dunnettreader + positivism   34

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Political science is divided between methodological individualists, who seek to explain political phenomena by reference to individuals and their interactions, and holists (or nonreductionists), who consider some higher-level social entities or properties such as states, institutions, or cultures ontologically or causally significant. We propose a reconciliation between these two perspectives, building on related work in philosophy. After laying out a taxonomy of different variants of each view, we observe that (i) although political phenomena result from underlying individual attitudes and behavior, individual-level descriptions do not always capture all explanatorily salient properties, and (ii) nonreductionistic explanations are mandated when social regularities are robust to changes in their individual-level realization. We characterize the dividing line between phenomena requiring nonreductionistic explanation and phenomena permitting individualistic explanation and give examples from the study of ethnic conflicts, social-network theory, and international-relations theory. - downloaded via iphone to Dbox
positivism  emergence  reductionism  causation-social  critical_realism  epistemology-social  article  methodology  jstor  social_history  causation  downloaded  philosophy_of_social_science  individualism-methodology 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
Josine H. Blok - Quests for a Scientific Mythology: F. Creuzer and K. O. Müller on History and Myth | JSTOR - History and Theory ( Dec 1994)
History and Theory, Vol. 33, No. 4, Theme Issue 33: Proof and Persuasion in History (Dec., 1994), pp. 26-52 -- Classical scholarship played a vital role in the intellectual concerns of early 19thC Germany. ... Greek mythology in particular was expected to shed light on the origins of civilization. In the search for the true nature of myth, the hermeneutic problems involved in historical understanding were intensified. As myth was held to be of a different nature than rationality, to read the sources was to look for a completely different referent of the texts than was the case in historical reconstruction. In the quests for a scientific mythology, K. O. Müller (1797-1840) was often regarded as an opponent of F. Creuzer (1771-1858). Yet an analysis of their published work and of their private documents shows that they had much in common -- deeply Romantic views on the religious origin of culture, in Müller's case inspired by Pietism, in Creuzer's by neo-Platonism. -- Müller differed from Creuzer in his views on the relationship of myth to history. Myth was not the reflection of a universal religion, sustained by a priestly class (as Creuzer had claimed), but the outcome of the encounter between the mental endowment of a people and local, historical circumstances. In the case of the Amazons, however, Müller assessed the connection of myth to history in defiance of his own theory, guided by his views on gender difference and on sexual morality. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  epistemology-history  Hellenophiles  German_scholars  German_Idealism  Romanticism  Pietist  Neoplatonism  cultural_history  cultural_authority  cultural_transmission  religious_history  religious_culture  national_origins  historical_change  teleology  Amazons  ancient_history  myth  cultural_influence  cultural_change  positivism  hermeneutics  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
ADRIAN BLAU - UNCERTAINTY AND THE HISTORY OF IDEAS | JSTOR - History and Theory (Oct 2011)
History and Theory, Vol. 50, No. 3 (October 2011), pp. 358-372 -- Intellectual historians often make empirical claims, but can never know for certain if these claims are right. Uncertainty is thus inevitable for intellectual historians. But accepting uncertainty is not enough: we should also act on it, by trying to reduce and report it. We can reduce uncertainty by amassing valid data from different sources to weigh the strengths and weaknesses of competing explanations, rather than trying to "prove" an empirical claim by looking for evidence that fits it. Then we should report our degree of certainty in our claims. When we answer empirical questions in intellectual history, we are not telling our readers what happened: we are telling them how strong we think our evidence is—a crucial shift of emphasis. For intellectual historians, then, uncertainty is subjective, as discussed by Keynes and Collingwood; the paper thus explores three differences between subjective and objective uncertainty. Having outlined the theoretical basis of uncertainty, the paper then offers examples from actual research: Noel Malcolm's work shows how to reduce and report uncertainty about composition, and David Wootton's work shows how to reduce and report uncertainty about beliefs. -- VERY Anti Straussian based on extensive bibliography -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  historiography  intellectual_history-distorted  philosophy_of_history  hermeneutics  hermeneutics_of_suspicion  Strauss  Straussians  epistemology-history  evidence  coherence  uncertainty  Keynes  Keynes-uncertainty  Collingwood  objectivity  positivism  post-foundational  Cambridge_School  author_intention  reception  audience  bibliography  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Kathleen Lennon - Imagination and the Imaginary // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews - July 2015
Kathleen Lennon’s new monograph joins a growing number of studies reclaiming the imagination from the dominance of a rationalist positivism.It marks the steps…
Instapaper  books  reviews  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  20thC  Cartesian  Kant  Hume  imagination  self  phenomenology  Sartre  Merleau-Ponty  rationalist  perception  epistemology  creativity  positivism  from instapaper
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Werner Plumpe - The hour of the expert - economic expertise over 4 centuries - Eurozine - October 2012
What constitutes economic expertise? Looking at how European politics has answered this question over the last four centuries, Werner Plumpe argues that, at any given time, economic expertise is judged according to its coincidence with the conjuncture. -- Original in German -- Translation by Samuel Willcocks -- First published in Merkur 9-10/2012 (German version); Eurozine (English version) -- quite amusing, but nice overview that isn't excessively Anglo oriented
economic_history  economic_theory  expertise  sociology_of_knowledge  social_sciences  positivism  social_sciences-post-WWII  macroeconomics  economic_models  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  Europe-Early_Modern  intellectual_history  grand_narrative  narrative-contested  political_economy  economic_culture  economic_policy  capitalism  capitalism-varieties  capitalism-systemic_crisis  laisser-faire  cameralism  government-roles  business_cycles  business-and-politics  Keynesianism  neoclassical_economics  Austrian_economics  liberalism-19thC  finance_capital  bank_runs  financial_crisis  regulation  Marxism  public_enterprise  public_goods  infrastructure  market_fundamentalism  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Frederick Schauer - The Path-Dependence of Legal Positivism (Symposium - Jurisprudence and (Its) History) | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 957 (2015)
My aim in this Article is to focus on the history of thinking about law in the context of 3 topics (..) to show that the continuous development of the theory of legal positivism, however useful it may have been or may still be, has possibly caused us to ignore other aspects of what was originally part of the positivist picture. (..)The first of these dimensions is the relationship between legal theory and legal reform. (..) that an account of the nature of law might be developed not simply as an aid to understanding or accurate description, but instead as a way of facilitating reform of law itself or reform of how a society understands the idea of law. Second, legal positivism, at the time of its late 19thC (or perhaps even earlier) origins, was focused on the importance of coercion, force, and sanctions as central components of law. But as with the creation of legal theories for the purpose of legal reform, this emphasis on the coercive side of law has also been banished to a kind of jurisprudential purgatory, for reasons and with consequences that deserve further examination. The third lost element of earlier versions of legal positivism is its focus on judicial decision making and the role of judges. Modern legal positivists, for whom 1961 is all too often the beginning of useful thought about the nature of law, do not, with few exceptions, consider theories of judicial decision making to be a necessary or even important part of the positivist perspective. But it was not always so. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  philosophy_of_law  jurisprudence  legal_theory  legal_system  political_philosophy  legal_reform  institutional_change  institutions  judiciary  judicial_review  law_enforcement  criminal_justice  punishment  coercion  authority  obligation  policymaking  political_change  social_theory  social_sciences  positivism-legal  positive_law  positivism  justice  Study_and_Uses  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Steven Walt - What Can The History of Jurisprudence Do For Jurisprudence? A Commentary on Schauer's "The Path-Dependence of Legal Positivism" | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 977 (2015)
Walt's response (at least the abstract) appears to prove Schauer's point quite nicely, as if logic and argument by legal theorists takes place in an abstract world where "how did we get here" is universally ignored, despite its possible relevance for "why are we here", "what are we doing here" and "where does it look like we might be headed" -- but Walt devoted 10 pages to his response, so one hopes he has more to justify his position than what comes across as a mix of arrogance (we don't need to learn from history because our theoretical grounding and argumentative methods are self-contained and self-sufficient) and cynicism (history might be interesting, but no way will anybody change what gets them published and tenure) -- out of curiosity as to whether it's really as bad as the abstract makes it sound, downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_law  jurisprudence  legal_theory  analytical_philosophy  concepts  positivism  positivism-legal  historiography  legal_history  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Dan Priel - Toward Classical Legal Positivism (Symposium - Jurisprudence and (Its) History) | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 987 (2015)
I have two major aims: (1) set the historical record straight(...) Hobbes’s and Bentham’s work that seeks to understand their views on law not by isolating it from the rest of their wide-ranging body of work, but by understanding their jurisprudential work as part of a broader project. (2) My main aim is to contribute to contemporary jurisprudential debates and to suggest that the largely neglected approach of earlier positivists is superior to the view held by most contemporary legal positivists. (...) to what extent it is useful for us to call Hobbes and Bentham “legal positivists.” My answer to this question consists of three interrelated points. The first is that we draw an explicit link between their ideas and the view that (some time later) would come to be known as “positivism,” roughly the view that the methods of the “human sciences” are essentially the same as those of the natural sciences. The second point is that the classical legal positivists’ decisive break with natural law ideas prevalent in their day is to be found exactly here, in their views about metaphysics and nature. The third point is that this aspect of their work has been, in my view regrettably, abandoned by contemporary legal positivists. Though all three points are related, in this Article I will say relatively little about the first point, as I discussed it in greater detail elsewhere. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_law  jurisprudence  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  Hobbes  Bentham  natural_law  natural_rights  positivism-legal  analytical_philosophy  metaphysics  natural_philosophy  nature  human_nature  scientific_method  social_theory  social_sciences  positivism  positive_law  Methodenstreit  methodology-quantitative  epistemology  sociology_of_knowledge  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Jeffrey A. Pojanowski - Positivism(s): A Commentary on Priel's "Toward Classical Legal Positivism" | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 1023 (2015)
Anglo-American jurisprudence, before it insulated itself in conceptual analysis and defined itself in opposition to broader questions, was properly a “sociable science,” to use Professor Postema’s phrase from his symposium article. And, in part due to the exemplars of history, so it may become again. By drawing on Bentham and Hobbes, Professor Dan Priel’s Toward Classical Positivism points forward toward more fruitful methods of jurisprudence while illuminating the recent history and current state of inquiry. His article demonstrates the virtues and promise of a more catholic approach to jurisprudence. It also raises challenging questions about the direction to take this rediscovered path, and I am not sure I always agree with his suggested answers. Any misgivings I have about Priel’s particular approach, however, do not diminish my appreciation; I find even the points of disagreement to be live and meaningful, and that itself is refreshing. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_law  jurisprudence  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  Hobbes  Bentham  natural_law  natural_rights  positivism-legal  analytical_philosophy  metaphysics  natural_philosophy  nature  human_nature  scientific_method  social_theory  social_sciences  positivism  positive_law  Methodenstreit  methodology-quantitative  epistemology  sociology_of_knowledge  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Stephen Turner - Max Weber and the Dispute Over Reason and Value (Routledge, 1984) | bookmark for book abstract - Academia.edu
The problem of the nature of values and the relation between values and rationality is one of the defining issues of twentieth-century thought and Max Weber was one of the defining figures in the debate. In this book, Turner and Factor consider the development of the dispute over Max Weber's contribution to this discourse, by showing how Weber's views have been used, revised and adapted in new contexts. The story of the dispute is itself fascinating, for it cuts across the major political and intellectual currents of the twentieth century, from positivism, pragmatism and value-free social science, through the philosophy of Jaspers and Heidegger, to Critical Theory and the revival of Natural Right and Natural Law. As Weber's ideas were imported to Britain and America, they found new formulations and new adherents and critics and became absorbed into different traditions and new issues. This book was first published in 1984 by Routledge. -- Research Interests: Ethics, Political Theory, Continental Philosophy, Max Weber (Philosophy), Social and Political Philosophy, and Max Weber
books  intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  Weber  social_theory  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  philosophy_of_social_science  epistemology  epistemology-social  positivism  rationality  values  fact-value  constructivism  pragmatism  German_scholarship  German_historical_school  hermeneutics  Heidegger  Frankfurt_School  critical_theory  natural_law  natural_rights  positivism-legal 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Ralph Dumain: Essay: Critique of 'Dialectic of Enlightenment' (2003) | The Autodidact Project
Conclusion -- Now back to a general problem with this book, especially the chapters on the culture industry and anti-semitism: the attempts to tie all these otherwise valuable analyses to the Enlightenment do not work, except under the strained analogy with positivism that surfaces here and there. And as usual, the stray remarks on science and mathematics are all wrong. The most general inadequacy of the book is indicated in its title. The title is incomplete, for the dialectic as I see it is the dialectic of enlightenment and something else. Or perhaps the dialectic of the hidden contradictions in Enlightenment thinkers. But I don't see a true dialectical understanding of Enlightenment here. As I've said, in other works Horkheimer and Adorno show great perspicacity in their grasp of the positivism-lebensphilosophie dichotomy. As I understand Dialectic of Enlightenment so far, I believe they got it wrong. Irrationalism is blamed on the dark side of the Enlightenment, but I see it differently: rationalism and irrationalism coexist in a contradictory ideological and social totality. Enlightenment is only one half of the equation, not an appropriate label for the ideological dynamic as a whole. -- downloaded page as pdf to Note
books  reviews  Enlightenment_Project  Adorno  cultural_critique  culture_industries  Germany  Enlightenment  anti-Semitism  Nazis  dialectic-historical  critical_theory  positivism  scientism  rationalization-institutions  reason  downloaded 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Raymond Boudon - "Sociology that Really Matters" - Inaugural Lecture 2001, European Academy of Sociology
Responding to claims that sociology isn't a "science" or that it goes off the rails when its pretensions to scientific status dominate, he discusses 4 ideal-types of sociology -- Cognitive, Expressive, Descriptive (cameral) and Critical. The first, which he claims fits a range of the most important theories in philosophy of science, is represented by Tocqueville, Weber and Durkheim. The produced explanations of puzzling phenomena that linked micro and macro - why particular actions or choices were rational for classes of actors in the sense that the meaning was consistent with their beliefs and experiences given their position in social structures and the tools they had available to understand and control their situation consistent with their values. This type of causal explanation can be used, elaborated and built on for cumulative knowledge. The more popular bestseller works tend to be expressive and/or critical - speaking to people's current experiences, felt anxieties, or ideological orientation so they are useful, but not necessarily true - he gives Foucault on prisons as an example. The descriptive, which is directed towards policy ("cameral" in Schumpeter) grows increasingly dominant as we become increasingly data sensitive and driven. Topics tend to come in waves based on issues that have become prominent and a focus of political debates, social movements, etc. Thus only the cognitive is a truly scientific contribution to cumulative knowledge. Interesting remarks on the type of methodological individualism that's central to the cognitive but both different and sometimes inappropriate in the other ideal-types.
Scribd  social_theory  intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  21stC  social_sciences  philosophy_of_social_science  philosophy_of_science  Tocqueville  Weber  Durkheim  Popper  positivism  individualism-methodology  causation-social  structuralist  agency  agency-structure  Foucault 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Asad Zaman - Normative Foundations of Scarcity | WEA Pedagogy Blog - September 2014
In my paper of this name (Real-World Economics Review, no. 61, September 2012) I show that the apparently objective concept of scarcity is built on THREE normative assumptions - contra the conventional assertion that economics is a POSITIVE study of facts of our economic existence, and does not involve value judgement. The three normative pillars on which scarcity stands as the fundamental principle of economics are: ONE: Private Property - If there is a cultural norm of sharing public resources, then the issue of scarcity would not arise (or at least, would be much less frequent). In conventional economics, the Pareto principle embodies the normative idea that the right to property takes precedence over the right to life. If a poor man is starving, the rich man is NOT obligated to provide for him. -- TWO: Consumer Sovereignty - Economists argue the we SHOULD not question consumer preferences as to where they come from and whether they are legitimate. Also, economists argue that we SHOULD design an economic system which fulfills ALL preferences (to the extent possible). The noxious NORMATIVE idea that the right of the super-rich to private jets trumps the right of the poor hungry child to bread is what leads to scarcity becoming the foundation of economics. -- THREE: WELFARE Lies in fulfillment of desires - Again this is a normative judgment about the purpose of life, which is taken to be fulfillment of desires. The normative preference of the economists for the homo economicus model creates an unhappy and lonely society, for those who buy into these assumptions. Abandoning these hidden normative commitments of economics, by allowing for more public spaces and common property, creating norms of social responsiblity, and encouraging simple lifestyles would remove scarcity as the central economic problem. QUOTE FROM FDR: “But while they prate of economic laws, men and women are starving. We must lay hold of the fact that economic laws are not made by nature. They are made by human beings. “
paper  philosophy_of_social_science  values  positivism  economic_theory  scarcity  economic_culture  property  Pareto_principle  utility  rationality-economics  normativity 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Friedrich August von Hayek - Prize Lecture: The Pretence of Knowledge -- Nobel Prize 1974
MLA style: "Friedrich August von Hayek - Prize Lecture: The Pretence of Knowledge". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Web. 9 Aug 2014. <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economic-sciences/laureates/1974/hayek-lecture.html> -- uses stagflation to attack demand side theories with a hint of liquidationism -- more interesting is his take on Popper and limits to positivism and quantitative methodologies -- can theirize certain patterns and examine empirical evidence re those patterns, but can't predict quantitative outcomes -- though stresses complexity, seems to be an issue of incomplete data (by definition inaccessible since it's in the heads of masses of heterogeneous agents reacting to their own, constantly changing, limited information) rather than emergent properties and complexity dynamics
intellectual_history  20thC  post-WWII  social_sciences-post-WWII  economic_theory  markets  information-markets  Labor_markets  unemployment  inflation  economic_policy  demand  empiricism  uncertainty  epistemology  positivism  quantitative_methods  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_social_science  Popper  Hayek  determinism  emergence  equilibrium  complexity  EF-add  scientism  scientific_method  sociology_of_knowledge 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Galen Strawson - Realism and Causation | JSTOR: The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 148 (Jul., 1987), pp. 253-277
This looks like early work towards his "necessary connexion" book on Hume that challenges the standard regularity interpretation of Hume on causality. Bibliography looks useful -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  metaphysics  intellectual_history  philosophy_of_science  18thC  Hume-causation  causation  realism  scepticism  positivism  properties  laws_of_nature  powers  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - The Decline of Natural Right [chapter] (2009) :: SSRN in THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF NINETEENTH CENTURY PHILOSOPHY, Allen Wood and Songsuk Susan Hahn, eds., Cambridge University Press
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 09-38 -- What happened to the doctrine of natural right in the 19thC? We know that it flourished in the 17thC and 18thC. We know that something like it - the doctrine of human rights and new forms of social contract theory - flourished again in the second half of the 20thC and continues to flourish in the 21stC. In between there was a period of decline and hibernation - ... in which to invoke natural right was always to invite intellectual ridicule and accusations of political irresponsibility. Thus article asks: How far can the decline of natural right in the 19thC be attributed to the reaction against the revolution in France? How far it was the effect of independent streams of thought, like positivism and historicism? Why was radical thought so ambivalent about natural right throughout the 19thC, and why was socialist thought in particular inclined to turn its back on it? As a framework for thought, natural right suffered a radical decline in the social and political sciences. But things were not so clear in jurisprudence, and natural right lived on to a much riper old age in the writings of some prominent economists. What is it about this theory that allowed it to survive in these environments, when so much of the rest of intellectual endeavor in the 19thC was toxic or inhospitable to it. Finally, I shall ask how far American thought represents an exception to all of this. Why and to what extent did the doctrine survive as a way of thinking in the United States, long after it had lost its credibility elsewhere. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  SSRN  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  philosophy_of_law  philosophy_of_social_science  natural_law  natural_rights  human_rights  counter-revolution  historicism  positivism  legal_theory  nationalism  national_interest  conservatism  socialism  social_contract  relativism  revolutions  1848_revolutions  French_Revolution  anticlerical  Bentham  Burke  Hume  Jefferson  Kant  Locke  Marx  Mill  Savigny  Spencer_Herbert  George_Henry  US_society  American_exceptionalism  liberalism  social_theory  social_sciences  Social_Darwinism  social_order  mass_culture  political_participation  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Heinrich Rommen, The Natural Law: A Study in Legal and Social History and Philosophy (1936) trans. Thomas R. Hanley, ed. Russell Hittinger - Online Library of Liberty
Heinrich Rommen, The Natural Law: A Study in Legal and Social History and Philosophy, trans. Thomas R. Hanley. Introduction and Bibliography by Russell Hittinger (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund 1998). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/676> -- Originally published in German in 1936, The Natural Law is the first work to clarify the differences between traditional natural law as represented in the writings of Cicero, Aquinas, and Hooker and the revolutionary doctrines of natural rights espoused by Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau. Beginning with the legacies of Greek and Roman life and thought, Rommen traces the natural law tradition to its displacement by legal positivism and concludes with what the author calls “the reappearance” of natural law thought in more recent times. In seven chapters each Rommen explores “The History of the Idea of Natural Law” and “The Philosophy and Content of the Natural Law.” In his introduction, Russell Hittinger places Rommen’s work in the context of contemporary debate on the relevance of natural law to philosophical inquiry and constitutional interpretation. - part of the German émigrés to the US - he sees the same sort of 17thC break as Strauss - wound up at Georgetown - didn't download
books  etexts  ancient_history  medieval_history  Renaissance  Reformation  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  intellectual_history  legal_history  legal_system  legal_theory  natural_law  positivism  modernity  entre_deux_guerres  moral_philosophy  relativism  natural_rights  Strauss 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jonathan Israel - “Radical Enlightenment” – Peripheral, Substantial, or the Main Face of the Trans-Atlantic Enlightenment (1650-1850) | Diametros
“Radical Enlightenment” and “moderate Enlightenment” are general categories which, it has become evident in recent decades, are unavoidable and essential for any valid discussion of the Enlightenment broadly conceived (1650-1850) and of the revolutionary era (1775-1848). Any discussion of the Enlightenment or revolutions that does not revolve around these general categories, first introduced in Germany in the 1920s and taken up in the United States since the 1970s, cannot have any validity or depth either historically or philosophically. “Radical Enlightenment” was neither peripheral to the Enlightenment as a whole, nor dominant, but rather the “other side of the coin” an inherent and absolute opposite, always present and always basic to the Enlightenment as a whole. Several different constructions of “Radical Enlightenment” have been proposed by the main innovators on the topic – Leo Strauss, Henry May, Günter Mühlpfordt, Margaret Jacob, Gianni Paganini, Martin Mulsow, and Jonathan Israel – but, it is argued here, the most essential element in the definition is the coupling, or linkage, of philosophical rejection of religious authority (and secularism - the elimination of theology from law, institutions, education and public affairs) with theoretical advocacy of democracy and basic human rights. -- Keywords - Enlightenment Radical Enlightenment moderate Enlightenment democracy aristocracy universal education equality emancipation republicanism mixed government poverty economic oppression crypto-radicalism positivism American revolution -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  political_history  political_culture  politics-and-religion  historiography  economic_history  political_economy  17thC  18thC  19thC  Enlightenment  Radical_Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  religious_culture  authority  anticlerical  Absolutism  secularism  democracy  natural_rights  civil_liberties  egalitarian  American_Revolution  French_Revolution  1848_revolutions  Spinozism  education  aristocracy  poverty  Ancien_régime  mixed_government  tolerance  positivism  natural_law  domination  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  natural_philosophy  British_history  Dutch  Germany  Atlantic  American_colonies  Early_Republic  Republic_of_Letters  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Rekha Mirchandani - Postmodernism and Sociology: From the Epistemological to the Empirical | JSTOR: Sociological Theory, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Mar., 2005), pp. 86-115
This article investigates the place of postmodernism in sociology today by making a distinction between its epistemological and empirical forms. During the 1980s and early 1990s, sociologists exposited, appropriated, and normalized an epistemological postmodernism that thematizes the tentative, reflective, and possibly shifting nature of knowledge. More recently, however, sociologists have recognized the potential of a postmodern theory that turns its attention to empirical concerns. Empirical postmodernists challenge classical modern concepts to develop research programs based on new concepts like time-space reorganization, risk society, consumer capitalism, and postmodern ethics. But they do so with an appreciation for the uncertainty of the social world, ourselves, our concepts, and our commitment to our concepts that results from the encounter with postmodern epistemology. Ultimately, this article suggests that understanding postmodernism as a combination of these two moments can lead to a sociology whose epistemological modesty and empirical sensitivity encourage a deeper and broader approach to the contemporary social world. -- giant bibliography that covers all the French theorists and reactions to them across disciplines from philosophy, history, sociology_of_knowledge, social_theory, cultural studies etc. -- looks interesting more as intellectual_history than for her recommendations, which appears to be extracting the common sense parts of postmodern critique while dumping the extravagance-- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  20thC  21stC  post-WWII  post-Cold_War  modernity  Enlightenment_Project  postmodern  sociology_of_knowledge  social_theory  constructivism  epistemology-social  metaethics  capitalism  consumerism  scientism  positivism  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Kenan Malik's 2009 Voltaire lecture on 'The Guilt of Science?: Race, Science and Darwinism'
By the end of the eighteenth century, then, scientists had constructed a taxonomy of nature into which humans could be fitted and out of which emerged the categories of race. This seems to lend credibility to the view that it is modernity itself, and in particular the Enlightenment, that give rise both to the idea of race and to the practice of racism. ‘Eighteenth century Europe was the cradle of racism’, the historian George Mosse, argues because ‘racism has its foundations’ in the Enlightenment ‘preoccupation with a rational universe, nature and aesthetics.’ To see why this is not the case, we need to look more closely at how Enlightenment thinkers viewed the concept of human differences. -- If any event could demonstrate the folly of giving into unreason, it is surely Nazism and the Holocaust. Yet now it is regarded as an expression of too much reason.There is no intrinsic link between the idea of race and a rational or scientific view of the world. On the contrary: what made ideas of race plausible were the growth of political sentiments hostile to both the rationalism and the humanism of the Enlightenment.
intellectual_history  cultural_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  racialism  species  biology  evolutionary_biology  Enlightenment  Counter-Enlightenment  Enlightenment_Project  humanism  anti-humanism  reason  Nazis  Holocaust  imperialism  slavery  civilizing_process  human_nature  diversity  historiography-18thC  social_theory  Social_Darwinism  Herder  Linnaeus  Locke  essentialism  essence  climate  stadial_theories  Romanticism  social_order  progress  atheism_panic  authority  class_conflict  bourgeoisie  liberalism  capitalism  equality  stratification  scientism  science_of_man  science-and-religion  positivism  social_sciences  France  Britain  British_Empire  Germany  Great_Powers  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Special section 4 authors, 4 recent readings of Genealogy of Morals | JSTOR: Journal of Nietzsche Studies, No. 35/36, SPRING-AUTUMN 2008
Letter from the Assistant Editor(pp. 86-87) Rebecca Bamford. *--* (1) For Whom the Bell Tolls (pp. 88-105) Daniel Conway. *--* (2) How Does the Ascetic Ideal Function in Nietzsche's Genealogy? (pp. 106-123) Lawrence J. Hatab. *--* (3) Beyond Selflessness in Ethics and Inquiry (pp. 124-140) Christopher Janaway. *--* (4) Nietzsche's Genealogy Revisited(pp. 141-154) David Owen. -- the group of articles looks quite helpful -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  moral_philosophy  ancient_philosophy  19thC  Germany  ancient_Greece  Platonism  Nietzsche  Schopenhauer  positivism  Darwinism  asceticism  genealogy-method  morality-conventional  morality-Christian  morality-Nietzche  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
R. Adcock and M. Bevir - Political Science since World War Two: Americanization and Its Limits [eScholarship] (2010)
R. Adcock and M. Bevir, “Political Science since World War Two: Americanization and its Limits”, in R. Backhouse and P. Fontaine, eds.,The History of Postwar Social Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. 71-101.
article  eScholarship  intellectual_history  sociology_of_knowledge  social_sciences-post-WWII  Cold_War  US_foreign_policy  university-contemporary  disciplines  behavioralism  covering_laws  positivism  empiricism  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Mark Bevir - Anglophone Historicism: From Modernist Method to Post-analytic Philosophy [eScholarship] (2009)
Original Citation:
Mark Bevir, “Anglophone Historicism: From Modernist Method to Post-analytic Philosophy”, Journal of the Philosophy of History 3 (2009), 211-224

Keywords:
Historicism, Modernism, Postanalytic Philosophy, Quentin Skinner
article  eScholarship  intellectual_history  historiography  20thC  historicism  Modernism  positivism  philosophy_of_history  philosophy_of_language  concepts  meaning  Skinner  Cambridge_School  contextualism  postanalytic_philosophy  analytical_philosophy  epistemology-history  epistemology-social  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
George Steinmetz - Charles Tilly, German Historicism, and the Critical Realist Philosophy of Science | JSTOR: The American Sociologist, Vol. 41, No. 4 (December 2010), pp. 312-336
This paper examines Charles Tilly's relationship to the schools of thought known as historicism and critical realism. Tilly was committed to a social epistemology that was inherently historicist, and he increasingly called himself a "historicist." The "search for grand laws in human affairs comparable to the laws of Newtonian mechanics," he argued, was a "waste of time" and had "utterly failed." Tilly's approach was strongly reminiscent of the arguments developed in the first half of the 20th century by Rickert, Weber, Troeltsch, and Meinecke for a synthesis of particularization and generalization and for a focus on "historical individuals" rather than abstract universals. Nonetheless, Tilly never openly engaged with this earlier wave of historicist sociology, despite its fruitfulness for and similarity to his own project. The paper explores some of the possible reasons for this missed encounter. The paper argues further that Tilly's program of "relational realism" resembled critical realism, but with main two differences: Tilly did not fully embrace critical realism's argument that social mechanisms are always co-constituted by social meaning or its normative program of explanatory critique. In order to continue developing Tilly's ideas it is crucial to connect them to the epistemological ideas that governed the first wave of historicist sociology in Weimar Germany and to a version of philosophical realism that is interpretivist and critical. -- 199 references! -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  social_theory  historical_sociology  intellectual_history  20thC  Germany  historicism  Weber  positivism  covering_laws  scientism  critical_realism  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Christopher Parker - English Historians and the Opposition to Positivism | JSTOR: History and Theory, Vol. 22, No. 2 (May, 1983), pp. 120-145
No settled view on whether English historians were dyed-in-the-wool positivists. Looks like a useful overview of where leading 19thC historians fit in Victorian intellectual milieu. Downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  historiography-19thC  British_history  positivism  literary_history  English_lit  narrative  historians-and-politics  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Larry Summers - Scientific Illusion in Empirical Macroeconomics (1991)
JSTOR: The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Vol. 93, No. 2 (Jun., 1991), pp. 129-148 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- It is argued that formal econometric work, where elaborate technique is used to apply theory to data or isolate the direction of causal relationships when they are not obvious a priori, virtually always fails. The only empirical research that has contributed to thinking about substantive issues and the development of economics is pragmatic empirical work, based on methodological principles directly opposed to those that have become fashionable in recent years.
article  jstor  economic_theory  economic_models  macroeconomics  empiricism  positivism  statistics  methodology  econometrics  social_theory  epistemology  ontology-social  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Amazon.com: Nicholas Capaldi: The Enlightenment Project in the Analytic Conversation (Philosophical Studies in Contemporary Culture) (1998)
Analytic philosophy has been a dominant intellectual movement in the 20th century and a reflection of the cultural pre-eminence of scientism. In response to analytic philosophy's peculiar reticence (and inability) to discuss itself, this book provides its first comprehensive history and critique. The central element in the analytic conversation has been the Enlightenment Project: the appeal to an autonomous human reason, freed of any higher authority and channeling itself through science as its privileged tool. This centrality is demonstrated by systematically examining its presence and development in the philosophy of science, metaphysics, epistemology, language, psychology, social science, ethics, political philosophy, and the history of philosophy. This journey highlights the internal logical disintegration of that project. Post-modern relativism is its natural offspring and not a viable alternative. The Enlightenment Project's conception of physical science is defective; this defective conception of physical science renders the analytic conception of social science, philosophical psychology, and epistemology defective; and that defective conception of the human condition leads to defective conceptions of both moral and political philosophy, specifically the idea of social engineering or social technology. Throughout the book, an alternative conception of philosophy is presented as a way out of the abyss of analysis, an alternative that reconnects philosophy with the mainstream of Western civilization and initiates the process of providing a coherent cultural narrative. This book will be of particular interest to any sophisticated reader concerned about the lack of a coherent cultural narrative.
books  20thC  intellectual_history  analytical_philosophy  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_language  empiricism  metaphysics  metaethics  postmodern  positivism  scientism  Enlightenment_Project  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader

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