dunnettreader + post-cold_war   41

Olivier Blanchard & Michael Kremer - Disorganization - Quarterly Journal of Economics (1997)
Abstract
Under central planning, many firms relied on a single supplier for critical inputs. Transition has led to decentralized bargaining between suppliers and buyers. Under incomplete contracts or asymmetric information, bargaining may inefficiently break down, and if chains of production link many specialized producers, output will decline sharply. Mechanisms that mitigate these problems in the West, such as reputation, can only play a limited role in transition. The empirical evidence suggests that output has fallen farthest for the goods with the most complex production process, and that disorganization has been more important in the former Soviet Union than in Central Europe. - downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
trust  Russia  information-asymmetric  20thC  privatization  industrialization  reputation  Eastern_Europe  risk_management  article  Central_Asia  economic_history  information-markets  transition_economies  supply_chains  manufacturing  downloaded  post-Cold_War 
august 2016 by dunnettreader
Iryna Stewen & Mathias Hoffmann - Holes in the Dike: the global savings glut, US house prices & the long shadow of banking deregulation (2015 wp)
Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association in its series Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy with number 112834. -- Abstract -- We explore empirically how capital inflows into the US and financial deregulation within the United States interacted in driving the run-up (and subsequent decline) in US housing prices over the period 1990-2010. To obtain an ex ante measure of financial liberalization, we focus on the history of interstate-banking deregulation during the 1980s, i.e. prior to the large net capital inflows into the US from China and other emerging economies. Our results suggest a long shadow of deregulation: in states that opened their banking markets to out-of-state banks earlier, house prices were more sensitive to capital inflows. We provide evidence that global imbalances were a major positive funding shock for US wide banks: different from local banks, these banks held a geographically diversified portfolio of mortgages which allowed them to tap the global demand for safe assets by issuing private-label safe assets backed by the country-wide US housing market. This, in turn, allowed them to expand mortgage lending and lower interest rates, driving up housing prices. -- downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
banking  financial_crisis  deregulation  US_economy  downloaded  financial_regulation  global_imbalance  capital_markets  post-Cold_War  financial_system  interstate_banking  savings  house_prices  securitization  financial_innovation  interest_rates  mortgages  international_finance  capital_flows  community_banks  paper  21stC  economic_history  competition-interstate  NBFI 
august 2016 by dunnettreader
Div Levin - When Great Powers Get a Vote - International Studies Quarterly - 2016
What are the electoral consequences of attempts by great powers to intervene in a partisan manner in another country’s elections? Great powers frequently deploy partisan electoral interventions as a major foreign policy tool. For example, the U.S. and the USSR/Russia have intervened in one of every nine competitive national level executive elections between 1946 and 2000. However, scant scholarly research has been conducted about their effects on the election results in the target. I argue that such interventions usually significantly increase the electoral chances of the aided candidate and that overt interventions are more effective than covert interventions. I then test these hypotheses utilizing a new, original dataset of all U.S. and USSR/Russian partisan electoral interventions between 1946 and 2000. I find strong support for both arguments.
US_foreign_policy  downloaded  propaganda  soft_power  power  article  post-Cold_War  Cold_War  elections  influence-IR  Grear_Powers  intervention  IR-domestic_politics 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Vincent Citot - Pourquoi les intellectuels n'aiment pas le libéralisme de Raymond Boudon, et quelques problèmes épistémologiques (2005) - Cairn.info
Raymond boudon, Pourquoi les intelectuels n’aiment pas le libéralisme. Odile Jacob, 2004
1 - Le poids du libéralisme sur le marché des idées et le problème du politiquement correct
2 - Questions de méthode et problèmes épistémologiques
Citot Vincent, « Pourquoi les intellectuels n'aiment pas le libéralisme de Raymond Boudon, et quelques problèmes épistémologiques. », Le Philosophoire 1/2005 (n° 24) , p. 124-131
URL : www.cairn.info/revue-le-philosophoire-2005-1-page-124.htm.
DOI : 10.3917/phoir.024.0124.
Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
political_economy  intellectual_history  neoliberalism  books  reviews  French_intellectuals  downloaded  post-Cold_War  liberalism  sociology_of_knowledge 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Kathleen Knight - Transformations of the Concept of Ideology in the Twentieth Century | JSTOR- The American Political Science Review - Centennial Issue )2006)
Transformations of the Concept of Ideology in the Twentieth Century
Kathleen Knight
The American Political Science Review
Vol. 100, No. 4, Thematic Issue on the Evolution of Political Science, in Recognition of the Centennial of the Review (Nov., 2006), pp. 619-626
Ideology has been the subject of a surprising amount of attention during the lat half of the twentieth century. Although it has been argued that the term has been "thoroughly muddied by diverse uses" (Converse 1964, 207), an empirical investigation of the pages of the Review reveals substantial convergence among political scientists over time on a core definition. This essay traces the use of the concept in the Review since its launch in 1906. It reveals changing fashions in the connotation of the term, but suggests an underlying agreement on the essential components—coherence, stability and contrast—and underlines the centrality of the concept of ideology in political science. - downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
downloaded  article  social_theory  Marxist  political_science  Cold_War  social_sciences-post-WWII  sociology_of_knowledge  US_history  20thC  political_participation  elites  identity  bibliography  parties  jstor  post-Cold_War  partisanship  intellectual_history  political_history  ideology 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Pierre Rosanvallon - L’universalisme démocratique : histoire et problèmes | La Vie des idées - 17 décembre 2007
Les occidentaux se pensent comme les propriétaires d’un modèle démocratique universel. Cette assurance faiblit pourtant dès qu’ils tentent de l’exporter. Surtout, elle les empêche de considérer aussi bien les épreuves de leur propre histoire que les questions soulevées par les expériences démocratiques non-occidentales. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  political_philosophy  political_culture  democracy  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  post-WWII  post-Cold_War  democratization  democracy_deficit  political_participation  Rosanvallon  downloaded 
december 2015 by dunnettreader
Florence Jaumotte, Carolina Osorio Buitron - Union power and inequality | VOX, CEPR’s Policy Portal - 22 October 2015
IMF research department -- Inequality in advanced economies has risen considerably since the 1980s, largely driven by the increase of top earners’ income shares. This column revisits the drivers of inequality, emphasising the role played by changes in labour market institutions. It argues that the decline in union density has been strongly associated with the rise of top income inequality and discusses the multiple channels through which unionisation matters for income distribution. -- very interesting all the variables they looked at and excluded -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  political_economy  economic_history  20thC  21stC  OECD_economies  post-Cold_War  labor_share  labor_law  unions  executive_compensation  inequality  wages  wages-minimum  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Brad DeLong - Why I Try Not to Blather About China: My Visualization of the Cosmic All Is Incomplete - August 2015
Brad illustrates why he's periodically thought China was going to blow up, and where in his mental model, he tries to update his assumptions, without apparent improvement in understanding the next round when he expects China to blow up but it doesn't -- responding to recent Brookings paper
Pocket  economic_history  political_economy  20thC  21stC  post-WWII  post-Cold_War  China-economy  from pocket
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Emmanuel Mourlon-Druol - La zone euro est-elle viable? Une perspective historique - La Vie des idées - 20 mai 2014
La crise de la zone euro a révélé les faiblesses constitutives de la monnaie unique ; mais les débats portant sur sa viabilité se limitent trop souvent à une vision purement économique de la zone euro. L’histoire complexe de la création de l’euro éclaire les enjeux financiers et politiques internationaux de l’unification monétaire. -- in many ways it's the same-old, same-old -- a group of countries with intense economic interaction that gets whip-sawed by exchange rates in a constantly evolving world that's increasingly globalized, especially capital movements -- under a series of arrangements from Bretton Woods onwards, they've been trying to manage or mitigate the problem, but they never solve it -- he repeatedly notes that the entire EC budget isn't more than 1% of the aggregate GNP of the member states -- useful aide-mémoire for each step in the evolution of the EU and European money arrangements paralled with each modification of the international monetary system -- though he notes repeatedly that finance is extremely mobile, not only within the Eurozone or within the EU but globally, and that labor and fiscal adjustments are extremely immobile within the Eurozone by comparison, he doesn't draw the obvious link of these severe mismatches to the repeated problems the EU has faced re money -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  economic_history  political_history  European_integration  post-WWII  post-Cold_War  international_monetary_system  Bretton_Woods  EU_governance  FX  FX-rate_management  FX-misalignment  Eurozone  Eurocrsis  Great_Recession  financial_crisis  sovereign_debt  Europe-federalism  EU-regulation  cross-border  Labor_markets  banking  ECB  EU-elections  political_participation  EU-Parliament  EU-parties  monetary_union  monetary_theory  international_economics  capital_flows  capital_controls  EU-fiscal_policy  convergence-econimic  fiscal_policy  Maastricht  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Scott McConnell - Why Is Washington Addicted to War? | The American Conservative - July 2015
Most now assume that the defining foreign policy legacy of President Obama will be his Iran deal, which will seek to block Iran’s path to a nuclear weapon and… Points to the military-foreign_policy bureaucracy and domestic politics of Capitol Hill as automatically oriented to interventionism regardless of White House priorities and preferences -- gives example of pressure to help Ukraine against demonized Russia is producing alliances with the most unsavory types who are fundamentally hostile to the US. Was Huntington right that post Cold War we need enemies abroad to cover over the fissures at home?
Instapaper  US_foreign_policy  US_politics  US_government  militarism  interventionism  GOP  US_military  US_politics-foreign_policy  Russia-near_abroad  Ukraine  State_Dept  national_interest  post-Cold_War  from instapaper
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Elizabeth Popp Berman - Creating the Market University: How Academic Science Became an Economic Engine | Princeton University Press - 2012, ebook 2015
US universities today serve as economic engines, performing the scientific research that will create new industries, drive economic growth, and keep the US globally competitive. But only a few decades ago, these same universities self-consciously held themselves apart from the world of commerce. Drawing on extensive historical research, EPB shows how the government--influenced by the argument that innovation drives the economy--brought about this transformation. Americans have a long tradition of making heroes out of their inventors. But before the 1960s and '70s neither policymakers nor economists paid much attention to the critical economic role played by innovation. However, during the late 1970s, a confluence of events--industry concern with the perceived deterioration of innovation in the US, a growing body of economic research on innovation's importance, and the stagnation of the larger economy--led to a broad political interest in fostering invention. The policy decisions shaped by this change were diverse, influencing arenas from patents and taxes to pensions and science policy, and encouraged practices that would focus specifically on the economic value of academic science. By the early 1980s, universities were nurturing the rapid growth of areas such as biotech entrepreneurship, patenting, and university-industry research centers. -- She is assistant professor of sociology at the SUNY-Albany. -- downloaded excerpt to Note
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  economic_history  20thC  21stC  post-WWII  post-Cold_War  US_politics  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  university  research  research-funding  Innovation  innovation-government_policy  R&D  science-and-politics  urban_development  economic_growth  IP  incentives  incentives-distortions  public-private_partnerships  public_goods  market_fundamentalism  public_policy  -priorities  risk_capital  local_government  state_government  state-and-science  education-finance  academia-governance  managerialism  technology  technology-history  commercialization  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Jean-Claude Monod , review essay - Habermas et la dialectique de la sécularisation | La Vie des idées - 8 décembre 2008
Jürgen Habermas, Entre naturalisme et religion. Les défis de la démocratie, traduit de l’allemand par Christian Bouchindhomme et Alexandre Dupeyrix, Paris, Gallimard, 2008, 380 p. 22, 50€. -- Et si la raison, comme le montre aujourd’hui la logique marchande, était finalement bien plus capable de calculer des moyens que de poser des fins ? Le dernier recueil de Jürgen Habermas, le chantre de la raison communicationnelle, témoigne d’un surprenant revirement vers la religion et le registre compassionnel. -- Mots-clés : communication | religion | raison | sécularisation
books  reviews  political_philosophy  social_theory  secularization  post-secular  post-Cold_War  cultural_critique  political_culture  democracy  democracy_deficit  political_participation  values  communication  rationality  empathy  religious_culture  epistemology  epistemology-naturalism  epistemology-moral  means-justify-ends  dialectic-historical  dialogue  public_sphere  public_goods  community  legitimacy  reason  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Eurozine - Where is the power? - Wojciech Przybylski, Bartlomiej Sienkiewicz A conversation with Bartlomiej Sienkiewicz - July 2015
Original in Polish -- Translation by Aleksandra Malecka
First published in Res Publica, Nowa 30 (2015) -- In Europe all political thought is imperialist, says Bartlomiej Sienkiewicz. This means that politics as we know it today incorporates the experience of imperial politics from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century, when the foundations of what we call "the political" were forged. -- downloaded pdf to Note
geopolitics  Europe  Europe-Early_Modern  empires  state-building  nation-state  national_interest  EU  EU_governance  imperial-soft  Germany  Germany-Eurozone  Russia  Russian_foreign_policy  Poland  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  post-WWII  post-Cold_War  empire-and_business  globalization  sovereignty  hierarchy  authority  public_policy  policymaking  public_opinion  political_culture  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Forum - Samuel Moyn's "Christian human rights" - overview page | The Immanent Frame
In 2010, Samuel Moyn published The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History, which offered an alternative historical explanation for the origins of human rights. He rejected narratives that viewed human rights as a long-term historical product of the Judeo-Christian tradition, The French Revolution, or Enlightenment rationalism, arguing that human rights as it is now understood began to emerge only during the 1970s. Prior to this, according to Moyn, rights were connected to the nation-state and had nothing to do with an international standard of morality or justice. In addressing critiques of The Last Utopia, Moyn has given considerable attention to the relationship between human rights and religion, conceding that there is, undoubtedly, a relationship between Christianity—Catholicism in particular—and human rights, but arguing that the “death of Christian Europe” by the 1960s “forced a complete reinvention of the meaning of human rights embedded in European identity both formally and really since the war”. Contributors offer their thoughts on Moyn’s article “Personalism, Community, and the Origins of Human Rights,” which became a central focus (see excerpt) in his forthcoming book, Christian Human Rights (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015). Contributors also respond to “Christian Human Rights,” the introductory essay written for this series. -- downloaded pdfs but their footnotes and links don't work, so collected them in Evernote them
books  intellectual_history  narrative-contested  bad_history  intellectual_history-distorted  religious_history  church_history  moral_philosophy  theology  human_rights  natural_rights  medieval_philosophy  Europe-Medieval  Enlightenment  Enlightenment_Project  Enlightenment-ongoing  French_Revolution  IR  Europe  20thC  WWI  WWII  entre_deux_guerres  post-Cold_War  post-colonial  nation-state  genocide  Holocaust  UN  international_law  natural_law  law_of_nations  law_of_the_sea  justice  jurisprudence  philosophy_of_law  political_philosophy  political_culture  democracy  equality  liberty  Christendom  Judeo-Christian  links  Evernote 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Suzanne J. Konzelmann, Marc Fovargue-Davies - Anglo-Saxon Capitalism in Crisis? Models of Liberal Capitalism and the Preconditions for Financial Stability :: SSRN (rev'd September 2011) Cambridge Centre for Business Research Working Paper No. 422
Suzanne J. Konzelmann, Birkbeck College - Social Sciences, School of Management and Organizational Psychology; Cambridge - Social and Political Sciences -- Marc Fovargue-Davies, U of London - The London Centre for Corporate Governance & Ethics -- The return to economic liberalism in the Anglo-Saxon world was motivated by the apparent failure of Keynesian economic management to control the stagflation of the 1970s and early 1980s. In this context, the theories of economic liberalism, championed by Friederich von Hayek, Milton Friedman and the Chicago School economists, provided an alternative. However, the divergent experience of the US, UK, Canada and Australia reveals two distinct ‘varieties’ of economic liberalism: the ‘neo-classical’ incarnation, which describes American and British liberal capitalism, and the more ‘balanced’ economic liberalism that evolved in Canada and Australia. In large part, these were a product of the way that liberal economic theory was understood and translated into policy, which in turn shaped the evolving relationship between the state and the private sector and the relative position of the financial sector within the broader economic system. Together, these determined the nature and extent of financial market regulation and the system’s relative stability during the 2008 crisis. -- PDF File: 61 -- Keywords: Corporate governance, Regulation, Financial market instability, Liberal capitalism, Varieties of capitalism -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  economic_history  20thC  21stC  post-WWII  post-Cold_War  US_politics  UK_politics  political_economy  political_culture  ideology  neoliberalism  economic_theory  economic_sociology  business_practices  business-and-politics  business-norms  business_influence  Keynesianism  neoclassical_economics  Austrian_economics  Chicago_School  capitalism-systemic_crisis  capitalism-varieties  corporate_governance  corporate_finance  capital_markets  capital_as_power  financialization  finance_capital  financial_regulation  Great_Recession  financial_crisis  policymaking  trickle-down  Canada  Australia  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
JW Mason - The Slack Wire: The End of the Supermanager? - June 2015
Like Larry at EPI, he finds the new highly heralded paper that claims the growth of inequality has been principally between firms rather than between "classes" -- some of the results don't fully pass the smell test e.g. that different sectors don't appear to be an important variable, which doesn't square with what we know about the financial services industry. More interesting is breaking down "sources" of income for those at the top of the income distribution pyramid, and what's been happening with the mix of sources. There was a huge spurt in CEO compensation "from labor" from, say $1M to $10M. Then since c. 2000, it's dropped back down to $5M. So the continued process of the lion's share of growth in GNP going to the tippy-top is now increasingly income from wealth, not "labor". A pattern to chew on, but it further complicates the claims of the paper that we're seeing inequality emerge from n apparently less nefarious process than rampant greed of superstars. It's inter-firm competition, the benefits of which the lower orders participate in via higher compensation than peers in less competitive firms.
Instapaper  US_economy  economic_history  post-Cold_War  21stC  inequality  inequality-wealth  executive_compensation  competition  Innovation  labor_share  productivity  productivity-labor_share  from instapaper
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Ben Zipperer - How raising the minimum wage ripples through the workforce | Washington Center for Equitable Growth - April 2015
Summary of research by several economists -- the failure to index the minimum wage has been a big part of increasing inequality at the bottom of the income distribution, especially for wonen. Discusses the ripple effects that have fully dissipated by the 25th percentile -- charts and pdf available
US_economy  economic_history  20thC  21stC  post-Cold_War  wages  wages-minimum  gender_gap  inequality  Labor_markets 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Stanley Fischer - Socialist Economy Reform: Lessons of the First Three Years (May, 1993) | JSTOR - The American Economic Review
Stanley Fischer, The American Economic Review, Vol. 83, No. 2, Papers and Proceedings of the Hundred and Fifth Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association (May, 1993), pp. 390-395 -- snapshot of 1st stage of transition economics and state of debates -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  jstor  economic_history  post-Cold_War  transition_economies  political_economy  economic_theory  economic_culture  economic_reform  institutional_economics  institutional_change  industrial_policy  privatization  trade-policy  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Clause IV [British Labour Party constitution] - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Adopted in 1918, the clause proclaimed that the party endorsed an economy where there was "common ownership" of the means of production. 1944 Labour Party victory seen as a mandate for nationalization, though the party had no well-developed plans. They proceeded rapidly to address major sectors and "commanding heights", starting with the Bank of England, and moving rapidly on: civil aviation in 1946, railways and telecommunications in 1947, along with the creation of the National Coal Board, which was responsible for supplying 90% of UK's energy needs. 1946 also saw the establishment of the National Health Service which came into force in July 1948. Also in 1948 came the nationalisation of railways, canals, road haulage and electricity. By 1951 the iron, steel and gas industries had been brought into public ownership. When they lost the general election of 1959, leader Gaitskell blamed it on nationalization becoming unpopular. It was a topic of ongoing intra-party disputes for the next few decades. Arguing that the text of clause 4 confused ends and means and ignored the necessity of ongoing need to modernize the party's approach as the nature of the economy changed, Blair made the party finally revise the text in 1995 -- seen by pundits as the moment when New Labour finally defeated the old guard, though the new text describes the party as "democratic socialist" thereby retaining "socialist" in the party's "modernized" constitution.
British_history  political_economy  British_politics  20thC  Labour  post-WWII  nationalization  socialism  social_democracy  utilities  transport  health_care  energy  post-Cold_War  Blair_Tony  neoliberalism  Third_Way  unions 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Krugmam blog - Recent History in One Chart (Branko Milanovic global inequality trends) | NYTimes.com Jan 2015
A number of people have been putting up candidates for chart of the year. For me, the big chart of 2014 wasn’t actually from 2014 — it was from earlier work (pdf) by Branko Milanovic, which I somehow didn’t see until a few months ago. It shows income growth since 1988 by percentiles of the world income distribution (as opposed to national distributions): {chart} What you see is the surge by the global elite (the top 0.1, 0.01, etc. would be doing even better than his top 1), plus the dramatic rise of many but not all people in emerging markets. In between is what Branko suggests corresponds to the US lower-middle class, but what I’d say corresponds to advanced-country working classes in general, at least if you add post-2008 data with the effects of austerity. I’d call it the valley of despond, and I think it’s going to be a crucial factor in developments over the next few years.
economic_history  post-Cold_War  globalization  20thC  21stC  economic_growth  inequality  labor  wages  middle_class  OECD_economies  emerging_markets  LDCs  capital  profit  plutocracy  China  India  political_economy  poverty  stagnation  downloaded 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Cassandra Does Tokyo: Sympathy For The Devil -July 2014
Brilliantly horrifying mock CV of a senior executive moving through all the financial ibdustry's greatest "hits" of the past quarter century, starting with Citibank generating loan deals in the NICs to recycle pétrodollars, through Drexel stuffing LBO junk bonds in related fiduciaries, Long Term Capital, dot com bubble, commodity "swaps" as low risk uncorrelated asset class, of course mortgage securitization, HFT "liquidity provision" via order sniffing, front running, dark pools, selective "market making", and designing equity portfolio insurance for post crash terrified institutional investors (who would lose the entire upside of past 5 years stock prices, plus a few ywists, especially from the '90s involving derivatives, the Nikkei, etc that were off my radar screen. Only thing I think he left out were the various municipal finance scams.
20thC  post-Cold_War  21stC  economic_history  financialization  Great_Recession  financial_innovation  bubbles  busisness-ethics  institutional_investors  derivatives  securitization  HFT  emerging_markets  fraud  fiduciaries  financial_regulation  finance_capital 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
John Higley - Democratic Elitism and Western Political Thought [2009] | JSTOR: Historical Social Research / Historische Sozialforschung, Vol. 37, No. 1 (139) (2012), pp. 351-366
Many political thinkers have viewed democratic elitism as closing a democratic road they believe is or should be open-ended. Their view of democratic possibilities reflects the auspicious circumstances of Western societies during the past several centuries and especially since World War II. However, it involves a conflation of liberal and democratic values. I examine why and how this has occurred, and I argue that liberal and democratic values must be more clearly separated in today's dangerous world. In step with Schumpeter, democracy must be regarded as a method or instrumental value that in some but by no means all circumstances promotes the ultimate liberal value of actively individualistic free people. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  20thC  21stC  elites  democracy  liberalism  post-WWII  post-Cold_War  institution-building  institutional_change  political_change  political_participation  political_culture  ruling_class  oligarchy  competition-political  political_science  utopian  downloaded  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Issue devoted to 50th Anniversary of Robert Heilbroner's "The Worldly Philosophers" | JSTOR: Social Research, Vol. 71, No. 2, SUMMER 2004
Quite a roundup of contributors -- From Solow on methodology to Haack on philosophy of science and epistemology, Warren Samuels, Jamie Galbraith, and several papers on intellectual_history, including parallels with Polanyi
journal  jstor  intellectual_history  20thC  economic_history  economic_theory  economic_culture  capitalism  macroeconomics  social_sciences  epistemology  rationality-economics  institutional_economics  social_contract  markets  post-WWII  post-Cold_War  bibliography  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Clarles Andrews Professor Piketty Fights Orthodoxy and Attacks Inequality | Marxist-Leninist thought today - May 2014
First, the world wars were themselves not accidental. WWI was an inevitable outcome of early monopoly capitalism, and WWII was a continuation of the first as well as capital's attempt to obliterate the first socialist society. -- Second, Piketty's almost exclusive metrics are inequality of income and wealth. They are important, to be sure. Let us remember, though, that despite less inequality, most of the period 1913-1950 was hellish for the masses in the capitalist world. They died by millions in WWI, made little economic progress in the 1920s, suffered the hunger of the Great Depression in the 1930s, and died by millions more in WWII. On the other hand, while inequality was high in the late 19thC and up to 1913, the working class did make advances, by militant class struggle largely under the socialist banner, in obtaining fruits of industrial progress.And there is justified nostalgia today for the era after Piketty's exceptional period. In the 1950s and 1960s life got better for a majority of the working people in the US, Britain, and western Europe. The peak of working-class progress was 1973 – after Piketty's focus and years before neoliberalism, financialization, and globalization. Since 1973, real median earnings in the US have stagnated and fallen. That turning point is the fact that demands explanation and action. Piketty recalls the two world wars often. He buries the fact that WWI triggered the first successful socialist revolution in Russia, and WWII provided openings for anti-imperialist and sometimes socialist revolutions, ...
books  reviews  Piketty  political_economy  economic_history  19thC  20thC  21stC  capitalism  WWI  WWII  Great_Depression  labor  class_conflict  unions  revolutions  post-WWII  post-Cold_War  neoliberalism  inequality  wages  Marxist  social_order  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Rekha Mirchandani - Postmodernism and Sociology: From the Epistemological to the Empirical | JSTOR: Sociological Theory, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Mar., 2005), pp. 86-115
This article investigates the place of postmodernism in sociology today by making a distinction between its epistemological and empirical forms. During the 1980s and early 1990s, sociologists exposited, appropriated, and normalized an epistemological postmodernism that thematizes the tentative, reflective, and possibly shifting nature of knowledge. More recently, however, sociologists have recognized the potential of a postmodern theory that turns its attention to empirical concerns. Empirical postmodernists challenge classical modern concepts to develop research programs based on new concepts like time-space reorganization, risk society, consumer capitalism, and postmodern ethics. But they do so with an appreciation for the uncertainty of the social world, ourselves, our concepts, and our commitment to our concepts that results from the encounter with postmodern epistemology. Ultimately, this article suggests that understanding postmodernism as a combination of these two moments can lead to a sociology whose epistemological modesty and empirical sensitivity encourage a deeper and broader approach to the contemporary social world. -- giant bibliography that covers all the French theorists and reactions to them across disciplines from philosophy, history, sociology_of_knowledge, social_theory, cultural studies etc. -- looks interesting more as intellectual_history than for her recommendations, which appears to be extracting the common sense parts of postmodern critique while dumping the extravagance-- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  20thC  21stC  post-WWII  post-Cold_War  modernity  Enlightenment_Project  postmodern  sociology_of_knowledge  social_theory  constructivism  epistemology-social  metaethics  capitalism  consumerism  scientism  positivism  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Molly Worthen, review - George M. Marsden, The Twilight of the American Enlightenment: The 1950s and the Crisis of Liberal Belief | Democracy Journal March 2014
So what changes does he want, then? I cannot figure it out. In the public square, he seems to urge a Kuyperian agreement to disagree: “Even though differing peoples need to recognize that no one stands on neutral ground, but all are shaped by their highest commitments, they can still go on to look for shared principles on which they can agree as a basis for working together.” Isn’t this exactly what all modern democracies, at least at their best, are trying to do? It is difficult to see how Marsden’s ideal Kuyperian community would be, in practice, much different from the American present—or why Americans should strive for further “pillarization.” -- Perhaps he is calling more for a change in tone than a change in procedure, a gesture of welcome from secular liberal elites who are so often hostile to traditional religion. If the aim here is reconciliation, it would help if he didn’t rehash the old “no God, no morality” charge. Marsden offers a valid critique of the tension in liberalism between universal law and individual self-determination, as well as the tendency of secular pluralism to slide into unbounded relativism. However, these problems do not obscure the fact that this tradition, in its purest form, is less an ideology than the spirit of empathy incarnate in politics. It is not perfect, but it is the best we have.
books  reviews  kindle-available  intellectual_history  US_politics  US_history  20thC  post-Cold_War  liberalism  politics-and-religion  democracy  Enlightenment  Founders  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Pauk Pillar - Putin's Instructive Speech | The National Interest Blog March 2014
On annexation of Crimea, Putin explains the counterproductive effects of "American exceptionalism" especially the Bush II version of ignoring international rules and organizations via "you're with us or against us", coalitions of the "willing" and preventive war doctrines.
US_foreign_policy  Bush_administration  UN  NATO  Russia  post-Cold_War  Eastern_Europe 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Giorgos Antoniou - The Lost Atlantis of Objectivity: The Revisionist Struggles between the Academic and Public Spheres | JSTOR: History and Theory, Vol. 46, No. 4 (Dec., 2007), pp. 92-112
This article examines the theoretical and methodological implications of the revisionist debates. It focuses on the political, academic, and moral dimensions of the process of rewriting history and its interrelation with the public sphere. The article examines the recent debate in Greece and compares it with case studies of Germany, Spain, Israel, the Soviet Union, and Ireland. It comments on the common elements of these cases and proposes a basic typology of the revisionist debates in terms of similarities and differences. It categorizes the revisionist endeavors into three types: the successful, the failed, and the bewildered.
article  jstor  historiography  revisionism  politics-and-history  Germany  fascism  Spain  Israel  Ireland  Greece  Russia  post-Cold_War  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Michael Slezak: Fall of USSR locked up world's largest store of carbon - environment - 02 October 2013 - New Scientist
The fall of the Soviet Union created the largest ever human-made carbon sink – abandoned farmland.

In 1991, the USSR formally split into separate republics. The subsequent collapse of industry reduced the amount of greenhouse gas emissions Russia produced – helping it to easily meet the climate targets set by the Kyoto protocol.

But as well as cutting emissions, the fall had another effect. The privatisation of land led to one of the biggest land-use changes of the 20th century. Huge tracts of farmland were abandoned when the collectivised farming system introduced by Stalin collapsed, and farmers simply left the land and headed for the cities.

Ever since, plants have been reclaiming the land and locking in carbon as they grow.
20thC  21stC  Russia  Russian_economy  agriculture  post-Cold_War  transition_economies  climate  energy 
october 2013 by dunnettreader
Carbon cost of collective farming collapse in Russia - Kurganova - Global Change Biology - Wiley Online Library
The collapse of collective farming in Russia after 1990 and the subsequent economic crisis led to the abandonment of more than 45 million ha of arable lands (23% of the agricultural area). This was the most widespread and abrupt land use change (LUC) in the 20th century in the northern hemisphere. The withdrawal of land area from cultivation led to several benefits including carbon (C) sequestration. Here, we provide a geographically complete and spatially detailed analysis of C sequestered in these abandoned lands. The average C accumulation rate in the upper 20 cm of mineral soil was 0.96 ± 0.08 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 for the first 20 years after abandonment and 0.19 ± 0.10 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 during the next 30 years of post-agrogenic evolution and natural vegetation establishment. The amount of C sequestered over the period 1990-2009 accounts to 42.6 ± 3.8 Tg C per year. This C sequestration rate is equivalent to ~10% of the annual C sink in all Russian forests. Furthermore, it compensates all fire and post-fire CO2 emissions in Russia and covers about 4% of the global CO2 release due to deforestation and other land use changes. Our assessment shows a significant mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO2 by prolonged C accumulation in Russian soils caused by collective farming collapse.
paper  Wiley  climate  agriculture  Russia  Russian_economy  post-Cold_War 
october 2013 by dunnettreader
Thomas I. Palley: Europe's Crisis without End: The Consequences of Neoliberalism | July 2013
Contrib Pol Economy (2013) 32 (1): 29-50. doi: 10.1093/cpe/bzt004
Downloaded pdf to Note

Palley with AFL-CIO
Abstract

This paper argues that the eurozone crisis is the product of a toxic neoliberal economic policy cocktail. The mixing of that cocktail traces all the way back to the early 1980s when Europe embraced the neoliberal economic model that undermined the income- and demand-generation process via wage stagnation and widened income inequality. Stagnation was serially postponed by a number of developments, including the stimulus from German re-unification and the low interest rate convergence produced by creation of the euro. The latter prompted a 10-year credit and asset price bubble that created fictitious prosperity. Postponing stagnation in this fashion has had costs because it worsened the ultimate stagnation by creating large build-ups of debt. Additionally, the creation of the euro ensconced a flawed monetary system that fosters public debt crisis and the political economy of fiscal austerity. Lastly, during this period of postponement, Germany sought to avoid stagnation via export-led growth based on wage repression. That has created an internal balance of payments problem within the eurozone, which is a further impediment to resolving the crisis. There is a way out of the crisis. It requires replacing the neoliberal economic model with a structural Keynesian model; remaking the European Central Bank so that it acts as a government banker; having Germany replace its export-led growth wage suppression model with a domestic demand-led growth model; and creating a pan-European model of wage and fiscal policy coordination that blocks race to the bottom tendencies within Europe. Countries, particularly Germany, can implement some of this agenda on their own. However, much of the agenda must be implemented collectively, which makes change enormously difficult. Moreover, the war of ideas in favor of such reforms has yet to be won. Consequently, both politics and the ruling intellectual climate make success unlikely and augur a troubled future.
economic_history  post-Cold_War  Germany  neoliberalism  EU  Eurozone  Great_Recession  Labor_markets  political_economy  central_banks  fiscal_policy  austerity  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
A Murdie: The Curvilinear Effects of Civil−Military Conflict on International Crisis Outcome - Armed Forces & Society 2012
Pdf downloaded to Note
Abstract
Does civil–military conflict harm military effectiveness? Most previous empirical literature on the effects of civil–military conflict has utilized dichotomous indicators of the presence or absence of overall civilian control. However, the extant theoretical literature is clear that mid-levels of civil–military conflict could be good for innovation and overall decision making. In line with these arguments, the author argues that we should not expect all civil–military conflict to harm military effectiveness and, by extension, international crisis bargaining outcome. Instead, some civil–military conflict should have a positive effect on the overall success of the military.

Utilizing new events data that captures the level of civil–military conflict cross nationally from 1990 to 2004, the author examines how civil–military conflict actually has an inverse U-shaped relationship with crisis success. This project also adds to the theoretical literature by examining variations across different degrees of civil–military conflicts, drawing attention to the usefulness of mid-range civil–military “friction.”
IR  military  governance  international_crisis  post-Cold_War  downloaded 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
D Herspring: Creating Shared Responsibility through Respect for Military Culture: The Russian and American Cases - 2011 - Public Administration Review - Wiley Online Library
Pdf downloaded to Note
Abstract:
The key problem in civil-military relations in established polities such as Russia and the United States is not civilian control of the military, but rather how to create a symbiotic relationship of “shared responsibility” between senior military officers and civilian leaders. In such a situation, civilian leaders obtain much needed expertise from the military, but ultimately remain in control. The keys to symbiotic civil-military relations are a desire on the part of military officers to work with civilians and civilian respect for military culture. When civilians respect military culture—that is, the military’s (1) devotion to clear executive leadership, (2) commitment to corporate identity, (3) drive to increase professional expertise, and (4) dedication to political responsibility—a system of shared responsibility is likely to emerge. This thesis is elaborated by comparing recent civil-military relations in Russia and the United States.
US_foreign_policy  US_government  military  Russia  post-Cold_War  21stC  governance  downloaded  IR 
july 2013 by dunnettreader

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