dunnettreader + pluralism   32

Robert A. Markus - Saeculum: History & Society in the Theology of St Augustine (1970, rev 2007) | Cambridge University Press
Significant intro to rev'd edition, included in downloaded frontmatter along with TOC and original Preface. -- In this book Professor Markus's main concern is with those aspects of Augustine's thought which help to answer questions about the purpose of human society, and particularly with his reflections on history, society and the Church. He relates Augustine's ideas to their contemporary context and to older traditions, and shows which aspects of his thought he absorbed from his intellectual environment. Augustine appears from this study as a thinker who rejected the 'sacralization' of the established order of society, and the implications of this for a theology of history are explored in the last chapter. -- Downloaded frontmatter, excerpt & index via Air to DBOX - added to Evernote
books  downloaded  intellectual_history  theology  philosophy_of_history  Late_Antiquity  Early_Christian  Augustine  human_nature  eschatology  social_order  Providence  teleology  religion-established  politics-and-religion  religious_culture  Roman_Empire  paganism  pluralism  secularism  Roman_religion  secularization  Papacy  ecclesiology 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Robert A. Markus The End of Ancient Christianity (1990) |Cambridge University Press
Highly recommended by Patrick Boucheron -- This study is concerned with one, central historical problem: the nature of the changes that transformed the intellectual and spiritual horizons of the Christian world from its establishment in the fourth century to the end of the sixth. Why, for example, were the assumptions, attitudes and traditions of Gregory the Great so markedly different from those of Augustine? The End of Ancient Christianity examines how Christians, who had formerly constituted a threatened and beleaguered minority, came to define their identity in a changed context of religious respectability in which their faith had become a source of privilege, prestige and power. Professor Markus reassesses the cult of the martyrs and the creation of schemes of sacred time and sacred space, and analyzes the appeal of asceticism and its impact on the Church at large. These changes form part of a fundamental transition, perhaps best described as the shift from "Ancient" toward "Medieval" forms of Christianity; from an older and more diverse secular culture towards a religious culture with a firm Biblical basis. -- Downloaded TOC, Preface & excerpt via Air to DBOX - added to Evernote
books  downloaded  religious_history  religious_culture  politics-and-religion  religion-established  Christianity  Roman_Empire  Late_Antiquity  Early_Christian  paganism  secularization  Roman_religion  pluralism  eschatology  Augustine  Gregory_the_Great  Church_history  Papacy  ecclesiology 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Philippe Descola - Apologie des sciences sociales (2013) - La Vie des idées
Apologie des sciences sociales
par Philippe Descola , le 9 avril 2013
Faut-il attendre des sciences sociales en général, de l’anthropologie en particulier, qu’elles nous éclairent sur les dysfonctionnements de nos sociétés sur les moyens d’y remédier ? Pour Philippe Descola, c’est plutôt en nous engageant à observer le pluralisme des modes d’être qu’elles peuvent contribuer à la transformation du temps présent.
Downloaded French version
cultural_diversity  universalism  pluralism  identity  change-social  community  downloaded  French_intellectuals  comparative_anthropology  cultural_critique 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Sylvie Taussig - La pluralité des mondes au miroir de l'Europe et de la Chine : pluralisme politique et pluralisme religieux dans un monde globalisé (2014) - Cairn.info
Cet article porte sur les processus de sécularisation, et notamment sur l’avènement du pluralisme religieux et politique et sur le rapport entre monothéisme et pluralisme. Il redonne sa place à un moment souvent ignoré de cette histoire complexe : les échanges fructueux quoique aveugles, ressemblant souvent à un jeu de dupes à somme nulle, entre l’Europe – et particulièrement la France – et la Chine au xviie siècle. L’incompatibilité qui semble se découvrir, dans cette histoire en miroir, concerne le monothéisme et le pluralisme politique. Et, dans notre univers globalisé, il s’agit de gérer la multiplicité des cultures et des religions dans des entités nationales unitaires. - behind a 3-year rolling paywall -- she specializes in 17thC - may be of interest for the Querelle des rites
article  Jesuits  globalization  intellectual_history  pluralism  human_nature  religious_culture  religious_belief  monotheism  China  missionaries  17thC  religious_history  comparative_religion  multiculturalism  universalism  paywall 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Symposium on Jack Russell Weinstein’s "Adam Smith’s Pluralism: Rationality, Education And The Moral Sentiments" | Cosmos + Taxis, Vol2, Issue 3, 2015
Rather than a classic intellectual_history of Adam Smith, Weinstein’s aim is to use Smith to reinvigorate modern liberalism -- Introduction to Symposium - Nathaniel Wolloch *--* Context-dependent Normativity and Universal Rules of Justice - María Alejandra Carrasco. **--** “… but one of the multitude”. Justice, Pluralism and Rationality in Smith and Weinstein… - Lisa Herzog. **--** The Dynamics of Sympathy and the Challenge of Creating New Commonalities - Dionysis Drosos. **--** The “Spectator” and the Impartial Spectator in Adam Smith’s Pluralism - Spiros Tegos **--** Was Adam Smith an Optimist? - Maria Pia Paganelli. **--** The Political Hypotheses of Adam Smith’s Pluralism: A response to my commentators - Jack Russell Weinstein -- downloaded pdf to Note
journal  article  political_philosophy  political_economy  moral_psychology  moral_philosophy  liberalism  Smith  justice  pluralism  emergence  social_order  sympathy  empathy  morality-conventional  moral_sentiments  downloaded 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Hugh McLeod, Werner Ustorf, eds. - The Decline of Christendom in Western Europe, 1750–2000 (2003) | Cambridge University Press
EDITORS: Hugh McLeod, University of Birmingham and Werner Ustorf, University of Birmingham -- 1. Introduction, Hugh McLeod *--* 2. The secularisation decade: what the 1960s have done to the study of religious history, Callum G. Brown *--* 3. Christendom in decline: the Swedish case, Eva M. Hamberg *--* 4. New Christianity: indifference and diffused spirituality, Yves Lambert *--* 5. Established churches and the growth of religious pluralism: a case study of Christianisation and secularisation in England since 1700, David Hempton *--* 6. Catholicism in Ireland, Sheridan Gilley *--* 7. Long-term religious developments in the Netherlands, c. 1750–2000, Peter Van Rooden *--* 8. The potency of 'Christendom': The example of the 'Darmstädter Wort' (1947), Martin Greschat. *--* 9. The dechristianisation of death in modern France, Thomas Kselman *--* 10. The impact of technology on Catholicism in France (1850–1950), Michel Lagrée *--* 11. Semantic structures of religious change in modern Germany, Lucian Hölscher *--* 12. Master-narratives of long-term religious change, Jeffery Cox *--* 13. A missiological postscript Werner Ustorf.
books  kindle-available  religious_history  18thC  19thC  20thC  British_history  Christianity  Christendom  religious_culture  religious_belief  religion-established  Europe  Europe-19thC  Enlightenment  secularization  Catholics-English  Catholics-England  Catholics-Ireland  pluralism  Germany  France  anticlerical  spirituality 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Heather K. Gerken and Joseph Fishkin - Whose party is it anyway? | Balkinization - June 2015
Description of key portion of paper published *downloaded from SSRN to Note) we imagine three models of who should control a party: 1. The equality model: On this model, each party member should have equal influence over the direction of the party. 2. The elite-driven model: On this model, the parties are not democracies; they are more like firms, competing in the broader democratic arena. In this analogy, party elites are the executives; the donors are the shareholders; and ordinary voters are like consumers who can accept or reject what the elites are selling. This model has its roots in a Schumpeterian conception of democracy. -- Neither of these models, we think, is adequate—either positively or normatively. (..) So we propose 3. The pluralist model: This hybrid model takes into account the party’s multi-layered role in our politics. On this model, the party stands in part for ordinary voters who make up the base of the party, in part for the party elites who run it, and in part for the activists in between—the party faithful, who knock on doors and show up at rallies and caucuses and provide much of the party’s energy. The party faithful are much more heavily involved in the party than ordinary voters, but much less influential than the Koch brothers. One major worry we have about the shift from official parties to shadow parties is that the party faithful may get squeezed out, leaving us with a politics that is more centralized and broadcast-like.
Instapaper  paper  SSRN  US_politics  parties  shadow_parties  political_participation  pluralism  voting  elections  democracy  democracy-direct  elites-political_influence  oligarchy  politics-and-money  partisanship  parties-transmission_belts  public_sphere  public_opinion  competition-political  from instapaper
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Jacob T. Levy - Rationalism, Pluralism, and Freedom - Feb 2015 - Oxford University Press
Intermediate groups-- voluntary associations, churches, ethnocultural groups, universities, and more--can both protect threaten individual liberty. The same is true for centralized state action against such groups. Levy argues that, both normatively and historically, liberal political thought rests on a deep tension between a rationalist suspicion of intermediate and local group power, and a pluralism favorable toward intermediate group life, and preserving the bulk of its suspicion for the centralizing state. He studies this tension using tools from the history of political thought, normative political philosophy, law, and social theory. (..) retells the history of liberal thought and practice (..)from the birth of intermediacy in the High Middle Ages to the British Pluralists of the 20thC. (..) restores centrality to (..) ancient constitutionalism and to Montesquieu, (..) social contract theory's contributions to the development of liberal thought have been mistaken for the whole tradition. It discusses the real threats to freedom posed both by local group life and by state centralization, the ways in which those threats aggravate each other.(..) the elements of liberal thought concerned with the threats from each cannot necessarily be combined into a single satisfactory theory of freedom. (..) it must be lived with, not overcome. -- 3 parts and an epilogue Against Synthesis -history in Part 2 -- 4. Antecedents and Foundations -- 5. The Ancient Constitution, the Social Contract, and the Modern State -- 6. Montesquieu and Voltaire, Philosophes and Parlements -- 7. The Age of Revolutions -- 8. Centralization in a Democratic Age: Tocqueville and Mill -- 9. From Liberal Constitutionalism to Pluralism -- only in hardback so far
books  buy  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  liberalism  liberal_democracy  intermediate_groups  pluralism  central_government  liberty  ancient_constitution  social_contract  monarchy-proprietary  limited_monarchy  limited_government  associations  subsidiarity  feudalism  Absolutism  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  Montesquieu  Voltaire  British_politics  France  Ancien_régime 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Emilie Frenkiel - Interview with David A. Bell, Choosing Confucianism: Departing from the Liberal Framework | Sept 2012 - Books & ideas
Tags : liberalism | confucianisme | China -- Recounting his itinerary from research on Communitarianism to the adoption of Confucian values, political philosopher Daniel A. Bell advocates thinking of cities as representing different social values in the modern world. He also sees meritocracy, which is valued in China nowadays as a potential remedy to the flaws of democratic systems. -- downloaded pdf to Note
political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  liberalism  liberal_democracy  liberalism-republicanism_debates  communitarian  Confucianism  meritocracy  modernity  modernity-emergence  urbanism  pluralism  values  China  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
available on CJO2014. - Hebrew University of Jerusalem -- This essay explores the development of Georg Simmel's interpretation of Immanuel Kant's philosophy in the context of neo-Kantianism and its preoccupation with the question of unity in modern diversity. It argues that the neo-Kantian movement can be divided into two periods: in the first, unity was addressed with regard to Kant's epistemology; in the second period, the main issue was the overall coherence of Kantian teaching. Simmel, who belonged to the younger generation of neo-Kantians, absorbed the conclusions of the previous generation that purged Kantian epistemology from its metaphysical foundations related to the noumenal world. Yet he did not share the views of his peers who considered Kant to be the philosopher of cultural plurality. On the contrary, he argued that Kant's system is thoroughly intellectualistic, and that ethics, aesthetics and religion within it are subordinated to logic. At the same time, his own philosophy presupposed cultural plurality akin to that of other neo-Kantians. In other words, Simmel abandoned Kant in order to develop his own version of neo-Kantianism.
article  paywall  intellectual_history  social_theory  German_Idealism  German_scholars  Simmel  metaphysics  sociology  neo-Kantian  19thC  20thC  culture  diversity  modernity  pluralism 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Silas Peterson - Pluralism and consensus in the modern Western world vs Brad Gregory's "The Unintended Reformation" attack on "hyperpluralism" « The Immanent Frame - Oct 2013
Gregory's "hyperpluralism" is MacIntyre-eque - there's no longer a shared notion of the summum bonnum. This anti-modernity can't tell the difference between liberal pluralism and the bogeyman of relativism. Peterson's response is one of the better since it accepts the basic frame of the need for some shared values -- "the structuring principles [for political and social life] of modern Western societies are not arbitrary assertions but rather principles that are connected with one another, interwoven with historical developments and representative of human life and ideals." He shows 8 points of "soft consensus" and ..."While it would be possible to claim that these points are not... what Gregory calls the “Life Questions,” [they] rest upon basic values that have correlations with views of the person and conceptions of the good." -- "The entire Western world has agreed (1) to live with a modern democratic political order, (2) to enforce concepts of unalienable human rights, (3) to uphold the rule of law, and (4) to secure the separation of powers. (...) the high view of the individual, and thus the high view of that individual’s opinion, is presumed [...and is also a] 5th point. (...) There are many other values which follow from the high view of the individual (...) they presume the value of freedom.. [which is both...] a presupposition of 3 and 4 and a 6th point. (...) The law is a concrete representation of the norms and regulations that are held to be not only equitable, just, and good, but also reasonable. The importance of reason and rational justification therefore belongs in the soft consensus as a presupposition of the rule of law, but also as [a] 7th point. (...) [The] idea of the separation of powers (...) [presumes] cooperation in the formal execution of power, administration, and management. A high regard for cooperation therefore belongs in the soft consensus as a presupposition of the separation of powers, but also as an 8th point. The most effective cooperation [depends] upon general agreements regarding shared goals and a basic goodwill between the cooperating parties."
21stC  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  theology  social_theory  declinism  Thomism-21stC  modernity  intellectual_history  Reformation  common_good  Christendom  Christianity  theocracy  politics-and-religion  liberalism  rule_of_law  separation-of-powers  civil_liberties  human_rights  liberty  liberty-negative  liberalism-public_reason  liberty-positive  welfare_state  MacIntyre  Counter-Reformation  pluralism  relativism  good  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Talisse, R. B. (2011), A Farewell to Deweyan Democracy. Political Studies, 59: 509–526 | Wiley Online Library
Talisse, R. B. (2011), A Farewell to Deweyan Democracy. Political Studies, 59: 509–526. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9248.2010.00860.x The revival of pragmatism has brought renewed enthusiasm for John Dewey's conception of democracy. Drawing upon Rawlsian concerns regarding the fact of reasonable pluralism, I argue that Deweyan democracy is unworthy of resurrection. A modified version of Deweyan democracy recently proposed by Elizabeth Anderson is then taken up and also found to be lacking. Then I propose a model of democracy that draws upon Peirce's social epistemology. The result is a non-Deweyan but nonetheless pragmatist option in democratic theory.
article  Wiley  paywall  political_philosophy  pragmatism  democracy  epistemology-social  Rawls  Dewey  Peirce  pluralism 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard J. Ross, Philip J. Stern - Reconstructing Early Modern Notions of Legal Pluralism in "Legal Pluralism and Empires, 1500-1850", ed. Lauren Benton and Richard J. Ross (2013) :: SSRN
Richard J. Ross, U. of Illinois College of Law; U. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Dept of History - Philip J. Stern, Duke History Dept -- Legal pluralism occurs when two or more legal orders exert control within a given territory or over a particular social group and yet are not part of a single hierarchical “system” under a coordinating authority. Most historical scholarship on legal pluralism concentrates on its shifting structures in local contexts and on its political and economic implications. By contrast, our essay probes historical actors’ uses of political and religious thought to justify or undermine plural legal regimes in the late 16thC through early 18thC. Historians of early modern political thought preoccupied with the rise of the modern state have lavished attention on ‘centralizing’ discourses, particularly theorists such as Bodin, Hobbes, and Pufendorf represented as champions of sovereignty. Against this tendency, we emphasize how ideological support for plural legal orders could be found in a wide range of intellectual projects. These ranged from debates over the right of resistance and the divine right of rulers, through historical work on the ancient Jewish commonwealth and theological disputes over which precepts “bound conscience,” and finally to writings on political economy and the place of family. -- The central ambition of our article is to provide an alternative historical genealogy for legal scholars of pluralism. Workaday legal pluralism did not struggle against a predominantly hostile intellectual climate. Many discourses supported pluralism. And the most emphatic theorists of a powerful singular sovereign were often responding to intellectual projects that valorized pluralism.
article  books  SSRN  intellectual_history-distorted  legal_history  legal_system  Europe-Early_Modern  16thC  17thC  18thC  nation-state  centralization  central_government  sovereignty  territory  pluralism-legal  pluralism  custom  customary_law  family  state-building  political_economy  political_culture  religious_history  religious_culture  politics-and-religion  law-and-religion  canon_law  church_history  church_courts  Bodin  Hobbes  Pufendorf  natural_law  colonialism  empires  commonwealth  Hebrew_commonwealth  resistance_theory  divine_right  monarchy  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  theology  casuistry  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Steven D. Smith, review essay - Discourse in the Dusk: The Twilight of Religious Freedom? | JSTOR: Harvard Law Review, Vol. 122, No. 7 (May, 2009), pp. 1869-1907
Reviewed work(s): Religion and the Constitution — Volume 2: Establishment and Fairness by Kent Greenawalt -- Smith claims a millennium of tradition re church and state is unraveling (a la MacIntyre decadent tradition) and US policy and jurisprudence tends to ignore erosion of their fundamental justifications -- starts with Pope Gregory and Henry IV and investiture controversy -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  theology  religion-established  religious_culture  religious_history  church_history  civil_liberties  freedom_of_conscience  tolerance  pluralism  secularism  US_constitution  bill_of_rights  legal_theory  philosophy_of_law  medieval_history  Papacy  Reformation  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
To move beyond theocracy (pre-modern) and secularism (modern), this article closes by identifying the trajectory for a new constructive postmodern paradigm that embraces legal indeterminacy and secularizing the text of the law but argues that a plurality of religious convictions implicitly legitimates and thereby desecularizes the law. Desecularizing the law does not result in the imposition of the religion of the ruler (theocracy) in a pluralistic democratic society. Rather, the constructive postmodern paradigm of law and religion allows for the religious pluralism in society to provide a plurality of religious ontologies that implicitly legitimate the law and close the ontological gap between legal theory and legal practice. -- Mark C. Modak-Truran. "BEYOND THEOCRACY AND SECULARISM (PART I): TOWARD A NEW PARADIGM FOR LAW AND RELIGION" Mississippi College Law Review 27.1 (2008): 159-233. -- downloaded pdf to Note
philosophy_of_law  ontology  ontology-social  social_theory  foundationalism  moral_philosophy  secularism  secular_humanism  post-secular  postmodern  legal_indeterminancy  values  pluralism  legal_theory  legal_culture  political-theology  politics-and-religion  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - Two-Way Translation: The Ethics of Engaging with Religious Contributions in Public Deliberation (2010) :: SSRN
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 10-84 -- Using as an exemplar, the 2007 "Evangelical Declaration against Torture," this paper examines the role of religious argument in public life. -- It argues for an absolute ban on the use of torture deploying unashamedly Christian rhetoric, some of it quite powerful and challenging. -- The present paper considers whether there is any affront to the duties of political civility in arguing in these terms. There is a line of argument, associated with John Rawls's book, "Political Liberalism," suggesting that citizens should refrain from discussing issues of public policy in religious or deep-philosophical terms that are not accessible to other citizens. The present paper challenges the conception of inaccessibility on which this Rawlsian position is based. It argues, with Jurgen Habermas, that all sides in a modern pluralist society have a right to state their views as firmly and as deeply as they can, and all sides have the duty to engage with others, and to strain as well as they can to grasp others' meanings. It is not enough to simply announce that one can not understand religious reasons, especially if no good faith effort has been made, using the ample resources available in our culture, to try. Of course, many peoeple will not be convinced by the reasons that are offered in religious discourse; but to argue for their rejection - which is always what may happen in respectable political deliberation - is not to say that the presentation of those reasons was offensive or inappropriate. (This paper was originally presented as the 2010 Meador Lecture at the University of Virginia Law School). -- Number of Pages in PDF File: 25 -- Keywords: Absolute Principles, Pluralism, Public Reason, Rawls, Religious Reasons, Torture
paper  SSRN  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  public_sphere  political_discourse  politics-and-religion  religious_culture  political_culture  pluralism  liberalism-public_reason  Rawls  Habermas  communication  community  deliberation-public  torture  civic_virtue  civility-political  respect  hermeneutics  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - Isaiah Berlin's Neglect of Enlightenment Constitutionalism (2014) :: SSRN
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 14-12 -- One of the most important achievements of the Enlightenment is what I shall call Enlightenment constitutionalism. It transformed our political thinking out of all recognition; it left, as its legacy, not just the repudiation of monarchy and nobility in France in the 1790s but the unprecedented achievement of the framing, ratification, and establishment of the Constitution of the United States. It comprised the work of Diderot, Kant, Locke, Madison, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Sieyes, and Voltaire. It established the idea of a constitution as an intricate mechanism designed to house the untidiness and pluralism of human politics. Yet Isaiah Berlin, supposedly one of our greatest interpreters of the Enlightenment, said almost nothing about it. The paper develops this claim and it speculates as to why this might be so. Certainly one result of Berlin's sidelining of Enlightenment constitutionalism is to lend spurious credibility to his well-known claim that Enlightenment social design was perfectionist, monastic, and potentially totalitarian. By ignoring Enlightenment constitutionalism, Berlin implicitly directed us away from precisely the body of work that might have refuted this view of Enlightenment social design. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  intellectual_history  18thC  political_philosophy  political_culture  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  British_history  British_politics  English_constitution  French_Enlightenment  American_colonies  American_Revolution  French_Revolution  Enlightenment_Project  Berlin_Isaiah  rationalist  perfectibility  progress  Montesquieu  Founders  Madison  US_constitution  bill_of_rights  Glorious_Revolution  constitutionalism  government-forms  Sieyes  separation-of-powers  checks-and-balances  Absolutism  institutions  institutional_change  representative_institutions  tyranny  limited_monarchy  limited_government  rule_of_law  Diderot  Voltaire  Locke-2_Treatises  Kant  historical_sociology  social_sciences  social_process  pluralism  conflict  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
John Coffey - Puritanism and Liberty Revisited: The Case for Toleration in the English Revolution - JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 41, No. 4 (Dec., 1998), pp. 961-985
In recent years historians have grown sceptical about attempts to trace connections between puritanism and liberty. Puritans, we are told, sought a godly society, not a pluralistic one. The new emphasis has been salutary, but it obscures the fact that a minority of zealous Protestants argued forcefully for the toleration of heresy, blasphemy, Catholicism, non-Christian religions, and even atheism. During the English revolution, a substantial number of Baptists, radical Independents, and Levellers insisted that the New Testament paradigm required the church to be a purely voluntary, non-coercive community in the midst of a pluralistic society governed by a `merely civil' state. Although their position was not without its ambiguities, it constituted a startling break with the Constantinian assumptions of magisterial Protestantism. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  historiography  revisionism  religious_history  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  17thC  British_history  British_politics  Puritans  English_Civil_War  Interregnum  Protectorate  godly_persons  Parliamentarians  republicanism  Cromwell  Levellers  tolerance  religion-established  religious_belief  religious_culture  church_history  New_Testament  apostolic_succession  Early_Christian  theocracy  heterodoxy  pluralism  civil_liberties  civil_religion  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
David Zaret - Religion and the Rise of Liberal-Democratic Ideology in 17th-Century England | JSTOR: American Sociological Review, Vol. 54, No. 2 (Apr., 1989), pp. 163-179
In classical and contemporary sociology, key elements of liberal-democratic ideology are seen as secular extensions of Protestant ideas. This case study provides a different analysis that emphasizes the problem of religious conflict and radicalism in early liberal-democratic ideology. Proponents of the new ideology rejected key tenets of their Puritan heritage, adopting deistic beliefs that legitimated pluralism and tolerance and opposed the older Puritan ideal of godly politics. Building on recent work in the sociology of culture, the paper outlines an analytic strategy for explaining change in ideological systems. Ideological change emerges out of the interaction of contextual pressures and intellectual precedents, as a collective response by ideological innovators to problems of authority. The analysis in this study shows how historical events can form an episodic context which structures this problem of authority. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  historical_sociology  historical_change  change-intellectual  political_philosophy  ideology  political_culture  politics-and-religion  17thC  18thC  British_history  British_politics  Puritans  godly_persons  Deism  theocracy  Calvinist  pluralism  tolerance  Socinians  liberalism  democracy  downloaded  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Edmund Fawcett: Liberalism: The Life of an Idea | Princeton University Press
Using a broad idea of liberalism, the book discusses celebrated thinkers from Constant and Mill to Berlin, Hayek, and Rawls, as well as more neglected figures. Its twentieth-century politicians include Franklin D. Roosevelt, Lyndon Johnson, and Willy Brandt, but also Hoover, Reagan, and Kohl. The story tracks political liberalism from its beginnings in the 1830s to its long, grudging compromise with democracy, through a golden age after 1945 to the present mood of challenge and doubt. Focusing on the United States, Britain, France, and Germany, the book traces how the distinct traditions of these countries converged on the practice of liberal democracy. Although liberalism has many currents, Fawcett suggests that they are held together by shared commitments: resistance to power, faith in social progress, respect for people's chosen enterprises and beliefs, and acceptance that interests and faiths will always conflict. Edmund Fawcett worked at The Economist for more than three decades, serving as chief correspondent in Washington, Paris, and Berlin, as well as European and literary editor. - Introduction downloaded pdf to Note
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  liberalism  19thC  20thC  France  British_politics  US_politics  Germany  Mill  Constant  Gladstone  Hayek  Friedman_Milton  Berlin_Isaiah  Oakeshott  Reagan  Thatcher  Mitterand  political_economy  political_culture  franchise  political_participation  pluralism  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Shane J. Ralston - Can Pragmatists be Institutionalists? John Dewey Joins the Non-ideal/Ideal Theory Debate | JSTOR: Human Studies, Vol. 33, No. 1 (May 2010), pp. 65-84
During the 1960s and 1970s, institutionalists and behavioralists in the discipline of political science argued over the legitimacy of the institutional approach to political inquiry. In the discipline of philosophy, a similar debate concerning institutions has never taken place. Yet, a growing number of philosophers are now working out the institutional implications of political ideas in what has become known as "non-ideal theory." My thesis is two-fold: (1) pragmatism and institutionalism are compatible and (2) non-ideal theorists, following the example of pragmatists, can avoid a similar debate as took place between institutionalists and behavioralists by divulging their assumptions about institutions. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  social_theory  critical_theory  pragmatism  liberalism  Dewey  institutions  ideal_theory  Rawls  pluralism  conflict  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Andrew Mason - Rawlsian Theory and the Circumstances of Politics | JSTOR: Political Theory, Vol. 38, No. 5 (October 2010), pp. 658-683
Builds on recent critique of "ideal" theory -- Can Rawlsian theory provide us with an adequate response to the practical question of how we should proceed in the face of widespread and intractable disagreement over matters of justice? Recent criticism of ideal theorizing might make us wonder whether this question highlights another way in which ideal theory can be too far removed from our non-ideal circumstances to provide any practical guidance. Further reflection on it does not show that ideal theory is redundant, but it does indicate that there is a need for a non-ideal theory that does not consist simply in an account of how to apply the principles which are yielded by ideal theory to non-ideal circumstances in the light of what is feasible and an assessment of the costs of implementation. Indeed any non-ideal theory that can adequately address this question will have to be partially autonomous, drawing on a notion of legitimacy that is rather different to the one which lies at the heart of Rawlsian ideal theory. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  political_philosophy  social_theory  critical_theory  moral_philosophy  ideal_theory  legitimacy  liberalism  Rawls  justice  impartiality  conflict  pluralism  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard J. Arneson, review essay - The Priority of the Right Over the Good Rides Again - Brian Barry, A Treatise on Social Justice, Vol. 2, Justice as Impartiality | JSTOR: Ethics, Vol. 108, No. 1 (Oct., 1997), pp. 169-196
Very lengthy discussion of post Rawls attempts to ground liberalism in some sort of impartial proceduralism - Barry seems to rely on Scanlon who claims his contractualism has substantive content and isn't utilitarianism -- Arneson looks to be highly sceptical -- useful for sorting out those political_philosophy debates -- didn't download
books  reviews  article  jstor  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  liberalism  contractualism  utilitarianism  practical_reason  justice  impartiality  pluralism  intellectual_history  Rawls  20thC  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Luke Philip Plotica - Deliberation or Conversation: Michael Oakeshott on the Ethos and Conduct of Democracy | JSTOR: Polity, Vol. 44, No. 2 (April 2012), pp. 286-307
In recent years, scholars have begun to explore the democratic valences of Michael Oakeshott's political thought. Commentators generally present him either as a skeptical and reluctant democrat or as an advocate of deliberative democracy. This article contends that Oakeshott criticizes some epistemological and substantive commitments that are characteristic of deliberative theories, yet his vision of democracy is more robust than skeptical readers admit. Using the themes of consensus and epistemic politics as points for comparison with the ideas of Oakeshott and deliberative democrats, I consider how his theory of civil association, critique of rationalism, and characterization of conversation as "the gist and meaning of democracy" speak to contemporary democratic theory. I conclude that he offers a pluralistic ethos, rather than a self-contained model, for democratic politics that has affinities with agonistic theories of democracy. -- paywall
article  jstor  paywall  political_philosophy  democracy  deliberation-public  epistemology-social  civil_society  conversation  pluralism  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Ella Myers - From Pluralism to Liberalism: Rereading Isaiah Berlin | JSTOR: The Review of Politics, Vol. 72, No. 4 (FALL 2010), pp. 599-625
The relationship between pluralism and liberalism has been at the center of recent considerations of Isaiah Berlin's thought. In particular, liberal theorists have asked whether the value pluralism Berlin endorses actually undermines his liberalism. A common interpretive approach resolves this problem by presenting Berlin's pluralism as "limited" rather than "radical," and therefore capable of serving as a moral foundation authorizing liberalism. I challenge this re-construction of Berlin's work, arguing that such readings are premised on a conception of judgment Berlin does not share. While many of his readers believe that a judgment on behalf of liberalism requires the identification of a transcontextual ground, Berlin invites us to see human judgment as a meaningful practice that occurs in the absence of absolutes yet does not simply mirror local norms. Berlin's defense of liberalism models this kind of judgment—a judgment that is neither mandated, nor ruled out, by pluralism. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  morality-conventional  morality-objective  liberalism  pluralism  relativism  Berlin_Isaiah  anti-foundationalism  practical_knowledge  phronesis  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard Boyd - Thomas Hobbes and the Perils of Pluralism | JSTOR: The Journal of Politics, Vol. 63, No. 2 (May, 2001), pp. 392-413
Scholarly opinion has been split uneasily between those who view Thomas Hobbes as a defender of Royalist absolutism and those who see him as the intellectual forefather of liberal individualism. While both these positions are compatible with Hobbes's deep-seated fear of intermediary associations between individual and state, this article will contend that it is his fear of the violent and irrational properties of groups that motivates his well-known individualism and gives a potentially illiberal bent to his political thought. Attending to Hobbes's neglected thoughts on the dangers posed by parties, sects, and other groups between individual and state sheds light on both the historical context and intellectual legacy of his thought. Hobbes's metaphorical complaints about those "lesser Common-wealths" akin to "wormes in the entrayles of a naturall man" also should prompt us to rethink many versions of contemporary pluralism and the vogue of civil society: Much of what today is recommended as "civil society" was considered anything but "civil" in the early modern political imagination.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  17thC  Hobbes  Absolutism  individualism  liberalism  fear  parties  faction  sectarianism  pluralism  civil_society  civil_liberties  tolerance  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Amy R. McCready - The Ethical Individual: An Historical Alternative to Contemporary Conceptions of the Self | JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 90, No. 1 (Mar., 1996), pp. 90-102
In this article I offer an historically situated model of the self as an alternative to liberal, communitarian, and Foucauldian conceptions. Through the example of John Milton, I show that the conscience gave rise to a self that was jointly individual and ethical. By participating in public debates at the behest of his conscience, Milton recognized himself as an individual possessor of moral authority. Conscience thus liberated Milton from traditional identifications and beliefs as it bound him to act for his society. The self founded on conscience therefore differs from both communitarian and liberal variants. Moreover, whereas conscience in the Foucauldian account renders the self docile, it empowers the self in my account. I conclude that the self predicated on conscience challenges the divisions between private and public realms, self-regarding and prosocial actions, and self-creating and culturally determined persons. -- lots of interesting references re self Taylor etc, communitarian debates, 17thC notions of conscience -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  political_philosophy  liberalism  communitarian  individualism  pluralism  conscience  moral_philosophy  self-interest  altruism  political_participation  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard Boyd - Reappraising the Scottish Moralists and Civil Society | JSTOR: Polity, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Autumn, 2000), pp. 101-125
Michael Sandel and others have faulted liberal constitutionalism for its "proceduralism," its "bracketing" of divisive moral issues, and its pursuit of the "unencumbered self." As a contemporary diagnosis, there is much to be said on behalf of these criticisms. Yet in recounting the story of liberalism's development as the deliberate and inevitable pursuit of moral individuality, these accounts fail to consider the anticipated benefits-as well as the costs-of modern constitutionalism that were evident to eighteenth-century thinkers like David Hume and Adam Smith. We will see that classical liberals like Hume and Smith did not defend liberal constitutionalism in the name of the "unencumbered self." Instead they saw liberal neutrality, the separation between public and private, and the relegation of religion to a private matter of civil society as the best way to accommodate sectarianism, ethical pluralism and the religious conflicts of the post-Reformation world. Only by challenging contemporary presumptions of liberal teleology and by understanding classical liberalism's development as the product of eighteenth-century encounters with the perils of pluralism can we fully reckon the advantages and disadvantages of liberal constitutionalism. These lessons of classical liberalism suggest both the presumptive virtues of liberalism and the dangers of communitarian efforts to encourage shared purposes and a thicker public life in the modern polity. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  political_philosophy  liberalism  communitarian  pluralism  constitutionalism  18thC  Scottish_Enlightenment  civil_society  public_sphere  individualism  religious_wars  politics-and-religion  political_culture  Hume  Smith  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Reviews [series] of Brad Gregory, The Unintended Reformation « The Immanent Frame
Brad S. Gregory’s The Unintended Reformation traces the absence of any substantive common good—and the triumph of capitalism, consumerism, and individualism—to the long-term effects of the Protestant Reformation. Yet can the social and political ills of modern societies be understood as more or less direct, if unforeseeable, consequences of the Reformation? What is the contemporary import of thinking of modernity as the degradation of an earlier, more wholesome age? What sort of philosophical or theological premises underlie Gregory’s understanding of history, and how are political and socioeconomic factors to be incorporated into his account of modernization? We have invited scholars to respond to these and other questions, to evaluate Gregory’s thesis, and to offer their critiques of how his work might fit into broader historical patterns of interpreting the relationship of modernity to its past.

Series started with Clapper, September 2013. As of Pabst (Sept 24) all reactions have ranged from impressed with the scope of the intellectual history to attacking Gregory’s history as tenditious by omissions if not commissions, and for Gregory’s agenda (legitimating religious providentialism or metaphysics in historiographical evidence? or reimposing Catholicism (which? ) as politically and culturally authoritative? or just another anti modernity cri de coeur?) the reactions range from politely unenthusiastic to aggressively hostile.

Secular supercessionism and alternative modernity -Adrian Pabst

Get over it - Victoria Kahn

Has modernity failed? - Peter E. Gordon

The return of sacred history - Ian Hunter

An intended absence? Democracy and The Unintended Reformation - James Chappe
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october 2013 by dunnettreader

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