dunnettreader + philosophy_of_science   157

Susan Haack’s Scientism and its Discontents | Rounded Globe
Susan Haack’s Scientism and its Discontents is based on her September 2016 Agnes Cuming Lectures at University College, Dublin. - Download epub version to Dropbox
sociology_of_science_&_technology  ebooks  epistemology  postmodern  pragmatism  philosophy_of_science  scepticism  downloaded  scientism 
december 2017 by dunnettreader
Kenneth R Westphal - Empiricism, Pragmatic Realism & the A Priori in "Mind and the World Orde" (draft - forthcoming 2017 | Academia.edu
Forthcoming in: Carl SACHS & Peter OLEN eds., Contemporary Perspectives on C. I. Lewis: Pragmatism in Transition (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017) --This paper re-examines how C.I. Lewis’s pragmatic realism in Mind and the World Order (1929, ‘MWO’) contrasts to logical empiricism, and to Lewis’s later An Analysis of Knowledge and Valuation (1946, ‘AKV’), to highlight several important philosophical points Lewis clearly understood and argued for in MWO, which we need to recover today. MWO is expressly an ‘Outline of a Theory of Knowledge’; nevertheless, it provides several important lessons about human knowledge, action and our worldly context. These are highlighted by contrast to some key points in Carnap’s empiricist semantics (§2) and by considering a point important to scientific realism, not properly accommodated by Carnap’s semantics: Reichenbach’s (1920, 1922) ‘coördination’ (Zuordnung) principles – a very important point about scientific measurement procedures, central both to Peirce and to MWO (§3). These coördinating principles for exact scientific measurements highlight the contrast between the meta-linguistic ‘relative a priori’ admissible by empiricist semantics (Friedman 1999, 2001), and Lewis’ robustly realist ‘pragmatic a priori’ in MWO. I re-examine key features of MWO (§4), including Lewis’s rejection of mythical givenness and of a series of false dichotomies which still plague current discussions of epistemology, pragmatism and history and philosophy of science. -- Research Interests: Epistemology, Semantic Externalism, Pragmatism (Philosophy), Explication (Philosophy), Clarence Irving Lewis,
paper  downloaded  intellectual_history  20thC  pragmatism  Logical_Positivism  empiricism  Lewis_CI  Carnap  metaphysics  epistemology  apriori  philosophy_of_science  logic  semantics  Peirce  realism-scientific  scientific_method  myth_of_the_given 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Ilkka Pyysiainen - Religon: From mind to society and back (2012) | Academia.edu
Book chapter - Exploring the cognitive basis of the social sciences and trying to ground the social in the cognitive requires taking an explicit stance on reduction(ism) as discussed in philosophy of science. In social science and the humanities, the question of reductionism has been especially salient in the study of religion. This chapter begins with a philosophical analysis of reduction; after that, two relatively new research programs in the study of religious thought and behavior are discussed: the standard model of the cognitive science of religion and approaches based on gene-culture coevolutionary theories. Finally, the question of reductionism is addressed and the possibility of combining multilevel explanations of religious phenomena is evaluated. -- Downloaded to Tab S2
chapter  Academia.edu  downloaded  cognitive_science  religion  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_social_science  level_of_analysis  reductionism  religious_belief  religious_experience  neuroscience  cognition  cognition-social  gene-culture_coevolution  cultural_transmission  cultural_change  sociology_of_religion  naturalism  natural_selection  evolution-social  evolution-as-model  evolution-group_selection 
august 2016 by dunnettreader
Consciousness (pages 11-18) | Symposion. Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences - Jan 2015
Nicholas Rescher

ABSTRACT: Consciousness is sometimes viewed as a particular parametric factor in the analogy of blood pressure or electric charge. The paper argues that this is an erroneous conception becomes consciousness involves a varied assortment of different phenomena that have no single unified commonality. And so even as ‘abnormal psychology’ has to be a disjointed assembly of diverse specialties so will ‘consciousness studies’ have to be.
neuroscience  article  mind-body  philosophy_of_science  reductionism  human_nature  psychology  downloaded  consciousness  mind 
may 2016 by dunnettreader
Reading Hegel: The Introductions - open access book (2008) | re-press,org
Editors’ Introduction: The Circle of Knowledge
Chapter 1: Phenomenology of Spirit
Chapter 2: Science of Logic
Chapter 3: Philosophy of Right
Chapter 4: Philosophy of History
Chapter 5: Philosophy of Fine Art
Chapter 6: Philosophy of Religion
Chapter 7: History of Philosophy
Editors’ Epilogue: The End of Introductions
Further Readings
Hegel-philosophy_of_right  19thC  Hegel-aesthetics  books  Germany  philosophy_of_history  open_access  ontology  Kant  Absolute_idealism  Hegel-logic  Hegel  etexts  downloaded  German_Idealism  historiography-19thC  philosophy_of_science 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Alfred North Whitehead (Open Library) - Enquiry..natural knowledge and The Concept of Nature
Page of Whitehead works with links to a page for each work - with further links to reading options - from Internet Archive open for download to Internet Archive Borrowing program - with an Open Library card can "check out" book for 2 weeks to read in browser), links to WorldCat for borrowing physical copy, and for some, links to booksellers for new or used purchase
Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX his complementary pair from 1919 - "Enquiry concerning the principles of natural knowledge" and the inaugural Tanner lectures "The Concept of Nature " (published 1920)
Open_Library  Whitehead  books  Internet_Archive  downloaded  metaphysics  etexts  philosophy_of_science  epistemology 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Lawrence Cahoone - The Modern Intellectual Tradition: From Descartes to Derrida | The Great Courses
Modern Intellectual Tradition: From Descartes to Derrida
Professor of Philosophy at Holy Cross - PhD from SUNY
36 lectures, starting with 17thC scientific revolution
He devotes a lot to the period starting with fin de sciècle (analytic, pragmatism, Whitehead)
- has a whole lecture on Heidegger's rejection of "humanism" after 1 on existentialism and the Frankfurt School
- but entre dieux guerres and post WWII isn't a total downer - an entire lecture on Dewey
- though Derrida sounds like the endpoint, he's more the endpoint of the trend through Heidegger's version of phenomenology
- he then turns to Rorty's "end of philosophy" and says, not so fast
- he works through several themes from earlier that are re-emerging post-postmodern
- he goes back to Cassirer, Whitehead and the pragmatists - different orientations but working within what he terms pragmatic realism - with emergence and complexity part of the realist story
- my main question re that narrative arc is where is Deluze?
- but the whole show gets uniformly rave reviews - except that he works off a teleprompter which some thought was awkward - looks like audio download is the way to go
analytical_philosophy  18thC  Putnam  pragmatism  existentialism  Marxist  Wittgenstein  technology  Quine  mind  Frege  phenomenology  Frankfurt_School  Marx  Habermas  science-and-religion  Romanticism  philosophy_of_history  Spinoza  Husserl  buy  Sartre  epistemology  Hume  Rorty  emergence  neo-Kantian  biocultural_evolution  humanism  intellectual_history  dualism  James_William  Enlightenment_Project  historiography-Marxist  German_Idealism  Enlightenment  17thC  Hegel  Nietzsche  political_philosophy  Logical_Positivism  mind-body  video  Whitehead  individualism  French_Enlightenment  empiricism  modernity  Derrida  ordinary_language_philosophy  anti-foundationalism  20thC  Kierkegaard  philosophy_of_language  Heidegger  human_nature  truth  Descartes  Kant  complexity  philosophy_of_science  Berkeley  postmodern  philosophy_of_religion  21stC  19thC  Cassirer  metaphysics  Dewey  self  audio  anti-humanism  courses  Locke 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Michael Strevens interview with Richard Marshall - Bigger Than Chaos - 3AM
Interview by Richard Marshall. Michael Strevens works on the philosophy of science, where his interests include explanation, complex systems, probability,…
Instapaper  interview  philosophy_of_science  complexity  complex_adaptive_systems  emergence  from instapaper
march 2016 by dunnettreader
Mahrad Almotahari interview with Richard Marshall - Not and Other Metalinguistic Stuff - 3AM
Interview by Richard Marshall. Mahrad Almotahari is an Assistant Professor and a member of UIC’s Laboratory of Integrative Neuroscience. He earned his PhD from…
Instapaper  interview  philosophy_of_science  neuroscience  cognition  mind  mind-body  linguistics  logic  from instapaper
march 2016 by dunnettreader
Ian Hacking - On Boyd (response to Boyd's essay commenting on Hacking re natural kinds) | JSTOR - (1991)
Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition, Vol. 61, No. 1/2, The Twenty-Ninth Oberlin Colloquium in Philosophy (Feb., 1991), pp. 149-154 -- colloquium on Realism and Relativism -- all 3 downloaded to Note
article  jstor  natural_kinds  constructivism  nominalism  Locke-Essay  epistemology  epistemology-social  Mill  Wittgenstein  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  downloaded 
march 2016 by dunnettreader
Ian Hacking - A Tradition of Natural Kinds | JSTOR - Philosophical Studies (1991)
Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition, Vol. 61, No. 1/2, The Twenty-Ninth Oberlin Colloquium in Philosophy (Feb., 1991), pp. 109-126 -- the colloquium was Realism and Relativism -- Hacking was commented on by Richard Boyd and Hacking responded in writing -- both are also downloaded to Note
article  jstor  metaphysics  ontology  natural_kinds  philosophy_of_science  epistemology  epistemology-social  constructivism  nominalism  Mill  Locke-Essay  Quine  Peirce  downloaded 
march 2016 by dunnettreader
Massimo Pigliucci, review - The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time - Scientia Salon 2015
He likes it quite a lot - downloaded as pdf to Note along with a second part that deals with the math portion of the book -- couldn't get the pdf to contain content beyond the pdf first page - saved to Instapaper
Instapaper  books  reviews  kindle-available  downloaded  cosmology  time  philosophy_of_science  physics  mathematics  from instapaper
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Louis Pinto - La philosophie, un « objet » pour le sociologue ? (2013) - Cairn.info
Est-il possible de soumettre la philosophie à un ensemble de démarches usuelles en sociologie, tout en tenant compte de sa spécificité ? Peut-on échapper à l’alternative du réductionnisme externaliste et du renoncement à parler de ce qui est présumé interne ? En quoi une approche sociologique déjouant pareille alternative serait-elle intéressante pour le philosophe ? Pour répondre à de tels questionnements, trois points sont envisagés à travers des illustrations. Le premier point concerne la sociologie (historique) de l’interprétation des textes. Un deuxième point est la façon sociologique d’aborder la question, à laquelle s’attachent traditionnellement les commentateurs, de l’unité et de la cohérence d’une œuvre. Le troisième point est celui du rapport entre classements sociaux et classements théoriques.
downloaded  philosophy_of_social_science  sociology_of_knowledge  methodology  intelligentsia  cultural_capital  social_theory  philosophy_of_science  cultural_authority  article  disciplines  social_capital 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Bernard Dantier, L'esprit du monde et l'esprit des sciences dans l'histoire et son étude : G.W.F. Hegel, Introduction à la philosophie de l'histoire — La raison dans l'histoire
“L’esprit du monde et l’esprit des sciences dans l’histoire et son étude :
Hegel, Introduction à la philosophie de l’histoire”.
Extrait de: G.W.F. Hegel, Introduction à la philosophie de l’histoire – La raison dans l’histoire, Paris, Plon – 10/18, 1965, traduction Kostas Papaioannou, pp. 5-56.
Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
downloaded  Hegel  philosophy_of_science  etexts  philosophy_of_history  epistemology-social  social_theory 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Aude Doody - Pliny's "Natural History: Enkuklios Paideia" and the Ancient Encyclopedia | JSTOR - Journal of the History of Ideas (Jan 2009)
Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 70, No. 1 (Jan., 2009), pp. 1-21 -- interesting re expectations when use encyclopedia to think about the work - comparisons with other "desire for universal knowledge" authors, compilers etc -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  antiquity  genre  encyclopedia  ancient_Greece  ancient_Rome  Hellenism  Greek_lit  Latin_lit  natural_philosophy  natural_history  philosophy_of_science  epistemology  Pliny_the_Elder  Varro 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
M. Ali Khan, The Irony in/of Economic Theory | JSTOR - MLN Vol. 108, No. 4 (Sep., 1993)
MLN, Vol. 108, No. 4, French Issue (Sep., 1993), pp. 759-803 -- DOI: 10.2307/2904961 -- via Eric Schliesser, attack on lack of reflexive thought by economists about the nature of their own enterprise and the assumptions undergirding their work -- starts with Samuelson's justification of the language of mathematics, and includes discussion of Kenneth Boulding's attack on his own profession for its failure to engage in philosophy of science, referring back positively to Veblen's critique -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_social_science  economic_theory  economic_models  history_of_science  history-and-social_sciences  economic_history  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science  mathematization  Methodenstreit  Samuelson  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Jonathan Kaplan - The end of the Adaptive Landscape metaphor?, Biology and Philosophy (2008) | via Researchgate
Biology and Philosophy (Impact Factor: 1.19). 11/2008; 23(5):625-638. DOI: 10.1007/s10539-008-9116-z -- ABSTRACT -- The concepts of adaptive/fitness landscapes and adaptive peaks are a central part of much of contemporary evolutionary biology;the concepts are introduced in introductory texts, developed in more detail in graduate-level treatments, and are used extensively in papers published in the major journals in the field. The appeal of visualizing the process of evolution in terms of the movement of populations on such landscapes is very strong; as one becomes familiar with the metaphor, one often develops the feeling that it is possible to gain deep insights into evolution by thinking about the movement of populations on landscapes consisting of adaptive valleys and peaks. But, since Wright first introduced the metaphor in 1932, the metaphor has been the subject of persistent confusion, from equivocation over just what the features of the landscape are meant to represent to how we ought to expect the landscapes to look. Recent advances—conceptual, empirical, and computational—have pointed towards the inadequacy and indeed incoherence of the landscapes as usually pictured. I argue that attempts to reform the metaphor are misguided; it is time to give up the pictorial metaphor of the landscape entirely and rely instead on the results of formal modeling, however difficult such results are to understand in ‘intuitive’ terms. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_science  biology  genetics  evolutionary_biology  natural_selection  evolution  scientific_method  modelling  levels_of_analyis  causation-evolutionary  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Jonathan Kaplan and Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - Realism, Antirealism, and Conventionalism about Race , Philosophy of Science, Dec 2014 | via Researchgate
Philosophy of Science (Impact Factor: 0.83). 12/2014; 81(5):1039-1052. DOI: 10.1086/678314 -- ABSTRACT -- This paper distinguishes three concepts of " race " : bio-genomic cluster/race, biological race, and social race. We map out realism, antirealism, and conventionalism about each of these, in three important historical episodes: Frank Livingstone and Theodosius Dobzhansky in 1962, A. W. F. Edwards's 2003 response to Lewontin's 1972 paper, and contemporary discourse. Semantics is especially crucial to the first episode, while normativity is central to the second. Upon inspection, each episode also reveals a variety of commitments to the metaphysics of race. We conclude by interrogating the relevance of these scientific discussions for political positions and a post-racial future. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_science  biology  genetics  race  anthropology  kinds  ontology-social  racism  racialism  sociobiology  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science  sociology_of_science_&_technology  constructivism  politics-and-science  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Thierry Hoquet - Paul Feyerabend, anarchiste des sciences (career retrospective) - La Vie des idées - April 2015
Paul Feyerabend ne cessa de critiquer le rationalisme et l’approche abstraite de la philosophie des sciences, enfermée dans son jargon et son logicisme. Quitte à prêter le flanc au relativisme et à passer pour « le pire ennemi de la science » ? -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  French_language  intellectual_history  20thC  post-WWII  philosophy_of_science  epistemology  scepticism  methodology  Feyerabend  Popper  Laktos  Wittgenstein  scientific_method  Galileo  physics  astronomy  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_culture  sociology_of_knowledge  downloaded 
december 2015 by dunnettreader
Nadeem J. Z. Hussain and Lydia Patton - Friedrich Albert Lange | Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy August 2012 revision of original May 2095
Friedrich Albert Lange (b. 1828, d. 1875) was a German philosopher, pedagogue, political activist, and journalist. He was one of the originators of neo-Kantianism and an important figure in the founding of the Marburg school of neo-Kantianism. He also played a significant role in the German labour movement and in the development of social democratic thought. His book, The History of Materialism, was a standard introduction to materialism and the history of philosophy well into the twentieth century. -- 1. Life and Intellectual Career -- 2. Pedagogy -- 3. The Labor Question -- 4. Neo-Kantianism ** 4.1 The Ethical Standpoint of the Ideal ** 4.2 Logic and Scientific Methodology -- downloaded as pdf to Note
intellectual_history  19thC  Germany  German_scholars  Lange_FA  neo-Kantian  Hegelian  German_Idealism  materialism-19thC  materialism  historiography-19thC  philosophy_of_science  epistemology  epistemology-moral  epistemology-naturalism  ancient_philosophy  atomism  logic  scientific_method  socialism  labor  capitalism  Industrial_Revolution  social_democracy  physiology  mind  perception  sensation  Kant-ethics  bibliography 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Guyer and Rolf-Peter Horstmann - Idealism | Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - 1st published August 2015
This entry discusses philosophical idealism as a movement chiefly in the 18thC and 19thC, although anticipated by certain aspects of 17thC philosophy. It examines the relationship between epistemological idealism (the view that the contents of human knowledge are ineluctably determined by the structure of human thought) and ontological idealism (the view that epistemological idealism delivers truth because reality itself is a form of thought and human thought participates in it). After discussing precursors, the entry focuses on the eighteenth-century versions of idealism due to Berkeley, Hume, and Kant, the nineteenth-century movements of German idealism and subsequently British and American idealism, and then concludes with an examination of the attack upon idealism by Moore and Russell. -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Idealism in early modern Rationalism -- 3. Idealism in early modern British philosophy -- 4. Kant -- 5. German Idealism -- 6. Schopenhauer -- 7. Nietzsche -- 8. British and American Idealism -- 9. The Fate of Idealism in the Twentieth Century -- downloaded as pdf to Note (62 pgs!)
intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  idealism  idealism-transcendental  German_Idealism  epistemology  ontology  Berkeley  Kant  Hegel  Hegelian  Schopenhauer  Nietzsche  neo-Kantian  Absolute_Idealism  British_Idealism  Royce  Bradley  Moore_GE  Russell_Bertrand  analytical_philosophy  Logical_Positivism  Pittsburgh_Hegelians  philosophy_of_science  mind  bibliography  downloaded 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Newall interview with John Dupré: The Disunity of Science (2006) - The Galilean Library
John Dupré is a professor of philosophy of science in the Department of Sociology and Philosophy at Exeter University in the UK, and also the director of Egenis, the ESRC Centre for Genomics in Society. I was able to ask him about several keys areas of his work and relate it to contemporary issues in both science and the philosophy of science. -- Hits all my hot buttons. Anti mathematization of economics and its divorce from empiricism, disdainful of evo-devo psych, the Centre is part of a larger program looking at impacts of genetics and biology, from philosophy through sociology, economics, politics, art and humanities. Pal of Nancy Cartwright, Philip Kitcher and part of the "Stanford School". Author of Darwin's Legacy on Kindle -- downloaded page as pdf to Note
interview  philosophy_of_science  scientific_method  scientific_culture  scientism  methodology  laws_of_nature  empiricism  pragmatism  genetics  evolutionary_biology  molecular_biology  epigenetics  evo_psych  economic_models  mathematization  kindle  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Newall (2005) - History and Philosophy of Science - Recommended Reading - Recommended Reading - Resources - Resources - The Galilean Library
There are plenty of works in the history and philosophy of science worth studying, but perhaps too many to know where to start. This introduction gives an historical overview, explaining the relevance of some of the better-known tomes. -- A bit dated, and nothing from Shapin et al, though he defends Feyerband, but nice thumbnail on why each on his list was or is important, or accessible -- downloaded page as pdf to Note
books  bibliography  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  epistemology  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  Kuhn  Popper  scientific_method  Scientific_Revolution  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
John S. Wilkins, Malte C. Ebach - The Nature of Classification: Relationships and Kinds in the Natural Sciences | Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN 9780230347922 -- The Nature of Classification discusses an old and generally ignored issue in the philosophy of science: natural classification. It argues for classification to be a sometimes theory-free activity in science, and discusses the existence of scientific domains, theory-dependence of observation, the inferential relations of classification and theory, and the nature of the classificatory activity in general. It focuses on biological classification, but extends the discussion to physics, psychiatry, meteorology and other special sciences. -- excerpt Chapter 1 downloaded pdf to Note
books  kindle-available  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_religion  intellectual_history  classification  natural_kinds  theory-dependence  physics  psychiatry  inference  epistemology  boundaries  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Newall interview of Stephen D. Snobelen: Newton Reconsidered - Theology and Alchemy | The Galilean Library
Stephen David Snobelen is Assistant Professor in the History of Science and Technology at University of King's College, Halifax, Nova Scotia. He is a founder member of the Newton project and author of many fascinating papers on Newton's alchemy and religious thinking. I was privileged to be able to ask him some questions about his work on Newton. -- helpful re the process by which Newton's papers were hidden, then sold at auction in 1936 and beginning in 1991 being made available for researchers as the dispersed manuscripts have been re-collected - who is working on what issues, as of 2005 -- Snobelen got his degrees in History of Philosophy of Science at Cambridge with Schaffer -- converted page and downloaded pdf to Note
interview  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  religious_history  religious_belief  17thC  18thC  Newton  Socinians  Arian  anti-Trinitarian  Biblical_exegesis  Biblical_authority  Bible-as-history  Neoplatonism  immortality  soul  metaphysics  essence  substance  theology  Early_Christian  alchemy  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Emmanuel Bezy, review - Jean-Marie Schaeffer, La fin de l’exception humaine (2007) -- Pour une histoire naturelle de l’homme - La Vie des idées - 21 janvier 2008
Gallimard, 2007, 446 p., 21,50 euros. -- Dans son dernier essai, Jean-Marie Schaeffer s’éloigne de ses thèmes habituels de recherche (le langage, la littérature, la fiction, l’esthétique) et propose une réflexion générale sur l’humanité. Il s’agit de dessiner une perspective qui inscrirait cette dernière en continuité avec le vivant. Il présente ce travail comme l’explicitation de l’arrière-plan de ces précédents travaux. L’ambition est de prendre le contre-pied de ce que l’auteur appelle la « Thèse » selon laquelle l’humanité constituerait une exception parmi les vivants. (...) qu’il pense a conduit à une survalorisation des savoirs spéculatifs au détriment des savoirs empiriques. C’est à critiquer cette vision du monde, véritable obstacle au progrès scientifique, et à redonner toute sa légitimité au naturalisme que son ouvrage est consacré. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  French_intellectuals  French_language  philosophy  human_nature  metaphysics  imago_dei  animals  reason  speculative_philosoohy  philosophical_anthropology  philosophy_of_language  epistemology-naturalism  lit_crit  aesthetics  philosophy_of_science  mind  cogito  natural_kinds  essence  naturalism  empiricism  biology  evolution  evolutionary_biology  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Justin E.H. Smith - Nature, Human Nature, and Human Difference: Race in Early Modern Philosophy (2015) | Princeton University Press
People have always been xenophobic, but an explicit philosophical and scientific view of human racial difference only began to emerge during the modern period. Why and how did this happen? Surveying a range of philosophical and natural-scientific texts, dating from the Spanish Renaissance to the German Enlightenment, (Smith) charts the evolution of the modern concept of race and shows that natural philosophy, particularly efforts to taxonomize and to order nature, played a crucial role. Smith demonstrates how the denial of moral equality between Europeans and non-Europeans resulted from converging philosophical and scientific developments, including a declining belief in human nature’s universality and the rise of biological classification. The racial typing of human beings grew from the need to understand humanity within an all-encompassing system of nature, alongside plants, minerals, primates, and other animals. While racial difference as seen through science did not arise in order to justify the enslavement of people, it became a rationalization and buttress for the practices of trans-Atlantic slavery. From the work of François Bernier to Leibniz, Kant, and others, Smith delves into philosophy’s part in the legacy and damages of modern racism. -- Smith is university professor of the history and philosophy of science at the Université Paris Diderot—Paris VII. ...author of Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life (PUP), coeditor and cotranslator of The Leibniz-Stahl Controversy -- downloaded introduction to Note -- only hdbk, will be in ebook
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  cultural_history  racism  racialism  16thC  17thC  18thC  Europe-Early_Modern  exploration  Spanish_Empire  Spain  Renaissance  natural_philosophy  biology  taxonomies  Latin_America  West_Indies  North_America  Native_Americans  indigenous_peoples  slavery  West_Africa  Africa  African_trade  life_sciences  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  French_Enlightenment  Leibniz  Kant  anatomy  Adam  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_culture  science-and-religion  science-public  science_of_man 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Christophe Litwin, review essay - Stéphane Van Damme on Living the Enlightenment | Books & ideas -- French original June 2014, translation May 2015 by Michael C. Behrent
Original French http://www.laviedesidees.fr/La-vie-des-Lumieres.html -- Stéphane Van Damme, À toutes voiles vers la vérité [On Course to the Truth]: Une autre histoire de la philosophie au temps des Lumières, Seuil, 2014, 386 p., 24 €.Van Damme’s project is to write an alternative history of philosophy (...) not by writing a history of ideas, but rather a “historian’s history” of philosophy. Rather than beginning with a canonical body of texts or doctrines (the selection of which is frequently incomplete or ideological), Van Damme, building on Bruno Latour’s work in the history of science and Antoine Lilti’s and Etienne Anheim’s work in the journal Annales, (and..) the historical geographer Jean-Marc Besse, approaches the history of philosophy in a manner that is decidedly contextual, material, and pragmatic. Unlike literature, art, and science, Van Damme notes, philosophy had, until the past decade, largely avoided cultural history’s probing gaze. (..) the recent literature in the field is daunting—(see the..)abundant critical and bibliographical apparatus (305-375)—a history of philosophy conceived as an early modern cultural practice had yet to be written. Where, when, how, and in what circumstances were the activities we refer to by such terms as “knowing,” “living philosophically,” “being a philosopher,” and “teaching,” “doing,” “reading,” and “writing” philosophy practiced? Can the tools and methods of cultural history offer insight, in this way, into Enlightenment philosophy’s distinctive “truth regime”? (..)This pragmatic approach covers a remarkably wide range of topics and methodologies (many in) previously published articles (organized..) by situating philosophical practice in 3 types of spaces: the public sphere, geography, and politics. -- downloaded pdf to Note for both languages
books  reviews  amazon.fr  buy  intellectual_history  cultural_history  18thC  France  Enlightenment  Republic_of_Letters  public_sphere  geography  political_history  political_culture  sociology_of_knowledge  philosophy  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_history  natural_philosophy  epistemology  epistemology-social  bibliography  downloaded 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
K. Vela Velupillai - Conning Variations on the Theme of in :: SSRN - Journal of Economic Surveys, Vol. 21, Issue 3, pp. 466-505, July 2007
K. Vela Velupillai, National University of Ireland, Galway (NUIG) - Department of Economics; Università degli Studi di Trento - Department of Economics and Management. -- The mathematization of economics is almost exclusively in terms of the mathematics of real analysis which, in turn, is founded on set theory (and the axiom of choice) and orthodox mathematical logic. In this paper I try to point out that this kind of mathematization is replete with economic infelicities. The attempt to extract these infelicities is in terms of three main examples and one general discussion: dynamics, policy and rational expectations and learning are the examples; a game theory without subjectivism, based on the axiom of determinateness, is discussed in general terms. The focus is on the role and reliance of standard fixed-point theorems in orthodox mathematical economics. -- Pages in PDF File: 40 -- via Lars Syll -- didn't download -- added to My Briefcase
article  SSRN  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_social_science  mathematics  economic_theory  economic_models  deduction  rational_expectations  game_theory  mathematization 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Luc Peterschmitt - Berkeley et la chimie. Une philosophie pour la chimie au XVIIIe siècle (2011) | Classiques Garnier, coll. Histoire et philosophie des sciences
La Siris de Berkeley est peu lue et souvent jugée inutilement obscure et érudite. La replacer dans le contexte de la chimie du XVIIIe siècle permet d'en montrer l'intérêt. Berkeley y propose d'accorder à la chimie une place de plein droit au sein de la philosophie naturelle. À partir de là, il développe une théologie naturelle originale. Mais il n'est pas question de fonder en métaphysique la chimie ni de développer une métaphysique à partir de la chimie. -- Berkeley's Siris is rarely read and often judged as unnecessarily vague and academic. Setting it firmly into the context of 18th century chemistry enables us to understand its contribution. -- ISBN 978-2-8124-0266-1 -- 303 pages
books  intellectual_history  history_of_science  18thC  Berkeley  philosophy_of_science  chemistry  natural_religion 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
L'Europe des Lumières - Classiques Garnier - collection directors Michel Delon, Jacques Berchtold et Christophe Martin
De ce qu'on appelle la crise de la conscience européenne à la Révolution française, la littérature et la pensée ont pour espace une Europe, souvent francophone, éprise d'idées nouvelles et d'expérimentations formelles. La collection rend compte de recherches qui sollicitent des disciplines et des méthodes diverses pour mieux connaître et comprendre la vie intellectuelle, scientifique, artistique et littéraire du XVIIIe siècle, ainsi que l'histoire des idées et des représentations. -- From what has been designated as a "crisis of conscience" to the Revolution, literature and thought play in a European space, often French-speaking, entranced by new ideas and formal experiments. The collection covers research which calls on a variety of disciplines and methods in order to better know and understand the intellectual, scientific, artistic and literary life of the 18th century, as well as the history of ideas and representations.
books  18thC  Europe-Early_Modern  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  intellectual_history  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  natural_philosophy  art_history  literary_history  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_culture  philosophes  Republic_of_Letters  public_sphere  publishing 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Caroline Jacot Grapa - Dans le vif du sujet - Diderot, corps et âme ( 2009) | Classiques Garnier - collection L'Europe des Lumières
Ce livre est un essai sur le style du matérialisme de Diderot, sa psychologie, sa métaphysique et sur les figures de l'intériorité des Lumières. La langue de l'intériorité, apanage de la spiritualité, se retrempe au contact sensible des métaphores de l'époque. Elles donnent accès à un savoir nouveau de la vie corporelle. L'actualité de cet essai tient au dialogue qu'il engage avec la phénoménologie et les neurosciences. -- This work is an essay on the style of Diderot's materialism, his psychology and his metaphysics. Its modern pertinence stems from the dialogue established with phenomenology and neurosciences. -- ISBN 978-2-8124-0046-9 -- 504 pages -- looks extremely interesting -- tracking reception of British empiricism, debates over various Cartesian proposals for dealing with animals, and the new directions taken both in life sciences and psychology and the metaphysics of materialism -- downloaded TOC as pdf to Note
books  find  amazon.fr  libraries  intellectual_history  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  natural_philosophy  18thC  France  Diderot  d'Alembert  d'Holbach  Cartesian  Locke  Newton  Newtonian  Encyclopédie  Republic_of_Letters  philosophes  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Vitalism  psychology  thinking_matter  anatomy  physiology  scientific_method  organism  subject  subjectivity  phenomenology  neuroscience  materialism  metaphysics  mind  mind-body  soul  human_nature  metaphor  French_language  French_lit  downloaded 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
François Duchesneau - La Physiologie des Lumières - Empirisme, modèles et théories (2012) | Classiques Garnier, coll. Histoire et philosophie des sciences
Cet ouvrage décrit et analyse les modèles de l'être vivant qui, dans le cadre de la révolution scientifique des Temps modernes, ont dessiné un parcours intellectuel menant à l'invention de la biologie comme science. Tout au long du xviiie siècle, la physiologie définit ses méthodes et ses concepts fondamentaux. Mobilisant les savoirs empiriques disponibles, elle en extrait les principes d'une véritable science des corps organisés. -- ISBN 978-2-8124-0783-3 -- 739 pages -- mostly Germans and French, including Leibniz and Wolff and Maupertuis and Buffon as significant stages in the debates
books  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  natural_philosophy  biology  anatomy  physiology  scientific_method  17thC  18thC  life_sciences  empiricism  Leibniz  Wolff_Christian  Maupertuis  Buffon 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Anne-Lise Rey, ed. - Méthode et histoire - Quelle histoire font les historiens des sciences et des techniques? (2014) | Classiques Garnier, coll.Histoire et philosophie des sciences
Les méthodes utilisées pour analyser la science d'hier et d'aujourd'hui peuvent-elles s'enrichir du débat, puis du dialogue des unes avec les autres? C'est le pari de cet ouvrage qui présente la pluralité des approches méthodologiques en histoire des sciences et des techniques et interroge son épistémologie. -- Can the methods used to analyse the science of yesterday and today be mutually enriched through debate and dialogue with each other? That is the wager of this book which presents the plurality of methodological approaches within the history of science and technology, and interrogates its epistemology. -- ISBN 978-2-8124-1419-0 -- 513 pages -- from TOC looks like several very interesting papers
books  history_of_science  historiography  sociology_of_knowledge  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_social_science  epistemology-history  epistemology 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Frédérique Aït-Touati, Stephen Gaukroger, Le monde en images. Voir, représenter, savoir, de Descartes à Leibniz (2015) | Classiques Garnier, coll. « Histoire et philosophie des sciences »
Frédérique Aït-Touati, Stephen Gaukroger, Le monde en images. Voir, représenter, savoir, de Descartes à Leibniz, Paris, Classiques Garnier, coll. « Histoire et philosophie des sciences », 2015, 128 p., ISBN : 978-2-8124-2589-9. -- Dans les débats classiques des 17thC-18thC, la représentation est considérée avant tout comme une question rhétorique et psychologique, mais à la fin du 18thC, elle devient une question épistémologique. Cet ouvrage explore le contexte de cette transformation et ses sources. l’émergence du problème de la représentation -- not edited collection, but co-authored study of a bit over 100 pages -- Chapters in TOC -- 1. Rhétorique et théorie de l’image vive 2. la révolution cartésienne  3. représenter l’invisible - Philosophie naturelle et visualisation chez Robert Hooke   4. les limites de la visualisation - Le débat entre Newton et Leibniz sur l’algèbre (a) La géométrie contre l’analyse  (b) L’analyse infnitésimale et la question de la preuve directe (c) La géométrie contre le calcul diférentiel  (d) Visualisation et capacités cognitives humaines  (e) Visualisation -- online pruce 19€
books  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  natural_philosophy  astronomy  ontology  epistemology  17thC  18thC  Descartes  representation-metaphysics  ideas-theories  Hooke  Leibniz  Newton  scientific_method  scientific_culture  instruments  microscope  telescope  unobservables  mathematics  geometry  calculus  cognition  analysis-logic  images  rhetoric  rhetoric-visual 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Andrew Zangwill - The education of Walter Kohn and the creation of density functional theory | arxiv.org [1403.5164] (Submitted on 20 Mar 2014)
The theoretical solid-state physicist Walter Kohn was awarded one-half of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his mid-1960's creation of an approach to the many-particle problem in quantum mechanics called density functional theory (DFT). In its exact form, DFT establishes that the total charge density of any system of electrons and nuclei provides all the information needed for a complete description of that system. This was a breakthrough for the study of atoms, molecules, gases, liquids, and solids. Before DFT, it was thought that only the vastly more complicated many-electron wave function was needed for a complete description of such systems. Today, fifty years after its introduction, DFT (in one of its approximate forms) is the method of choice used by most scientists to calculate the physical properties of materials of all kinds. In this paper, I present a biographical essay of Kohn's educational experiences and professional career up to and including the creation of DFT. -- via Philip Ball who notes Zangwill doesn't see DFT as something in the air, part of the Zeitgeist, and Kohn was operating in a scientific culture where discipline walls hadn't yet become so impermeable -- Kohn got his Nobel in Chemistry though he's a physicist -- which raises questions re whether sciences as now organized would be unlikely to produce the sort of individual curiosity and multidisciplinary creativity to produce this sort of transformative thinking, testing erc -- didn't download
paper  intellectual_history  20thC  physics  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  Innovation  technology  innovation-government_policy  sociology_of_science_&_technology 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Jag Bhalla - Is 'Information Theory' Misnamed? | Big Think - May 2015
by Jag Bhalla “Information theory” is misnamed. And information operates differently in physics versus biology. 1. Gregory Chaitin applies “information theory”… -- really nice mini essay on the inadequacy of "information theory" to deal with semantic complexity, and why different domains will have very different communication requirements and processes -- e.g. physics vs life sciences, such as genetics, which are much more like algorithms *to say nothing of social sciences and humanities) -- parallels his other mini essays on different logics for different domains, and different analogy-style reasoning for different disciplines -- with lots of links
philosophy_of_science  epistemology  logic  information_theory  communication  IT  physics  biology  links  Instapaper  from instapaper
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Markus Gabriel interview with Richard Marshall - Why The World Does Not Exist But Unicorns Do | 3AM - May 2015
Markus Gabriel broods on why the world doesn’t exist and never stops wondering about Kant, existence, pluralism, fields of sense, Huw Price, about why he isn’t po-mo, nor a Meinongian, about why unicorns exist, about why he’s a realist, about dissolving the hard problem, about why naturalism and physicalism are wrong, about Schelling and post-Kantian idealism, about Badiou and Meillassouz, Heidegger, about resisting skepticism, about negative philosophy, mythology, madness, laughter and the need for illusions in metaphysics, and about the insult that is the continental/analytic divide . Gird up for an amazing story… -- humongous interview divided into 2 pages - each about twice as long as one of Marshall's regular interviews -- only page 1 picked up by Instapaper, and no single page option -- saved as 2 pdfs to Note
Instapaper  downloaded  intellectual_history  philosophy  metaphysics  ontology  ontology-social  realism  realism-speculative  postmodern  Rorty  Kant  Schelling  German_Idealism  pragmatism  pragmatism-analytic  Husserl  Heidegger  scepticism  myth  Brandom  French_intellectuals  continental_philosophy  philosophy_of_science  analytical_philosophy  Russell_Bertrand  Frege  physicalism  materialism  naturalism  from instapaper
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Nicolaas P. Barr Clingan, review essay on Edward Skidelsky and Tobias Bevc histories of the philosophy of Ernst Cassirer (March 2010) | H-Net Reviews - H-German
Nicolaas P. Barr Clingan. Review of Bevc, Tobias, Kulturgenese als Dialektik von Mythos und Vernunft: Ernst Cassirer und die Kritische Theorie and Skidelsky, Edward, Ernst Cassirer: The Last Philosopher of Culture. H-German, H-Net Reviews. March, 2010. Skidelsky offers a welcome, broad introduction of Cassirer's work, but one that is problematic in its approach to broader issues of philosophy and politics. His more polemic claims, often asserted rather than argued, are unlikely to persuade specialists in intellectual history and may misguide general readers about the complex political contours of continental philosophy. Bevc, in contrast, offers a more focused and systematic comparison of Cassirer's philosophy and Critical Theory. His argument is generally compelling. He also skillfully draws a number of significant parallels that would seem to have been precluded by Adorno's dismissive comment, although Bevc does occasionally overstep in the case of the Frankfurt School. But perhaps this faux pas is fitting for a scholar whose efforts at intellectual and political conciliation were so recklessly dismissed in his own time and remain, as Skidelsky observes, foreign to our contentious age.
books  reviews  kindle-available  intellectual_history  political_culture  20thC  Germany  entre_deux_guerres  Cassirer  Frankfurt_School  Heidegger  culture  symbol  symbols-religious  myth  reason  Enlightenment  Enlightenment_Project  phenomenology  existentialism  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_language  philosophy_of_history  human_nature  humanism  anti-humanism  culture_industries  irrationalism  rationalization-institutions  modernity  Marxist  continental_philosophy  neo-Kantian  Adorno 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Raymond Boudon - "Sociology that Really Matters" - Inaugural Lecture 2001, European Academy of Sociology
Responding to claims that sociology isn't a "science" or that it goes off the rails when its pretensions to scientific status dominate, he discusses 4 ideal-types of sociology -- Cognitive, Expressive, Descriptive (cameral) and Critical. The first, which he claims fits a range of the most important theories in philosophy of science, is represented by Tocqueville, Weber and Durkheim. The produced explanations of puzzling phenomena that linked micro and macro - why particular actions or choices were rational for classes of actors in the sense that the meaning was consistent with their beliefs and experiences given their position in social structures and the tools they had available to understand and control their situation consistent with their values. This type of causal explanation can be used, elaborated and built on for cumulative knowledge. The more popular bestseller works tend to be expressive and/or critical - speaking to people's current experiences, felt anxieties, or ideological orientation so they are useful, but not necessarily true - he gives Foucault on prisons as an example. The descriptive, which is directed towards policy ("cameral" in Schumpeter) grows increasingly dominant as we become increasingly data sensitive and driven. Topics tend to come in waves based on issues that have become prominent and a focus of political debates, social movements, etc. Thus only the cognitive is a truly scientific contribution to cumulative knowledge. Interesting remarks on the type of methodological individualism that's central to the cognitive but both different and sometimes inappropriate in the other ideal-types.
Scribd  social_theory  intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  21stC  social_sciences  philosophy_of_social_science  philosophy_of_science  Tocqueville  Weber  Durkheim  Popper  positivism  individualism-methodology  causation-social  structuralist  agency  agency-structure  Foucault 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
How (not) to bring psychology and biology together | Scientia Salon
By Mark Feydk -- Published in Philosophical Studies, February 2014. -- Evolutionary psychologists often try to ‘‘bring together’’ biology and psychology by making predictions about what specific psychological mechanisms exist from theories about what patterns of behaviour would have been adaptive in the EEA for humans. This paper shows that one of the deepest methodological generalities in evolutionary biology—that proximate explanations and ultimate explanations stand in a many-to-many relation—entails that this inferential strategy is unsound. Ultimate explanations almost never entail the truth of any particular proximate hypothesis. But of course it does not follow that there are no other ways of ‘‘bringing together’’ biology and psychology. Accordingly, this paper explores one other strategy for doing just that, the pursuit of a very specific kind of consilience. However, I argue that inferences reflecting the pursuit of this kind of consilience with the best available theories in contemporary evolutionary biology indicate that psychologists should have a preference for explanations of adaptive behavior in humans that refer to learning and other similarly malleable psychological mechanisms—and not modules or instincts or any other kind of relatively innate and relatively non-malleable psychological mechanism. -- Downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_science  evo_psych  evolutionary_biology  gene-culture_coevolution  psychology  human_nature  downloaded 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Fiona Ellis - God, Value, and Nature (October 2014) - Oxford University Press
** analysis of the familiar contrast between the 'natural' and the 'supernatural' domains ** Explores the idea of expanded nature and develops it in a direction that will accomodate theism. ** Examines the nature of expansive naturalism, drawing on ...Akeel Bilgrami, David Wiggins, and John McDowell ** extensive discussion of Levinas's claim that relating to value is both necessary and sufficient for relating to God **-** Many philosophers believe that God has been put to rest. Naturalism is the default position, and the naturalist can explain what needs to be explained without recourse to God. This book agrees that we should be naturalists, but it rejects the more prevalent scientific naturalism in favour of an 'expansive' naturalism inspired by David Wiggins and John McDowell. (..) expansive naturalism can accommodate the idea of God, (..) the expansive naturalist has unwittingly paved the way towards a form of naturalism which poses a genuine challenge to the atheist. (..) the traditional naturalism vs theism debate must be reconfigured: naturalism and theism (..) can both be true. Ellis draws on ... thinkers from theology and philosophy, ... between analytic and continental philosophy. (..) philosophical problems including the limits of nature and the status of value; theological problems surrounding the natural/supernatural relation, the Incarnation, and the concept of myth; and offers a model - inspired by the secular expansive naturalist's conception of philosophy - to comprehend the relation between philosophy and theology.
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  philosophy_of_religion  philosophy_of_science  naturalism  natural_religion  theism  Deism  analytical_philosophy  McDowell  atheism  atheism-new  values  secularism  theology  Christology  supernatural  myth 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Fiona Ellis - on her new book "God, Value and Nature" | Oxford University Press Blog
Uses A.C. Grayling as the atheistic-naturalism foil. Suggests more re her argument than in the Oxford University Press catalog -- that her model uses Hegelian dialectic to surmount the "scientism" of the New Atheists and takes McDowell's argument that "value" belongs on the naturalist side of the divide to further extend the boundaries of naturalism.
books  kindle-available  theology  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_religion  naturalism  supernatural  values  theism  Deism  analytical_philosophy  McDowell  atheism  atheism-new  scientism  Hegel  dialectic  Pocket  Instapaper  from instapaper
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Sven Ove Hansson -Risk (updated 2011) | Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Since the 1970s, studies of risk have grown into a major interdisciplinary field of research. Although relatively few philosophers have focused their work on risk, there are important connections between risk studies and several philosophical subdisciplines. This entry summarizes the most well-developed of these connections and introduces some of the major topics in the philosophy of risk. It consists of six sections dealing with the definition of risk and with treatments of risk related to epistemology, the philosophy of science, the philosophy of technology, ethics, and the philosophy of economics.
1. Defining risk [including objective vs subjective and risk vs uncertainty - the latter comparison mostly formalized in decision tgeory]
2. Epistemology
3. Philosophy of science
4. Philosophy of technology
5. Ethics
6. Risk in economic analysis
Related Entries -- causation: in the law | causation: probabilistic | consequentialism | contractarianism | economics, philosophy of | game theory | luck: justice and bad luck | scientific knowledge: social dimensions of | technology, philosophy of
philosophy  epistemology  epistemology-social  epistemology-moral  causation  causation-social  probability  Bayesian  moral_philosophy  utilitarianism  utility  rights-legal  game_theory  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_social_science  economic_theory  behavioral_economics  financial_economics  sociology_of_knowledge  philosophy_of_law  risk  risk-mitigation  risk_management  uncertainty  rational_choice  rationality-economics 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Seamus Bradley Imprecise Probabilities (Dec 2014) | Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
It has been argued that imprecise probabilities are a natural and intuitive way of overcoming some of the issues with orthodox precise probabilities. Models of this type have a long pedigree, and interest in such models has been growing in recent years. This article introduces the theory of imprecise probabilities, discusses the motivations for their use and their possible advantages over the standard precise model. It then discusses some philosophical issues raised by this model. There is also a historical appendix which provides an overview of some important thinkers who appear sympathetic to imprecise probabilities. *-* Related Entries -- belief, formal representations of | epistemic utility arguments for probabilism | epistemology: Bayesian | probability, interpretations of | rational choice, normative: expected utility | statistics, philosophy of | vagueness
epistemology  philosophy_of_science  technology  probability  risk  uncertainty  rational_choice  rationality-economics  rationality  rationality-bounded  statistics  Bayesian  linguistics  causation  causation-social  causation-evolutionary  complexity  complex_adaptive_systems  utility  behavioral_economics  behavioralism  neuroscience  vagueness 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Miika Vähämaa - Secrets, Errors and Mathematics: Reconsidering the Role of Groups in Social Epistemology « Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 2 (9): 36-51 (2013)
Special Issue 2: On the Future Direction of Social Epistemology (SE) -- This paper claims that analytic social epistemology (ASE) has slowed, if not halted, the development of SE and the social sciences in general. I argue that SE is unavoidably subjective due to its collective nature. SE as it is generally understood, consists of the study of socially shared propositions and how they are understood by those communities. However, socially shared propositions of knowledge are not constrained by propositional logic but are rather enabled by the limited quanta of reason and logic embedded in linguistic structure. From the view of Goldman and his supporters , “real” knowledge is constrained by propositional logic, which is derived from language and is constructed in social settings. This view errs in its attempt to collapse social knowledge into propositional logic, downplaying the many social groups and practices that produce, create, restore and distort knowledge. The “subjective” and group-oriented nature of SE is demonstrated in this text by examples of secrets, errors and mathematics as discrete social domains in which knowledge is created and maintained. Examples in both philosophy and social sciences are important, since they reveal the weaknesses of strict ASE. A simple real-life example may be appealing to emotions and personal experiences of life whereas Wittgensteinian truth tables are rarely matters of personal attachment to anyone. The social in SE can only be properly considered from the viewpoint of social groups. Following an argument presented by Fuller, I show that “knowledge” is not a self-maintaining quality of human life, but rather a qualia that is regenerated situationally. All epistemic activities build upon such reorganization as it is conducted within social groups which seek to regenerate knowledge both to make sense of the world and to make sense of their own selves. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  social_theory  epistemology  epistemology-social  epistemology-naturalism  analytical_philosophy  social_psychology  philosophy_of_language  philosophy_of_social_science  philosophy_of_science  logic  knowledge  constructivism  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Sanford C. Goldberg -“Analytic Social Epistemology” and the Epistemic Significance of Other Minds « Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective, 2 (8): 26-48 (2013)
Sanford C. Goldberg, Northwestern University -- Special Issue 2: On the Future Direction of Social Epistemology. -- In this paper I develop a rationale for pursuing a distinctly “social” epistemology, according to which social epistemology is the systematic study of the epistemic significance of other minds. After articulating what I have in mind with this expression, I argue that the resulting rationale informs work presently being done in the emerging tradition of “Analytic Social Epistemology” (ASE). I go on to diagnose Steve Fuller’s (2012) dismissal of ASE (as “retrograde”) as reflecting a rather deep — and, to date, deeply uncharitable — misunderstanding of the aims and rationale of this emerging tradition. Far from being retrograde, the best of the work in the emerging ASE tradition provides a nice compliment to the best of the social epistemology work in the social science tradition. The key to seeing this point is twofold: we need to recognize the normative orientation of (much of) the work in ASE; and, perhaps more importantly, we need to appreciate the difference between how Fuller (2012) understands the normativity of social epistemology, and how this is understood by theorists within the ASE tradition. I conclude with what I hope will be some constructive suggestions on this score. -- downloaded pdf to Note
analytical_philosophy  social_theory  epistemology  epistemology-social  philosophy_of_language  mind  mind-theory_of  normativity  hygiene-mental  sociology_of_knowledge  social_sciences  philosophy_of_science  social_psychology  social_process  power-knowledge  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Orestis Palermos and Duncan Pritchard - Extended Knowledge and Social Epistemology, Orestis Palermos and Duncan Pritchard « Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective, 2 (8): 105-120 (2013).
University of Edinburgh -- Special Issue 2: On the Future Direction of Social Epistemology -- The place of social epistemology within contemporary philosophy, as well as its relation to other academic disciplines, is the topic of an ongoing debate. One camp within that debate holds that social epistemology should be pursued strictly from within the perspective of individualistic analytic epistemology. In contrast, a second camp holds that social epistemology is an interdisciplinary field that should be given priority over traditional analytic epistemology, with the specific aim of radically transforming the latter to fit the results and methodology of the former. We are rather suspicious of this apparent tension, which we believe can be significantly mitigated by paying attention to certain recent advances within philosophy of mind and cognitive science. Accordingly, we attempt to explain how extended knowledge, the result of combining active externalism from contemporary philosophy of mind with contemporary epistemology, can offer an alternative conception of the future of social epistemology.
analytical_philosophy  social_theory  epistemology  epistemology-social  philosophy_of_language  mind  mind-body  cognition  cognition-social  neuroscience  mind-external  bibliography  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  philosophy_of_science  psychology  social_psychology  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Collin Finn - Two Kinds of Social Epistemology « Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 2 (8): 79-104. (2013)
Steve Fuller’s programme of Social Epistemology was initiated some 25 years ago with the launching of a journal and the publication of a monograph with those very words as their title. Since then, the programme has evolved in a constant critical dialogue with other players in the fields of epistemology and science studies. Fuller’s main confrontation has been with analytic epistemology which, in its classical form, adopts a contrary position on most key issues. However, analytic epistemologists have gradually moved in the direction of Fuller’s views and even adopted the term “social epistemology” for their emerging position. Still, substantial disagreement remains between the two identically named programmes with regard to the proper philosophical approach to knowledge as a social phenomenon; in this article, I try to pinpoint the locus of this disagreement. However, Fuller has also been engaged in minor skirmishes with his Science Studies fellows; I also examine these clashes. Finally, I express my wishes concerning the future direction of social epistemology. -- downloaded pdf to Note
epistemology  epistemology-social  analytical_philosophy  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  history_of_science  scientific_method  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_language  social_theory  downloaded  EF-add  cognition  cognition-social  institutions  power  power-knowledge  knowledge  knowledge_economy  power-asymmetric  Rawls  democracy  expertise  epistemology-naturalism  human_nature  posthumanism  post-truth  Latour  humanities  humanism  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  political_culture  cultural_capital  social_capital  neoliberalism  instrumentalist 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Dunham, review - W. J. Mander (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // September 22, 2014
This volume is a hugely important contribution to scholarship on 19thC philosophy. ...for many important aspects of British philosophy in the 19thC the scholarship is almost non-existent. As Mander notes in the introduction, when we hear "19thC philosophy", we are more likely to think of 'the great systems of continental thought'. This volume shows that the British tradition boasts a remarkably rich and varied range of philosophical resources, and that it deserves the level of scholarship that the British traditions of the 17thC and 18thC are beginning to enjoy. In a review of another recent volume on 19thC philosophy Frederick Beiser argued that 'No period ... stands in more need of an original historian than 19thC philosophy. The standard tropes and figures do no justice to its depths, riches, and powers'. One of this present volume's greatest virtues is that it answers Beiser's plea as well as offering an impressive number of very original contributions.... It does an outstanding job of introducing a wide range of philosophical figures and ideas that will be unknown... It also includes excellent contributions on well-known philosophers and orientates the reader to the secondary literature.... The... volume provides a clear and comprehensive picture of how 19thC philosophy was practised and understood during the period. -- The Handbook has 6 parts: (1) Logic and Scientific Method; (2) Metaphysics; (3) Science and Philosophy; (4) Ethical, Social, and Political Thought; (5) Religious Philosophy; and, (6) The Practice of Philosophy. As Mander states, these classifications come from our contemporary perspective, and we should not expect the work of 19thC philosophers to neatly fit within them. Nonetheless, the individual authors [present] the aspects of a philosopher or school.. that fits within these categories while ... making clear how these aspects fit within a larger philosophical perspective ....
books  reviews  amazon.com  find  intellectual_history  19thC  British_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  Common_Sense  German_Idealism  British_Idealism  Kant  Hegelian  Mill  Sidgwick  Marx  Newman_JH  metaphysics  epistemology  empiricism  mind  perception  ideas-theories  idealism-transcendental  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  social_theory  Coleridge  philosophy_of_religion  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_social_science  science-and-religion  scientific_method  Darwinism  evolution  evolution-as-model  evolutionary_biology  evolution-social  Spencer_Herbert  political_philosophy  intelligentsia  elite_culture  professionalization  university  Evernote 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Jason M. Wirth, Seattle University, review - Dalia Nassar (ed.), The Relevance of Romanticism: Essays on German Romantic Philosophy (OUP 2014) // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // September 23, 2014
Dalia Nassar's assemblage of engaging and significant essays on some of the resurgent philosophers of early German romanticism emphasizes their contemporary philosophical relevance. "For it is a specifically philosophical revival, motivated by philosophical questions". Nassar demarcates this relevance into four general kinds. In the first part of the book, consisting of a fascinating debate between two of the heaviest hitters in this revival, Manfred Frank and Frederick Beiser, the question revolves around the very identity of early German philosophical romanticism. What counts as a work of this kind? What makes these works significantly different from works by practitioners of German idealism? Or can the two areas be so clearly distinguished? The next three sections are less global in their ambitions, but all of them touch on important facets of this period's enduring philosophical provocation. The second section features essays on the question of culture, language, sociability, and education, while the third turns to matters aesthetic, and the fourth and concluding section takes up the question of science.
books  reviews  find  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  German_Idealism  Romanticism  Kant  Hegel  Schelling  Schleiermacher  Fichte  Novalis  Hölderin  metaphysics  epistemology  mind  nature  aesthetics  culture  cultural_history  subjectivity  Absolute  philosophy_of_language  philosophy_of_science  hermeneutics  history_of_science  sociability  education  bildung  Evernote 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeffrey K. McDonough, review - Justin E. H. Smith, Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // April 17, 2012
Justin E. H. Smith, Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life, Princeton University Press, 2011, 392pp., $45.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780691141787.
Reviewed by Jeffrey K. McDonough, Harvard University -- It is widely recognized that Leibniz's philosophical thought is deeply influenced by the mathematics, physics and philosophical theology of his era. Justin E. H. Smith's Divine Machines argues that many of Leibniz's most central philosophical doctrines are similarly bound up with the life sciences of his time, where the "life sciences" are understood very broadly to include fields as diverse as alchemy, medicine, taxonomy, and paleontology. Smith's groundbreaking exploration represents an important contribution to our understanding of both Leibniz's philosophy and the study of life in the early modern era. It is to be recommended to historians, philosophers, and historians of philosophy alike. Below I highlight four central topics in Smith's book, raising some reservations along the way.
books  reviews  kindle-available  intellectual_history  17thC  Leibniz  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  metaphysics  monads  causation  species  teleology  anatomy  biology  medicine  microscope  fossils  reproduction  theodicy  creation  mechanism  organism 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeff - McDonough - “A Rosa multiflora by Any Other Name: Taxonomic Incommensurability and Scientific Kinds,” Synthese (136) 2003: 337-358
“A Rosa multiflora by Any Other Name: Taxonomic Incommensurability and Scientific Kinds,” Synthese (136) 2003: 337-358. -- This paper attempts to explore, criticize and develop Thomas Kuhn’s mos...
article  intellectual_history  20thC  philosophy_of_science  Kuhn  kinds  taxonomies  incommensurability  sociology_of_knowledge  disciplines  downloaded  EF-add  from notes
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeff McDonough's CV - Harvard University - Philosophy Department
Areas of Specialization: Early Modern Philosophy, History and Philosophy of Science. -- Areas of Competence:Medieval Philosophy, Metaphysics, Philosophy of Religion -- papers, conference presentations focus on Leibniz with some Berkeley, Hume
academia  intellectual_history  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  metaphysics  philosophy_of_religion  17thC  18thC  Leibniz  Berkeley  causation  teleology  theodicy  Descartes  Spinoza  Hume  Malebranche  bibliography 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard Marshall interview - Jeffrey K. McDonough -Leibniz, Berkeley, Kant, Frege; bees, toasters and Julius Caesar » 3:AM Magazine - September 2014
Good overview of different approaches to Leibniz. Causation and relation of divine and creaturely activity - Scholastics, Berkeley, Malebranche, Leibniz. Difference between Malebranche and Berkeley’s idealism. Kant on refutation of idealism re Cartesian scepticism of external world.
intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  Leibniz  Berkeley  Malebranche  Kant  substance  metaphysics  causation  teleology  theodicy  creation  mind-body  volition  mechanism  physics  philosophy_of_science  history_of_science  optics  idealism  scepticism  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
George F.R. Ellis | Personal Page
Links to extensive number of books he has authored or co-authored and to speeches and papers -- Teaching and research interests: *-* General Relativity theory and its application to the study of the large-scale structure of the universe (cosmology). *-* The history and philosophy of cosmology. *-* Complex systems and emergence of complexity. *- * The human brain and behaviour. *-* Science policy, developmental issues. *-* Science and mathematics education. *-* The relation of science to religion.
philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_religion  cosmology  physics  neuroscience  mind  mind-body  reductionism  causation  emergence  complexity  systems_theory  systems-complex_adaptive  science-and-religion  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
John Horgan - Physicist George Ellis Knocks Physicists for Knocking Philosophy, Falsification, Free Will | Cross-Check, Scientific American Blog Network - July 2014
A native of South Africa, Ellis is professor emeritus at the U of Cape Town, where he taught for decades, and has also held positions at Cambridge, the U of Texas, the Fermi Institute and ...around the globe. He was an early critic of apartheid, and Mandela awarded him the Order of the Star of S.Africa. -- Horgan: At the conference where we met you were in a session called “The end of experiment.” What was that about? - Ellis: - many of the possible high-energy physics experiments and astronomy observations relevant to cosmology are now in essence nearly complete. Physics experiments are approaching the highest energies it will ever be possible to test by any collider experiment... We can’t build a collider bigger than the surface of the Earth. Thus our ability to test high energy physics – and hence structures on the smallest physical scales – is approaching its limits. Astronomical observations at all wavelengths are now probing the most distant cosmological events that will ever be “seeable” by any kinds of radiation whatever, because of visual horizons for each form of radiation. -- So what we can see at the largest and smallest scales is approaching what will ever be possible, except for refining the details. But I emphasize that this comment does not apply to complex systems. Complexity is almost unbounded – microbiology, biology, the brain will give us work to do for many centuries more, what we may find may be very unexpected. That might also apply to the foundations of quantum physics, and its relation to complexity. -- I concede that observations relevant to structure formation in the universe – galaxies, stars, planets – have a good while to go, they are in essence verging to the side of studying complexity, and still have life in them yet, they are very interesting studies.
physics  cosmology  astronomy  scientism  reductionism  complexity  metaphysics  creation  big_bang  free_will  philosophy_of_science  neuroscience  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Reviewed by Tom Donaldson - David J. Chalmers, Constructing the World (OUP 2014) // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // August 2014
Stanford University -- This is a monumental book, in several respects. Most obviously, it’s very long: longer, by my estimate, than the Critique of Pure Reason b y a margin of about three and a half Tractatus. It is also vast in scope: Chalmers discusses a huge range of topics in formal and informal epistemology, metaphysics, the philosophy of language, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of science. There is even some history: Carnap is the ‘hero’ of Constructing the World (p. xvii), and one of Chalmers’ goals is to reassess Carnap’s work — especially the Aufbau. Paper copies of the book contain eight chapters and seventeen short supplemental ‘excursuses’. Chalmers has also made one extra chapter and four additional excursuses available online. The book is based on Chalmers’ 2010 John Locke lectures, which the Oxford University philosophy department has to its great credit put online in mp3 format. Chalmers has made no major changes to his position or terminology between delivering the lectures and completing the book, so those who like to take their philosophy aurally can start with the online lectures before turning to the written text for more detail. -- In section one I discuss Chalmers’ use of the vexed term ‘a priori’. In section two I discuss Chalmers’ defence of the claim that there are a priori truths (including synthetic a priori truths) from empiricist doubters. In section three I explain how Chalmers defends his ‘scrutability theses’. In section four I outline the Fregean theory of sense.
books  reviews  kindle-available  logic  Carnap  Frege  Quine  metaphysics  epistemology  philosophy_of_language  mind  consciousness  subjectivity  apriori  philosophy_of_science 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, by Simon Blackburn | Answers.com
The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, by Simon Blackburn, Oxford University Press
This dictionary covers every aspect of philosophy from Aristotle to Zen. Entries include biographies of famous and influential philosophers, in-depth analysis of philosophical terms and concepts, a chronology of philosophical events from antiquity to the present day, and coverage of themes from Chinese, Indian, Islamic and Jewish philosophy.
books  etexts  reference  intellectual_history  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_language  philosophy_of_history  philosophy_of_social_science  philosophy_of_religion  metaphysics  metaethics  epistemology  ontology  logic  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  political_philosophy 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Ian Hacking - Paradigms Regained - Thomas Kuhn's "Structure of Scientific Revolutions" 50 years later | The Los Angeles Review of Books
Excerpts from Hacking's introduction to the 50th anniversary reissue by the University of Chicago Press -- interesting comments re Kuhn's distaste for how some postmodernists and sociologists used his work, claimed him as an ally etc
books  bookshelf  intellectual_history  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  20thC  post-WWII  Kuhn  epistemology  anti-foundationalism  truth  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_method  scientific_culture  historiography-Whig  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Jack Miles - Tilting Against Naïve Materialism: On Thomas Nagel's "Mind and Cosmos" | The Los Angeles Review of Books - Feb 2013
Nagel is a professed scientific realist. He does not put scientific knowledge in scare quotes. He believes that reason is reliable and that science does engage reality. But when an account of the origin of reason that links it entirely to reproductive success has this self-subversive corollary, he chooses to trust reason and question the account rather than trust the account and question reason.Here, for this reviewer, is the core challenge, the core disturbance, of this challenging and intentionally disruptive work. Mind and Cosmos, which has been taken as an oblique defense of creationism, is actually a defense of reason. Yet it is also a fabulous effort of the imagination. The place of imagination, of fantasy, even of dream-life in the history of human thought is a large one. Nagel admits that he is not a scientist, but it would call for imagination and not just analysis for a scientist in any given field to begin thinking past contemporary science as a whole toward the contours of what might someday succeed it. Unless one is a scientific Whig, one must strongly suspect that something someday will indeed succeed it. Nagel’s Mind and Cosmos does not build a road to that destination, but it is much to have gestured toward a gap in the hills through which a road might someday run. -- Swift would agree
books  reviews  kindle-available  philosophy_of_science  evolutionary_biology  evolution  Darwinism  Nagel  reason  epistemology  teleology  monism  panpsychic_monism  materialism  reductionism  truth  Swift  historiography-Whig  history_of_science  consciousness  mind  cosmology  imagination  creativity  human_nature  evo_psych  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Friedrich August von Hayek - Prize Lecture: The Pretence of Knowledge -- Nobel Prize 1974
MLA style: "Friedrich August von Hayek - Prize Lecture: The Pretence of Knowledge". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Web. 9 Aug 2014. <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economic-sciences/laureates/1974/hayek-lecture.html> -- uses stagflation to attack demand side theories with a hint of liquidationism -- more interesting is his take on Popper and limits to positivism and quantitative methodologies -- can theirize certain patterns and examine empirical evidence re those patterns, but can't predict quantitative outcomes -- though stresses complexity, seems to be an issue of incomplete data (by definition inaccessible since it's in the heads of masses of heterogeneous agents reacting to their own, constantly changing, limited information) rather than emergent properties and complexity dynamics
intellectual_history  20thC  post-WWII  social_sciences-post-WWII  economic_theory  markets  information-markets  Labor_markets  unemployment  inflation  economic_policy  demand  empiricism  uncertainty  epistemology  positivism  quantitative_methods  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_social_science  Popper  Hayek  determinism  emergence  equilibrium  complexity  EF-add  scientism  scientific_method  sociology_of_knowledge 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Hayek on Prediction in the Social Sciences | Social Democracy for the 21st Century: A Post Keynesian Perspective: August 2014
Lord Keynes looking at Hayek's 1974 Nobel lecture -- If Hayek is saying here that the natural sciences could exactly predict everything about the game given enough information (including presumably the brain states of human players), then he is committed to the view that the world is completely deterministic, and that our uncertainty about it is merely epistemic and caused by the insuperable difficulties of gathering enough information for calculations. In contrast to this, Post Keynesians emphasise the ontological nature of uncertainty, and this commits them to a philosophical position quite different from that of Hayek. The notion of “spontaneous ordering forces” that bring order to markets (like Smith’s “invisible hand” metaphor) seems overrated too. “Spontaneous ordering forces” must be understood as emergent properties. That complex social and economic systems can display emergent properties that result in greater stability is not in doubt, but other emergent properties (e.g., the outcome of the paradox of thrift or distress selling in a market crash) can also be highly deleterious and destabilising. Hayek badly neglected such destabilising forces in his rhetoric about markets. -- see bookmark for html of lecture on Nobel Prize site
20thC  intellectual_history  economic_theory  macroeconomics  microeconomics  markets  information-markets  equilibrium  emergence  laisser-faire  Hayek  uncertainty  probability  determinism  Post-Keynesian  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_social_science  scientism  scientific_method  scientific_culture  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Nancy Cartwright - Evidence Where Rigor Matters.pdf
LSE collection of her work, most from her involvement with Templeton project "God's Law, Nature's Laws, Man's Laws" She had a director role and focused on "man" area. She's especially interested in t...
philosophy_of_science  evidence  epistemology  RCTs  statistics  probability  social_sciences  methodology  downloaded  EF-add  from notes
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Philosophy at 3:AM: Questions and Answers with 25 Top Philosophers : Richard Marshall : 9780199969531
Contents -- i. Introduction. ; Chapter 1. Brian Leiter: 'Leiter Reports' ; Chapter 2. Jason Stanley : 'Philosophy As The Great Naivete' ; Chapter 3. Eric Schwitzgebel: 'The Splintered Skeptic' ; Chapter 4. Mark Rowlands: 'Hour Of The Wolf' ; Chapter 5. Eric T Olson: 'The Philosopher With No Hands' ; Chapter 6. Craig Callender: ' Time Lord' ; Chapter 7. Kieran Setiya: ' What Anscombe Intended and Other Puzzles' ; Chapter 8. Kit Fine: 'Metaphysical Kit' ; Chapter 9. Patricia Churchland: 'Causal Machines' ; Chapter 10. Valerie Tiberius: 'Mostly Elephant, ErgoEL' ; Chapter 11. Peter Carruthers: 'Mind Reader' ; Chapter 12. Josh Knobe: 'Indie Rock Virtues' ; Chapter 13. Al Mele: 'The Four Million Dollar Philosopher ; Chapter 14.Graham Priest: 'Logically Speaking' ; Chapter 15. Ursula Renz: 'After Spinoza: Wiser, Freer, Happier' ; Chapter 16. Cecile Fabre: ' On The Intrinsic Value Of Each Of Us' ; Chapter 17. Hilde Linderman: ' No Ethics Without Feminism' ; Chapter 18. Elizabeth S. Anderson: 'The New Leveller' ; Chapter 19. Christine Korsgaard: 'Treating People As End In Themselves' ; Chapter 20. Michael Lynch: 'Truth, Reason and Democracy' ; Chapter 21. Timothy Williamson : 'Classical Investigations' ; Chapter 22. Ernie Lapore: 'Meaning, Truth, Language, Reality' ; Chapter 23. Jerry Fodor: 'Meaningful Words Without Sense, And Other Revolutions.' ; Chapter 24. Huw Price: 'Without Mirrors' ; Chapter 25. Gary Gutting: 'What Philosophers Know'
books  buy  philosophy  intellectual_history  metaphysics  metaethics  ontology  scepticism  analytical_philosophy  political_philosophy  epistemology  feminism  philosophy_of_language  mind  mind-body  consciousness  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_law  pragmatism  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Anthony Chemero and Michael Silberstein - After the Philosophy of Mind: Replacing Scholasticism with Science | JSTOR: Philosophy of Science, Vol. 75, No. 1 (January 2008), pp. 1-27
We provide a taxonomy of the two most important debates in the philosophy of the cognitive and neural sciences. The first debate is over methodological individualism: is the object of the cognitive and neural sciences the brain, the whole animal, or the animal—environment system? The second is over explanatory style: should explanation in cognitive and neural science be reductionist‐mechanistic, interlevel mechanistic, or dynamical? After setting out the debates, we discuss the ways in which they are interconnected. Finally, we make some recommendations that we hope will help philosophers interested in the cognitive and neural sciences to avoid dead ends. -- partially a lit survey so good bibliography -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  philosophy_of_science  metaphysics  mind  mind-body  neuroscience  reductionism  mechanism  cognition  ontology  methodology  levels_of_analyis  critical_realism  emergence  individualism-methodology  unit_of_analysis  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
A. W. Moore and Peter Sullivan - Ineffability and Nonsense (debate) | JSTOR: Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes, Vol. 77 (2003), pp. 169-193+195-223
[A. W. Moore] There are criteria of ineffability whereby, even if the concept of ineffability can never serve to modify truth, it can sometimes (non-trivially) serve to modify other things, specifically understanding. This allows for a reappraisal of the dispute between those who adopt a traditional reading of Wittgenstein's Tractatus and those who adopt the new reading recently championed by Diamond, Conant, and others. By maintaining that what the nonsense in the Tractatus is supposed to convey is ineffable understanding, rather than ineffable truth, we can do considerable justice to each of these readings. We can also do considerable justice to the Tractatus. /// [Peter Sullivan] Moore proposes to cut between 'traditional' and 'new' approaches to the Tractatus, suggesting that Wittgenstein's intention is to convey, through the knowing use of nonsense, ineffable understanding. I argue, first, that there is indeed room for a proposal of Moore's general kind. Secondly, though, I question whether Moore's actual proposal is not more in tune with Wittgenstein's later thought than with the attitude of the Tractatus. -- nearly 200 references -- should provide an overview of the Old vs New Wittgenstein positions, who's who and background for Moore's modern metaphysics book (kindle) -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  20thC  21stC  metaphysics  philosophy_of_science  Logical_Positivism  philosophy_of_language  Wittgenstein  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Galen Strawson - Realism and Causation | JSTOR: The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 148 (Jul., 1987), pp. 253-277
This looks like early work towards his "necessary connexion" book on Hume that challenges the standard regularity interpretation of Hume on causality. Bibliography looks useful -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  metaphysics  intellectual_history  philosophy_of_science  18thC  Hume-causation  causation  realism  scepticism  positivism  properties  laws_of_nature  powers  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Nancy Cartwright on RCTs | LARS P. SYLL - July 2014
I’m fond of science philosophers like Nancy Cartwright. With razor-sharp intellects they immediately go for the essentials. They have no time for bullshit. And neither should we. In Evidence: For Policy — downloadable here — Cartwirght has assembled her papers on how better to use evidence from the sciences “to evaluate whether policies that have been tried have succeeded and to predict whether those we are thinking of trying will produce the outcomes we aim for.” Many of the collected papers center around what can and cannot be inferred from results in well-done randomised controlled trials (RCTs). A must-read for everyone with an interest in the methodology of science -- downloaded pdf to Note
methodology  methodology-quantitative  philosophy_of_science  epistemology  evidence  downloaded 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Devin Henry - "Aristotle's Pluralistic Realism" | The Monist 94.2 (2011): 198-222
The University of Western Ontario -- In this paper I explore Aristotle’s views on natural kinds and the compatibility of pluralism and realism, a topic that has generated considerable interest among contemporary philosophers. I argue that, when it came to zoology, Aristotle denied that there is only one way of organizing the diversity of the living world into natural kinds that will yield a single, unified system of classification. Instead, living things can be grouped and regrouped into various cross-cutting kinds on the basis of objective similarities and differences in ways that subserve the explanatory context. Since the explanatory aims of zoology are diverse and variegated, the kinds it recognizes must be equally diverse and variegated. At the same time, there are certain constraints on which kinds can be selected. And those constraints derive more from the causal structure of the world than from the proclivities of the classifier (hence the realism). This distinguishes Aristotle’s version of pluralistic realism from those contemporary versions (like Dupré’s “promiscuous realism”) that treat all or most classifications of a given domain as equally legitimate and not just a sub-set of kinds recognized by the science that studies it. By contrast, Aristotle privileges scientifically important kinds on the basis of their role in causal investigations. On this picture natural kinds are those kinds with the sort of causal structure that allows them to enter into scientific explanations. In the final section I argue that Aristotle’s zoology should remain of interest to philosophers and biologists alike insofar as it combines a pluralistic form of realism with a rank-free approach to classification. - didn't download
article  intellectual_history  Aristotle  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  ancient_philosophy  analytical_philosophy  natural_kinds  classification  species  explanation  causation  biology  animals  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Devin Henry - "The Failure of Evolution in Antiquity" in Blackwell Companion to Ancient Science, Medicine and Technology (2014)
Devin Henry, The University of Western Ontario -- This paper traces the emergence and rejection of evolutionary thinking in antiquity. It examines Empedocles' original theory of evolution and why his ideas failed to gain traction among his predecessors. -- Devin Henry. "The Failure of Evolution in Antiquity" Blackwell Companion to Ancient Science, Medicine and Technology. Ed. Georgia Irby. Blackwell-Wiley, 2014. -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  natural_philosophy  biology  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  evolutionary_biology  evolution  time  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter, Michael Weisberg - Why Evolutionary Biology is (so Far) Irrelevant to Law (2007, last revised 2014) :: SSRN
U of Texas Law, Law & Econ Research Paper No. 81 -- U of Texas Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 89 -- We argue that as the actual science stands today, evolutionary biology offers nothing to help with questions about legal regulation of behavior. -- Evolutionary accounts are etiological accounts of how a trait evolved. [A]n account of causal etiology could be relevant to law if (1) the account of causal etiology is scientifically well-confirmed, and (2) there is an explanation of how the well-confirmed etiology bears on questions of development (the Environmental Gap Objection). ....the accounts of causal etiology that might be relevant are not remotely well-confirmed by scientific standards. We argue, in particular, that (a) evolutionary psychology is not entitled to assume selectionist accounts of human behaviors, (b) the assumptions necessary for the selectionist accounts to be true are not warranted by standard criteria for theory choice, and (c) only confusions about levels of explanation of human behavior create the appearance that understanding the biology of behavior is important. We also note that no response to the Environmental Gap Objection has been proffered. In the concluding section of the article, we turn directly to the work of Prof Owen Jones, a leading proponent of the relevance of evolutionary biology to law, and show that he does not come to terms with any of the fundamental problems identified in this article. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  legal_theory  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_law  philosophy_of_social_science  evolution-social  evolutionary_biology  evo_psych  causation-social  causation-evolutionary  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Alastair Wilson, ed - Chance and Temporal Asymmetry (2014) - Oxford University Press
Tackling the perplexing philosophical problems raised by recent progress in the physics and metaphysics of chance and time. How do the probabilities found in fundamental physics and the probabilities of the special sciences relate to one another? Can a constraint on the initial conditions of the universe underwrite the second law of thermodynamics? How does contemporary quantum theory reframe debates over the nature of chance? What grounds do we have for believing in a fundamental direction to time? ..bold new proposals are made concerning (inter alia) the semantics of chance-attributions, the justification of the Principal Principle connecting chance and degree of belief, and the source of the temporal asymmetry of human experience. *--* Alastair Wilson: Introduction --1: Toby Handfield & Alastair Wilson: Chance and Context --2: Christopher J. G. Meacham: Autonomous Chances and the Conflicts Problem --3: Carl Hoefer: Consistency and Admissibility: Reply to Meacham --4: Wolfgang Schwarz: Proving the Principal Principle --5: Alan Hájek: A Chancy 'Magic Trick' --6: Aidan Lyon: From Kolmogorov, to Popper, to Rényi: There's No Escaping Humphreys' Paradox (When Generalized) --7: Antony Eagle: Is the Past a Matter of Chance? --8: David Z. Albert: The Sharpness of the Distinction Between the Past and the Future --9: L. A. Paul: Experience and the Arrow --10: David Wallace: Probability in Physics: Stochastic, Statistical, Quantum --11: Mathias Frisch: Why Physics Can't Explain Everything --12: Brad Weslake: Statistical-Mechanical Imperialism --13: Jessica Wilson: Hume's Dictum and Natural Modality: Counterfactuals --14: Alexander Bird: Time, Chance, and the Necessity of Everything
books  kindle-available  metaphysics  philosophy_of_science  quantum_physics  physics  time  probability  modality  counterfactuals  necessity  chance  epistemology  belief  laws_of_nature 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
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