dunnettreader + perception   47

Embodied Cognition (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
1. Embodied vs Traditional Cognitive Science
2. Some Historical Anchors for Embodied Cognitive Science
2.1 Metaphor and Cognition
2.2 Enactive Cognition.
2.3 Rethinking Robotics.
2.4 Ecological Perception.
2.5 Dynamicism and Development
2.6 Phenomenology
3. What Embodied Cognition Is
4. Embodiment vs Tradition on Three Issues
4.1 Modularity
4.2 Mental Representation.
4.3 Nativism
5. Empirical Domains for Embodied Cognition
5.1 Visual Consciousness
5.2 Concepts
5.3 Memory.
5.4 Other Minds.
5.5 Moral Cognition.
6. Sharper Divides Over Embodied Cognition
6.1 Payoffs for empirical research.
6.2 Accommodation by traditional cognitive science
6.3 Embodied cognition and the extended mind thesis.
6.4 Agency, the self, and subjectivity.
bibliography  philosophy_of_mind  mind-body  mind  embodied_cognition  neuroscience  phenomenology  innatism  innate_ideas  theory_of_mind  perception  memory  cognition  emotions  representation-metaphysics  child_development  language  moral_psychology 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Black and White Aren’t Opposites After All | The Getty Iris
Neuroscientists are still cracking the puzzle of why our brains process light and darkness asymmetrically. Co-published with Zócalo Public Square . Most people… -- neat illustrations of how light and dark contribute to visual perception in quite different ways, eg gauging depth, type of material, relatively among things - and we don't see them as the other's opposite or negative - eac5 contributes something affirmative, alone and in combo
Instapaper  vision  perception  from instapaper
may 2016 by dunnettreader
The Artful Brain Conference - Margaret Livingstone - What Art can tell us about the Brain | School of Advanced Study, University of London
The Artful Brain Conference: What Art can tell us about the Brain - Margaret Livingstone (Harvard)

Artists have been doing experiments on vision longer than neurobiologists. Some major works of art have provided insights as to how we see; some of these insights are so fundamental that they can be understood in terms of the underlying neurobiology. For example, artists have long realized that color and luminance can play independent roles in visual perception. Picasso said, "Colors are only symbols. Reality is to be found in luminance alone." This observation has a parallel in the functional subdivision of our visual systems, where color and luminance are processed by the newer, primate-specific What system, and the older, colorblind, Where (or How) system. Many techniques developed over the centuries by artists can be understood in terms of the parallel organization of our visual systems. I will explore how the segregation of color and luminance processing are the basis for why some Impressionist paintings seem to shimmer, why some op art paintings seem to move, some principles of Matisse's use of color, and how the Impressionists painted "air". Central and peripheral vision are distinct, and I will show how the differences in resolution across our visual field make the Mona Lisa's smile elusive, and produce a dynamic illusion in Pointillist paintings, Chuck Close paintings, and photomosaics. I will explore how artists have intuited important features about how our brains extract relevant information about faces and objects, and I will discuss why learning disabilities may be associated with artistic talent.
brain  neuroscience  lecture  perception  video  conference  painting  vision  art 
march 2016 by dunnettreader
Steven Shapin - How Foods Tasted in the Early Modern Period and How They Taste Now (2012) | School of Advanced Study, University of London
Professor Steven Shapin, ST Lee Visiting Professorial Fellow, 2011/12, Franklin L. Ford Professor of the History of Science, Harvard University
Event date:
Tuesday 22 May 2012
School of Advanced Study, University of London
sensation  Europe-Early_Modern  Addison  intellectual_history  Locke-Essay  video  consumer_revolution  lecture  perception  food  botany  medicine  physiology  cultural_history  taste  humours 
march 2016 by dunnettreader
David Sedley - Lucretius and the Transformation of Greek Wisdom | Classical Literature | Cambridge University Press (hbk 1998)
This book studies the structure and origins of De Rerum Natura (On the nature of things), the great first-century BC poem by Lucretius. By showing how he worked from the literary model set by the Greek poet Empedocles but under the philosophical inspiration of the Greek philosopher Epicurus, the book seeks to characterize Lucretius' unique poetic achivement. It is addressed to those interested both in Latin poetry and in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy. [A later chapter concerns the "imprint" of Theophrastus *--* The appearance of this book is a great event - a first class modern philosopher writing on a major Roman author *--* Nothing of this kind available elsewhere *--* Contains the first ever full-scale reconstruction of Epicurus' great treatise On Nature -- downloaded marketing materials to Note
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  literary_history  Lucretius  ancient_philosophy  cosmology  religious_belief  ancient_Greece  ancient_Rome  Greek_lit  Latin_lit  Hellenism  Epicurean  atomism  Empedocles  Theophrastus  poetry  rhetoric-moral_basis  epistemology  nature  perception  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Dale Jacquette, review - Ted Honderich, Actual Consciousness (OUP 2014) // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews - August 2015
Ted Honderich’s new book takes the exploration of the mysteries of consciousness in an interesting direction. He develops a certain-to-be-controversial…
subjectivity  books  emotions  consciousness  cognition  analytical_philosophy  self  reviews  mind  qualia  perception  phenomenology  from instapaper
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Nadeem J. Z. Hussain and Lydia Patton - Friedrich Albert Lange | Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy August 2012 revision of original May 2095
Friedrich Albert Lange (b. 1828, d. 1875) was a German philosopher, pedagogue, political activist, and journalist. He was one of the originators of neo-Kantianism and an important figure in the founding of the Marburg school of neo-Kantianism. He also played a significant role in the German labour movement and in the development of social democratic thought. His book, The History of Materialism, was a standard introduction to materialism and the history of philosophy well into the twentieth century. -- 1. Life and Intellectual Career -- 2. Pedagogy -- 3. The Labor Question -- 4. Neo-Kantianism ** 4.1 The Ethical Standpoint of the Ideal ** 4.2 Logic and Scientific Methodology -- downloaded as pdf to Note
intellectual_history  19thC  Germany  German_scholars  Lange_FA  neo-Kantian  Hegelian  German_Idealism  materialism-19thC  materialism  historiography-19thC  philosophy_of_science  epistemology  epistemology-moral  epistemology-naturalism  ancient_philosophy  atomism  logic  scientific_method  socialism  labor  capitalism  Industrial_Revolution  social_democracy  physiology  mind  perception  sensation  Kant-ethics  bibliography 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Beatrice Kobow - How to Do Things with Fictions: Reconsidering Vaihinger for a Philosophy of Social Sciences (2013) | Philosophy of the Social Sciences 44: 201 via Cambridge Realist Workshop
The article reconstructs three key concepts of Hans Vaihinger: the idea of mental fictions as self-contradictory, provisory, conscious, and purposeful; the law of the devolution of ideas stating that an idea oscillates between dogma, hypothesis, or fiction; and the underlying assumption about human consciousness that the psyche constructs thoughts around perceptions like an oyster produces a pearl. In a second, constructive part, these concepts are applied in a discussion of John Searle’s social ontologically extended theory of speech acts. The article introduces the Vaihingerian as-if to Searle’s account of declarations. The explanatory work in a model of social reality as Searle has proposed it rests on the ability to show a necessary connection between collective and individual intentionality facilitated through linguistic structure. The methodological individualism of the model requires that motivational assumptions about collective structures be realized in individual brains. The as-if stance of the declarer provides just this connection. -- Keywords as-if, fiction, status function declarations, double direction of fit, deonticity, collective intentionality, speech act theory, social ontology, Vaihinger, Searle - downloaded to iPhone from http://www.csog.econ.cam.ac.uk/Cambridge-Realist-Workshop/realist-images/HowtoDoThingswithFictions.pdf/at_download/file
article  ontology-social  cognition-social  fiction-cognition  methodological_individualism  critical_realism  perception  downloaded  hypothesis  Searle  as-if  speech_acts  logic  sociology_of_knowledge  cognition  philosophy_of_social_science 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Lockean Empathy | Colin Marshall - Academia.edu - forthcoming, Southern Journal of Philosophy
This paper offers an epistemic defense of empathy, drawing on John Locke’s theory of ideas. Locke held that ideas of shape, unlike ideas of color, had a distinctive value: resembling qualities in their objects. I argue that the same is true of empathy, as when someone is pained by someone’s pain. This means that empathy has the same epistemic value or objectivity that Locke and other early modern philosophers assigned to veridical perceptions of shape. For this to hold, pain and pleasure must be a primary quality of the mind, just as shape is a primary quality of bodies. Though Locke did not make that claim, I argue that pain and pleasure satisfy his criteria for primary qualities. I consider several objections to the analogy between empathy and shape-perception, and show how Locke’s theory has resources for answering them. In addition, the claim that empathetic ideas are object-matching sidesteps Berkeley’s influential objection to Locke’s theory of resemblance. I conclude by briefly considering the prospects for a similar defense of empathy in contemporary terms.-- Philosophy of perception, John Locke, Empathy (Philosophy), and Empathy -- bookmark but didn't download
article  Academia.edu  Locke  primary_qualities  epistemology  mind-theory_of  perception  empathy  correspondence  Berkeley  pain  pleasure  cognition 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Barry Allen, "Vanishing into Things: Knowledge in Chinese Tradition" (Harvard University Press, 2015)
Barry Allen's new book carefully considers the problem of knowledge in a range of Chinese philosophical discourses, creating a stimulating cross-disciplinary dialogue that's as much of a pleasure to read as it will be to teach with. Taking on the work of Confucians, Daoists, military theorists, Chan Buddhists, Neo-Confucian philosophers, and others, Vanishing into Things: Knowledge in Chinese Tradition (Harvard University Press, 2015) looks at the common threads and important differences in the ways that scholars have attempted to conceptualize and articulate what it is to be a knowing being in the world. Some of the major themes that recur throughout the work include the nature of non-action and emptiness, the relationship between knowledge and scholarship, the possibility of Chinese epistemologies and empiricisms, and the importance of artifice. Allen pays special attention to the ways that these scholars relate knowledge to a fluid conception of "things" that can be "completed" or "vanished into" by the knower, and to their understanding of things as parts of a collective economy of human and non-human relationships. The book does an excellent job of maintaining its focus on Chinese texts and contexts while making use of comparative cases from Anglophone and European-language philosophy that brings Chinese scholars into conversation with Nietzsche, Latour, Deleuze and Guattari, Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, and beyond - 1 hour interview
books  interview  audio  intellectual_history  Chinese_philosophy  China  Chinese_history  Asian_philosophy  epistemology  Buddhism  Confucianism  empiricism  epistemology-social  ontology  human_nature  human-non-human_relations  military_theory  military_history  Neo-Confucian  Nietzsche  Deleuze  Aristotle  Machiavelli  Plato  Latour  consciousness  perception 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Timothy Michael - British Romanticism and the Critique of Political Reason (Dec 2015) | JHU Press
What role should reason play in the creation of a free and just society? Can we claim to know anything in a field as complex as politics? And how can the cause of political rationalism be advanced when it is seen as having blood on its hands? These are the questions that occupied a group of British poets, philosophers, and polemicists in the years following the French Revolution. (..) argues that much literature of the period is a trial, or a critique, of reason in its political capacities and a test of the kinds of knowledge available to it. For Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, Burke, Wollstonecraft, and Godwin, the historical sequence of revolution, counter-revolution, and terror in France—and radicalism and repression in Britain—occasioned a dramatic reassessment of how best to advance the project of enlightenment. The political thought of these figures must be understood, Michael contends, in the context of their philosophical thought. Major poems of the period, including The Prelude, The Excursion, and Prometheus Unbound, are in this reading an adjudication of competing political and epistemological claims. This book bridges for the first time two traditional pillars of Romantic studies: the period’s politics and its theories of the mind and knowledge. Combining literary and intellectual history, it provides an account of British Romanticism in which high rhetoric, political prose, poetry, and poetics converge in a discourse of enlightenment and emancipation.
books  18thC  19thC  intellectual_history  literary_history  British_history  English_lit  political_philosophy  political_culture  Enlightenment  epistemology  moral_philosophy  mind  Romanticism  poetry  French_Enlightenment  French_Revolution  French_Revolution-impact  French_Revolutionary_Wars  Wordsworth  Coleridge  Shelley  Burke  Wollstonecraft  Godwin_Wm  reason  rationality  perception  judgment-political  judgment-independence  Counter-Enlightenment  counter-revolution  political_discourse  poetics  rhetoric-political  freedom  civil_liberties  civil_society  liberty-positive  scepticism 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Hartshorne: Biography and Psychology of Sensation | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
(..) he insisted that metaphysics and empirical science have different aims and methods, each ensuring in its own way a disciplined objectivity. His “neoclassical” or “process” metaphysics is in the same family of speculative philosophy that one finds in the works of CS Peirce and the later writings of AN Whitehead. Although he did not style himself a disciple of either, he made significant contributions to the study of these philosophers even as he developed his own views. Like them, he endeavored in his own metaphysical thinking to give full weight to the dynamic, relational, temporal, and affective dimensions of the universe. He emphasized, as few before him had, in logic and in the processes of nature, the foundational nature of asymmetrical relations. He was also a theist (...) the revival of the ontological or modal argument for God’s existence...He insisted, however, that it was unavailing to appeal to ...any theistic argument) as support for theism without first rethinking the concept of deity. He argued that thinking about God had been handicapped by lack of attention to the logically possible forms of theism, and in place of the unmoved mover of classical theology, he proposed “the most, and best, moved mover.” He endorsed a “dipolar” version of theism according to which God is both necessary and contingent, but in different respects. He sought a “panentheism” in which God includes the creatures without negating their distinctiveness. -- entry also covers his 1st book on perception -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  20thC  metaphysics  philosophy_of_religion  Peirce  Whitehead  theism  Hartshorne  natural_religion  rational_religion  God-attributes  God-existence  analytical_philosophy  logic  logic-Peirce  process_theology  panentheism  ontological_argument  cosmology  Aristotelian  sensation  perception  empiricism  downloaded 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Roundtable - Romanticism, Enlightenment, and Counter-Enlightenment | Philoctetes Center - April 17, 2010
, 2:30 PM
Romanticism, Enlightenment, and Counter-Enlightenment

Participants: Akeel Bilgrami, Taylor Carman, Garrett Deckel, Colin Jager, Joel Whitebook Isaiah Berlin introduced the work of a range of philosophers in the German romantic and German idealist tradition to the English-speaking world. His fascination with some of their ideas was accompanied by a concomitant anxiety about them. The anxiety issued from his staunch liberal commitment to the orthodox Enlightenment. Yet, the fascination was an implicit acknowledgement on his part of some of the limitations of the Enlightenment's liberal ideas. This roundtable will look at this underlying tension in Berlin, which many liberals feel to this day. Panelists will probe the role of reason, perception, and emotion in our individual and political psychology, and ask the question of whether or not there is something for liberalism to learn from what Berlin—rightly or wrongly—called the "Counter-Enlightenment." -- see YouTube bookmark for direct link -- video also embedded in program page
video  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  Enlightenment  Counter-Enlightenment  Romanticism  Enlightenment_Project  Enlightenment-ongoing  German_Idealism  liberalism  Berlin_Isaiah  reason  rationality  perception  emotions  reason-passions  political_philosophy  political_culture  social_psychology  moral_psychology  nature  nature-mastery  cognition  prejudice  cognitive_bias  mind  mind-body  philosophical_anthropology 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Kathleen Lennon - Imagination and the Imaginary // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews - July 2015
Kathleen Lennon’s new monograph joins a growing number of studies reclaiming the imagination from the dominance of a rationalist positivism.It marks the steps…
Instapaper  books  reviews  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  20thC  Cartesian  Kant  Hume  imagination  self  phenomenology  Sartre  Merleau-Ponty  rationalist  perception  epistemology  creativity  positivism  from instapaper
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Madl T, Baars BJ, Franklin S (2011) The Timing of the Cognitive Cycle. | PLoS ONE 6(4)
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014803 -- We propose that human cognition consists of cascading cycles of recurring brain events. Each cognitive cycle senses the current situation, interprets it with reference to ongoing goals, and then selects an internal or external action in response. While most aspects of the cognitive cycle are unconscious, each cycle also yields a momentary “ignition” of conscious broadcasting. Neuroscientists have independently proposed ideas similar to the cognitive cycle, the fundamental hypothesis of the LIDA (Learning Intelligent Distribution Agent) model of cognition. High-level cognition, such as deliberation, planning, etc., is typically enabled by multiple cognitive cycles. In this paper we describe a timing model of LIDA's cognitive cycle. -- The action selection component of the cycle is proposed to involve frontal, striatal and cerebellar regions. Thus the cycle is inherently recurrent, as the anatomy of the thalamocortical system suggests. The LIDA model fits a large body of cognitive and neuroscientific evidence. Finally, we describe two LIDA-based software agents: the LIDA Reaction Time agent that simulates human performance in a simple reaction time task, and the LIDA Allport agent which models phenomenal simultaneity within timeframes comparable to human subjects. While there are many models of reaction time performance, these results fall naturally out of a biologically and computationally plausible cognitive architecture. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  neuroscience  cognition  consciousness  brain  perception  memory  learning  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Catherine E. Kerr et al - Mindfulness starts with the body: somatosensory attention and top-down modulation of cortical alpha rhythms in mindfulness meditation (2013) | Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Review ARTICLE - Frontiers of Human Neuroscience, 13 February 2013 | doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00012 -- Catherine E. Kerr1*, Matthew D. Sacchet2,3, Sara W. Lazar4, Christopher I. Moore5 and Stephanie R. Jones4,5 - authors from Brown, Stanford and Mass General -- Using a common set of mindfulness exercises, mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) have been shown to reduce distress in chronic pain and decrease risk of depression relapse. These standardized mindfulness (ST-Mindfulness) practices predominantly require attending to breath and body sensations. Here, we offer a novel view of ST-Mindfulness's somatic focus as a form of training for optimizing attentional modulation of 7–14 Hz alpha rhythms that play a key role in filtering inputs to primary sensory neocortex and organizing the flow of sensory information in the brain. (..) Our computational model predicts ST-Mindfulness enhances top-down modulation of alpha by facilitating precise alterations in timing and efficacy of SI thalamocortical inputs. We conclude by considering how the framework aligns with Buddhist teachings that mindfulness starts with “mindfulness of the body.” Translating this theory into neurophysiology, we hypothesize that with its somatic focus, mindfulness' top-down alpha rhythm modulation in SI enhances gain control which, in turn, sensitizes practitioners to better detect and regulate when the mind wanders from its somatic focus. This enhanced regulation of somatic mind-wandering may be an important early stage of mindfulness training that leads to enhanced cognitive regulation and metacognition. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  neuroscience  brain  perception  psychology  pain  Buddhism  meditation  physiology  health  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeroen J. A. van Boxtel, Naotsugu Tsuchiya and Christof Koch - Consciousness and Attention: On Sufficiency and Necessity | Consciousness Research
Review ARTICLE - Frontiers of Psychology, 20 December 2010 | doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00217 - authors from or affiliated with CalTech (biology and humanities) and Tsuchiya is connected with both CalTech and brain institutes at Tamagawa University, Tokyo, Japan and Korea University, Seoul, Korea -- Recent research has slowly corroded a belief that selective attention and consciousness are so tightly entangled that they cannot be individually examined. In this review, we summarize psychophysical and neurophysiological evidence for a dissociation between top-down attention and consciousness. The evidence includes recent findings that show subjects can attend to perceptually invisible objects. More contentious is the finding that subjects can become conscious of an isolated object, or the gist of the scene in the near absence of top-down attention; we critically re-examine the possibility of “complete” absence of top-down attention. We also cover the recent flurry of studies that utilized independent manipulation of attention and consciousness. These studies have shown paradoxical effects of attention, including examples where top-down attention and consciousness have opposing effects, leading us to strengthen and revise our previous views. Neuroimaging studies with EEG, MEG, and fMRI are uncovering the distinct neuronal correlates of selective attention and consciousness in dissociative paradigms. These findings point to a functional dissociation: attention as analyzer and consciousness as synthesizer. Separating the effects of selective visual attention from those of visual consciousness is of paramount importance to untangle the neural substrates of consciousness from those for attention. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  neuroscience  psychology  mind  perception  consciousness  attention  unconscious  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Hegel's Theory of Mental Activity by Willem A. deVries (pdfs of Cornell University Press 1988)
Hegel's Theory of Mental Activity - Originally copyright Cornell University Press, 1988; Cornell kindly gave me back the copyright when the book went out of print, which change has been duly registered with the Copyright Office. So it is now copyright Willem A. deVries. The files contained here are graphical reproductions of the original text with an invisible text overlay, so they reproduce the look and pagination of the original, but can also be searched using Acrobat's find function. My grateful thanks to Stephen Butterfill for scanning the book and putting it into PDF format.
books  etexts  downloaded  intellectual_history  philosophes  German_Idealism  Hegel  17thC  18thC  19thC  Plato  Aristotle  Kant  empiricism  rationalist  mind  logic  logic-Hegelian  perception  rationality  phenomenology  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Jens Rister, Claude Desplan, and Daniel Vasiliauskas - Primer Series: Establishing and maintaining gene expression patterns: insights from sensory receptor patterning (2013)
Development. Feb 1, 2013; 140(3): 493–503. - doi: 10.1242/dev.079095 - PMCID: PMC3561783 - Primer Series - In this Primer, we summarize our current understanding of the mechanisms governing SR patterning in the fly retina, one of the best-understood systems for SR gene choice. We then compare these regulatory mechanisms with those used in the mouse retina and in the fly and mouse olfactory systems. -- Abstract - In visual and olfactory sensory systems with high discriminatory power, each sensory neuron typically expresses one, or very few, sensory receptor genes, excluding all others. Recent studies have provided insights into the mechanisms that generate and maintain sensory receptor expression patterns. Here, we review how this is achieved in the fly retina and compare it with the mechanisms controlling sensory receptor expression patterns in the mouse retina and in the mouse and fly olfactory systems. -- Introduction - Multicellular organisms are able to perceive and discriminate a broad range of environmental stimuli within a number of sensory modalities. To achieve this, the visual and olfactory systems deploy large numbers of sensory receptors (SRs). For example, five Rhodopsin genes are differentially expressed in the fly retina while over 1200 olfactory receptor genes are expressed in the nose of the mouse . In sensory systems of high discriminatory power, each sensory neuron generally expresses only one or very few SR gene(s), excluding all others . Importantly, the choice of expressing a particular SR determines the identity and response spectrum of the sensory neuron. Thus, each sensory neuron faces two regulatory challenges during its terminal differentiation: it first has to make an unambiguous choice of SR expression, and it must then maintain this decision throughout its lifespan. Failure in either case would compromise the ability of the sensory system to discriminate between stimuli. -- downloaded pdf to Note Keywords: Hippo pathway, Cell identity maintenance, Olfactory receptor, Opsin, Photoreceptor, Sensory --
article  neuroscience  brain  perception  sensation  brain-development  vision  molecular_biology  genetics  epigenetics  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Dunham, review - W. J. Mander (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // September 22, 2014
This volume is a hugely important contribution to scholarship on 19thC philosophy. ...for many important aspects of British philosophy in the 19thC the scholarship is almost non-existent. As Mander notes in the introduction, when we hear "19thC philosophy", we are more likely to think of 'the great systems of continental thought'. This volume shows that the British tradition boasts a remarkably rich and varied range of philosophical resources, and that it deserves the level of scholarship that the British traditions of the 17thC and 18thC are beginning to enjoy. In a review of another recent volume on 19thC philosophy Frederick Beiser argued that 'No period ... stands in more need of an original historian than 19thC philosophy. The standard tropes and figures do no justice to its depths, riches, and powers'. One of this present volume's greatest virtues is that it answers Beiser's plea as well as offering an impressive number of very original contributions.... It does an outstanding job of introducing a wide range of philosophical figures and ideas that will be unknown... It also includes excellent contributions on well-known philosophers and orientates the reader to the secondary literature.... The... volume provides a clear and comprehensive picture of how 19thC philosophy was practised and understood during the period. -- The Handbook has 6 parts: (1) Logic and Scientific Method; (2) Metaphysics; (3) Science and Philosophy; (4) Ethical, Social, and Political Thought; (5) Religious Philosophy; and, (6) The Practice of Philosophy. As Mander states, these classifications come from our contemporary perspective, and we should not expect the work of 19thC philosophers to neatly fit within them. Nonetheless, the individual authors [present] the aspects of a philosopher or school.. that fits within these categories while ... making clear how these aspects fit within a larger philosophical perspective ....
books  reviews  amazon.com  find  intellectual_history  19thC  British_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  Common_Sense  German_Idealism  British_Idealism  Kant  Hegelian  Mill  Sidgwick  Marx  Newman_JH  metaphysics  epistemology  empiricism  mind  perception  ideas-theories  idealism-transcendental  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  social_theory  Coleridge  philosophy_of_religion  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_social_science  science-and-religion  scientific_method  Darwinism  evolution  evolution-as-model  evolutionary_biology  evolution-social  Spencer_Herbert  political_philosophy  intelligentsia  elite_culture  professionalization  university  Evernote 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Michael Della Rocca, review - Karen Detlefsen (ed.), Descartes' Meditations: A Critical Guide (2013) // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // September 2014
Karen Detlefsen (ed.), Descartes' Meditations: A Critical Guide, Cambridge University Press, 2013, 264pp., $95.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780521111607. -- Reviewed by Michael Della Rocca, Yale University -- What explains the continuing power the Meditations has over us, its ability to shape our ways of philosophical thinking even today? As influential as Descartes' arguments have been, it is certainly not the rational compellingness of those arguments that gives the book its exalted place in philosophy. And while Descartes' departures from Aristotelian philosophy (to the extent that he broke with it) are historically and philosophically important, they do little to explain the lasting and powerful attraction of the Meditations. I will return to this mysterious power at the end of this review. But first I want to show how the many fine and well-selected essays in Karen Detlefsen's volume collectively confirm the widespread conviction that engagement with Descartes remains vital to philosophy. -- first rate group of authors, including Garber on Descartes's response to Hobbes's objections re substance
books  reviews  17thC  intellectual_history  Descartes  Hobbes  Locke  metaphysics  epistemology  substance  scepticism  cogito  perception  qualia  natural_philosophy  self  self-knowledge  self-examination  theology  scholastics  Aristotelian  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Francisco Rico - Pétrarque au partage de midi | Italique, VII, 2004, 9-26
Italique [En ligne], VII | 2004, mis en ligne le 05 octobre 2009, DOI : 10.4000/italique.124. **--** dans voi ch’ascoltate comme en bien des endroits de l’œuvre de Pétrarque – qu’il s’agisse de prose ou de vers, de latin ou de langue vulgaire –, «errore» constitue à peu de choses près un terme technique emprunté à la tradition stoïcienne pour désigner la falsa opinio qui trouble la vision du commun des mortels, alimente les « speranze », le « dolore » et les autres affectus ou perturbationes animi, provoque la désagrégation de l’esprit en « pensieri » aussi « sparsi » que les rimes venant les refléter. De toute évidence, Pétrarque apparaît ici comme un « altr’ uom » : il n’est plus ce qu’il était autrefois, il arbore désormais l’air grave du sage stoïcien et n’hésite pas à dénoncer les poèmes du canzoniere comme autant de rerum vulgarium fragmenta dans leur fond et dans leur forme, comme de vulgaires morceaux dignes du « popol » ignorant. Il ne s’agit pas ici d’une simple fiction plus ou moins placée sous le signe des précédents bien connus offerts par la littérature latine et les troubadours : à plusieurs reprises, l’illustre Italien dont nous commémorons le septième centenaire a voulu se convertir en « altr’ uom » et y est parvenu. -- J’aimerais attirer un instant votre attention sur un des moments décisifs de cette trajectoire passionnée et émouvante : ce moment du partage de midi où, à la croisée des chemins, déjà à l’âge mûr, Pétrarque résout les incertitudes qui l’avaient hanté durant ses longues années de formation et s’engage d’un pas ferme sur la voie qui le conduira à son plein épanouissement, à la fois en tant qu’écrivain et en tant qu’homme. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  revues.org  literary_history  intellectual_history  religious_history  14thC  Italy  Renaissance  humanism  Italian_lit  Petrarch  poetry  poetics  Stoicism  epistemology  epistemology-moral  perception  moral_philosophy  theology  self-examination  self-fashioning  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
The Works of John Locke, vol. 8 (Some Thoughts Concerning Education, Posthumous Works [Malebranche, Miracles, Life of 1st Earl of Shaftesbury], Familiar Letters) [1824 edition] - Online Library of Liberty
books  etexts  downloaded  Liberty_Fund  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  British_history  British_politics  Locke  epistemology  education  mind-body  perception  ideas-theories  Malebranche  Cartesian  Leibniz  Molyneux  Ireland  Locke-religion  miracles  Shaftesbury_1st_Earl  Whigs  Exclusion_Crisis  Charles_II 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Devin Henry - Berkeley's Passive Mind | Minerva Vol 4, 2000
The question this paper is intended to answer is, ‘Can the existence of ideas of sense be reconciled with the nature of God within the context of Berkeley’s philosophy?’ The way Berkeley characterises the immediate perception of ideas of sense (how we first come to be furnished with ideas) entails that the mind is passive: ideas of sense are those which are "actually imprinted on the senses" (PR 1). Thus, the question we need to address is, ‘In what sense is the mind passive?’ The main thesis of this paper holds that the existence of ideas of sense is incompatible with God’s nature within Berkeley’s philosophy, and it is based on the assumption that for Berkeley, perception is the passive reception of ideas of sense. However, because there are obvious textual discrepancies between the notebooks on the one hand, and the Principles and Dialogues on the other, we must allow for two possible interpretations of "passive": passive qua inactive and passive qua receptive. Pursuing the consequences of both these interpretations will take up the majority of this paper. However, I will begin by taking a brief look at an historical example of the ‘directional error’ before turning to Berkeley’s own theory of perception. -- Online journal, no pdf for download
intellectual_history  18thC  Berkeley  epistemology  mind  perception  ideas-theories  God-attributes  imagination  empiricism  realism  idealism  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Lennon, Thomas M., Stainton, Robert J. (Eds.) 2008 The Achilles of Rationalist Psychology
Downloaded Introduction pdf to Note -- Series: Studies in the History of Philosophy of Mind, Vol. 7 -- newly written papers addressing each of the main contributors to the discussion of the Achilles. Despite the historical importance and intrinsic interest of the argument, very little has been written about it. *--* Contents. *--* Did Plato Articulate the Achilles Argument?. *-- Aristotle on the Unity of Consciousness. *-- The Neoplatonic Achilles. *-- The Unity of the Soul and Contrary Appetites in Medieval Philosophy. *-- Hume, Spinoza and the Achilles Inference. *-- Locke and the Achilles Argument. *-- The Reverse Achilles in Locke. *-- Cudworth and Bayle: An Odd Couple?. *-- The Achilles Argument and the Nature of Matter in the Clarke Collins Correspondence. *-- Leibniz’s ‘Achilles’. *-- Hume’s Reply to the Achilles Argument. *-- Kant and Mendelssohn on the Implications of the ‘I Think’. *-- Kant on the Achilles Argument. *-- William James and the Achilles Argument. *-- The Binding Problem: Achilles in the 21st Century.
books  intellectual_history  mind  mind-body  consciousness  perception  thinking_matter  materialism  soul  immortality  substance  Plato  Neoplatonism  Aristotle  Aquinas  Duns_Scotus  Ockham  Augustine  Descartes  Spinoza  Malebranche  Cartesian  Bayle  Locke  Clarke  Collins_Anthony  Leibniz  Hume  Kant  Mendelssohn  Fichte  cognition  neuroscience  psychology  natural_philosophy  metaphysics  rationalist  James_William  history_of_science  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Selections from the Scottish Philosophy of Common Sense, edited, with an introduction by G.A. Johnston [1910] - Online Library of Liberty
Thomas Reid, Selections from the Scottish Philosophy of Common Sense, edited, with an introduction by G.A. Johnston (Chicago: Open Court, 1915). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2044> The selections in this volume are reprinted from the following editions:— Reid’s Works, edited by Sir William Hamilton, sixth edition, 1863. Beattie’s Essay on the Nature and Immutability of Truth, seventh edition, 1807. Ferguson’s Principles of Moral and Political Science, 1792. Stewart’s Collected Works, edited by Sir William Hamilton, 1854-1858.
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  Common_Sense  Locke  Hume  Kant  Reid  Stewart_Dugald  Ferguson  metaphysics  epistemology  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  mind  mind-body  soul  dualism  ideas-theories  psychology  perception  scepticism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Raphael Van Riel, review essay - David Woodruff Smith et Amy L. Thomasson (dir.), Phenomenology and Philosophy of Mind (OUP 2005) - Philosophiques v36 n1 2009, p. 257-259 | Érudit 
Raphael Van Riel - Universität bochum -- La phénoménologie traverse présentement une renaissance dans le domaine de la philosophie de l’esprit. Des philosophes comme Alva Noë, Shaun Gallagher et Dan Zahavi interprètent les résultats neuroscientifiques en ayant recours aux concepts et méthodes de la tradition phénoménologique. Toutefois, l’adaptation de la méthode phénoménologique en philosophie de l’esprit consiste souvent simplement à copier la façon de parler phénoménologique, ce qui ne contribue pas nécessairement à l’éclaircissement de l’objet d’étude. Les textes réunis dans le présent volume... sont libérés de tendances semblables -- la première partie, la relation entre la tradition phénoménologique et la philosophie de l’esprit à tendance « analytique » — Paul Livingston (historical overview) («Functionalism and logical analysis »), Galen Strawson sur la structure conceptuelle de la philosophie de l’esprit (« Intentionality and Experience : Terminological Preliminaries ») et une critique d’inspiration merleau-pontyienne à la théorie de la conscience de Dennett par Carmen Taylor (« On the Incapability of Phenomenology ») -- les quatre autres sections abordent différents complexes thématiques de la phénoménologie : la conscience et la connaissance de soi (2e partie), l’intentionnalité (3e partie), l’unité de la conscience (4e partie) et finalement la perception, la sensation et l’action (5e partie). -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  phenomenology  mind  mind-body  consciousness  self  perception  action-theory  neuroscience  cognition  analytical_philosophy  Dennett  downloaded  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Susan Royal, review - Matthew Milner. The Senses and the English Reformation | H-Net Reviews
Milner points outthat the scholarship on this topic has inherited “protestant” views of late medieval sensuality... the first half of the book is devoted to a deep analysis of the senses and sensual experiences of worship prior to the Reformation. Chapter 1 lays out late medieval theories of sensing, explaining the usurpation of Augustinian principles by the revival of Aristotelian thought (chiefly Thomist). Milner explains the way sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch affected the components of tripartite anthropology, the body, spirit, and soul. -- ... the Renaissance rationalization of sense experiences, detailing the critique of medieval epistemological hierarchies and ...a shift from the tripartite anthropology of body, spirit, and soul to a dualist model of body and mind. Milner demonstrates the persistence of Aristotelian sensory theories in Tudor thought, -- Chapter 6 focuses mainly on the 1530s and 1540s, ...how reformers grappled with their position on sensual affectivity: while it was easy to reject aspects of traditional piety, it was much harder to describe how English churchgoers were supposed to connect sensibly with newly reformed practices. ...the senses into early doctrinal debates over justification and sanctification that would not be resolved until late in Elizabeth’s reign. ... -- the transition from recognizing abuse and misuse of traditional religion to its complete rejection with iconoclasm as the antidote. ...how parishioners were taught to replace traditional Eucharistic piety with spiritual communion, arguing that this in fact offered an even more sensuous experience of the sacred. -- the complex debates among conformists and nonconformists about sensing during worship in Elizabethan England. Milner argues that divisions ...concerning extemporaneous prayer, set readings, and even preaching were firmly rooted in concerns about hearing practices, and that the vestment controversy and arguments over the sign of the cross at baptism were connected to tensions about sight. Sitting somewhat awkwardly among all of these debates were those evangelicals receptive to the notion of adiaphora,..another source of conflict between conformists and nonconformists.
books  reviews  religious_history  church_history  intellectual_history  15thC  16thC  British_history  Church_of_England  religious_culture  liturgy  Puritans  perception  psychology  moral_psychology  soul  mind-body  Augustinian  Aristotelian  Thomism  Renaissance  salvation  piety  sacraments  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard Marshall interview with Lisa Downing - Early Mod philosophy » 3:AM Magazine - May 2014
Lisa Downing is the philosopher who thinks all the time about the early modern philosophers of Europe, especially 17th and 18th century philosophy, about how philosophical analysis and historical exactitude compliment each other, on adding to the canonical philosophers of the period, on why Malebranch is the closest to re-entry, and Robert Boyle, on Descartes vs Newton, on avoiding anachronism, on the dynamism of the period, on primary and secondary qualities, on resisting the idea that historical views have to be relevant, on Berkeley, on tensions in Locke, on women philosophers of the time and on rejecting the occult. This one is kick-ass! Yo!
intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  Descartes  Cartesian  Malebranche  Locke  Boyle  Berkeley  Newton  Clarke  Leibniz  Hobbes  mind-body  causation  God-attributes  Providence  mechanism  substance  metaphysics  Aristotelian  qualia  perception  natural_philosophy  free_will  Scientific_Revolution  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
RS Bakker - Truth and Context: A Prospectus | Three Pound Brain
For his dissertation (1999) -- INTRODUCTION. Since this prospectus attempts to outline what amounts to a fundamental ‘gestalt shift’ in our understanding of the relation between language, world, and ourselves, it must, in certain respects, depart from the format of a typical prospectus. Without some understanding of the ‘alternate position’ I hope to elaborate in my dissertation, the arguments I outline will at best seem ‘intriguing,’ and at worst, outlandish. Given this, I will attempt to gradually clarify my position through a discussion of its central feature, the ‘positional mediation’ of our cognitive relation to the world, with reference to representationalist and contextualist accounts of this same relation. I will then follow this with an overview of the resultant position, as well as a schematic breakdown of the way these commitments will be discharged in the dissertation. -- significant discussion of Brandom Making It Explicit
philosophy_of_language  epistemology  perception  Wittgenstein  bibliography 
april 2014 by dunnettreader
Corey W. Dyck, review - Avi Lifschitz, Language and Enlightenment: The Berlin Debates of the Eighteenth Century // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // Dec 2013
For its competition of 1771, the Berlin Academy of Sciences asked: "Supposing men abandoned to their natural faculties, are they in a position to invent language? And by what means will they arrive at this invention?" The winning essay was Herder's "On the Origin of Language." This was actually the Academy's 2nd on language. In 1759 they asked: "What is the reciprocal influence of the opinions of people on language, and of language on opinions?" The winner was the orientalist Johann David Michaelis. Lifschitz's lucid and engaging book is about the 1759 contest, as he considers the historical, philosophical, and political circumstances that led to its proposal and the broader scholarly views of Michaelis. -- While one might quibble with Lifschitz's attempt to find deep roots in the Leibnizian-Wolffian philosophy for the 1759 Academy question, there is no doubting that in Berlin of the 1750s a number of thinkers took an active interest in language, its role in framing social institutions, and its relation to the mind, primarily under the influence of the work of Condillac and Rousseau. These include the president of the Academy, Maupertuis, and Moses Mendelssohn There was also lively discussion among Academy members regarding the (synchronic) connection between language and opinions, esp French as the language of the Academy. -- Already in the 1750s ...mainstream Enlightenment figures recognized the "linguistic rootedness of all human forms of life" and the importance of language as a "tool of cognition". Lifschitz rightly contends [this counters the story that such a view ], with its focus on the historical and non-rational aspects of human nature, [came from counter-Enlightenment figures] such as Herder and Hamann. [This directly] challenge[s] the characterization ... in Isaiah Berlin's seminal studies [as well as more recent studies] such as Michael Forster's work on Herder's philosophy of language. ...Herder's claim, as characterized by Forster, that "thought is essentially dependent upon and bounded by language" and that "one cannot think unless one has a language and one can only think what one can express linguistically" must be taken in the broader context of these earlier philosophical (and political) debates.
books  reviews  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  1750s  1760s  1770s  Enlightenment  Germany  French_Enlightenment  philosophy_of_language  human_nature  language-national  language  language-history  Biblical_criticism  perception  cognition  historicism  Hobbes  Locke  Condillac  Rousseau  Leibniz  Wolff  Mendelssohn  Herder  Hamann  academies  social_theory  Counter-Enlightenment  Berlin_Isaiah  Frederick_the_Great  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Dermot Moran, review - Steven Crowell, Normativity and Phenomenology in Husserl and Heidegger // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // Feb 2014
C Normativity and Phenomenology in Husserl and Heidegger, Cambridge University Press, 2013, 321pp., $29.99 (pbk), ISBN 9781107682559.

Reviewed by University College Dublin

Steven Crowell's latest monograph is a careful and nuanced thematic and historically grounded defense of the philosophical importance of what is now frequently called "classical" phenomenology (specifically Husserl and Heidegger) in addressing the issues of meaning, normativity, agency and first-person knowledge, topics central to contemporary analytic philosophy of mind and action. This well argued book situates Husserl and Heidegger not just at the center of contemporary debates in the philosophy of mind and action, but also as interlocutors in current disputes over normativity and practical knowledge (as found in the neo-pragmatism of John McDowell and Robert Brandom, among others), as well as the current discussions concerning first-person authority and mental content.

Crowell is not just conversant with the intricacy of the texts of Husserl and Heidegger (whom he reads with detailed documentation as in substantial agreement with one another), but also with a wide range of figures in contemporary philosophy of mind, moral psychology, and neo-pragmatism, including John Searle, Hubert Dreyfus, Alva Noë, Richard Moran (no relation), and Christine Korsgaard). In the course of his interpretations of Husserl and Heidegger, moreover, Crowell has a lot of instructive (and corrective) things to say about such issues as mental content, internalism and externalism, causation, the relation between perception and conception, the connection between self-consciousness and normativity, the transparency and immediacy of self-knowledge (in an interesting engagement with Moran) and the meaning of agency (including moral agency) in relation to Heidegger's notion of authenticity. This is a very rich, often dense but never less than lucid book that offers a systematic defense of phenomenology in the language of contemporary philosophy and thereby achieves a double objective, namely to set a new agenda for phenomenological discussion in the twenty-first century and to show why analytic philosophers would be wrong to neglect the phenomenological heritage.
books  reviews  kindle-available  philosophy  phenomenology  Husserl  Heidegger  idealism-transcendental  mind  action-theory  normativity  consciousness  responsibility  conscience  perception  causation  mind-body  agency  moral_psychology  Kant  analytical_philosophy  meaning  concepts  pragmatism  authenticity  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Val Dusek - Bruno Latour, An Inquiry into Modes of Existence: An Anthropology of the Moderns // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // March 2014
The strongest chapter is the one concerning technology. This is an area Latour worked on extensively much earlier. Actor network theory started with technology. Latourcriticizes the identification of technological objects with beings of reproduction (natural objects). He makes use of the need for technological artifacts to be continually maintained and improved. "Sociotechnical systems" designates the heterogeneity of technology, but there is no realm of technology as such. Technology becomes invisible as soon as it is functioning successfully. He plays on Heraclitus with "Technology likes to hide." The language of form fitted to function is, according to Latour, as misleading as the correspondence between thought and things in reference. During a breakdown the extreme heterogeneity is most manifest. Latour identifies technology not with the artifacts but with the activity of technologizing. Technology is properly referred to not with a noun, but with an adjective or an adverb, and less commonly a verb. Technology is not an object, but the gaps of alterity in the network of tinkering. -- A problem for philosophies that make massive claims that our ordinary views are illusory is the explanation of why the illusion exists and persists. Latour as an anthropologist claims that moderns are no more different from non-moderns than any other group or culture is from another. However, it seems that neither Trobriand Islanders nor any other non-modern group have such illusory values and ideals impossible to live by as do the moderns. It would seem moderns really are different from peoples of other cultures for Latour, but not in the way in which moderns represent their own special nature in terms of the triumph of science and reason. Why the moderns are in this supposedly deplorable situation is never really explained.
books  reviews  kindle-available  21stC  modernity  anthropology  metaphysics  ontology  ontology-social  epistemology  mind  mind-body  perception  James_William  Whitehead  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology-process  sociology_of_religion  Cartesian  technology  science-and-religion  scientific_culture  Latour 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Transcendental Aesthetics: The Language of Sense (Chapter 2) - Paul L. Sawyer - Ruskin's Poetic Argument: The Design of the Major Works (1985) | Victorian Web
Focus on Ruskin's first major work, defending Turner. Discusses Ruskin's mode of seeing landscape (Ruskinian sublime), starting with gestalt, then intense attention to detail and connections among them, with third stage the whole again but now informed by the energy in which the details create a whole that is a moment, extended by viewing, of divine nature. Distinguishes a Lockean empiricism that's limited to subject v object and extension by association with a more Aristotelian perception that grasps essences from surface particulars. The sort of hermeneutic circle from whole to parts to transformed whole breaks down a bunch of dualisms. Ruskin rejected the sublime as a useful aesthetic concept - confusion re whether experience of observer or character or feature of the object. Similarly imagination and artistic creativity weren't separately theorized by Ruskin.
books  etexts  19thC  Ruskin  aesthetics  art_history  art_criticism  English_lit  perception  painting  Turner  neoclassical  empiricism  imagination  sublime  Coleridge  Wordsworth 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Hassan Melehy - Silencing the Animals: Montaigne, Descartes, and the Hyperbole of Reason | JSTOR: symplokē, Vol. 13, No. 1/2 (2005), pp. 263-282
Toulmin on Cartesian hyper rationality and Derrida on man animal, Montaigne and Descartes -- useful postmodern bibliography as well as articles in last few decades on whether Descartes was a friend or enemy of animals based on where he drew the boundary.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  modernity  rationality  scepticism  anti-foundationalism  Montaigne  Descartes  animals  humanism  reason  emotions  perception  sensibility  moral_psychology  moral_philosophy  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader

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