dunnettreader + physiology   26

Ruairidh James Macleod - The Concept of Temporality in John Dewey's Early Works (2015 thesis) - Academic Commons
Ruairidh James Macleod, 2015, The Concept of Temporality in John Dewey's Early Works, Columbia University Academic Commons, http://dx.doi.org/10.7916/D8M044XW : -- It is well understood that a concept of temporality is central to Dewey’s later work, finding its culmination in his essay “Time and Individuality” (1938). What has not been either acknowledged or established is the fact that a detailed and sophisticated concept of temporality, one which is fully in accord with his later work, was already present in Dewey’s early work, particularly in his essay “The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology” (1896). This thesis therefore seeks to demonstrate not only that such a concept of temporality exists in Dewey’s early work, but also the nuanced nature of that concept of temporality, particularly in its function as a central, grounding component of the preconditions required for Dewey’s concept of experience. (..) this thesis argues that it in fact constitutes a key contribution to a tradition of philosophy of temporality which starts with the work of Henri Bergson, continues with the philosophy of Martin Heidegger (most saliently with Being and Time), and finds its full contemporary statement in Gilles Deleuze’s work on time, based on his concept of ‘the virtual.’ The fact that Dewey’s concept of temporality, as with that of Deleuze, is based on a sophisticated understanding of contemporary scientific findings is also explored, with the argument made that possessing such a foundation in scientific thought allows Dewey’s concept of temporality to become fully compatible to current research in psychology, particularly as it concerns educational psychology. -- downloaded pdf to Note
thesis  downloaded  intellectual_history  18thC  20thC  philosophical_anthropology  mind  consciousness  time  time-perception  subjectivity  Dewey  pragmatism  psychology  physiology  neuroscience  Bergson  Heidegger  Deleuze  education  learning 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Steven Shapin - How Foods Tasted in the Early Modern Period and How They Taste Now (2012) | School of Advanced Study, University of London
Speaker(s):
Professor Steven Shapin, ST Lee Visiting Professorial Fellow, 2011/12, Franklin L. Ford Professor of the History of Science, Harvard University
Event date:
Tuesday 22 May 2012
School of Advanced Study, University of London
sensation  Europe-Early_Modern  Addison  intellectual_history  Locke-Essay  video  consumer_revolution  lecture  perception  food  botany  medicine  physiology  cultural_history  taste  humours 
march 2016 by dunnettreader
Alex Wetmore - Sympathy Machines: Men of Feeling and the Automaton (2009) | JSTOR - Eighteenth-Century Studies
Eighteenth-Century Studies, Vol. 43, No. 1 (FALL 2009), pp. 37-54 -- Recent discussions of the automaton in eighteenth-century British culture have situated this figure in relation to shifting concepts of feminine identity. However, comparatively little attention has been spent on the automaton's relation to masculinity. In light of this, my essay considers parallels between automata and representations of men of feeling in the sentimental novels of Sterne, Smollett, and Mackenzie. Juxtaposing these novels with spectacles of automata like Cox's Museum reveal at least two interesting insights: (1) the man of feeling's automatically-reactive sensibility destabilizes eighteenth-century conceptual boundaries between humans and machines; and (2) in breaching these boundaries, men of feeling point to important shifts in the relationship between the mechanical and the virtuous as the century progresses. -- looks like a useful lit survey -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  cultural_history  18thC  Enlightenment  natural_philosophy  mechanism  materialism  psychology  physiology  moral_philosophy  automatons  sensibility  man-of-feeling  moral_sentiments  masculinity  sentimentalism  novels  Sterne  Smollett  social_theory  civil_society  politeness  manners  authenticity  self  self-knowledge  bibliography  downloaded 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
Nadeem J. Z. Hussain and Lydia Patton - Friedrich Albert Lange | Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy August 2012 revision of original May 2095
Friedrich Albert Lange (b. 1828, d. 1875) was a German philosopher, pedagogue, political activist, and journalist. He was one of the originators of neo-Kantianism and an important figure in the founding of the Marburg school of neo-Kantianism. He also played a significant role in the German labour movement and in the development of social democratic thought. His book, The History of Materialism, was a standard introduction to materialism and the history of philosophy well into the twentieth century. -- 1. Life and Intellectual Career -- 2. Pedagogy -- 3. The Labor Question -- 4. Neo-Kantianism ** 4.1 The Ethical Standpoint of the Ideal ** 4.2 Logic and Scientific Methodology -- downloaded as pdf to Note
intellectual_history  19thC  Germany  German_scholars  Lange_FA  neo-Kantian  Hegelian  German_Idealism  materialism-19thC  materialism  historiography-19thC  philosophy_of_science  epistemology  epistemology-moral  epistemology-naturalism  ancient_philosophy  atomism  logic  scientific_method  socialism  labor  capitalism  Industrial_Revolution  social_democracy  physiology  mind  perception  sensation  Kant-ethics  bibliography 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Book Announcement: From Aristotle’s teleology to Darwin’s genealogy
see kindle sample - covers why scientific revolution didn't have the sort of impact that mathematization had in physical sciences - claims that yhe cornerstones of thinkijg re human sciences remained essentialist and fixistmore due to late scholastic snd Rensissance incorporation of Aristotelian principles than religiously driven creationusm - they fid converge and, especially in Anglo countries, reinflorced by 18thC "natural theology" - Darwin uses the anomalies that have no adaptationist utility, like sightless moles, to blow up the functionalist teleological foundation of yhe Aristotelian approach to species
Pocket  17thc  18thc  19thc  Darwin  ancient_greece  aristotle  bible-as-history  biology  books  creationist  deism  early_modern  evolution  geology  history_of_science  intellectual_history  kindle-available  medieval  natural_theology  physiology  renaissance  scholasticism  scientific_revolution 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Noah Millman - Was Origen the Caitlyn Jenner of the Transabled? | The American Conservative - June 2015
I’m afraid I’m going to re-enter the fray. Rod Dreher has a piece today wondering whether the next step in our cultural development (or decline) will be the… Another superb piece by Millman illustrating how Dreher's hostility to changing cultural norms gets wrapped in a blanket condemnation of "modernity" (and liberalism, individualism, autonomy, and generally Enlightenment values) yet Dreher is committed to Enlightenment benefits of increased knowledge, and insists on liberalism's commitment to personal religious liberty. So it basically comes down to liberty for me but not for thee, with the Church authority for norm-setting both impervious to scientific and cultural change, and claiming an extension over those who don't recognize the Chyrch's authority. The example of Origen, whose spiritual commitment led to self-castration, and who wasn't condemned by the senior hierarchy (prior to the Church legislating on a range of norms dealing with the body and especially sexuality and gender, which was one reason Origen was never made a saint). Millman also has a lengthy passage from Tolstoy about a priest, sexual tension, spiritual demands and self-mutilation, with Tolstoy's final conclusion that this sort of psychological turmoil wasn’t the praiseworthy attitudes and action of a saint but self-absorbed cintra Christ's teaching. Tl; dr -- Dreher can't have it both ways (or in his case what seems like an ever-growing laundry list of contradictory ways). -- saved to Instapaper
Instapaper  sexuality  gender  gender-and-religion  norms  Early_Christian  theology  declinism  modernity  liberalism  Orthodox_Christianity  authority  individualism  autonomy  culture_wars  culture-American  cultural_change  cultural_authority  psychology  identity  biology  physiology  neuroscience  Tolstoy  religious_experience  religious_culture  religion-established  civil_liberties  bill_of_rights  from instapaper
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Caroline Jacot Grapa - Dans le vif du sujet - Diderot, corps et âme ( 2009) | Classiques Garnier - collection L'Europe des Lumières
Ce livre est un essai sur le style du matérialisme de Diderot, sa psychologie, sa métaphysique et sur les figures de l'intériorité des Lumières. La langue de l'intériorité, apanage de la spiritualité, se retrempe au contact sensible des métaphores de l'époque. Elles donnent accès à un savoir nouveau de la vie corporelle. L'actualité de cet essai tient au dialogue qu'il engage avec la phénoménologie et les neurosciences. -- This work is an essay on the style of Diderot's materialism, his psychology and his metaphysics. Its modern pertinence stems from the dialogue established with phenomenology and neurosciences. -- ISBN 978-2-8124-0046-9 -- 504 pages -- looks extremely interesting -- tracking reception of British empiricism, debates over various Cartesian proposals for dealing with animals, and the new directions taken both in life sciences and psychology and the metaphysics of materialism -- downloaded TOC as pdf to Note
books  find  amazon.fr  libraries  intellectual_history  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  natural_philosophy  18thC  France  Diderot  d'Alembert  d'Holbach  Cartesian  Locke  Newton  Newtonian  Encyclopédie  Republic_of_Letters  philosophes  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Vitalism  psychology  thinking_matter  anatomy  physiology  scientific_method  organism  subject  subjectivity  phenomenology  neuroscience  materialism  metaphysics  mind  mind-body  soul  human_nature  metaphor  French_language  French_lit  downloaded 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
François Duchesneau - La Physiologie des Lumières - Empirisme, modèles et théories (2012) | Classiques Garnier, coll. Histoire et philosophie des sciences
Cet ouvrage décrit et analyse les modèles de l'être vivant qui, dans le cadre de la révolution scientifique des Temps modernes, ont dessiné un parcours intellectuel menant à l'invention de la biologie comme science. Tout au long du xviiie siècle, la physiologie définit ses méthodes et ses concepts fondamentaux. Mobilisant les savoirs empiriques disponibles, elle en extrait les principes d'une véritable science des corps organisés. -- ISBN 978-2-8124-0783-3 -- 739 pages -- mostly Germans and French, including Leibniz and Wolff and Maupertuis and Buffon as significant stages in the debates
books  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  natural_philosophy  biology  anatomy  physiology  scientific_method  17thC  18thC  life_sciences  empiricism  Leibniz  Wolff_Christian  Maupertuis  Buffon 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Melanie Boly et al - Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: recent advances and future directions (2013) | Frontiers of Psychology - Consciousness Research
Review ARTICLE - Frontiers of Psychology, 31 October 2013 | doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00625 -- Melanie Boly1,2,3*, Anil K. Seth4,5, Melanie Wilke6,7, Paul Ingmundson8, Bernard Baars9, Steven Laureys3, David B. Edelman10 and Naotsugu Tsuchiya11,12 -- This joint article reflects the authors' personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last 10 years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. It is based on a small conference in July of 2012, organized by the Mind Science Foundation of San Antonio,. We summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical, and conceptual insights. These include the evidence for the importance of fronto-parietal connectivity and of “top-down” processes, both of which enable information to travel across distant cortical areas effectively, as well as numerous dissociations between consciousness and cognitive functions, such as attention, in humans. In addition, we describe the development of mental imagery paradigms, which made it possible to identify covert awareness in non-responsive subjects. Non-human animal consciousness research has also witnessed substantial advances on the specific role of cortical areas and higher order thalamus for consciousness, thanks to important technological enhancements. In addition, much progress has been made in the understanding of non-vertebrate cognition relevant to possible conscious states. Finally, major advances have been made in theories of consciousness, and also in their comparison with the available evidence. Along with reviewing these findings, each author suggests future avenues for research in their field of investigation.
Keywords: consciousness, animals, human cognition, theoretical neuroscience, biotechnology, neuroimaging

Citation: Boly M, Seth AK, Wilke M, Ingmundson P, Baars B, Laureys S, Edelman DB and Tsuchiya N (2013) Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: recent advances and future directions. Front. Psychol. 4:625. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00625
article  neuroscience  consciousness  cognition  brain  animals  physiology  mind  mind-body  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Catherine E. Kerr et al - Mindfulness starts with the body: somatosensory attention and top-down modulation of cortical alpha rhythms in mindfulness meditation (2013) | Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Review ARTICLE - Frontiers of Human Neuroscience, 13 February 2013 | doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00012 -- Catherine E. Kerr1*, Matthew D. Sacchet2,3, Sara W. Lazar4, Christopher I. Moore5 and Stephanie R. Jones4,5 - authors from Brown, Stanford and Mass General -- Using a common set of mindfulness exercises, mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) have been shown to reduce distress in chronic pain and decrease risk of depression relapse. These standardized mindfulness (ST-Mindfulness) practices predominantly require attending to breath and body sensations. Here, we offer a novel view of ST-Mindfulness's somatic focus as a form of training for optimizing attentional modulation of 7–14 Hz alpha rhythms that play a key role in filtering inputs to primary sensory neocortex and organizing the flow of sensory information in the brain. (..) Our computational model predicts ST-Mindfulness enhances top-down modulation of alpha by facilitating precise alterations in timing and efficacy of SI thalamocortical inputs. We conclude by considering how the framework aligns with Buddhist teachings that mindfulness starts with “mindfulness of the body.” Translating this theory into neurophysiology, we hypothesize that with its somatic focus, mindfulness' top-down alpha rhythm modulation in SI enhances gain control which, in turn, sensitizes practitioners to better detect and regulate when the mind wanders from its somatic focus. This enhanced regulation of somatic mind-wandering may be an important early stage of mindfulness training that leads to enhanced cognitive regulation and metacognition. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  neuroscience  brain  perception  psychology  pain  Buddhism  meditation  physiology  health  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Simon M. G. Braun and Sebastian Jessberger - Adult neurogenesis: mechanisms and functional significance (2014) | Development - online Journal of development biology
DEVELOPMENT AT A GLANCE -- Abstract - New neurons are generated throughout life in distinct regions of the mammalian brain. This process, called adult neurogenesis, has been implicated in physiological brain function, and failing or altered neurogenesis has been associated with a number of neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms governing the neurogenic process in the adult brain and describe how new neurons may contribute to brain function in health and disease.
article  neuroscience  brain-development  brain  genetics  epigenetics  physiology  psychology  plasticity  neurogenesis  primates  molecular_biology  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Nietzsche's Philosophy of Action (2009) :: SSRN - in Blackwell Companion to Philosophy of Action, 2010
U of Chicago, Public Law Working Paper No. 270 -- Nietzsche holds that people lack freedom of the will in any sense that would be sufficient for ascriptions of moral responsibility; that the conscious experience we have of willing is actually epiphenomenal with respect to the actions that follow that experience; and that our actions largely arise through non-conscious processes (psychological and physiological) of which we are only dimly aware, and over which we exercise little or no conscious control. At the same time, Nietzsche, always a master of rhetoric, engages in a “persuasive definition” (Stevenson 1938) of the language of “freedom” and “free will,” to associate the positive valence of these terms with a certain Nietzschean ideal of the person unrelated to traditional notions of free will. -- No of Pages: 18 -- Keywords: Nietzsche, free will, moral responsibility, freedom, philosophy of action, epiphenomenalism -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  books  SSRN  intellectual_history  19thC  Germany  action-theory  Nietzsche  free_will  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  mind  consciousness  physiology  psychology  naturalism  responsibility  guilt  freedom  epiphenomenal  aesthetics  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Kevin Mitchell - Wiring the Brain: The genetics of emergent phenotypes - March 2013
Nifty discussion of emergence in dynamic systems - he claims the higher level phenomena are reducible to lower level factors (post hoc explanation) but not deducible from the lower level. However the dynamic elements that change relations at or among higher level elements (which will change relations at lower levels) seem to be doing most of the explanatory work -- Why are some brain disorders so common? Schizophrenia, autism and epilepsy each affect about 1% of the world’s population, over their lifetimes. Why are the specific phenotypes associated with those conditions so frequent? More generally, why do particular phenotypes exist at all? What constrains or determines the types of phenotypes we observe, out of all the variations we could conceive of? Why does a system like the brain fail in particular ways when the genetic program is messed with? Here, I consider how the difference between “concrete” and “emergent” properties of the brain may provide an explanation, or at least a useful conceptual framework. --
genetics  medicine  psychology  physiology  neuroscience  mind  materialism  emergence  systems-complex_adaptive  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Steven Shapin - Descartes the Doctor: Rationalism and Its Therapies | JSTOR: The British Journal for the History of Science, Vol. 33, No. 2 (Jun., 2000), pp. 131-154
During the Scientific Revolution one important gauge of the quality of reformed natural philosophical knowledge was its ability to produce a more effective medical practice. Indeed, it was sometimes thought that philosophers who pretended to possess new and more potent philosophical knowledge might display that possession in personal health and longevity. René Descartes repeatedly wrote that a better medical practice was a major aim of his philosophical enterprise. He said that he had made important strides towards achieving that aim and, on that basis, he offered practical medical advice to others and advertised the expectation that, taking his own advice, he would live a very long time. This paper describes what Cartesian medicine looked like in practice and what that practice owed to the power of modernist Reason. -- huge bibliography -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  history_of_science  medicine  17thC  Descartes  Bacon  natural_philosophy  physiology  psychology  emotions  mind-body  diet  aging  humours  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Geoffrey Gorham - Mind-Body Dualism and the Harvey-Descartes Controversy | JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 55, No. 2 (Apr., 1994), pp. 211-234
Looks quite helpful - different explanations of Descartes concern with Harvey showing heart as autonomic engine of circulation -- some attribute it to rationalist vs empiricist methodology, others to different ways of being empiricist, others to Descartes's metaphysical objection that an apparently self generating motion didn't fit with his mechanism hypothesis -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  history_of_science  natural_philosophy  physiology  anatomy  experimental_philosophy  rationalist  empiricism  mind-body  17thC  Descartes  Harvey  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Issue TOC - Observation and Experiment in 17thC Anatomy | JSTOR: Early Science and Medicine, Vol. 13, No. 6, 2008
(1) Observation and Experiment in Mechanistic Anatomy (pp. 531-532) Domenico Bertoloni Meli and Rebecca Wilkin. *-- (2) Essaying the Mechanical Hypothesis: Descartes, La Forge, and Malebranche on the Formation of Birthmarks (pp. 533-567) Rebecca M. Wilkin. *-- (3) Harvey's and Highmore's Accounts of Chick Generation (pp. 568-614) Karin J. Ekholm. *-- (4) Experimenting with Chymical Bodies: Reinier de Graaf's Investigations of the Pancreas (pp. 615-664) Evan R. Ragland. *-- (5) The Collaboration between Anatomists and Mathematicians in the Mid-17thC with a Study of Images as Experiments and Galileo's Role in Steno's "Myology" (pp. 665-709) Domenico Bertoloni Meli
journal  article  jstor  intellectual_history  history_of_science  medicine  experimental_philosophy  anatomy  physiology  mechanism  corpuscular  17thC  Descartes  Malebranche  Harvey  chemistry  mathematics  Galileo  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Eyal Chowers - The Physiology of the Citizen: The Present-Centered Body and Its Political Exile | JSTOR: Political Theory, Vol. 30, No. 5 (Oct., 2002), pp. 649-676
Shift from civic humanism's optimistic view of man's capacity to build for the future and control sociopolitical environment to pessimistic view of capacity of citizens under raison d'Etat -- 16thC and 17thC increasingly focused on multipart, shifting self and passions vs reason rather than the development of a stable character that Renaissance humanism concerned with. Ties shift to new views of anatomy (eg Harvey) and connections between physiology and psychology and impact on different notions of time relative to self, society and politics. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  cultural_history  natural_philosophy  15thC  16thC  17thC  British_history  France  Italy  Italian_Wars  Renaissance  humanism  civic_humanism  civic_virtue  republicanism  raison-d'-état  Absolutism  emotions  physiology  psychology  medicine  self  time  Machiavelli  Montaigne  Descartes  Gassendi  Hobbes  Locke  Harrington  Harvey  identity  character  mechanism  thinking_matter  mind  mind-body  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Sean Ward, review - (misc) 18thC science of man & geological history to 1750 | JSTOR: Eighteenth-Century Studies, Vol. 32, No. 4 (Summer, 1999), pp. 579-580
Reviewed work(s): (1) Inventing Human Science: Eighteenth-Century Domains by Christopher Fox; Roy Porter; Robert Wokler; (2) When Geologists were Historians, 1665-1750 by Rhoda Rappaport; (3) The Mammoth and the Mouse: Microhistory and Morphology by Florike Egmond; Peter Mason -- didn't download -- The Porter et al looks excellent. High praise for transmission and influence via the Republic of Letters for Rappaport study. Find both
books  reviews  jstor  find  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  social_sciences  medicine  physiology  psychology  political_economy  political_philosophy  geology  Biblical_criticism  Bible-as-history  Genesis  creation_ex_nilho  Buffon  Republic_of_Letters  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert B. Ekelund, Jr., review - Germano Maifreda: From Oikonomia to Political Economy: Constructing Economic Knowledge from the Renaissance to the Scientific Revolution | EH.net
Ashgate, 2012. vii + 304 pp. $135 (hardcover), ISBN: 978-1-4094-3301-9.

The transition from the culturally and religiously oriented era of Oikonomia to the political economy of, say, Smith and Hume, was not linear.? Culture, science and religion evolved and helped shape conceptions of economic functioning. (It would appear that medieval Christianity was not productive of ?economy.?)? Secularism also evolved and searches for constancy in value, in exchange and in entrepreneurship were shaped by culture and psychology.? Epistemology affected the scaffolding and functioning of the economic superstructure at any point in time.?

[H]e raises intriguing links between culture, psychology, medicine, biology and economic categories. In Chapters 5 through7 (plus an epilogue), Maifreda weaves together exceptionally interesting material on the manner in which the principles of other sciences and studies used what we now call economic reasoning and motivations.? The whole question of how the idea that labor ?caused? or ?represented? or ?was involved with? value is the subject of Chapters 5 and 6.? Maifreda highlights (properly) how Locke?s analysis of private property is the ?essential element? in productive economy (p. 167).? Also examined is how labor and the concept of equilibrium are related to both theological and physiological reasoning, the concept of equilibrium prominent in the writings of Hales and Boisguilbert He concludes that ?powerful metaphors formed within diverse fields of knowledge … lent their assistance to ways of thinking about phenomena and drawing up models and generalizations? (p. 253) that, later, became an independent science of economics and economic reasoning.? One small complaint is that he does not extend his discussion into exactly how and through whom the transition was finally made (e.g., possibly Cantillon and others).? But that may be the subject for another study.
books  reviews  intellectual_history  economic_history  Renaissance  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  16thC  17thC  18thC  political_economy  economic_theory  economic_culture  commerce  values  labor  Locke  property  currency  prices  cultural_history  theology  Providence  moral_philosophy  moral_economy  Foucault  Physiocrats  Linnaeus  biology  physiology  equilibrium  metaphor  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Harro Maas: Where Mechanism Ends: Thomas Reid on the Moral and the Animal Oeconomy (2003)
Project MUSE - History of Political Economy Volume 35, Annual Supplement, 2003 pp. 338-360 | Theories of life have consequences for how the social order is conceptualized. I pursue this theme in the work of the Aberdeen philosopher of mind Thomas Reid (1710–96), or more accurately, in his reactions to others' views. Reid typically developed his own ideas into a coherent view in juxtaposition to ideas to which he took exception. This means entering into a number of apparently discrete contexts before the unifying threads can be made plain. Let me introduce my theme with a not untypical example of Reid's way of clarifying by accentuating difference.
article  Project_MUSE  paywall  intellectual_history  18thC  Scottish_Enlightenment  human_nature  physiology  psychology  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  Reid  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
John V. Pickstone: Working Knowledges Before and After circa 1800: Practices and Disciplines in the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine (2007)
JSTOR: Isis, Vol. 98, No. 3 (September 2007), pp. 489-516 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Historians of science, inasmuch as they are concerned with knowledges and practices rather than institutions, have tended of late to focus on case studies of common processes such as experiment and publication. In so doing, they tend to treat science as a single category, with various local instantiations. Or, alternatively, they relate cases to their specific local contexts. In neither approach do the cases or their contexts build easily into broader histories, reconstructing changing knowledge practices across time and space. This essay argues that by systematically deconstructing the practices of science and technology and medicine (STM) into common, recurrent elements, we can gain usefully “configurational” views, not just of particular cases and contexts but of synchronic variety and diachronic changes, both short term and long. To this end, we can begin with the customary actors’ disciplines of early modern knowledge (natural philosophy, natural history, mixed mathematics, and experimental philosophy), which can be understood as elemental “ways of knowing and working,” variously combined and disputed. I argue that these same working knowledges, together with a later mode—synthetic experimentation and systematic invention—may also serve for the analysis of STM from the late eighteenth century to the present. 
article  jstor  historiography  sociology_of_knowledge  history_of_science  intellectual_history  natural_philosophy  medicine  physiology  technology  industry  Scientific_Revolution  Industrial_Revolution  17thC  18thC  19thC 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
John V. Pickstone: Sketching Together the Modern Histories of Science, Technology, and Medicine (2011)
JSTOR: Isis, Vol. 102, No. 1 (March 2011), pp. 123-133 -- roundup and looking forward article in issue Focus: Between and Beyond “Histories of Science” and “Histories of Medicine” -- downloaded pdf to Note -- This essay explores ways to “write together” the awkwardly jointed histories of “science” and “medicine”—but it also includes other “arts” (in the old sense) and technologies. It draws especially on the historiography of medicine, but I try to use terms that are applicable across all of science, technology, and medicine (STM). I stress the variety of knowledges and practices in play at any time and the ways in which the ensembles change. I focus on the various relations of “science” and “medicine,” as they were understood for a succession of periods—from mainly agricultural societies, through industrial societies, to our biomedical present—trying to sketch a history that encompasses daily practices and understandings as well as major conceptual and technical innovations. The model is meant to facilitate inquiry across topics and across times, including those to come.
article  jstor  historiography  sociology_of_knowledge  history_of_science  medicine  technology  biology  chemistry  physiology  natural_philosophy  mathematics  communication  IT  evolution  university  academies  education  industry  Industrial_Revolution  Renaissance  Enlightenment  Scientific_Revolution  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Jacques Bos: The rise and decline of character: humoral psychology in ancient and early modern medical theory (2009) | History of the Human Sciences - Sage
doi: 10.1177/0952695109104422 History of the Human Sciences July 2009 vol. 22no. 3 29-50 -- Humoralism, the view that the human body is composed of a limited number of elementary fluids, is one of the most characteristic aspects of ancient medicine. The psychological dimension of humoral theory in the ancient world has thus far received a relatively small amount of scholarly attention. Medical psychology in the ancient world can only be correctly understood by relating it to psychological thought in other fields, such as ethics and rhetoric. The concept that ties these various domains together is character (êthos), which involves a view of human beings focused on clearly distinguishable psychological types that can be recognized on the basis of external signs. Psychological ideas based on humoral theory remained influential well into the early modern period. Yet, in 17th-century medicine and philosophy, humoral physiology and psychology started to lose ground to other theoretical perspectives on the mind and its relation to the body. This decline of humoralist medical psychology can be related to a broader reorientation of psychological thought in which the traditional concept of character lost its central position. Instead of the focus on types and stable character traits, a perspective emerged that was primarily concerned with individuality and transient passions.
article  intellectual_history  cultural_history  17thC  medicine  body  psychology  emotions  physiology  mind  mind-body  character  humours  moral_philosophy  rhetoric  Pope  paywall  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader

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