dunnettreader + political_science   59

How do modern individuals form a sense of the vast societies in which they live? Social cognition has evolved to make sense of small, intimate social groups; but in complex mass societies, comparable vivid social cues are scarcer. Extant research on political attitudes and behavior has emphasized media and interpersonal networks as key sources of cues. Extending a classical argument, we provide evidence for the importance of an alternative and internal source: imagination. With a focus on social welfare, we collected survey data from two very different democracies; the United States and Denmark, and conducted several studies using explicit, implicit, and behavioral measures. By analyzing the effects of individual differences in imagination, we demonstrate that political cognition relies on vivid, mental simulations that engage evolved social and emotional decision-making mechanisms. It is in the mind's eye that vividness and engagement are added to people's sense of mass politics. - didn't download
political_spectacle  moral_psychology  jstor  images-political  imagined_communities  political_science  article  imagination  symbols-political  political_culture  social_psychology  mass_culture  discourse-political_theory  comparative_politics  politics-and-aesthetics  political_sociology  bibliography  political_press 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
W. James Booth - Culture and Continuity: A Response to Alan Patten's "Rethinking Culture: The Social Lineage Account" (2013) | American Political Science Review on JSTOR
Alan Patten's social lineage account of cultural continuity is the most recent effort to provide multicultural theory with a non-essentialist concept of culture, its continuity and loss that meets broadly liberal normative desiderata. In this essay, I argue that it too fails to offer an alternative essentialism, to meet standard liberal normative stipulations, and to construct a theory of continuity sufficient to underpin the present claims of involuntarily incorporated communities. That result is theoretically interesting for it shows the deep intractability of the problems at the core of liberal multiculturalism. - Downloaded via iphone
downloaded  jstor  identity-multiple  community  liberalism  article  multiculturalism  bibliography  political_culture  nationalism  immigration  political_theory  books  essentialism  culture_wars  reviews  cultural_change  political_sociology  minorities  political_science  national_ID 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
Alan Patton - Cultural Preservation and Liberal Values: A Reply to William James Booth (2013) | American Political Science Review on JSTOR
William James Booth elaborates three main challenges to my social lineage account (Patten 2011). Conceptually, he finds the proposal to be question-beginning. Normatively, he thinks that it has objectionable implications. And, substantively, he claims that the proposal is unhelpful, that it fails to explain a case of theoretical importance for multiculturalism. In this reply, I argue that each of these challenges misses the target. The social lineage account continues to offer a promising, nonessentialist basis for normative multiculturalism. - Downloaded via iphone
cultural_change  social_theory  US_politics  indigenous_peoples  US_society  culture_wars  political_sociology  cultural_diversity  minorities  identity-multiple  political_culture  culture  essentialism  political_theory  downloaded  liberalism  multiculturalism  national_ID  article  bibliography  nationalism  political_science  jstor  cultural_transmission  community  US_politics-race  cultural_stability  mass_culture 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
Revisiting the theory of institutional hybridity and diversity developed by Vincent and Elinor Ostrom to cope with the challenge of the "neither states nor markets" institutional domain, this article reconstructs the Ostromian system along the "value heterogeneity-co-productionpolycentricity" axis. It articulates the elements of a theory of value heterogeneity and of the fuzzy boundaries between private and public. It rebuilds the model of co-production, clarifying the ambiguity surrounding a key technical public choice theoretical assumption, and it demonstrates (a) why it should not be confused with the Alchian-Demsetz team production model and (b) how co-production engenders a type of market failure that has been neglected so far. In light of this analysis, the article reconsiders polycentricity, the capstone of the Ostromian system, explaining why polycentricity may be seen as a solution both to this co-production market failure problem and to the problems of social choice in conditions of deep heterogeneity. It also discusses further normative corollaries. - Downloaded via iphone
power  market_failure  political_economy  centralization  power-asymmetric  governance  downloaded  public-private_gaps  bargaining  institutional_economics  commons  article  normativity  accountability  common_good  jstor  political_science  decentralization  public_goods  public_choice  norms 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
Do big cities exert more power than less populous ones in American state legislatures? In many m m political systems, greater representation leads to more policy gains, yet for most of the nation's history, urban advocates have argued that big cities face systematic discrimination in statehouses. Drawing on a new historical dataset spanning 120 years and 13 states, we find clear evidence that there is strength in numbers for big-city delegations in state legislatures. District bills affecting large metropolises fail at much higher rates than bills affecting small cities, counties, and villages. Big cities lose so often because size leads to damaging divisions. We demonstrate that the cities with the largest delegations—are more likely to be internally divided—are the most frustrated in the legislative process. Demographic differences also matter, with district bills for cities that have many foreign-born residents, compared the state as a whole, failing at especially high rates. -- Downloaded via iphone
downloaded  political_history  women-in-politics  political_science  states  state_government  jstor  immigration  rights-political  20thC  19thC  US_politics  Catholics-and-politics  US_society  local_politics  urban_politics  urban_rural_divides  state_legislatures  bibliography  US_history  article  political_culture  alliances-political  welfare_state  urban_development  political_participation  US_politics-race 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
Henry Farrell - Privatization as State Transformation — Crooked Timber - Sept 2016
This account helps explain not only why key parts of the state have become privatized or semi-privatized, being put out to private operators, but why states are increasingly relying on private systems of ordering. It shows how the privatization of governance spans the international sphere as well as domestic politics, since international and cross-national forms of regulation have sometimes been partly privatized, and sometimes structured so as to provide private entities with new opportunities to challenge government decisions. Finally, it provides the basis for a specific normative critique of privatization. Here, I do not try to evaluate whether the economy works worse, or better, after privatization than it did in an era when the state exercised control through ownership rather than regulation. Instead, more simply, I show that privatization did not work as its enthusiasts argued and believed that it would, looking to evaluate it in terms of its own promises. Rather than pushing back the state, and replacing political inefficiency with the competitive disciplines of the market, it has replaced one form of political control with another. -- downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
competition-political  political_science  efficiency  political_change  downloaded  international_organizations  international_political_economy  IR-domestic_politics  hierarchy  accountability  reform-political  competition  political_economy  risk_management  paper  government-forms  political_sociology  political_order  politics-and-money  political_discourse  privatization  organizations  decision_theory  bureaucracy  political_culture 
october 2016 by dunnettreader
Kathleen Knight - Transformations of the Concept of Ideology in the 20thC (2006) | The American Political Science Review on JSTOR
Kathleen Knight - Barnard & Columbia U -- The American Political Science Review, Vol. 100, No. 4, Thematic Issue on the Evolution of Political Science, in Recognition of the Centennial of the Review (Nov., 2006), pp. 619-626
Ideology has been the subject of a surprising amount of attention during the last half of the 20thC. Although it has been argued that the term has been "thoroughly muddied by diverse uses"(Converse 1964, 207),an empirical investigation of the pages of the Review reveals substantial convergence among political scientists over time on a core definition. This essay traces the use of the concept in the Review since its launch in 1906. It reveals changing fashions in the connotation of the term, but suggests an underlying agreement on the essential components - coherence, stability and contrast - and underlines the centrality of the concept of ideology in political science. - Downloaded via Air
article  jstor  downloaded  intellectual_history  20thC  political_science  social_sciences  social_sciences-post-WWII  ideology  identity  political_culture  political_participation  political_philosophy  sociology_of_knowledge 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Nicolas Duvoux - Les grammaires de la modernité. Notices bibliographiques autour de trois débats essentiels (2005) - Cairn.info
Plan de l'article
Une clarification sémantique préalable
I - La querelle de la sécularisation et l’interprétation de la modernité
II - Malaise dans la civilisation post-moderne
III - La modernité sortie de la modernité ?
Duvoux Nicolas, « Les grammaires de la modernité. Notices bibliographiques autour de trois débats essentiels», Le Philosophoire 2/2005 (n° 25) , p. 135-152
URL : www.cairn.info/revue-le-philosophoire-2005-2-page-135.htm.
DOI : 10.3917/phoir.025.0135.
Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
multiculturalism  modernity  psychoanalysis  poststructuralist  social_capital  structuralism  cultural_critique  relativism  modernity-emergence  intellectual_history  identity  French_Enlightenment  constructivism  political_philosophy  subjectivity  alienation  agency-structure  bibliography  social_sciences-post-WWII  classes  community  change-social  phenomenology  mass_culture  popular_culture  secularization  communication  anti-modernity  article  Counter-Enlightenment  downloaded  ideology  Habermas  modernization  mobility  public_sphere  French_intellectuals  political_science  psychology  social_theory  consumerism 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Farr, Hacker & Kazee - Harold Lasswell, The Policy Scientist of Democracy (2006) | The American Political Science Review
The Policy Scientist of Democracy: The Discipline of Harold D. Lasswell -- James Farr, Jacob S. Hacker and Nicole Kazee -- Vol. 100, No. 4, Thematic Issue on the Evolution of Political Science, in Recognition of the Centennial of the Review (Nov., 2006), pp. 579-587 -- The "policy scientist of democracy" was a model for engaged scholarship invented and embodied by Harold D. Lasswell. This disciplinary persona emerged in Lasswell's writings and wartime consultancies during the 1940s, well before he announced in his APSA presidential address, printed in the Review precisely 50 years ago, that political science was "the policy science par excellence." The policy scientist of democracy knew all about the process of elite decision making, and he put his knowledge into practice by advising those in power, sharing in important decisions, and furthering the cause of dignity. Although Lasswell formulated this ambitious vision near the zenith of his influence, the discipline accorded the ideal—and Lasswell—a mixed reception. Some heralded the policy scientist of democracy; others observed a contradictory figure, at once positivist and value-laden, elitist and democratic, heroic and implausible. The conflicted response exemplifies Lasswell's legacy. The policy scientist of democracy was—and is—too demanding and too contradictory a hero. But the vital questions Lasswell grappled with still must be asked a century into the discipline's development: what is the role of the political scientist in a democratic society? - downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
social_sciences-post-WWII  technocracy  entre_deux_guerres  social_psychology  article  public_intellectuals  jstor  WWII  behavioralism  public_policy  20thC  public_interest  downloaded  political_science  US_history  elites  intellectual_history  bibliography  democracy  civic_virtue 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Kathleen Knight - Transformations of the Concept of Ideology in the Twentieth Century | JSTOR- The American Political Science Review - Centennial Issue )2006)
Transformations of the Concept of Ideology in the Twentieth Century
Kathleen Knight
The American Political Science Review
Vol. 100, No. 4, Thematic Issue on the Evolution of Political Science, in Recognition of the Centennial of the Review (Nov., 2006), pp. 619-626
Ideology has been the subject of a surprising amount of attention during the lat half of the twentieth century. Although it has been argued that the term has been "thoroughly muddied by diverse uses" (Converse 1964, 207), an empirical investigation of the pages of the Review reveals substantial convergence among political scientists over time on a core definition. This essay traces the use of the concept in the Review since its launch in 1906. It reveals changing fashions in the connotation of the term, but suggests an underlying agreement on the essential components—coherence, stability and contrast—and underlines the centrality of the concept of ideology in political science. - downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
downloaded  article  social_theory  Marxist  political_science  Cold_War  social_sciences-post-WWII  sociology_of_knowledge  US_history  20thC  political_participation  elites  identity  bibliography  parties  jstor  post-Cold_War  partisanship  intellectual_history  political_history  ideology 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
John Gunnell - Dislocated Rhetoric: The Anomaly of Political Theory | JSTOR The Journal of Politics (2006)
Dislocated Rhetoric: The Anomaly of Political Theory
John G. Gunnell
The Journal of Politics
Vol. 68, No. 4 (Nov., 2006), pp. 771-782
Although the estranged relationship between mainstream political science and much of the subfield of political theory has been properly attributed to developments during the last half of the twentieth century, the roots of this alienation are historically deeper. Many of the conversations of political theory are the progeny of a discursive form that attended the birth of modern social science. This genre was a legitimating rhetoric situated in the interstices of social science, philosophy, and politics. The study of the history of political thought originated as such a rhetoric, and it constitutes a paradigm case for examining the extent to which such a discourse can be transformed into a practice of knowledge. This field has succeeded to a greater extent than certain other elements of political theory which, transfixed by the tension between their practical aspirations and academic context, have become anomalous appendages to the social scientific study of politics. - downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
downloaded  sociology_of_knowledge  political_philosophy  political_science  political_discourse  behavioralism  article  public_policy  intellectual_history  US_history  disciplines  entre_deux_guerres  public_intellectuals  jstor  social_theory  social_sciences-post-WWII  20thC  philosophy_of_social_science 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
John Gunnell - American Political Science, Liberalism, and the Invention of Political Theory | JSTOR The American Political Science Review (1988)
American Political Science, Liberalism, and the Invention of Political Theory
John G. Gunnell
The American Political Science Review
Vol. 82, No. 1 (Mar., 1988), pp. 71-87 -- The contemporary estrangement of political theory from political science is in large measure the product of a quarrel that originated in the challenge to the values of U.S. political science initiated by emigre scholars during the 1940s. The behavioral revolution was in an important respect a conservative rebellion in defense of the values of liberalism and related notions of science, relativism, and historical progress that had traditionally informed the discipline. This controversy in the context of political science fundamentally structured the discourse of academic political theory and the contemporary constitution of the field both as a division of political science and as a wider interdisciplinary enterprise.
political_discourse  political_science  university-contemporary  jstor  liberalism  sociology_of_knowledge  social_sciences-post-WWII  20thC  behaviorism  downloaded  article  political_philosophy  disciplines  intellectual_history 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
John Gunnell - Interpretation and the History of Political Theory: Apology and Epistemology | JSTOR- The American Political Science Review (1982)
Interpretation and the History of Political Theory: Apology and Epistemology
John G. Gunnell
The American Political Science Review
Vol. 76, No. 2 (Jun., 1982), pp. 317-327 -- Recent challenges to traditional approaches and purposes for studying the history of political theory have raised questions about its constitution as both a subject matter and subfield of political science. Methodological arguments advocating what is characterized as a more truly historical mode of inquiry for understanding political ideas and recovering textual meaning have become increasingly popular. The relationship of these hermeneutical claims about historicity, such as that advanced by Quentin Skinner, to the actual practice of interpretation is problematical. Such claims are more a defense of a certain norm of historical investigation than a method of interpretation, and the implications of this norm for the reconstitution of the history of political theory require careful consideration. -- interesting collection of references re hermeneutics debates- Not just Anglo but eg Gadamer -- downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
hermeneutics  Cambridge_School  political_philosophy  jstor  Skinner  political_discourse  political_science  intellectual_history  article  Gadamer  historiography  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
John Gunnell - Professing Political Theory | JSTOR - Political Research Quarterly (2010)
Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 63, No. 3 (SEPTEMBER 2010), pp. 674-679 -- Political theorists cannot reasonably maintain an institutional attachment to the discipline of political science and claim a place in the curriculum of the field while professing intellectual autonomy. Political theory is the progeny of American political science, as well as subfield of the discipline, and it is important to dispel mythologies of political theory as a separate world-historical endeavor: Political theorists, like all social scientists, must realistically come to grips with their cognitive and practical relationship to their subject matter and resist the forms of dislocated rhetoric that sustain their often anomalous condition. -- didn't download
political_science  article  scientism  professionalization  political_philosophy  jstor  specialization  university-contemporary  moral_philosophy 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
David Pietraszewski, et al - Constituents of political cognition: Race, party politics, and the alliance detection system, Cognition (April 2015)
David Pietraszewski, Oliver Scott Curry, Michael Bang Petersen, Leda Cosmides, John Tooby -- Cognition 04/2015; 140:24-39. DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2015.03.007 (Impact Factor: 3.63).Source: PubMed -- ABSTRACT -- Research suggests that the mind contains a set of adaptations for detecting alliances: an alliance detection system, which monitors for, encodes, and stores alliance information and then modifies the activation of stored alliance categories according to how likely they will predict behavior within a particular social interaction. Previous studies have established the activation of this system when exposed to explicit competition or cooperation between individuals. In the current studies we examine if shared political opinions produce these same effects. In particular, (1) if participants will spontaneously categorize individuals according to the parties they support, even when explicit cooperation and antagonism are absent, and (2) if party support is sufficiently powerful to decrease participants' categorization by an orthogonal but typically-diagnostic alliance cue (in this case the target's race). Evidence was found for both: Participants spontaneously and implicitly kept track of who supported which party, and when party cross-cut race-such that the race of targets was not predictive of party support-categorization by race was dramatically reduced. [Same setup for age and gender didn't produce race results] -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  evo-psych-politics  political_science  parties  groups-identity  groups-cohesion  groups-exclusion  groups-cognition  race  bias-unconscious  sociobiology  cooperation  groups-conflict  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Mark Bevir and Asaf Kedar - Concept Formation in Political Science: An Anti-Naturalist Critique of Qualitative Methodology on JSTOR - Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 6, No. 3 (Sep., 2008), pp. 503-517
This article offers an anti-naturalist philosophical critique of the naturalist tendencies within qualitative concept formation as developed most prominently by Giovanni Sartori and David Collier. Whereas naturalism assumes that the study of human life is not essentially different from the study of natural phenomena, anti-naturalism highlights the meaningful and contingent nature of social life, the situatedness of the scholar, and so the dialogical nature of social science. Naturalism encourages concept formation that involves reification, essentialism, and an instrumentalist view of language. Anti-naturalism, conversely, challenges reified concepts for eliding the place of meanings, essentialist concepts for eliding the place of contingency, and linguistic instrumentalism for eliding the situatedness of the scholar and the dialogical nature of social science. Based on this philosophical framework, we subject qualitative concept formation to a philosophical critique. We show how the conceptual strategies developed by Sartori and Collier embody a reification, essentialism, and instrumentalist view of language associated with naturalism. Although Collier's work on concept formation is much more flexible and nuanced than Sartori's, it too remains attached to a discredited naturalism. -- see for bibliography of 168 references -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  political_science  political_philosophy  political_culture  concepts  concepts-change  comparative_politics  social_sciences  social_theory  methodology-qualitative  meaning  bibliography  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Elaine Karmack - Jonathan Rauch: Political realism - In praise of old fashioned politics | Brookings Institution - May 2015
Jonathan Rauch's paper “Political realism: How hacks, machines, big money and back-room deals can strengthen American democracy” marks the beginning of a serious effort on behalf of Brookings scholars to open up a conversation challenging the reform assumptions of the past few decades. In the coming months we will be convening social scientists and public intellectuals along with politicians and activists in order to explore a new way of looking at solutions to the polarization of contemporary American politics. Not everyone will agree—with Rauch—or with each other. But we feel the time has come to take on the conventional reform wisdom and begin an intellectual dialogue on why our democracy seems to be failing. Taking a page from international relations where realism assumes conflict among nations; political realism also assumes that conflict is a constant part of the system. According to Rauch realism, “…sees governing as difficult and political peace and stability as treasures never to be taken for granted.” He goes on to argue the virtues of transactional politics and to point out how, in the name of reform, weakening the bulwarks of transactional politics has weakened democracy as a whole. “Where the realist tends to believe that governing is inherently difficult, that politics is inherently transactional and that success is best judged in terms of reaching social accommodation rather than achieving some abstract purpose, the progressive tends to see government as perfectible and politics as a path toward a higher public good.” In practice this means that the political realist advocates things that have been anathema to reformers. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  democracy  US_politics  US_government  US_legal_system  good_government  sunshine_laws  transparency  realism-political  IR-realism  reform-political  parties  partisanship  faction  extremism  polarization  conflict  common_good  political_philosophy  political_culture  political_sociology  political_participation  political_science  politics-and-money  campaign_finance  elections  public_sphere  public_policy  downloaded 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
William P. Li, David Larochelle, Andrew W. Lo Estimating Policy Trajectories During the Financial Crisis - June 26, 2014 :: SSRN
William P. Li - Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) *--* David Larochelle -
Harvard University - Berkman Center for Internet & Society *--* Andrew W. Lo -
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management; Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL); National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) -- NLP Unshared Task in PoliInformatics 2014 -- We apply text-matching techniques to trace the trajectory of policy ideas contained in four bills related to the Financial Crisis during the 110th (2007-08) and 111th (2009-10) Congresses. By identifying the first appearance of bill text, visualizing the results, and constructing metrics to quantify the congressional “consideration time” of a bill’s ideas, our analysis reveals that two of the four bills were dominated by ideas that were first introduced many months before their eventual passage, while the other two bills contained mostly new text and were truly novel responses to the Crisis. In addition, we also apply the method to find policy ideas related to the Financial Crisis that were not included in successful bills. We suggest possible applications by both researchers and open-government advocates. -- Pages in PDF File: 5 -- Keywords: financial crisis, public policy, natural language processing, analytics, machine learning, data mining -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  political_science  Congress  legislation  legislature-process  data_mining  natural_language_processing  text_analysis  financial_crisis  Dodd-Frank  machine_learning  open_government  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Thomas Grillot & Pauline Peretz - Interview with William Novak and James Sparrow - The American State: Power Obscured | Nov 2011 - Books & ideas
Tags : welfare state | state | war | law | France | United States of America -- Finding the American state where historians never looked before: this could be the motto of the new history of the state, of which William Novak and James Sparrow are two of the strongest advocates. To capture the specificity of state formation in the U.S., they encourage historians to look at the mutual constitution of state and society, instead of taking their separation for granted. Their approach is key to understanding the current legitimation crisis undergone by the American state. -- downloaded pdf to Note
US_government  US_history  US_politics  state-building  state-roles  19thC  20thC  anti-statist  right-wing  rights-legal  rights-political  centralization  central_government  ideology  libertarianism  market_fundamentalism  historiography  political_science  political_culture  sociology-process  legitimacy  power  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
The Irrelevance of Legitimacy by Xavier Marquez :: SSRN - Sept 2014
Xavier Marquez , Victoria University of Wellington - September 17, 2014 --  Both popular and academic explanations of the stability, performance, and breakdown of political order make heavy use of the concept of legitimacy. But prevalent understandings of the idea of legitimacy, while perhaps useful and appropriate ways of making sense of the political world in ordinary public discourse, cannot play the more rigorous explanatory roles with which they are tasked in the social sciences. To the extent that the concept of legitimacy appears to have some explanatory value, this is only because explanations of social and political order that appeal to legitimacy in fact conceal widely different (and often inconsistent) accounts of the mechanisms involved in the production of obedience to authority and submission to norms. I suggest in this paper that explanatory social science would be better off abandoning the coarse concept of legitimacy for more precise accounts of the operation of these mechanisms in particular contexts. -- Keywords: legitimacy, Max Weber, social explanation, norms, David Beetham - Posted: March 22, 2012 ; Last revised: Sept 25, 2014 -- downloaded to Dropbox
paper  SSRN  political_philosophy  political_science  political_sociology  social_theory  government-forms  authority  legitimacy  public_opinion  causation-social  norms  mechanisms-social  Weber  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Jan-Hendrik Passoth and Nicholas J. Rowland -- Actor-Network State: Integrating Actor-Network Theory and State Theory | Nicholas Rowland - Academia.edu
Jan-Hendrik Passoth, University of Bielefeld - Nicholas J. Rowland, Pennsylvania State University -- doi: 10.1177/0268580909351325 International Sociology November 2010 vol. 25 no. 6 818-841 -- This conceptual article draws on literature in the sociology of science on modelling. The authors suggest that if state theory can be conceptualized as an ‘engine’ rather than merely a ‘camera’, in that policy is mobilized to make the world fit the theory, then this has implications for conceptualizing states. To examine this possibility the authors look through the lens of actor-network theory (ANT) and in doing so articulate a relationship between two models of the state in the literature. They find that an ‘actor model’ of the state is accepted by many scholars, few of whom develop ‘network models’ of the state. In response, this study introduces an actor-network model and proposes that its contribution to state theory is in rethinking the character of modern states to be the outcome of actually performed assemblages of all those practices of building it, protecting it, governing it and theorizing about it. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  academia  Actor_Network_Theory  social_theory  political_sociology  political_science  nation-state  IR_theory  modelling  networks-policy  networks-political  sovereignty  unit_of_analysis  agency-structure  organizations  downloaded 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Nicholas Rowland, review essay A new direction in political sociology (2014) | Academia.edu
C A new direction in political sociology?


This essay reviews works in (political) sociology that offer alternatives to sociology-as-usual. Sociologists with even fleeting awareness of the recent history of political sociology are surely familiar with the cultural turn, the global turn, and the turn toward complexity; however, another turn seems to be afoot, one toward existential concerns that direct us to recover how people experience ‘the complex contradictions of the social and political world’ (Taylor). Complex experiences often leave behind residues or ‘traces,’ and contributors in a recently edited volume challenge sociologists to unlock the social significance of these traces and find new ways to capture what our methods capture so poorly, namely, popular forgettings, geographies of exclusion, and the slow erasure of deeds, memories, and other subjugated knowledges belonging to individuals who find themselves dismissed, dispelled, or disenfranchised by nation-states. Traces left behind by individuals navigating the complexities of contemporary experiments in human ‘being’ are just the sort of analysis that must, in principle, place the actor at the center of analysis, and, after careful study, we now appreciate that despite the analytical ease of assuming that actors are singular, sociologists should examine actors as plural and unearth their essential multiplicity. *-* 1. Graham Taylor, The New Political Sociology: Power, Ideology and Identity in an Age of Complexity, Palgrave Macmillan: New York, 2010; viii + 208 pp. *-* 2. Herman Gray, Macarena Gómez-Barris (eds), Toward a Sociology of the Trace, University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, 2010; xvi + 328 pp. *-* 3. Bernard Lahire , The Plural Actor, Polity: Malden, MA, 2011; xx + 280 pp. -- Keywords - Agency, Bourdieu, complexity, political sociology, social theory, trace -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  books  reviews  political_science  political_sociology  memory-group  identity  identity-multiple  identity_politics  national_ID  power-asymmetric  agency  complexity  social_theory  downloaded 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Vincent Dubois - Les champs de l'action publique (2010) in Hilgers (M.), dir., Utiliser la théorie des champs pour comprendre le monde social
L'analyse des politiques publiques a forgé ses propres notions pour décrire les espaces relationnels dans lesquels les politiques sont conduites. La sociologie des champs demeure en revanche très peu mobilisée dans ce domaine. Elle peut pourtant s'avérer utile pour objectiver l'espace de production des politiques, reconstituer les relations entre cet espace spécifique et ceux auxquels les politiques sont destinées ou, plus largement, ceux qui prennent part aux échanges qui les constituent. Elle offre ce faisant un point d'appui décisif pour la sociologie de l'action publique. -- Politique, Religion, Institutions et Sociétés : Mutations Européennes - Groupe de Sociologie Politique Européenne (PRISME-GSPE) CNRS : UMR7012 – Université de Strasbourg -- Mots-Clés : Politique publique – sociologie des champs – champs – action publique – rapports – domination – légitimation -- site archives HAL-SHS :: [halshs-00498020, version 1] -- downloaded pdf to Note
social_theory  social_sciences  public_policy  sociology_of_fields  public_sphere  legitimacy  domination  political_science  downloaded 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
James L. Gibson, Milton Lodge, Ben Woodson - Legitimacy, Losing, But Accepting: A Test of Positivity Theory and the Effects of Judicial Symbols (March 23, 2014) :: SSRN
James L. Gibson, Washington University in Saint Louis - Dept of Political Science - Milton Lodge, State University of New York (SUNY) - Dept of Political Science - Ben Woodson, Stony Brook -- How is it that the U.S. Supreme Court is capable of getting most citizens to accept rulings with which they disagree? This analysis addresses the role of the symbols of judicial authority and legitimacy – the robe, the gavel, the cathedral-like court building – in contributing to this willingness of ordinary people to acquiesce to disagreeable court decisions. Using an experimental design and a nationally representative sample, we show that exposure to judicial symbols (1) strengthens the link between institutional support and acquiescence among those with relatively low prior awareness of the Supreme Court; (2) has differing effects depending upon levels of pre-existing institutional support; and (3) severs the link between disappointment with a disagreeable Court decision and willingness to challenge the ruling. Since symbols influence citizens in ways that reinforce the legitimacy of courts, the connection between institutional attitudes and acquiescence posited by Legitimacy Theory is both supported and explained. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  social_theory  political_science  democracy  legitimacy  legal_system  legal_culture  political_culture  power-symbolic  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - Political Political Theory: An Oxford Inaugural Lecture (2012) :: SSRN
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 12-26 -- "Inaugural Lecture" for the Chichele Professorship of Social and Political Theory. -- Political theorists study (1) political virtue, (2) political processes and institutions, and (3) political ideals (like justice, liberty, and equality). Since the time of Hume, Madison, and Kant, it has been thought that (2) is more important than (1), because maybe we can set up institutions that work for the general good whatever the state of virtue of the people... But in the revival of political philosophy heralded by Rawls in 1971, there has been great emphasis on (3) and not nearly enough on (2)... particularly in the UK. Chichele chair -holders G.A. Cohen and Isaiah Berlin focused almost exclusively on (3) -- with Berlin announcing that political philosophy was really just the study of "the ends of life." -- I argue for a reorientation of political theory teaching and scholarship back towards institutions -- particularly the normative evaluation of the political process and the exploration of institutional principles like democracy, representation, bicameralism, the rule of law, the separation of powers, federalism and so on. ..these issues should not be left to empirical or comparative politcial science, because they raise important and complex questions of evaluation that may be sold short by the pragmatic and consequentialist emphasis of empirical and comparative work. But political theory should respect the empirical study of institutions more than it does, and it should dovetail the normative and evaluative work that political theory involves with the understanding of institutions, processes, and practices that political science generates. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  SSRN  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  political_philosophy  political_science  human_nature  social_theory  institutions  government-forms  governmentality  constitutions  constitutionalism  constitutional_law  institution-building  institutional_change  political_change  political_participation  political_culture  Arendt  Berlin_Isaiah  Hume  Hume-politics  Hume-historian  comparative_history  political_order  legitimacy  democracy  separation-of-powers  checks-and-balances  legislature  executive  judicial_review  justice  civic_virtue  dignity  egalitarian  rule_of_law  citizenship  education-civic  federalism  social_process  socialization  civil_liberties  Founders  Madison  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Liberty Matters Forum: Tocqueville’s New Science of Politics Revisited (May 2014) - Online Library of Liberty
Aurelian Craiutu argues that Tocqueville was not just an observer of democracy in America but also a theorist of democracy who wanted to create “a new science of politics” suitable to the new world which was beginning to take shape at that time. Craiutu points out four dimensions of Tocqueville’s new science of politics that might help us better understand his thinking. The first is that Tocqueville’s new science of politics is fundamentally cross-disciplinary, at the intersection of political science, sociology, anthropology, history, and philosophy. He then goes on to discuss the other dimensions such as its comparative, normative, and political dimensions. He concludes that his works must therefore be seen as belonging to a larger French tradition of political engagement and political rhetoric in which the writer enters into a subtle and complex pedagogical relationship with his audience, seeking to convince and inspire his readers to political action. This thesis is discussed by Daniel J. Mahoney of Assumption College, Filippo Sabetti of McGill University, and Jeremy R. Jennings of King’s College London. -- downloaded ebook to Note
etexts  18thC  19thC  intellectual_history  France  social_theory  social_sciences  political_philosophy  political_culture  liberalism  republicanism  human_nature  political_science  rhetoric-writing  rhetoric-political  audience  comparative_history  historical_sociology  US_society  US_politics  social_order  historical_change  Tocqueville  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
András Körösényi - Monopolistic Competition, Auction and Authorization. A Schumpeterian View of Leadership and the Political Market | JSTOR: Historical Social Research / Historische Sozialforschung, Vol. 37, No. 1 (139) (2012), pp. 57-72
The market analogy of democracy played a central role in one of the leading versions of democratic theory in the last fifty years, in the so-called "elite" or "competitive" theory of democracy. In the present paper, I first clarify that the dominant school of the market analogy (Downs and his followers) turned its back on the approach of the originator of the analogy, Joseph Schumpeter. Schumpeter argued that both economic and political competition -due to the activity of entrepreneurs -are necessarily monopolistic and destroy equilibrium. Second, I show how followers of the Schumpeterian market analogy improved upon it by using the concept of natural monopolies and making it conform to the characteristics of politics, while further distancing themselves from Downsian interpretation and the dominant Public Choice approach. Finally, I demonstrate a normative implication of monopolistic competition, namely its consequences for the concept of "agency loss". -- looks good re post WWII social sciences -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  social_theory  social_sciences-post-WWII  political_science  markets  competition  competition-political  parties  democracy  elites  political_culture  political_participation  monopolies  Schumpter  neoclassical_economics  public_choice  equilibrium  social_order  downloaded  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
John Higley - Democratic Elitism and Western Political Thought [2009] | JSTOR: Historical Social Research / Historische Sozialforschung, Vol. 37, No. 1 (139) (2012), pp. 351-366
Many political thinkers have viewed democratic elitism as closing a democratic road they believe is or should be open-ended. Their view of democratic possibilities reflects the auspicious circumstances of Western societies during the past several centuries and especially since World War II. However, it involves a conflation of liberal and democratic values. I examine why and how this has occurred, and I argue that liberal and democratic values must be more clearly separated in today's dangerous world. In step with Schumpeter, democracy must be regarded as a method or instrumental value that in some but by no means all circumstances promotes the ultimate liberal value of actively individualistic free people. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  20thC  21stC  elites  democracy  liberalism  post-WWII  post-Cold_War  institution-building  institutional_change  political_change  political_participation  political_culture  ruling_class  oligarchy  competition-political  political_science  utopian  downloaded  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Michael Albertus and Victor Menaldo - Gaming Democracy: Elite Dominance during Transition and the Prospects for Redistribution | British Journal of Political Science - Cambridge Journals Online
Inequality and democracy are far more compatible empirically than social conflict theory predicts. This article speaks to this puzzle, identifying the scope conditions under which democratization induces greater redistribution. Because autocrats sometimes have incentives to expropriate economic elites, who lack reliable institutions to protect their rights, elites may prefer democracy to autocratic rule if they can impose roadblocks to redistribution under democracy ex ante. Using global panel data (1972–2008), this study finds that there is a relationship between democracy and redistribution only if elites are politically weak during a transition; for example, when there is revolutionary pressure. Redistribution is also greater if a democratic regime can avoid adopting and operating under a constitution written by outgoing elites and instead create a new constitution that redefines the political game. This finding holds across three different measures of redistribution and instrumental variables estimation. This article also documents the ways in which elites ‘bias’ democratic institutions.
article  paywall  political_science  political_economy  democracy  inequality  elites  redistribution  revolutions  transition_economies  property_rights  economic_culture  economic_reform  political_culture  institutional_change  North-Weingast  Glorious_Revolution  Whig_Junto  Whigs-oligarchy  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Ryan Patrick Hanley - Enlightened Nation Building: The "Science of the Legislator" in Adam Smith and Rousseau | JSTOR: American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 52, No. 2 (Apr., 2008), pp. 219-234
Rousseau is famous as an advocate of the politics of "denaturing." But attention to his conception of the "science of the legislator," as developed in the Geneva Manuscript and his writings on Poland and Corsica, reveals a more moderate approach to statecraft. Here Rousseau claims that legislative science requires tempering commitment to principles of political right with sensitivity to actual political conditions-a claim that importantly and unexpectedly parallels the better known account of the science of the legislator developed by Adam Smith. In comparing these conceptions, this article draws three conclusions: first, Smith's and Rousseau's shared moderation reveals their common commitment to accommodating the passions and prejudices of modernity; second, their fundamental difference concerns not practical legislative methods but rather differing conceptions of natural justice and political right; and finally, their prudential approach to legislation helps clarify the specific types of "moderation" and "intelligence" required of contemporary nation builders. -- see bibliography -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  18thC  Smith  Rousseau  nation-state  institution-building  political_culture  political_science  political_economy  modernity  natural_law  natural_rights  liberty  justice  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
JONATHAN WHITE and LEA YPI - On Partisan Political Justification | JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 105, No. 2 (May 2011), pp. 381-396
Paywall -- see bibliography on jstor information page -- Political justification figures prominently in contemporary political theory, notably in models of deliberative democracy. This article articulates and defends the essential role of partisanship in this process. Four dimensions of justification are examined in detail: the constituency to which political justifications are offered, the circumstances in which they are developed, the ways in which they are made inclusive, and the ways in which they are made persuasive. In each case, the role of partisanship is probed and affirmed. Partisanship, we conclude, is indispensable to the kind of political justification needed to make the exercise of collective authority responsive to normative concerns.
article  jstor  political_philosophy  political_science  democracy  deliberation-public  parties  partisanship  accountability  bibliography  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Symposium: Dewey's Pragmitism, Social Inquiry, and Democracy | JSTOR: American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 43, No. 2, Apr., 1999
(1) Dewey's Pragmatism, Social Inquiry, and Democracy: Introduction to the Symposium(pp. 518-519) James Johnson. *--* (2) John Dewey and American Political Science(pp. 520-541) James Farr. *--* (3) Experience as Experiment: Some Consequences of Pragmatism for Democratic Theory(pp. 542-565) Eric A. MacGilvray. *-'* (4) Inquiry into Democracy: What Might a Pragmatist Make of Rational Choice Theories?(pp. 566-589) Jack Knight and James Johnson. *--* (5) Democracy as Inquiry, Inquiry as Democratic: Pragmatism, Social Science, and the Cognitive Division of Labor(pp. 590-607) James Bohman. *--* (6) "How Shall We Read What We Call Reality?": John Dewey's New Science of Democracy(pp. 608-628) Debra Morris. *--* (7) Pragmatic Inquiry and Democratic Politics(pp. 629-647)
Marion Smiley
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_science  social_theory  democracy  accountability  pragmatism  Dewey  political_participation  rational_choice  conflict  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Alexander Livingston - Avoiding Deliberative Democracy? Micropolitics, Manipulation, and the Public Sphere | JSTOR: Philosophy & Rhetoric, Vol. 45, No. 3 (2012), pp. 269-294
This article examines the critique of deliberative democracy leveled by William Connolly. Drawing on both recent findings in cognitive science as well on Gilles Deleuze's cosmological pluralism, Connolly argues that deliberative democracy, and the contemporary left more generally, is guilty of intellectualism for overlooking the embodied, visceral register of political judgment. Going back to Deleuze and Guattari's A Thousand Plateaus, this article reconstructs the working assumptions of Connolly's critique and argues that it unwittingly leads to an indefensible embrace of manipulation. Against his micropolitics of visceral manipulation, I propose an alternative route for realizing Connolly's politics of agonistic negotiation in the form of a critical theory of the public sphere. -- paywall
article  jstor  political_philosophy  political_science  democracy  deliberation-public  political_participation  political_spectacle  political_press  public_sphere  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Wendy Brown - Political Theory Is Not a Luxury: A Response to Timothy Kaufman-Osborn's "Political Theory as a Profession" | JSTOR: Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 63, No. 3 (SEPTEMBER 2010), pp. 680-685
In "Political Theory as a Profession," Timothy Kaufman-Osborn calls for political theorists to shed attachments to political science subfields. This call inadequately reckons with the perils to political theory posed by the combined contemporary forces of scientization and neoliberalization in knowledge. Focusing on these perils, the author argues for the strategic preservation of the political theory subfield. However, this preservation will not be advanced by intensified professionalization or a turn toward market applicability. Paradoxically, the survival of political theory rests in resisting professional and neoliberal metrics and reaching for publicly legible and compelling intellectual purposes.
article  jstor  21stC  neoliberalism  scientism  university-contemporary  humanities  public_goods  education-higher  political_philosophy  political_science  social_sciences-post-WWII  intelligentsia  anti-intellectual  managerialism  efficiency  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Joel Lieske - The Changing Regional Subcultures of the American States and the Utility of a New Cultural Measure | JSTOR: Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 63, No. 3 (SEPTEMBER 2010), pp. 538-552
This study analyzes changes in the regional subcultures of the United States using 2000 census and religious survey data. The results suggest a remarkable degree of continuity with those the authors identified in an earlier study. In addition, they demonstrate that a new multidimensional measure of state culture does a much better job in predicting social and political behavior than other frequently used indicators. Finally, they show how their new measure of state culture significantly reduces and often eliminates the problem of spatial autocorrelation in many state-level indicators that cannot be explained by differences in economic development and racial—ethnic diversity. -- Some useful discussion re that "political culture" is real, but how to measure it. Distinguishes ideology (the what of policies) from political culture (the how of government). Compares approach with work that stemmed from Fischer 4 British folkways traced through immigration and subsequent migration patterns. -- didn't download
article  jstor  political_science  political_culture  ideology  immigration  migration  US_politics  US_history  US_government  methodology-quantitative  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Timothy V. Kaufman-Osborn - Lead article, mini symposium: Political Theory as Profession and as Subfield of political science? | JSTOR: Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 63, No. 3 (SEPTEMBER 2010), pp. 655-673
How does the enterprise of political theory create and sustain the borders that account for its appearance as a distinguishable profession? In this article, the author considers and criticizes a recent effort to defend political theory's right to exist in the form of one of several subfields constitutive of the academic discipline of professional political science in the United States. The author closes by suggesting that theorists might be better positioned to think critically about politics, and the politics of liberalism more particularly, if this self-representation were to be unsettled and possibly jettisoned altogether. -- Mini-Symposium: Political Theory as a Profession and a Subfield in Political Science? (p. 654) Cornell W. Clayton and Amy G. Mazur. *--* (1) Political Theory as Profession and as Subfield? (pp. 655-673) Timothy V. Kaufman-Osborn -- downloaded pdf to Note *--* (2) Professing Political Theory (pp. 674-679) John G. Gunnell. *--* (3) Political Theory Is Not a Luxury: A Response to Timothy Kaufman-Osborn's "Political Theory as a Profession" (pp. 680-685) Wendy Brown. *--* (4) From Constitutive Outside to the Politics of Extinction: Critical Race Theory, Feminist Theory, and Political Theory (pp. 686-696) Mary Hawkesworth. *--* (5) The Marginalization of Political Philosophy and Its Effects on the Rest of the Discipline (pp. 697-701) Gregory J. Kasza
journal  article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_science  social_sciences-post-WWII  philosophy_of_social_science  sociology_of_knowledge  disciplines  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
John G. Gunnell - Dislocated Rhetoric: The Anomaly of Political Theory | JSTOR: The Journal of Politics, Vol. 68, No. 4 (Nov., 2006), pp. 771-782
Although the estranged relationship between mainstream political science and much of the subfield of political theory has been properly attributed to developments during the last half of the twentieth century, the roots of this alienation are historically deeper. Many of the conversations of political theory are the progeny of a discursive form that attended the birth of modern social science. This genre was a legitimating rhetoric situated in the interstices of social science, philosophy, and politics. The study of the history of political thought originated as such a rhetoric, and it constitutes a paradigm case for examining the extent to which such a discourse can be transformed into a practice of knowledge. This field has succeeded to a greater extent than certain other elements of political theory which, transfixed by the tension between their practical aspirations and academic context, have become anomalous appendages to the social scientific study of politics. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_history  social_sciences  political_science  rhetoric-political  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  philosophy_of_social_science  philosophy_of_science  disciplines  discourse-political_theory  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Catherine H. Zuckert - On the 'Rationality' of Rational Choice | JSTOR: Political Psychology, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Mar., 1995), pp. 179-198
Proponents argue that rational choice theory is a form of positive science, one whose simplified model of the human psyche generates useful predictions of human behavior. But their assumptions are contrary to fact. Their analyses of public policy decisions are cast in terms of the sharp and now largely discredited distinction logical positivists drew between "facts" and "values" or efficient "means" and affective "ends." And their models arouse suspicions concerning and objections to the political and psychological effects of the methods they employ and the policy options they endorse. All of this makes the theory not only less useful for understanding politics but also more subject to criticism by "postmodern" thinkers than it need be. Were its proponents explicitly to acknowledge the "prescriptive" character of "rational choice," however, they would help foster a broader discussion of the different kinds of rationality and their interaction in the formulation of public policy. That discussion of the forms of rationality would, in turn, bring out a more complex view of the psychological basis of both politics and rationality. -- see bibliography -- didn't download
article  jstor  political_philosophy  political_science  rational_choice  fact-value  postmodern  values  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
TOC - Polity Forum: Institutions and Institutionalism | JSTOR: Polity, Vol. 28, No. 1, Autumn, 1995
Polity Forum: Institutions and Institutionalism - [Introduction](p. 83) *--* (1) The Common Space of Social Science Inquiry (pp. 85-90) Philip J. Ethington and Eileen L. McDonagh. *--* (2) Order and Change (pp. 91-96) Stephen Skowronek. *--* (3) Ideas and Institutions (pp. 97-101) Karen Orren. *--* (4) Why I Am an Historical Institutionalist (pp. 103-106) Theda Skocpol. *--* (5) Rational Choice and the New(?) Institutionalism (pp. 107-115) Morris Fiorina. *--* (6) The Many Lives of Institutionalism in American Social Science (pp. 117-123) Dorothy Ross. *--* (7) Institutionalism, Rational Choice, and Historical Analysis (pp. 125-128) James T. Kloppenberg. *--* (8) Institutionalism and Institutions in the Stream of History (pp. 129-133) Terrence J. McDonald. *--* (9) Ideas, Institutions, and Strategic Choice (pp. 135-140) Rogers M. Smith
journal  article  jstor  intellectual_history  philosophy_of_social_science  social_theory  social_sciences  political_science  institutions  institutional_change  institutionalization  historical_sociology  rational_choice  scientism  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
James Farr, John Gunnell, Raymond Seidelman - Can Political Science History Be Neutral? | JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 84, No. 2 (Jun., 1990), pp. 587-607
In the December 1988 issue of this Review, John Dryzek and Stephen Leonard argued the need for @'context-sensitive@' histories of the discipline of political science. In their view, disciplinary history must guide practical inquiry if it is to be most useful. The course of their argument draws the criticisms of three political scientists concerned about the history of political science--James Farr, John Gunnell, and Raymond Seidelman. Dryzek and Leonard respond to their critics and underscore their own rationale for enhanced interest in the history of the discipline. -- sociology_of_knowledge issues, early postmodern theory debates, perils of Whiggish history and sceptical Whiggism a la Scottish Enlightenment -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  historiography  intellectual_history  social_theory  social_sciences  political_science  18thC  19thC  20thC  sociology_of_knowledge  philosophy_of_social_science  ideology  disciplines  discourse  postmodern  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Raphael Zariski - The Legitimacy of Opposition Parties in Democratic Political Systems: A New Use for an Old Concept | JSTOR: The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 39, No. 1 (Mar., 1986), pp. 29-47
This article applies the concept of legitimacy to those opposition parties which have been out of power for so extended a time-span that their fitness to govern is called into question. The problems of exogenous and endogenous legitimacy are examined in terms of the donors from whom legitimacy is sought and the methods and criteria by which legitimacy may be measured. The perpetual tension between exogenous and endogenous legitimacy may lead to a process of self-delegitimation: active members and grass-roots officials of an opposition party may — by threatening to withhold endogenous legitimacy — compel the party leaders to sacrifice some of the exogenous legitimacy the party has acquired. The illusory and unsubstantial gains achieved in a time of economic stringency as a result of the acquisition of exogenous legitimacy tend to strengthen the internal forces which push for self-delegitimation. -- extensive bibliography -- didn't download
article  jstor  political_science  political_culture  parties  opposition  legitimacy  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Rogers M. Smith - Beyond Tocqueville, Myrdal, and Hartz: The Multiple Traditions in America | JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 87, No. 3 (Sep., 1993), pp. 549-566
Analysts of American politics since Tocqueville have seen the nation as a paradigmatic "liberal democratic" society, shaped most by the comparatively free and equal conditions and the Englightenment ideals said to have prevailed at its founding. These accounts must be severely revised to recognize the inegalitarian ideologies and institutions of ascriptive hierarchy that defined the political status of racial and ethnic minorities and women through most of U.S. history. A study of the period 1870-1920 illustrates that American political culture is better understood as the often conflictual and contradictory product of multiple political traditions, than as the expression of hegemonic liberal or democratic political traditions. -- heavily cited -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  20thC  political_philosophy  political_culture  political_science  US_history  US_politics  Tocqueville  liberalism-republicanism_debates  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Joshua Foa Dienstag - Wittgenstein among the Savages: Language, Action and Political Theory | JSTOR: Polity, Vol. 30, No. 4 (Summer, 1998), pp. 579-605
In his attempt to understand matters of the spirit, most notably in the "Remarks on Frazer's Golden Bough," Wittgenstein elaborated an account of human action that enables us to overcome the commonplace modern dichotomy between political science and political theory. His work creates the possibility for a certain kind of exchange between the "facts" of political behavior and the "values" of theory by developing the category of "mythology," a form of human activity that bridges the theory-practice divide. The central point is to establish an ontological equivalence between words and deeds so that neither is regarded as more fundamental than the other. In addition to enriching our understanding of the elements of human existence that some label "irrational," this account of action can, by extension, offer a description of the role of political theory in relation to politics that defends theory's value while preserving its distinctiveness.
article  jstor  political_philosophy  Wittgenstein  social_theory  political_science 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Terry M. Moe - Power and Political Institutions | JSTOR: Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 3, No. 2 (Jun., 2005), pp. 215-233
Rational choice theory tends to view political institutions as structures of voluntary cooperation that resolve collective action problems and benefit all concerned. Yet the political process often gives rise to institutions that are good for some people and bad for others, depending on who has the power to impose their will. Political institutions may be structures of cooperation, but they may also be structures of power-and the theory does not tell us much about this. As a result, it gives us a one-sided and overly benign view of what political institutions are and do. This problem is not well understood, and indeed is not typically seen as a problem at all. For there is a widespread sense in the rational choice literature that, because power is frequently discussed, it is an integral part of the theory and just as fundamental as cooperation. Confusion on this score has undermined efforts to right the imbalance. My purpose here is to clarify the analytic roles that power and cooperation actually play in this literature, and to argue that a more balanced theory-one that brings power from its periphery to its very core-is both necessary and entirely possible.
article  jstor  social_theory  political_science  political_philosophy  rational_choice  institutions  power  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Smirnov, Dawes, Fowler, Johnson and McElreath -The Behavioral Logic of Collective Action: Partisans Cooperate and Punish More Than Nonpartisans | JSTOR: Political Psychology, Vol. 31, No. 4 (August 2010), pp. 595-616
Laboratory experiments indicate that many people willingly contribute to public goods and punish free riders at a personal cost. We hypothesize that these individuals, called strong reciprocators, allow political parties to overcome collective action problems, thereby allowing those organizations to compete for scarce resources and to produce public goods for like-minded individuals. Using a series of laboratory games, we examine whether partisans contribute to public goods and punish free riders at a greater rate than nonpartisans. The results show that partisans are more likely than nonpartisans to contribute to public goods and to engage in costly punishment. Given the broad theoretical literature on altruistic punishment and group selection as well as our own formal evolutionary model, we hypothesize that it is being a partisan that makes an individual more likely to be a strong reciprocator and not vice versa. -- didn't download -- interesting bibliography
article  jstor  political_science  political_participation  parties  evolution-social  punishment-altruistic  cooperation  social_psychology  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard Ashcraft: Economic Metaphors, Behavioralism, and Political Theory: Some Observations on the Ideological Uses of Language | JSTOR: The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 30, No. 3 (Sep., 1977), pp. 313-328
Downloaded pdf to Note -- In accordance with certain general principles relating to the study of ideology advanced by Marx and Mannheim, it is argued that a significant group of behavioral political scientists employee the terminology and concepts of neo-classical economics metaphorically as a means of establishing the nature and limits of political theory within the discipline of political science. The postwar development of behavioral political theory, the political reality to which it refers, and the purposes of theorizing are all described, metaphorically, in the language of economics. It is especially in their reliance upon "technical reason," which serves both as a characterization of the dynamics of capitalism as a socioeconomic system and as the framework for political theorizing, that behavioral political scientists have demonstrated the ideological limits of their metaphorical language. To paraphrase Marx, behavioral political science has sought, through its usage of economic metaphors, to transform the problematic features of the social order into "natural, self-understood forms of social life."
article  jstor  20thC  political_philosophy  political_culture  political_science  rationality-economics  rational_choice  public_choice  public_policy  metaphor  social_sciences-post-WWII  behavioralism  ideology  neoclassical_economics  capitalism  political_economy  downloaded  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader

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