but they had no time to come to it during their working day. So we decided to take the bank to the home and began doorstep banking. Next we found that the women all wanted to leave their passbooks with the bank ‒ if they took them home, their husbands would take the money. Women needed control over their finances and their decisions. This is how we became, in 1999, the first bank in India to introduce doorstep banking with e-card wireless technology to securely store personal financial information. -- They need a support network because so often there is little or no support within the family. A woman who raised sheep and goats wanted a loan to buy a mobile phone so she could talk to her children when she was working. She also asked us to show her how to operate the phone. This led to the launch of a a day-long workshop how to operate mobile phones, and other basic skills like using calculators. Mann Deshi also introduced a Deshi MBA programme to provide training in such areas as cash management, self-management and mentorship. And because the women cannot travel, we established a business school bus that travels to them. -- loan program for girls to buy bikes to go to school etc
development  poverty  microfinance  India  women-and-development  women-property  education-women  education-training  tech-mobile_phones  e-commerce  e-banking  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Lant Pritchett -The Politics of Penurious Poverty Lines (Part II) Strange Bedfellows | Center For Global Development September 2014
Re unholy alliance in US, Europe and Japan between advocates for the destitute, fiscal realists and post-materialists -- I argue the success of the "advocates for the destitute" is the result of a coalition of strange bedfellows that actually bring the political heft in rich countries and use the rhetoric of the "advocates" as cover. The fiscal realists and post-materialists like penurious poverty lines not because they put more attention on the poor [the advocates' rationalization of using the poorest of the poor as a PR target], but because they take income gains to everyone else off the table by making a small deal of big differences in incomes between the “middle class” in Ethiopia or India and those of the rich countries. Reframing the “center” of the development agenda around an arbitrary poverty measure that eliminates 5 billion people from “development” is a political master-stroke for the fiscal realists. The advocates of penurious poverty lines create political space for fiscal realists to posture as “pro-development” (and not just hard-hearted or fiscally strapped) while arguing that “development assistance” hasn’t gone to “the poor” (by this new arbitrary measure) and hence with “focus,” agencies need less resources. “Extreme poverty” is a boon for post-materialists in promoting their goals as it manages to take the concerns of large majorities in developing countries in favor of rapid material progress (prioritized at their existing material conditions over other legitimate goals) off the table as their income gains don’t “count” as development progress as they are not “poor.”
post-2015_agenda  development  poverty  global_governance  emerging_markets  OECD_economies  aid  conservatism  values  environment  sustainability  welfare  technical_assistance  technology_transfer  middle_class  international_organizations  UN 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Lant Pritchett - Politics of Penurious Poverty Lines (Part I) | Center For Global Development -September 2014
There are three good reasons why gains to those between the 40th and 80th percentile of the income/consumption distribution need to be central to a global development agenda. -- 1. there is at least a rhetorical consensus on two points: one, that aid effectiveness is requires “country ownership,” and two, governments should reflect the wishes of their citizens (some would simplify this to “democracy”). How can a democratically elected government be expected to “own” a global development agenda centered on a goal that excludes their middle class .. and not on policies that promote the general well-being of all citizens. 2. the consumption of the median person in developing countries is itself a good development target. Birdsall and Meyer (2014) show that, compared to even the poorest in rich countries, the median in developing countries have very low consumption - the poorest income quintile in the USA is 15 times higher than the consumption of the median person in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, or Nigeria and almost 10 times higher than even the median person in “middle income” countries like Egypt or China. No one in US politics claims the consumption of the US median household at $39 dollars a day is “too rich” to merit concern. 3. many have argued that having a functional and prospering “middle class” is instrumentally essential to development and functioning governance and hence benefitting the poor (e.g., Easterly 2000). Given the central role that “good governance” and “building institutions” has acquired in development discourse, try to imagine a successful strategy for strengthening governance or institutions that deliberately excluded the middle class. How exactly does one build “political momentum” to center a global development agenda on a goal that is not the center of the development agenda of any major developing country? And why? That is for part II.
development  poverty  aid  post-2015_agenda  institution-building  emerging_markets  middle_class  governance  OECD_economies  global_governance  international_political_economy  international_organizations  IFIs  UN 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
The 10 best New Yorker articles on health care - Vox - July 2014
The New Yorker has recently made its post-2007 archives open to the non-subscribing public for the next several months. (Some pieces published before 2007 are available, as well.) My colleagues Libby Nelson and Brandon Ambrosino have put together collections of the magazine's best education and religion writing, and I am shamelessly cribbing their idea for the health care beat. -- selected articles to Evernote
US_society  health_care  medicine  poverty  neuroscience  public_health  public_policy  welfare  Evernote 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - Socioeconomic Rights and Theories of Justice (2010) :: SSRN
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 10-79 -- This paper considers the relation between theories of justice (like John Rawls’s theory) and theories of socio-economic rights. In different ways, these two kinds of theory address much the same subject-matter. But they are quite strikingly different in format and texture. Theories of socio-economic rights defend particular line-item requirements: a right to this or that good or opportunity (e.g., housing, health care, education, social security). Theories of justice tend to involve a more integrated normative account of a society’s basic structure (though they differ considerably among themselves in their structure). So how exactly should we think about their relation? The basic claim of the paper is that we should strive to bring these two into closer relation with one another, since it is only in the context of a theory of justice that we can properly assesses the competition that arises between claims of socio-economic right and other claims on public and private resources. -- Number of Pages in PDF File: 31 -- Keywords: Nozick, Rawls, justice, human rights, rights, scarcity, socioeconomic rights
paper  SSRN  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  philosophy_of_law  liberalism  libertarianism  social_order  norms  moral_economy  poverty  human_rights  inequality  Rawls  Nozick  property  common_good  commons  capitalism  political_economy  justice  power-asymmetric 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - Secularism and the Limits of Community (2010) :: SSRN
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 10-88 -- This paper addresses two issues: (1) the use of religious considerations in social and political argument; and (2) the validation of the claims of community against markets and other aspects of globalization. It argues that we should be very wary of the association of (1) with (2), and the use of (1) to reinforce (2). The claims of community in the modern world are often exclusionary (the word commonly associated with community is "gated") and hostile to the rights of the poor, the homeless, the outcast, and so on. The logic of community in the modern world is a logic that reinforces market exclusion and the disparagement of the claims of the poor. If religious considerations are to be used to uphold those claims and to mitigate exclusion, they need to be oriented directly to that task, and to be pursued in ways that by-pass the antithetical claims of community. Religious considerations are at their most powerful in politics - and are most usefully disconcerting - when they challenge the logic of community. -- Number of Pages in PDF File: 27
paper  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  political_philosophy  political_economy  globalization  inequality  exclusion  markets  markets_in_everything  community  communitarian  politics-and-religion  Rawls  human_rights  rights-legal  protectionism  poverty  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
John Locke, Proposed Poor Law Reform (October 1697) - Online Library of Liberty
John Locke, H.B. Fox Bourne, The Life of John Locke. In Two Volumes (London: Henry S. King, 1876). Vol. 2 pp. 377-391. 07/16/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2331> -- Available as Facsimile PDF 638 KB This is a facsimile or image-based PDF made from scans of the original book. -- Locke’s detailed proposals for the reform of the Poor Laws which was quoted in full in Fox Bourne’s The Life of John Locke (1876), vol. 2, pp. 377-391.
etexts  Liberty_Fund  17thC  British_history  British_politics  governmentality  reformation_of_manners  poverty  charity  Poor_Laws  reform-social  Locke  biography  1690s  Whig_Junto  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Equity, Excellence and Inclusiveness in Education: Policy Lessons from Around the World (July 2014) - OECD iLibrary
Excellence in education without equity risks leading to large economic and social disparities; equity in education at the expense of quality is a meaningless aspiration. The most advanced education systems now set ambitious goals for all students, focusing on both excellence and equity. They also equip their teachers with the pedagogic skills that have been proven effective and with enough autonomy so that teachers can use their own creativity in determining the content and instruction they provide to their individual students. The fourth International Summit on the Teaching Profession brought together education ministers, union leaders and other teacher leaders from high-performing and rapidly improving education systems, as measured by PISA (the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment ). Their aim was to discuss equity, excellence and inclusiveness in education by exploring three questions: • How are high-quality teachers developed, and how do schools with the greatest need attract and retain them? • How can equity be ensured in increasingly devolved education systems? and • What kinds of learning environments address the needs of all students? - To underpin the discussions, this publication identifies some of the steps policy makers can take to build school systems that are both equitable and excellent. The analysis is complemented with examples that illustrate proven or promising practices in specific countries. -- Online access but pdf download requires $
education  inequality  poverty  culture  unions  governmentality  central_government  local_government  OECD_economies  US_government  US_society  university-contemporary  public_policy  public_goods 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Why it’s hard for the US to learn from other countries on education - Vox - July 2014
Summary of OECD report re US comparative position on different metrics and what lessons might be drawn from the report -- see other bookmark for OECD link (to read online - pdf requires $) -- New data on poverty, inequality and education are likely to reignite the conversation. But it's easier to point to what other countries are doing right than it is to figure out what lessons they can teach the US. That's evident in the latest education report from the OECD, a group of 34 mostly rich countries and economies. The OECD is a big player in the international-comparison game because it tests students around the world in math, reading and other subjects. Those tests are often used as benchmarks to show that the US is falling behind. The OECD, though, also reports on how different nations handle inequity in education. That data, like the test scores, shows the US has a long way to go.
education  inequality  poverty  culture  unions  governmentality  central_government  local_government  OECD_economies  US_government  US_society  university-contemporary  public_policy  public_goods 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jonathan Israel - “Radical Enlightenment” – Peripheral, Substantial, or the Main Face of the Trans-Atlantic Enlightenment (1650-1850) | Diametros
“Radical Enlightenment” and “moderate Enlightenment” are general categories which, it has become evident in recent decades, are unavoidable and essential for any valid discussion of the Enlightenment broadly conceived (1650-1850) and of the revolutionary era (1775-1848). Any discussion of the Enlightenment or revolutions that does not revolve around these general categories, first introduced in Germany in the 1920s and taken up in the United States since the 1970s, cannot have any validity or depth either historically or philosophically. “Radical Enlightenment” was neither peripheral to the Enlightenment as a whole, nor dominant, but rather the “other side of the coin” an inherent and absolute opposite, always present and always basic to the Enlightenment as a whole. Several different constructions of “Radical Enlightenment” have been proposed by the main innovators on the topic – Leo Strauss, Henry May, Günter Mühlpfordt, Margaret Jacob, Gianni Paganini, Martin Mulsow, and Jonathan Israel – but, it is argued here, the most essential element in the definition is the coupling, or linkage, of philosophical rejection of religious authority (and secularism - the elimination of theology from law, institutions, education and public affairs) with theoretical advocacy of democracy and basic human rights. -- Keywords - Enlightenment Radical Enlightenment moderate Enlightenment democracy aristocracy universal education equality emancipation republicanism mixed government poverty economic oppression crypto-radicalism positivism American revolution -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  political_history  political_culture  politics-and-religion  historiography  economic_history  political_economy  17thC  18thC  19thC  Enlightenment  Radical_Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  religious_culture  authority  anticlerical  Absolutism  secularism  democracy  natural_rights  civil_liberties  egalitarian  American_Revolution  French_Revolution  1848_revolutions  Spinozism  education  aristocracy  poverty  Ancien_régime  mixed_government  tolerance  positivism  natural_law  domination  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  natural_philosophy  British_history  Dutch  Germany  Atlantic  American_colonies  Early_Republic  Republic_of_Letters  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Thomas D. Wilson - The Oglethorpe Plan: Enlightenment Design in Savannah and Beyond: (2012) | Amazon.com: Books
The statesman and reformer James Oglethorpe was a significant figure in the philosophical and political landscape of 18thC British America. His social contributions—all informed by Enlightenment ideals—included prison reform, the founding of the Georgia colony on behalf of the "worthy poor," and stirring the founders of the abolitionist movement. He also developed the famous ward design for the city of Savannah, a design that became one of the most important planning innovations in American history. Multilayered and connecting the urban core to peripheral garden and farm lots, the Oglethorpe Plan was intended by its author to both exhibit and foster his utopian ideas of agrarian equality. The professional planner Thomas D. Wilson reconsiders the Oglethorpe Plan, revealing that Oglethorpe was a more dynamic force in urban planning than has generally been supposed -- the Oglethorpe Plan embodies all of the major themes of the Enlightenment, including science, humanism, and secularism. The vibrancy of the ideas behind its conception invites an exploration of the plan's enduring qualities. In addition to surveying historical context and intellectual origins, this book aims to rescue Oglethorpe’s work from its relegation to the status of a living museum in a revered historic district, and to demonstrate instead potential links with New Urbanism and other more naturally evolving and socially engaged modes of urban development. -- only hdbk
books  18thC  British_history  Atlantic  American_colonies  Georgia  Enlightenment  cultural_history  social_history  intellectual_history  egalitarian  civic_humanism  civic_virtue  slavery  abolition  poverty  Poor_Laws  debtors  agriculture  urban_development  urbanization  prisons  improvement  secularism  republicanism  farmers  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
My Day Without Banks - Ronald Brownstein - The Atlantic - June 2014
That was a revealing early moment in a financial scavenger hunt across Los Angeles last week that I joined along with several dozen participants from the financial industry, non-profit groups, and advocacy organizations. The field trip, called FinX, was organized by the Center for Financial Services Innovation, a group that works to expand access to the financial system. The goal was to expose us, if only briefly, to the daily experiences of the roughly 35 million American households who conduct much of their financial lives outside of the traditional banking system, according to federal figures.
microfinance  poverty 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Other People's Pathologies - Ta-Nehisi Coates - The Atlantic
Chait endorses a blunter approach: "The circa-2008 Ta-Nehisi Coates was neither irresponsible nor immoral. Rather, he had grown up around cultural norms that inhibited economic success. People are the products of their environment. Environments are amenable to public policy. Some of the most successful anti-poverty initiatives, like the Harlem Children’s Zone or the KIPP schools, are designed around the premise that children raised in concentrated poverty need to be taught middle class norms." No, they need to be taught that all norms are not transferable into all worlds. In my case, physical assertiveness might save you on the street but not beyond it. At the same time, other values are transferrable and highly useful. The "cultural norms" of my community also asserted that much of what my country believes about itself is a lie. In the spirit of Frederick Douglass, Ida B. Wells, and Malcolm X, it was my responsibility to live, prosper, and attack the lie. Those values saved me on the street, and they sustain me in this present moment. People who take a strict binary view of culture ("culture of privilege = awesome; culture of poverty = fail") are afflicted by the provincialism of privilege and thus vastly underestimate the dynamism of the greater world. They extoll "middle-class values" to the ignorance and exclusion of all others. To understand, you must imagine what it means to confront algebra in the morning and "Shorty, can I see your bike?" in the afternoon. It's very nice to talk about "middle-class values" when that describes your small, limited world. But when your grandmother lives in one hood and your coworkers live another, you generally need something more than "middle-class values." You need to be bilingual.
US_history  slavery  cultural_capital  culture-American  poverty  cities  middle_class  US_Civil_War  Jim_Crow  racism  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeffrey Church, review - Lisa Herzog, Inventing the Market: Smith, Hegel, and Political Theory // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // Feb 2014
In recent years several excellent studies of Adam Smith have appeared which examine the relationship between his moral and economic thought. Scholars have also extensively analyzed Hegel's views of political economy, and have documented the influence of the Scottish Enlightenment on his thought. Herzog, however, provides the first systematic comparison of Smith's and Hegel's conceptions of commercial society. Her book, in line with recent literature, corrects the persisting, one-sided interpretations of Smith as a proto-libertarian and of Hegel as a statist central-planner. One of Herzog's contributions is to show that the two philosophers share much more in common on economic matters than is often thought, and hence that their views are more nuanced than the one-sided interpretations suggest.

Since much of the recent literature has already corrected the misperceptions about Smith's and Hegel's philosophies of the market, ... the strength of the book lies in her application of Smith's and Hegel's views to contemporary debates in political theory concerning personal identity and communal responsibility, social justice, and the nature of freedom. She argues that Smith and Hegel represent two rival visions of commercial society that have animated and divided contemporary theorists on these issues. Herzog demonstrates that by returning to Smith and Hegel, we can bring greater sophistication to contemporary discussions. -- see review for books on Smith and Hegel and recent articles on Hegel interest in political economy and poverty problem
books  reviews  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  Scottish_Enlightenment  Germany  Smith  Hegel  commerce-doux  economic_growth  luxury  recognition  poverty  inequality  industrialization  working_class  bibliography  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Lord Byron's Speech - debate in the House of Lords - 1812 Frame Breaking Act
This speech was given by Lord Byron in the debate in the House of Lords on the 1812 Frame Breaking Act. A week later, in a letter to a friend Byron wrote, “I spoke very violent sentences with a sort of modest impudence, abused everything and everybody, put the Lord Chancellor very much out of humour, and if I may believe what I hear, have not lost any character in the experiment”.
etexts  British_history  British_politics  economic_history  social_history  19thC  Industrial_Revolution  technology  Labor_markets  poverty  unemployment  Byron  lower_orders  criminal_justice  judiciary  Parliament  House_of_Lords  George_III  Napoleonic_Wars 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard Marshall -Perspectives book series review - why fight poverty etc » 3:AM Magazine Feb 2014
Series editor Diane Coyle summarises the series nicely when she writes: ‘Perspectives are essays on big ideas by leading writers, each given free rein and a modest word limit to reframe an issue of great contemporary interest.’ Reading them invites peppy fustigation or pash. *--* (1) Julia Unwin’s ‘Why Fight Poverty’ argues that the UK must solve its poverty crisis and focuses on the emotional and sentimental thinking that ultimately provides obstacles for tackling the problem. This is hard-headed pugnacious stuff. *--* (2) Jim O’Neil’s ‘The BRIC Road to Growth’ warns that emerging markets are not an old story. The shift from the dominance of USA and Europe has happened. *--* (3) Anne Powers ‘Phoenix Cities’ is a study of regeneration ideas from Europe and the USA. Bridget Rosewell writes about ‘Reinventing London.’ *--* (4) Rediscovering Growth: After the Crisis’ by Andrew Sentance begins by asking what has happened to economic growth since the North Atlantic crisis in the stricken economies affected by the crisis. It’s an interesting question, and one that has in the background worries that without growth governments won’t be able to contain public borrowing, reduce their debts nor establish a direction for economic recovery.
books  reviews  public_policy  global_economy  global_governance  Great_Recession  emerging_markets  economic_growth  sovereign_debt  austerity  urban_development  urban_politics  London  education  poverty  Poor_Laws  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Frances Coppola - Experiment with Basic Income: The Speenhamland System |Pieria Jan 2014
In 1795, the parish of Speen, in Berkshire, England, embarked on a radical new system of poor relief. Due to the ruinous French wars and a series of poor harvests, grain prices were rising sharply. As bread was the staple food of the poor, rising grain prices increased poverty and caused unrest. Concerned by the possibility of riots, the parish decided to provide subsistence-level income support to the working poor. -- Discusses Poor Laws pre 1832, Bentham attitude to work, Ricardo concern with labor supply, Malthus contrihution to debate - and Deidre McCloskey studies - and post 1834 workhouse system
18thC  19thC  British_history  British_politics  social_history  economic_history  political_economy  Poor_Laws  poverty  Bentham  Ricardo  Malthus  agriculture  taxes  landowners  wages  Labor_markets  Industrial_Revolution  prices  Napoleonic_Wars  Victorian  market_integration  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
The 1662 Settlement Act | Victorian Web
Explains Settlement Certificate, how it affected population migration, segregation of labor markets and impact on wages, parish governance - legislative text
17thC  18thC  British_history  British_politics  Parliament  local_government  Poor_Laws  poverty  parish  migration  agriculture  landowners  labor  Labor_markets  wages  legislation  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Issue TOC and Introduction, Nicholas Rogers - Making the English Middle Class, ca. 1700-1850 | JSTOR: Journal of British Studies, Vol. 32, No. 4, Oct., 1993
Introduction (pp. 299-304) Nicholas Rogers [downloaded] *--* (1) "A Just and Profitable Commerce": Moral Economy and the Middle Classes in 18thC London (pp. 305-332) Susan E. Brown [questions "aristocratic century" - independent merchants and bourgeoisie in leading charities, urban politics, polite culture etc. Didn't fit a consistent deference pattern; members of middle class could be on all sides of Poor Laws, so Thompson's bipolar moral economy overstates lack of variation in middle and intermediary functions, especially when drawing on civic traditions that didn't depend on aristocracy leadership] *--* (2) Racism, Imperialism, and the Traveler's Gaze in 18thC England (pp. 333-357) Margaret Hunt [unenlightened middle class elements eg freemasonry could be as xenophobic as cosmopolitan; attention to racial, ethnic difference could also be used to stigmatise the poor and set middle class apart] *--* (3) The Masonic Moment; Or, Ritual, Replica, and Credit: John Wilkes, the Macaroni Parson, and the Making of the Middle-Class Mind (pp. 358-395) John Money. *--* (4) "Middle-Class" Domesticity Goes Public: Gender, Class, and Politics from Queen Caroline to Queen Victoria (pp. 396-432) Dror Wahrman [middle class as defenders of family, domesticity, separate spheres only after won political status in 1832 - nobody adopted Hannah More's vision until decades later - use of the term by others or as self identifier is all over the map, even in the same report or work, stabilizing only c 1830s] -- downloaded Rogers pdf to Note
article  jstor  social_history  cultural_history  political_history  political_economy  political_culture  18thC  19thC  British_history  British_politics  urbanization  urban_politics  urban_elites  middle_class  aristocracy  politeness  consumerism  travel  xenophobia  racism  poverty  Poor_Laws  merchants  mercantilism  commercial_interest  interest_groups  corporatism  free_trade  Freemasonry  gender  family  domesticity  moral_economy  creditors  debtors  dissenters  local_government  political_nation  oligarchy  Parliament  anti-Jacobin  Loyalists  American_Revolution  French_Revolution  imperialism  London  status  rank  nouveaux_riches  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Quote For The Day II « The Dish - Disraeli on rapacious capitalism and Two Nations
– [Disraeli] articulated a future conservatism that could manage to address not the etiolated dogmas of its past, but the urgent practical demands of the present: [quote from Sybil?]

In a parliamentary sense, that great party has ceased to exist; but I will believe that it still lives in the thought and sentiment and consecrated memory of the English nation. ( . . . ) Even now it is not dead, but sleepeth; and, in an age of political materialism, of confused purposes and perplexed intelligence, that aspires only to wealth because it has faith in no other accomplishment, as men rifle cargoes on the verge of shipwreck, toryism will yet rise from the tomb over which Bolingbroke shed his last tear, to bring back strength to the Crown, liberty to the Subject, and to announce that power has only one duty: to secure the social welfare of the PEOPLE.

No, Disraeli was not a Communist; he was a Conservative who saw the rapaciousness of unfettered, ascendant capitalism as a direct threat to constitutional and social order. I find myself returning more and more to Disraeli these days, for reasons David Simon would understand.
Bolingbroke  Disraeli  19thC  British_politics  capitalism  poverty  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Maria Pia Paganelli, review - Donald Rutherford: In the Shadow of Adam Smith: Founders of Scottish Economics, 1700-1900 | EH.net
Donald Rutherford, In the Shadow of Adam Smith: Founders of Scottish Economics, 1700-1900. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. vii + 344 pp. $40 (paperback), ISBN: 978-0-230-25210-3. - not on Kindle

Reviewed for EH.Net by Maria Pia Paganelli, Department of Economics, Trinity University. Smith is generally such an immense figure that we may be tempted to think of him as the only voice of eighteenth century Scotland as far as economics is concerned. Attempts to moderate Smith?s grandeur remind us that he may have just systematized previous knowledge. Rutherford offers us the context in which Smith?s presence grew and his legacy developed. He offers us insight into the wide economic knowledge that Smith used (or did not use), added to (or not), and of which he is (just a) part.

The scholarship present in the book is remarkable, even more so because the book is organized by topic, rather than by time or by authors. The topics covered are trade (international trade, exchange economy, value); money (functions of money, paper credit, banking); public finance (functions of government, taxation, national debt); condition of the people (population, property rights and rent, profits and wages, poverty); condition of the economy (economic growth, economic development); and economic ideology (natural liberty, socialism). And to this, Rutherford adds an appendix with biographical sketches of the major Scottish writers.
books  reviews  intellectual_history  economic_history  18thC  19thC  Scotland  Scottish_Enlightenment  Smith  Hutcheson  economic_theory  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  political_economy  trade-theory  poverty  population  Poor_Laws  unemployment  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
The ideal welfare system is a basic income | Adam Smith Institute Nov 2013
Now showing up in the quasi-libertarian Right -- Like the current benefits system, this would provide a safety net. But ‘benefits traps’, where people lose as much in benefits as they earn from work, would be eliminated. A basic income system like this would be at least as clear as the PAYE income tax system is, and substantially clearer than the current benefits system. The dog’s breakfast of welfare schemes that currently exist – all to address the symptoms of poverty, rather than the root – would be abolished, and with it the jumble of unanticipated and often undiscernable interactions between schemes that lead to perverse outcomes.

Best of all, a basic income is the least paternalistic welfare scheme possible. Instead of pushing would-be computer programmers into work as Poundland assistants, a scheme like this would leave decisions entirely up to the individuals involved. The discovery process that each of us is engaged in would continue, and now without mass decision-making by a central state authority.
21stC  public_policy  welfare  poverty  taxes  safety_net  unemployment  health_care 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Ezra Kkein - Elizabeth Warren wants to spend more on Social Security. But she’s not thinking big enough! | WonkBlog Nov 2013
3 legged stool now only has one leg -- nice charts and link to New America Foundation report - downloaded pdf to Note - advocating expansion of Social Security with a new part B
US_economy  pensions  fiscal_policy  savings  investment  poverty  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2013 by dunnettreader
'Poor people aren't making ends meet': inside payday lending | The Guardian Nov 2013
Great article on why banks don't work for so many people and how payday lending and check cashing deliver services people need to manage their lives better.
US_economy  poverty  banking  microfinance  EF-add 
november 2013 by dunnettreader
Cash to the poor: Pennies from heaven | The Economist Oct 2013
Via Chris Blattman who praises the piece for doing a 1st rate job of literature review - footnotes have links to studies
In short, UCTs work better than almost anyone would have expected. They dent the stereotype of poor people as inherently feckless and ignorant. But CCTs are usually better still, especially when dealing with the root causes of poverty and, rather than just alleviating it, helping families escape it altogether.
economic_culture  economic_sociology  development  poverty  foreign_aid 
october 2013 by dunnettreader
Meghana Ayyagari, Thorsten Beck, Mohammad Hoseini: Finance and Poverty: Evidence from India | vox June 2013
Using state-level data from India over the period 1983 to 2005, this paper gauges the effect of financial deepening and outreach on rural poverty. Its findings suggest that financial deepening contributed to poverty alleviation in rural areas by fostering entrepreneurship and inducing geographic-sectoral migration. -- Vox readers can download CEPR Discussion Paper 9124 for free -- downloaded pdf to Note -- URL: www.cepr.org/pubs/dps/DP9497.asp
Topics: Development, Financial markets, Migration, Poverty and income inequality
Tags: entrepreneurship, India, poverty alleviation
paper  20thC  21stC  post-WWII  emerging_markets  India  development  financial_sector_development  poverty  rural  inequality  entrepreneurs  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Deniz Kellecioglu, Book Review: Why Nations fail – the origins of power, prosperity and poverty | World Economic Review papers blog Jan 2013
Why Nations Fail by Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson is a compelling contribution to the classic question why some countries are poor and some rich , but it is also marred from several shortcomings and underrepresentations, which cast doubts on the positive messages of creating better institutions and reducing poverty. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  kindle  institutional_economics  economic_history  economic_growth  political_economy  development  poverty  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
How Poverty Taxes the Brain - Emily Badger - The Atlantic Cities August 2013
We only have so much cognitive capacity to spread around. It's a scarce resource.This understanding of the brain’s bandwidth could fundamentally change the way we think about poverty. Researchers publishing some groundbreaking findings today in the journal Science have concluded that poverty imposes such a massive cognitive load on the poor that they have little bandwidth left over to do many of the things that might lift them out of poverty – like go to night school, or search for a new job, or even remember to pay bills on time. In a series of experiments run by researchers at Princeton, Harvard, and the University of Warwick, low-income people who were primed to think about financial problems performed poorly on a series of cognition tests, saddled with a mental load that was the equivalent of losing an entire night’s sleep. Put another way, the condition of poverty imposed a mental burden akin to losing 13 IQ points, or comparable to the cognitive difference that’s been observed between chronic alcoholics and normal adults.
cognition  poverty  mind  neuroscience  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Paul Marshall: John Locke: Between God and Mammon (1979)
JSTOR: Canadian Journal of Political Science / Revue canadienne de science politique, Vol. 12, No. 1 (Mar., 1979), pp. 73-96 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Locke est-il un proto-capitaliste ou est-il un néo-puritain poursuivant sa vocation avec application? Voilà deux interprétations fécondes de l'élément central de sa théorie politique. Ces deux conceptions ont naturellement leurs avantages et leurs limites. D'une part, il n'y a rien dans son oeuvre qui nous indique que Locke croyait à l'accumulation indéterminée ou à une rationalité qui justifie les différences de classes. Ainsi la thèse de l'appropriation individuelle perd de sa valeur. D'autre part, la notion de vocation est complexe, elle a évolué considérablement et elle comporte un certain nombre de points diver Locke s'appuie sur différents aspects de cette notion et il lui apporte ses propres changements. Il conçoit la vocation comme un travail et il attache beaucoup d'importance à ses avantages économiques. Par voie de conséquence, une interprétation de la pensée de Locke qui reposerait en grande partie sur les aspects religieux de sa pensée serait probablement trompeuse. L'individualisme propriétaire chez Locke est tiré de l'individualisation extrême de la responsabilité laquelle se retrouve dans la doctrine de la vocation, mais Locke cherche à joindre cette responsabilité à la notion de l'utilité du travail et aux exigences de l'efficacité économique. Il recherchait à la fois des << espoirs réconfortants >> de bonheur dans un monde futur et une traversée de ce monde calme et prospère. Locke voulait servir deux maîtres et on ne peut comprendre sa théorie politique si l'on ne tient compte que de l'un d'eux.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  theology  17thC  Britain  political_economy  religious_culture  property  Labor_markets  poverty  individualism  liberalism  Locke  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Steven Forde: The Charitable John Locke (2009)
Cambridge Journals Online - The Review of Politics - Abstract - Steven Forde (2009). The Charitable John Locke. The Review of Politics, 71, pp 428-458. doi:10.1017/S0034670509990040. -- 24 hrs @ $5.99 -- Locke's political philosophy, like any that centers on individual rights such as property rights, raises the question whether human beings have any duty to charity, or economic assistance, to the needy. Locke's works contain some strong statements in favor of such a duty, but in his definitive treatment of property, chapter 5 of the Second Treatise of Government, he is conspicuously silent on charity. Based on a reading of that chapter and other texts, I conclude that the basis of Lockean morality is not individual right per se, but concern for the common good. I compare Locke's theory of property to those of Aquinas, Grotius, and Pufendorf in order to shed light on Locke's view of property and charity. Finally, I argue that Locke has a tiered moral theory that separates justice from charity. His economic and political theories focus on justice, masking Locke's actual devotion to charity.
article  intellectual_history  political_culture  political_economy  political_philosophy  Britain  17thC  18thC  poverty  charity  property_rights  common_good  Locke  paywall  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Richard C. Wiles: The Theory of Wages in Later English Mercantilism (1968)
JSTOR: The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 21, No. 1 (Apr., 1968), pp. 113-126.....Downloaded pdf to Note......another short article with lots of references. ?..Late Mercantilism is for Wiles from late 17thC. Heckscher, Furniss & Viner didn't study period or significantly misrepresented what was going on.
article  jstor  economic_history  political_economy  mercantilism  17thC  18thC  Labor_markets  unemployment  poverty  trade  FX  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
A. W. Coats: Economic Thought and Poor Law Policy in the Eighteenth Century (1960)
JSTOR: The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 13, No. 1 (1960), pp. 39-51.....Downloaded pdf to Note......follow up to 1958 article..... again fairly short but lots of references including parliamentary debates
article  jstor  economic_history  British_politics  political_economy  mercantilism  18thC  Poor_Laws  poverty  unemployment  Labor_markets  charity  Parliament  improvement  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
A. W. Coats: Changing Attitudes to Labour in the Mid-Eighteenth Century (1958
JSTOR: The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 11, No. 1 (1958), pp. 35-51.....Downloaded pdf to Note......only 17 pages but extensive references to 18thC writing including Berkeley and Hume re improvement of labor standard of living -- followed by 1960 article in EcHR
article  jstor  economic_history  political_economy  mercantilism  18thC  Labor_markets  unemployment  Poor_Laws  poverty  charity  Berkeley  Hume  Enlightenment  improvement  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Destined for Deprivation? Intergenerational Poverty Traps in 18thC Britain by Hans-Joachim Voth, Sara Horell, Jane Humphries :: SSRN
Abstract:      A model illustrates the intergenerational transmission of poverty through the effects of shocks to family income on children's general education and health and subsequently on their capacity to work and earn as adults. Evidence for nineteenth-century Britain shows that being fatherless, and so likely poor, had an adverse effect on children's human capital acquisition. However, policy intervention in the form of the Old Poor Law blocked the transmission of poverty and avoided permanent pauperism. Even at an early stage of development, redistribution emerges as a positive contribution to economic growth, not a luxury that poor countries can ill afford.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 23

Downloaded pdf to Note
Britain  British_politics  political_economy  economic_history  cultural_history  social_history  poverty  Poor_Laws  inequality  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo: Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way to Fight Global Poverty (2011) eBook: : Kindle Store
Promotes randomized control trials (RCTs)
Why do the poor borrow to save? Why do they miss out on free life-saving immunizations, but pay for unnecessary drugs? In Poor Economics, Abhijit V. Banerjee and Esther Duflo, two practical visionaries working toward ending world poverty, answer these questions from the ground. In a book the Wall Street Journal called “marvelous, rewarding,” the authors tell how the stress of living on less than 99 cents per day encourages the poor to make questionable decisions that feed—not fight—poverty. The result is a radical rethinking of the economics of poverty that offers a ringside view of the lives of the world’s poorest, and shows that creating a world without poverty begins with understanding the daily decisions facing the poor.
books  kindle-available  poverty  development  economic_models  microeconomics  incentives  behavioral_economics 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
Ayyagari, Beck, Hoseini: Migrating out of poverty: The role of finance | vox June 2013
Financial liberalisation has been controversial among academics and policymakers as it is not clear whom the benefits of expanded credit allocation accrue to. Using time and state-level variation across Indian states, this column finds strong evidence that financial deepening reduces rural poverty, especially among the self-employed. Financial deepening is also found to be associated with an inter-state migration trend from rural areas into the tertiary sector in urban areas.
development  financial_system  banking  rural  poverty  inequality  India  EF-add  from instapaper
july 2013 by dunnettreader
The Logic of the Informal Economy by Ricardo Hausmann - Project Syndicate June 2013
Brilliant
The informal sector is mostly a consequence of the fact that people are disconnected from modern production networks – an inefficiency that will not be resolved simply by reducing the cost of registering a business or forcing small firms to pay taxes. What is required is a redesign of urban space, including subways and dedicated bus lanes, and a more integrated approach to housing, social services, and production areas. Governments will have to start doing some good things, not just stop doing some bad ones.
New mission for Doing Business survey?
development  poverty  EF-add  World_Bank 
june 2013 by dunnettreader
What Climate Change Means for Africa, Asia and the Coastal Poor | World Bank Report June 2013
"Turning down the Heat" initiative is supposed to inform program and project planning
This report focuses on the risks of climate change to development in Sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia and South Asia. Building on the 2012 report, Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must be Avoided, this new scientific analysis examines the likely impacts of present day, 2°C and 4°C warming on agricultural production, water resources, and coastal vulnerability for affected populations. It finds many significant climate and development impacts are already being felt in some regions, and in some cases multiple threats of increasing extreme heat waves, sea level rise, more severe storms, droughts and floods are expected to have further severe negative implications for the poorest. Climate related extreme events could push households below the poverty trap threshold. High temperature extremes appear likely to affect yields of rice, wheat, maize and other important crops, adversely affecting food security. Promoting economic growth and the eradication of poverty and inequality will thus be an increasingly challenging task under future climate change. Immediate steps are needed to help countries adapt to the risks already locked in at current levels of 0.8°C warming, but with ambitious global action to drastically reduce greenhouse gas emissions, many of the worst projected climate impacts could still be avoided by holding warming below 2°C. 
World_Bank  climate  development  poverty 
june 2013 by dunnettreader
« earlier      
per page:    204080120160

related tags

1-percent  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  1690s  1710s  1848_revolutions  1990s  abolition  Absolutism  access_to_finance  access_to_services  advisory_services  affirmative_action  Africa  African-Americans  agriculture  aid  Aiviq  alliances-political  American_colonies  American_Revolution  Ancien_régime  Anglican  anti-humanism  anti-Jacobin  anticlerical  aristocracy  Aristotelian  article  Atlantic  Augustine  austerity  authority  banking  behavioral_economics  Bentham  Berkeley  Biblical_exegesis  bibliography  biography  biology  Bolingbroke  Bolingbroke-family  books  botany  Britain  British_history  British_politics  bureaucracy  business-norms  business_practices  Byron  capital  capitalism  capitalism-systemic_crisis  capitalism-varieties  capital_flows  capital_markets  Carlyle  Catholics  Catholics-and-politics  central_government  charity  China  church_history  Church_of_England  cities  cities-governance  civic_humanism  civic_virtue  civil_liberties  civil_society  civil_wars  clergy  clientelism  climate  climate-adaptation  Clinton_Administration  cognition  colonialism  commerce-doux  commercial_interest  commodities  commons  common_good  communitarian  community  competitiveness  conditionality  Congress  conservation  conservatism  consumer-know-how  consumerism  consumer_protection  corporate_citizenship  corporate_tax  corporatism  corruption  counter-terrorism  country_homes  creation  creation_ex_nilho  credit  creditors  crime  criminal_justice  cross-border  cultural_capital  cultural_history  culture  culture-American  customer_relations  debtors  democracy  democracy_deficit  Democrats  demography  derivatives  development  development-impact  dignity  discrimination  Disraeli  dissenters  doing_business  domesticity  domination  downloaded  Dutch  e-banking  e-commerce  Early_Christian  Early_Republic  ecclesiology  ecology  ecology-economic  economic_culture  economic_growth  economic_history  economic_models  economic_policy  economic_reform  economic_sociology  economic_theory  education  education-finance  education-privatization  education-training  education-women  EF-add  egalitarian  elite_culture  emerging_markets  empathy  energy  energy-markets  England  English_lit  Enlightenment  entrepreneurs  entre_deux_guerres  environment  epidemics  epigenetics  epistemology-moral  epistemology-social  equality  etexts  Europe-Early_Modern  Evernote  exclusion  exclusion-economic  faith  families  family  farmers  FDI  feminism  feminist_economics  finance_capital  financialization  financial_crisis  financial_innovation  financial_regulation  financial_sector_development  financial_system  find  fiscal_drag  fiscal_policy  fiscal_space  foreign_aid  formal_economy  France  Freemasonry  free_trade  French_Enlightenment  French_Revolution  FX  FX-rate_management  gardens  GDP  GDP-alternatives  gender  gender_gap  genetics  George_III  Georgia  Germany  gig_economy  Gilded_Age  globalization  global_economy  global_governance  global_imbalance  global_system  global_value_chains  God-attributes  GOP  governance  governmentality  government_finance  Great_Recession  green_economy  green_finance  GWOT  health  health_care  Hegel  hierarchy  historical_sociology  historiography  House_of_Lords  House_of_Representatives  housing  humanism  human_capital  human_condition  human_nature  human_rights  Hume  Hutcheson  IFIs  imago_dei  IMF  imperialism  improvement  incentives  incentives-distortions  inclusion  India  individualism  industrialization  Industrial_Revolution  inequality  inequality-wealth  inflation  informal_economy  informal_sectors  infrastructure  Innovation  innovation-government_policy  Instapaper  institution-building  institutional_economics  intellectual_history  interest_groups  international_finance  international_monetary_system  international_organizations  international_political_economy  investment  investment-government  Ireland  Islamist_fundamentalists  Jim_Crow  journalism  jstor  judiciary  justice  Keynesianism  kindle  kindle-available  know-how  knowledge_economy  knowledge_workers  labor  labor-service_sector  labor_history  labor_law  Labor_markets  labor_standards  laisser-faire  landowners  Latin_America  law_enforcement  LDCs  legislation  legitimacy  leisure  liberalism  libertarianism  liberty  liberty-positive  Liberty_Fund  living_standards  local_government  local_politics  Locke  London  lower_orders  Loyalists  luxury  macroeconomics  Malthus  Malthusian  managerialism  marginalized_groups  markets  markets_in_everything  market_integration  media  medicine  mercantilism  merchants  micro-enterprises  microeconomics  microfinance  middle_class  migration  mind  missionaries  mixed_government  mob  mobility  modernity  modernization  monetary_policy  morality-Christian  moral_economy  moral_philosophy  moral_reform  mortgages  movements-political  Napoleonic_Wars  narrative  nation-state  natural_law  natural_philosophy  natural_rights  nature  nature-mastery  NBFI  neuroscience  New_Testament  norms  North-Weingast  nostalgia  nouveaux_riches  Nozick  Obama  Obama_administration  OECD_economies  Old_Testament  oligarchy  Papacy  paper  parish  Parliament  participation-economic  passive_obedience  patrons  paywall  pensions  philanthropy  philosophy_of_law  physiology  plague  plutocracy  Pocket  polarization  police  politeness  political_arithmetick  political_culture  political_economy  political_history  political_nation  political_participation  political_philosophy  politics-and-history  politics-and-religion  poor-working  Poor_Laws  Pope_Francis  popular_culture  population  positivism  post-2015_agenda  post-Cold_War  post-colonial  post-WWII  poverty  poverty_reduction  power-asymmetric  prices  prisons  privatization  productivity  productivity-labor_share  profit  profit_maximization  progress  Progressive_Era  property  property_rights  protectionism  psychology  public-private_partnerships  public_disorder  public_finance  public_goods  public_health  public_policy  public_sphere  Queen_Anne  R&D  racism  Radical_Enlightenment  rank  Rawls  reason  recognition  reform-social  reformation_of_manners  regional_blocs  regulation  regulation-environment  religious_belief  religious_culture  religious_experience  religious_history  renewables  rent-seeking  report  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  Republic_of_Letters  resistance_theory  revelation  review  reviews  Ricardo  rights-legal  risk-systemic  risk_management  risk_shifting  rural  safety_net  sanitation  savings  Scotland  Scottish_Enlightenment  SDGs  secularism  segregation  self-sufficiency  Senate  services  services-worker_autonomy  slavery  SMEs  Smith  socialism  social_entrepreneurs  social_gospel  social_history  social_insurance  social_order  social_problem  social_theory  social_thought  soteriology  sovereign_debt  speech  Spinozism  SSRN  stagnation  state_government  statistics  status  structural_adjustment  student_debt  Sub-Saharan_Africa  subsidiarity  subsidies  supply-side  sustainability  taxes  tax_avoidance  tax_collection  tax_policy  tech-mobile_phones  technical_assistance  technology  technology-adoption  technology_transfer  theology  Thomism-21stC  tolerance  trade  trade-agreements  trade-policy  trade-theory  trade_deficits  travel  trickle-down  UN  unemployment  unions  university-contemporary  urbanism  urbanization  urban_development  urban_elites  urban_politics  usury  US_Civil_War  US_economy  US_foreign_policy  US_government  US_history  US_legal_system  US_military  US_politics  US_politics-race  US_society  utilitarianism  utilities  values  Vatican_II  Victorian  violence  virtue_ethics  wages  wages-minimum  War_on_Poverty  water  welfare  Whig_Junto  women-and-development  women-education  women-property  women-rights  women-work  workforce  working_class  work_ethic  World_Bank  xenophobia 

Copy this bookmark:



description:


tags: