dunnettreader + paywall   176

G. Clark & N. Cummins - Malthus to modernity: wealth, status, and fertility in England, 1500–1879 (2015)
Journal of Population Economics
January 2015, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 3–29
Abstract -- A key challenge to theories of long-run economic growth has been linking the onset of modern growth with the move to modern fertility limitation. A notable puzzle for these theories is that modern growth in England began around 1780, 100 years before there was seemingly any movement to limit fertility. Here we show that the aggregate data on fertility in England before 1880 conceals significant declines in the fertility of the middle and upper classes earlier. These declines coincide with the Industrial Revolution and are of the character predicted by some recent theories of long-run growth.
Keywords: Fertility transition, Demographic transition, Preindustrial fertility
economic_growth  middle_class  article  19thC  paywall  16thC  British_history  fertility  marriage-age  social_history  18thC  status  economic_history  elites  17thC  demography  marriage  birth_control 
january 2017 by dunnettreader
Emmanuel Saez - Taxing the Rich More: Preliminary Evidence from the 2013 Tax Increase (Nov 2016) | NBER Working Papers
Taxing the Rich More: Preliminary Evidence from the 2013 Tax Increase
Emmanuel Saez
NBER Working Paper No. 22798 - Issued in November 2016
This paper provides preliminary evidence on behavioral responses to taxation around the 2013 tax increase that raised top marginal tax rates on capital income by about 9.5 points and on labor income by about 6.5 points. Using published tabulated tax statistics from the Statistics of Income division of the IRS, we find that reported top 1% incomes were significantly higher in 2012 than in 2013, implying a large short-run elasticity of reported income with respect to the net-of-tax rate in excess of one. This large short-run elasticity is due to income retiming for tax avoidance purposes and is particularly high for realized capital gains and dividends, and highest at the very top of the income distribution. However, comparing 2011 and 2015 top incomes uncovers only a small medium-term response to the tax increase as top income shares resumed their upward trend after 2013. Overall, we estimate that at most 20% of the projected tax revenue increase from the 2013 tax reform is lost through behavioral responses. This implies that the 2013 tax increase was an efficient way to raise revenue.
paywall  capital_gains  fiscal_policy  tax_collection  behavioral_economics  tax_increases  US_government  Obama_administration  1-percent  top-marginal_tax_rates  NBER  tax_policy  paper  tax_avoidance 
december 2016 by dunnettreader
Elena Seghezza - Fiscal capacity and the risk of sovereign debt after the Glorious Revolution: A reinterpretation of the North–Weingast hypothesis (2015) — ScienceDirect
European Journal of Political Economy, June 2015, Vol.38:71–81, doi:10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2014.12.002
Dept. of Economics, University of Genoa, Via Vivaldi 5, 16126 Genova, Italy
Several explanations have been given to account for the fact that, in contrast to the claim made by North and Weingast (1989), the decline in interest rates on British sovereign debt did not occur until several years after the Glorious Revolution in 1688. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the decline in the risk premium on Britain's sovereign debt was due to the significant increase in excise duties in the early part of the eighteenth century. This increase was possible for two reasons. On the one hand, with the Glorious Revolution, parliament no longer had reason to fear that the King would strengthen his political power due to the availability of more fiscal revenue. On the other hand, the new excise taxes were borne mostly by the poor, that is a social class not represented in parliament. The delay in reducing the interest rate on British sovereign debt, following the Glorious Revolution, was, therefore, due to the length of time needed to increase and improve the fiscal bureaucracy responsible for the collection of excise duties.
Keywords -- Glorious Revolution Fiscal capacity Sovereign debt Interest rates
article  paywall  political_economy  institutional_economics  North-Weingast  Glorious_Revolution  fiscal-military_state  fiscal_space  tax_policy  tax_collection  bureaucracy  sovereign_debt  interest_rates  Parliament  Parliamentary_supremacy  interest_groups  inequality  excise  lower_orders  taxes-consumption  landed_interest 
december 2016 by dunnettreader
Antonella Alimento - Beyond the Treaty of Utrecht: Véron de Forbonnais's French Translation of the British Merchant (1753): History of European Ideas: Vol 40, No 8
Pages 1044-1066 | Published online: 06 Nov 2014
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01916599.2014.968331
This study focuses on the cultural and political context from which stemmed the French translation of the British Merchant. The paratextual and macrostructural interventions that characterised Le négotiant anglois clearly demonstrate that the translator, Véron de Forbonnais, used his work to set out his own epistemological method and his way of looking at inter-state relations. With the book, Forbonnais had distanced himself from Gournay by rejecting the idea that in order for France to prosper in a situation of international competition the government needed to adopt a muscular strategy that included the adoption of a navigation act modelled on the one enacted by Britain in 1660. At the same time, Forbonnais warned French decision-makers that signing commercial treaties with the maritime powers might also be prejudicial to national economic interests. Forbonnais supplied qualified French readers not only with an annotated edition of the British Merchant but also with a translation of Davenant's Of the Use of Political Arithmetick. In so doing, he proposed to his audience a type of governance based on a competent use of statistics. In conclusion, I will argue that in Le négotiant anglois Forbonnais anticipated the key political and economical tenets of his project of ‘monarchie commerçante’, which he later set out in the Principes et observations æconomiques (1767) in order to counter the rise of the epistemology and plans for a ‘royaume agricole’ put forward by the physiocratic movement.
Keywords: British Merchant, Gournay, Davenant, navigation act, treaties of commerce, ‘balance du commerce’
article  paywall  18thC  intellectual_history  political_economy  international_political_economy  France  British_foreign_policy  economic_theory  economic_policy  Physiocrats  commerce  mercantilism  competition-interstate  Navigation_Acts  trade-agreements  trade-policy  Gournay  Davenant  translation  reception_history  French_government  enlightened_absolutism  balance_of_power  statistics  government-data 
december 2016 by dunnettreader
PJE Kail - UNDERSTANDING HUME'S NATURAL HISTORY OF RELIGION (2007) - The Philosophical Quarterly - Wiley Online Library
Hume's ‘Natural History of Religion’ offers a naturalized account of the causes of religious thought, an investigation into its ‘origins’ rather than its ‘foundation in reason’. Hume thinks that if we consider only the causes of religious belief, we are provided with a reason to suspend the belief. I seek to explain why this is so, and what role the argument plays in Hume's wider campaign against the rational acceptability of religious belief. In particular, I argue that the work threatens a form of fideism which maintains that it is rationally permissible to maintain religious belief in the absence of evidence or of arguments in its favour. I also discuss the ‘argument from common consent’, and the relative superiority of Hume's account of the origins of religious belief.
article  paywall  Wiley  18thC  Hume  Hume-religion  philosophical_anthropology  religious_history  sociology_of_religion  religious_belief  reason  fideism 
november 2016 by dunnettreader
Jennifer Smalligan Marušić - Refuting The Whole System? Hume's Attack on Popular Religion (2012) - The Philosophical Quarterly - Wiley Online Library
Refuting The Whole System? Hume's Attack on Popular Religion in 'The Natural History of Religion' -- There is reason for genuine puzzlement about Hume's aim in ‘The Natural History of Religion’. Some commentators take the work to be merely a causal investigation into the psychological processes and environmental conditions that are likely to give rise to the first religions, an investigation that has no significant or straightforward implications for the rationality or justification of religious belief. Others take the work to constitute an attack on the rationality and justification of religious belief in general. In contrast to these views, I argue that Hume aims to establish two important claims in ‘The Natural History of Religion’. First, almost all popular religions, including popular monotheism, are deeply superstitious. Second, superstitious monotheism is incompatible with the variety of theism supported by the argument from design. This incompatibility puts significant pressure on the rational acceptability of popular religions.
article  paywall  Wiley  18thC  Hume-religion  Hume-causation  natural_religion  superstition  reason  design-nature 
november 2016 by dunnettreader
Peter Müller - Hobbes, Locke and the Consequences: Shaftesbury's Moral Sense and Political Agitation in Early 18thC England (2013) - Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies - Wiley Online Library
This article examines the political (and Whig) agenda behind the earl of Shaftesbury's moral and religious thought, offering a reading of the so-called ‘moral sense’ that, based on Terry Eagleton's Marxist interpretation of moral-sense philosophy in general and Shaftesbury's use of the concept in particular, illuminates how far the moral sense serves a propagandistic purpose in Shaftesbury's writings. A close examination of this aspect, which has so far not been considered in the relevant literature on Shaftesbury, illuminates the anti-Hobbist and, by implication, anti-Tory (and High Church) tendency of his moral philosophy in the context of Low Church Anglicanism. -- Keywords: Shaftesbury; Thomas Hobbes; John Locke; Latitudinarianism; moral sense; Whiggism; Anglicanism
article  paywall  Wiley  18thC  British_history  British_politics  Whigs  Whig_culture  Shaftesbury  Hobbes  Locke  Church_of_England  High_Church  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  moral_sentiments  latitudinarian 
november 2016 by dunnettreader
RJW Mills - Lord Kames's analysis of the natural origins of religion: the 'Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion' (1751) - (2016) - Historical Research - Wiley Online Library
This article investigates the discussion of the origins and development of religious belief within the Scottish jurist and philosopher Henry Home, Lord Kames's Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion (1751). Kames's work is argued to be a significant yet understudied contribution to the Scottish Enlightenment's examination of religion as a human phenomenon. The Principles contained one of the lengthiest analyses on the topic published by a Scottish literatus. In particular, Kames placed into a historical trajectory the internal sense theory's account of the non-rational origins of religious belief. In doing so, he provided an apologetic account of the progress from polytheism to monotheism resulting from the emergence of civil society, which set the tone for later Scottish discussions of religion.
article  paywall  Wiley  18thC  philosophical_anthropology  historiography-18thC  historical_change  stadial_theories  Kames  religious_history  sociology_of_religion  polytheism  monotheism  Bolingbroke  Hume  natural_religion  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  moral_sentiments  civil_society  Scottish_Enlightenment  Kirk 
november 2016 by dunnettreader
Larry Summers
The Permanent Effects of Fiscal Consolidations
Antonio Fatás, Lawrence H. Summers
NBER Working Paper No. 22374
Issued in June 2016
NBER Program(s):   EFG
The global financial crisis has permanently lowered the path of GDP in all advanced economies. At the same time, and in response to rising government debt levels, many of these countries have been engaging in fiscal consolidations that have had a negative impact on growth rates. We empirically explore the connections between these two facts by extending to longer horizons the methodology of Blanchard and Leigh (2013) regarding fiscal policy multipliers. Our results provide support for the presence of strong hysteresis effects of fiscal policy. The large size of the effects points in the direction of self-defeating fiscal consolidations as suggested by DeLong and Summers (2012). Attempts to reduce debt via fiscal consolidations have very likely resulted in a higher debt to GDP ratio through their long-term negative impact on output.
austerity  fiscal_policy  macroeconomics  NBER  paper  fiscal_multipliers  economic_theory  Great_Recession  hysterisis  paywall 
november 2016 by dunnettreader
Ricardo J. Caballero, Alp Simsek - A Model of Fickle Capital Flows and Retrenchment: Global Liquidity Creation and Reach for Safety and Yield - NBER - October 2016
Gross capital flows are very large and highly cyclical. They are a central aspect of global liquidity creation and destruction. They also exhibit rich internal dynamics that shape fluctuations in domestic liquidity, such as the fickleness of foreign capital inflows and the retrenchment of domestic capital outflows during crises. In this paper we provide a model that builds on these observations to address some of the main questions and concerns in the capital flows literature. Within this model, we find that for symmetric economies, the liquidity provision aspect of capital flows vastly outweighs their fickleness cost, so that taxing capital flows, while could prove useful for a country in isolation, backfires as a global equilibrium outcome. However, if the system is heterogeneous and includes economies with abundant (DM) and with limited (EM) natural domestic liquidity, there can be scenarios when global liquidity uncertainty is high and EM's reach for safety can destabilize DMs, as well as risk-on scenarios in which DM's reach for yield can destabilize EMs.
paper  paywall  NBER  capital_flows  capital_markets  yield  liquidity  emerging_markets  capital_controls  financial_stability  international_finance 
october 2016 by dunnettreader
Marco Di Maggio
The Importance of Unemployment Insurance as an Automatic Stabilizer
Marco Di Maggio, Amir Kermani
NBER Working Paper No. 22625
Issued in September 2016
NBER Program(s):   EFG   LS   PE
We assess the extent to which unemployment insurance (UI) serves as an automatic stabilizer to mitigate the economy's sensitivity to shocks. Using a local labor market design based on heterogeneity in local benefit generosity, we estimate that a one standard deviation increase in generosity attenuates the effect of adverse shocks on employment growth by 7% and on earnings growth by 6%. Consistent with a local demand channel, we find that consumption is less responsive to local labor demand shocks in counties with more generous benefits. Our analysis finds that the local fiscal multiplier of unemployment insurance expenditure is approximately 1.9.
paywall  unemployment_insurance  consumer_demand  unemployment  paper  NBER  demand-side  recessions  fiscal_multipliers  automatic_stabilizers  fiscal_policy 
october 2016 by dunnettreader
Gary Gorton
Mobile Collateral versus Immobile Collateral
Gary Gorton, Tyler Muir
NBER Working Paper No. 22619
Issued in September 2016
NBER Program(s):   AP   CF   DAE   EFG   ME
In the face of the Lucas Critique, economic history can be used to evaluate policy. We use the experience of the U.S. National Banking Era to evaluate the most important bank regulation to emerge from the financial crisis, the Bank for International Settlement's liquidity coverage ratio (LCR) which requires that (net) short-term (uninsured) bank debt (e.g. repo) be backed one-for-one with U.S. Treasuries (or other high quality bonds). The rule is narrow banking. The experience of the U.S. National Banking Era, which also required that bank short-term debt be backed by Treasury debt one-for-one, suggests that the LCR is unlikely to reduce financial fragility and may increase it.
NBFI  NBER  financial_stability  risk_management  collateral  financial_economics  capital_markets  bad_regulation  leverage  financial_system  risk-systemic  paywall  money_market  banking  paper  financial_regulation  BIS 
october 2016 by dunnettreader
Barry Eichengreen - The Political Economy of the Smoot-Hawley Tariff (1986) - NBER
The Political Economy of the Smoot-Hawley Tariff
Barry Eichengreen
NBER Working Paper No. 2001
Issued in August 1986
NBER Program(s):   ITI   DAE   IFM
Economic histories of the interwar years view the Great Depression and the Smoot Hawley Tariff as inextricably bound up with one another. They assign a central role to the Depression in explaining the passage of the 1930 Tariff Act and at the same time emphasize the role of the tariff in the propogation of the Depression. This paper argues that popular accounts have conveyed what is at best an incomplete and at worst a misleading impression of the relationship between the tariff and the Depression. Rather than simply strengthening the hand of a Republican Executive predisposed toward protection or increasing the burden borne by a depressed agricultural sector, the uneven impact of the Depression occasioned the birth of a new protectionist coalition comprised of producers particularly hard hit by import competition: border agriculture and small-scale industry engaged in the production of speciality goods. Rather than leading to a dramatic across-the-board decline in the volume of U.S. imports, the tariff had very different effects across sectors. Rather than worsening the Great Depression by reducing foreign demands for U.S. exports, the direct macroeconomic effect of the tariff is likely to have been expansionary. This remains true even when feedbacks to the United States and foreign retaliation are analyzed. In any case, relative to the Depression, the direct macroeconomic effects of the tariff were small. If Smoot-Hawley had significant macroeconomic effects, these operated instead through its impact on the stability of the international monetary system and the efficiency of the international capital market.
competition-interstate  trade-agreements  economic_history  Great_Depression  NBER  trade  trade-policy  protectionism  economic_theory  20thC  entre_deux_guerres  revisionism  paywall  paper  Smoot-Hawley  race-to-the-bottom 
october 2016 by dunnettreader
Does Welfare Spending Crowd Out Charitable Activity? Evidence from Historical England Under the Poor Laws - Boberg-Fazlić - 2015 - The Economic Journal - Wiley Online Library
This study examines the relationship between government spending and charitable activity. We present a novel way of testing the ‘crowding out hypothesis’, making use of the fact that welfare provision under the Old Poor Laws was decided at the parish level, thus giving heterogeneity within a single country. Using data on poor relief spending combined with data on charitable incomes by county before and after 1800, we find a positive relationship: areas with more public provision also enjoyed higher levels of charitable income. These results are confirmed when instrumenting for Poor Law spending and when looking at first differences.
See the LSE blog post that summarizes this study.
bad_economics  British_politics  British_history  Poor_Laws  18thC  budget_deficit  Industrial_Revolution  agriculture  fiscal_policy  Wiley  welfare  Tories  philanthropy  UK_economy  Labor_markets  UK_politics  unemployment  paywall  article  Brexit  19thC  landowners 
october 2016 by dunnettreader
Bordalo, Pedro, Nicola Gennaioli, and Andrei Shleifer - “Competition for Attention” (2016) Rev of Econ Studies
Bordalo, Pedro, Nicola Gennaioli, and Andrei Shleifer. 2016. “Competition for Attention.” Review of Economic Studies 83 (2): 481-513. -- Abstract
We present a model of market competition in which consumers' attention is drawn to the products' most salient attributes. Firms compete for consumer attention via their choices of quality and price. Strategic positioning of a product affects how all other products are perceived. With this attention externality, depending on the cost of producing quality some markets exhibit “commoditized” price salient equilibria, while others exhibit “de-commoditized” quality salient equilibria. When the costs of quality change, innovation can lead to radical shifts in markets, as in the case of decommoditization of the coffee market by Starbucks. In the context of financial innovation, the model generates the phenomenon of “reaching for yield”. -- downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
behavioral_economics  attention  paywall  consumerism  competition  cognition  article  cognitive_bias  downloaded  prices  rational_choice  commodities  cognitive_science  consumer_demand 
august 2016 by dunnettreader
Atif R. Mian, Amir Sufi, Emil Verner - Household Debt and Business Cycles Worldwide | NBER - Sept 2015
An increase in the household debt to GDP ratio in the medium run predicts lower subsequent GDP growth, higher unemployment, and negative growth forecasting errors in a panel of 30 countries from 1960 to 2012. Consistent with the “credit supply hypothesis,” we show that low mortgage spreads predict an increase in the household debt to GDP ratio and a decline in subsequent GDP growth when used as an instrument. The negative relation between the change in household debt to GDP and subsequent output growth is stronger for countries that face stricter monetary policy constraints as measured by a less flexible exchange rate regime, proximity to the zero lower bound, or more external borrowing. A rise in the household debt to GDP ratio is contemporaneously associated with a consumption boom followed by a reversal in the trade deficit as imports collapse. We also uncover a global household debt cycle that partly predicts the severity of the global growth slowdown after 2007. Countries with a household debt cycle more correlated with the global household debt cycle experience a sharper decline in growth after an increase in domestic household debt.
paper  paywall  NBER  economic_history  post-WWII  housing  house_prices  mortgages  interest_rates  business_cycles  debt_crisis  debt-overhang  debt-restructuring  macroeconomic_policy  consumer_demand  global_economy  global_financial_cycle  economic_growth 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Atif Mian, Amir Sufi - Who Bears the Cost of Recessions? The Role of House Prices and Household Debt | NBER -:May 2016
NBER Working Paper No. 22256 -- This chapter reviews empirical estimates of differential income and consumption growth across individuals during recessions. Most existing studies examine the variation in income and consumption growth across individuals by sorting on ex ante or contemporaneous income or consumption levels. We build on this literature by showing that differential shocks to household net worth coming from elevated household debt and the collapse in house prices play an underappreciated role. Using zip codes in the United States as the unit of analysis, we show that the decline in numerous measures of consumption during the Great Recession was much larger in zip codes that experienced a sharp decline in housing net worth. In the years prior to the recession, these same zip codes saw high house price growth, a substantial expansion of debt by homeowners, and high consumption growth. We discuss what models seem most consistent with this striking pattern in the data, and we highlight the increasing body of macroeconomic evidence on the link between household debt and business cycles. Our main conclusion is that housing and household debt should play a larger role in models exploring the importance of household heterogeneity on macroeconomic outcomes and policies.
paper  paywall  NBER  economic_history  Great_Recession  financial_crisis  debt_crisis  debt-overhang  business_cycles  house_prices  mortgages  consumer_demand  US_economy 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
G Clark, KH O'Rourke, AM Taylor - The Growing Dependence of Britain on Trade during the Industrial Revolution | NBER - Feb 2014
The Growing Dependence of Britain on Trade during the Industrial Revolution -- Gregory Clark, Kevin Hjortshøj O'Rourke, Alan M. Taylor -- NBER Working Paper No. 19926 -- Many previous studies of the role of trade during the British Industrial Revolution have found little or no role for trade in explaining British living standards or growth rates. We construct a three-region model of the world in which Britain trades with North America and the rest of the world, and calibrate the model to data from the 1760s and 1850s. We find that while trade had only a small impact on British welfare in the 1760s, it had a very large impact in the 1850s. This contrast is robust to a large range of parameter perturbations. Biased technological change and population growth were key in explaining Britain's growing dependence on trade during the Industrial Revolution.
paper  paywall  NBER  economic_history  British_history  UK_economy  trade  Industrial_Revolution  technology  technology-adoption  demography  18thC  19thC 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Eggertsson, Mehrotra, Singh & Summers - A Contagious Malady? Open Economy Dimensions of Secular Stagnation | NBER June 2016
Gauti B. Eggertsson, Neil R. Mehrotra, Sanjay R. Singh, Lawrence H. Summers - Conditions of secular stagnation - low interest rates, below target inflation, and sluggish output growth - characterize much of the global economy. We consider an overlapping generations, open economy model of secular stagnation, and examine the effect of capital flows on the transmission of stagnation. In a world with a low natural rate of interest, greater capital integration transmits recessions across countries as opposed to lower interest rates. In a global secular stagnation, expansionary fiscal policy carries positive spillovers implying gains from coordination, and fiscal policy is self-financing. Expansionary monetary policy, by contrast, is beggar-thy-neighbor with output gains in one country coming at the expense of the other. Similarly, we find that competitiveness policies including structural labor market reforms or neomercantilist trade policies are also beggar-thy-neighbor in a global secular stagnation.
economic_theory  interest_rates  stagnation  economic_growth  OECD_economies  paywall  capital_flows  paper  international_finance  global_economy  contagion  monetary_policy  FX-rate_management  international_political_economy  competition-interstate  fiscal_policy  fiscal_multipliers  trade-policy  Labor_markets  austerity  competiveness-labor  wages  labor_standards 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Matthew Sharpe - Reading Camus’ Noces via their reception of the Eleusinian mysteries (2016) - Classical Receptions Journal
‘In joy we prepare our lessons’: reading Camus’ Noces via their reception of the Eleusinian mysteries -- Dr Matthew Sharpe teaches philosophy at Deakin University. He is interested in philosophy as a way of life, the history of the reception of classical thought in modernity, and is the author of Camus, Philosophe (Brill, 2015).
Nobel Prize winning author Albert Camus situates his meditations in both the opening and closing essays in his 1937 collection Noces by referring to the classical Eleusinian mysteries centring around the myths of Dionysus and the goddesses Demeter and Persephone. Noces’ closing piece ‘The Desert’ directly evokes the two levels of initiation involved in the classical Eleusinian cult in a way which prompts us to reframe the preceding essays beginning at Tipasa as akin to a single, initiatory trajectory. The kind of ‘love of life’ the opening ‘Nuptials at Tipasa’ had so marvellously celebrated, we are now informed, is not sufficient by itself. The entire round of these four essays, whose framing suggest four seasons (Spring in Tipasa, Summer at Algiers, then Autumn in Florence), are intended by Camus to enact just what the title, Noces, suggests in the context of the mysteries: namely, that hieros gamos or sacred union of man with nature or the gods at the heart of the ancient cults, tied very closely at Eleusis with reverence for the fecundity of nature, reborn each year with the return of Persephone from Hades to her grieving mother Demeter.
article  paywall  classical_reception  reception_history  antiquity  religious_history  mystery_religions  existentialism  French_lit  20thC  entre_deux_guerres  Camus  myth  ancient_Greece 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Pedro Bordalo, Nicola Gennaioli, Andrei Shleifer - Diagnostic Expectations and Credit Cycles | NBER - May 2016
NBER Working Paper No. 22266, Issued in May 2016 -- We present a model of credit cycles arising from diagnostic expectations – a belief formation mechanism based on Kahneman and Tversky’s (1972) representativeness heuristic. In this formulation, when forming their beliefs agents overweight future outcomes that have become more likely in light of incoming data. The model reconciles extrapolation and neglect of risk in a unified framework. Diagnostic expectations are forward looking, and as such are immune to the Lucas critique and nest rational expectations as a special case. In our model of credit cycles, credit spreads are excessively volatile, over-react to news, and are subject to predictable reversals. These dynamics can account for several features of credit cycles and macroeconomic volatility. - via DeLong
paper  paywall  business_cycles  Minsky  RBC  financial_system  capital_markets  credit  credit_booms  credit_crunch  rational_expectations  heuristics  rationality-economics  rational_choice  financial_stability  volatility  risk_assessment  interest_rates  spreads  Kindleberger 
may 2016 by dunnettreader
Price V. Fishback - How Successful Was the New Deal? The Microeconomic Impact of New Deal Spending and Lending Policies in the 1930s | NBER January 2016
NBER Working Paper No. 21925 -- The New Deal during the 1930s was arguably the largest peace-time expansion in federal government activity in American history. Until recently there had been very little quantitative testing of the microeconomic impact of the wide variety of New Deal programs. Over the past decade scholars have developed new panel databases for counties, cities, and states and then used panel data methods on them to examine the examine the impact of New Deal spending and lending policies for the major New Deal programs. In most cases the identification of the effect comes from changes across time within the same geographic location after controlling for national shocks to the economy. Many of the studies also use instrumental variable methods to control for endogeneity. The studies find that public works and relief spending had state income multipliers of around one, increased consumption activity, attracted internal migration, reduced crime rates, and lowered several types of mortality. The farm programs typically aided large farm owners but eliminated opportunities for share croppers, tenants, and farm workers. The Home Owners’ Loan Corporation’s purchases and refinancing of troubled mortgages staved off drops in housing prices and home ownership rates at relatively low ex post cost to taxpayers. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation’s loans to banks and railroads appear to have had little positive impact,although the banks were aided when the RFC took ownership stakes. -- paywall on SSRN
paper  SSRN  paywall  economic_history  20thC  Great_Depression  New_Deal  entre_deux_guerres  Keynesianism  housing  mortgages  banking  agriculture  demand-side  government-roles  government_finance  microeconomics 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Spencer J. Pack, Eric Schliesser - Smith's Humean Criticism of Hume's Account of the Origin of Justice (2006) | Project MUSE
From: Journal of the History of Philosophy, Volume 44, Number 1, January 2006 pp. 47-63 | 10.1353/hph.2006.0004 *--* It is argued that Adam Smith criticizes David Hume's account of the origin of and continuing adherence to the rule of law for being not sufficiently Humean. ["Humean" is used for his tendency to use proto-evolutionary explanations of social phenomena in terms of psychological and material factors acting on individuals rather than rationalistic explanations] Hume explained that adherence to the rule of law originated in the self-interest to restrain self-interest. [Treatise 3.2.2,13-14, 316] [Smith says Hume's account is "too refined - TMS II, ii.3.5 ] According to Smith, Hume does not pay enough attention to the "unsocial" passion of resentment and the passion of admiration, which have their source in the imagination. Smith's offers a more naturalistic and evolutionary account [more Humean than Hume] of the psychological pre-conditions of the establishment and morality of justice. Yet, Smith's account also makes room for a thin conception of Lockean natural right to property, while rejecting the contractualist and rationalistic elements in Locke. It emerges that Smith severs the intimate connection that Hobbes and Hume made between justice and property. - paywall
article  paywall  intellectual_history  moral_philosophy  human_nature  18thC  Smith  Hume  justice  passions  imagination  resentment  property  property_rights  self-interest  Hobbes  self-protection  Locke-2_Treatises  natural_law  natural_rights 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Taël Dafan - La critique littéraire porteuse de discours politique - La NRF 1919-25 - Cairn.info
Quel fut l’impact de la NRF sur l’opinion publique lettrée en France dans les années 1919-1925 ? La réflexion spécifiquement politique occupe une place accessoire dans les sommaires, tant la composante littéraire est écrasante. Mais l’étude de son discours esthétique montre une implication très forte dans le contexte politique, en dépit d’une apparence de détachement des affaires de la cité. Un débat passionné met en rivalité classicisme et romantisme, sous-tendant l’essentiel du contenu critique de la revue. Ainsi, en 1919, le terme classicisme semble être encore étroitement lié à une représentation manichéenne propre à une période du conflit ; en 1924, il apparaît comme l’incarnation d’un rejet de la guerre, celle-ci étant associée de façon négative au romantisme. À travers ce débat, toute une œuvre de révision des valeurs identitaires est mise en route, ce qui n’est pas une contribution politique négligeable.
English abstract on Cairn International Edition
Plan de l'article

Classicisme et génie français
Le classicisme redéfini
Le classicisme appliqué
Classicisme, guerre et paix
paywall  WWI  entre_deux_guerres  cultural_history  literary_history  article  France  French_lit  intellectual_history  cultural_critique  political_culture  French_intellectuals  journal  20thC 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Thierry Leterre - Alain critique philosophe (2011) - Cairn.info
Il est impossible de séparer le travail critique d’Alain de la réorientation de ses intérêts à partir de sa découverte du journalisme en 1900. Il y trouve un style qui fait du philosophe universitaire qu’il est jusqu’alors un philosophe écrivain, produisant au passage un modèle de l’intellectuel dont l’influence va devenir prééminente avec Sartre. L’intérêt esthétique qui se développe chez lui à l’occasion de son engagement militaire pendant la Grande Guerre et après, dans différents ouvrages sur la musique, la sculpture, la littérature ou la peinture, fait partie de cette contestation des formes canoniques de la philosophie. La critique est chez lui une manière d’affirmer une autre manière de faire de la philosophie, pour un public élargi : en ce sens le travail critique correspond à la valeur démocratique de l’écriture. D’où une théorie de l’œuvre comme saisie immédiate du réel et de la critique comme réponse à ce choc initial.
public_intellectuals  Alain  journalism  philosophy-French  paywall  WWI  lit_crit  cultural_history  aesthetics  article  French_intellectuals  cultural_critique  France  avant_guard  entre_deux_guerres  20thC 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Jean-Luc Pouthier - « Mon royaume n'est pas de ce monde » When did the Golden Age of French Catholics disappear? (2013) - Cairn.info
À la fin du xixe siècle, les catholiques peinent à se représenter « leur » âge d’or. Prêtres et évêques hésitent sur les visions du salut, terrestre ou céleste, à proposer à leurs ouailles. La nostalgie d’une chrétienté perdue côtoie la promesse d’un paradis lointain et évanescent. Pourtant, des églises de campagne bâties à l’époque sont encore décorées des symboles de l’Apocalypse et des fins dernières. Après la cassure de la Première Guerre mondiale, c’est une vision du Royaume à venir de plus en plus abstraite qui s’impose, sans qu’il soit possible de déterminer si elle est la cause ou la conséquence d’une sécularisation accentuée de la société.-- Plan de l'article -- ** République et Apocalypse ** « Que ton règne vienne ! ». ** Les impasses du millénarisme intransigeant. ** Les mystères de la vie future. ** « Mon royaume n’est pas de ce monde » -- paywall
article  20thC  19thC  politics-and-religion  entre_deux_guerres  church_history  Fin-de-Siècle  Catholics-and-politics  laïcité  paywall  Catholics-France  millennarian  after-life  WWI 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Laurent Jalabert - La politique territoriale française sur la rive gauche du Rhin (1679-1697) : des « réunions » à la Province de la Sarre (2011) Revue Historique - Cairn.info
Les entreprises dites de réunion de la monarchie française sous Louis XIV ont concerné les frontières du grand quart nord-est du royaume (Franche-Comté, Alsace, Lorraine). Au-delà de la démonstration de la puissance du roi, l’un des principaux objectifs était de parfaire la sécurisation de ce vaste espace. De fait, les réunions ont mis à mal des terres d’empire avec entre autres la création de la province de la Sarre, peu peuplée mais importante stratégiquement. Au contraire de la province d’Alsace, celle de la Sarre ne franchit pas vraiment le palier de l’intendance militaire ; pourtant, malgré son caractère éphémère, la mise en place de cette nouvelle province a favorisé la réimplantation du catholicisme entre la Sarre et la Queich. -- paywall
17thC  HRE  confessionalization  military_history  religious_history  France  Protestant_International  Louis_XIV  Germany  paywall  Catholics-France  article  religious_wars 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Philippe de Doze - Horace et la question idéologique à Rome : considérations sur un itinéraire politique - Revue Historique (2012) - Cairn.info
Horace combattit dans les rangs des républicains avant de devenir, en apparence au moins, l’un des plus fervents partisans d’Auguste et du régime impérial. Cette volte-face idéologique ne manque pas de surprendre. Sans doute parce que nous accordons aux idéologies une place qui n’était pas la leur dans le monde romain. En réalité, jamais Horace n’eut le sentiment de se renier. Il a seulement changé de protecteurs après la défaite de ses amis républicains, fait un pari sur l’avenir en s’attachant à un nouveau réseau, celui des vainqueurs. Et loin d’avoir été manipulé par le nouveau régime, loin d’être devenu son porte-parole, il a, par ses vers, tenté de l’influencer, adoptant par là même la posture de l’intellectuel. -- recently published his thesis dealing with politics of Augustan Age literature - paywall
article  ancient_Rome  poetry  Roman_Republic  Horace  Latin_lit  patronage  French_language  paywall  Augustus  literary_history  politics-and-literature 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Sylvie Taussig - La pluralité des mondes au miroir de l'Europe et de la Chine : pluralisme politique et pluralisme religieux dans un monde globalisé (2014) - Cairn.info
Cet article porte sur les processus de sécularisation, et notamment sur l’avènement du pluralisme religieux et politique et sur le rapport entre monothéisme et pluralisme. Il redonne sa place à un moment souvent ignoré de cette histoire complexe : les échanges fructueux quoique aveugles, ressemblant souvent à un jeu de dupes à somme nulle, entre l’Europe – et particulièrement la France – et la Chine au xviie siècle. L’incompatibilité qui semble se découvrir, dans cette histoire en miroir, concerne le monothéisme et le pluralisme politique. Et, dans notre univers globalisé, il s’agit de gérer la multiplicité des cultures et des religions dans des entités nationales unitaires. - behind a 3-year rolling paywall -- she specializes in 17thC - may be of interest for the Querelle des rites
article  Jesuits  globalization  intellectual_history  pluralism  human_nature  religious_culture  religious_belief  monotheism  China  missionaries  17thC  religious_history  comparative_religion  multiculturalism  universalism  paywall 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Anthony Page - The Seventy Years War, 1744–1815, and Britain’s Fiscal-Naval State | War and Society, 34:3 (8 2015), pp. 162-186
Anthony.Page@utas.edu.au -- University of Tasmania -- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/0729247315Z.00000000053 -- This article argues that we should view Britain as fighting a ‘Seventy Years War’ with France between the battles of Fontenoy in 1745 and Waterloo in 1815. Through years of hot and cold war, Britain struggled to build the military power needed to prevent it from falling under the domination of France. In hindsight, many view the British as inevitable imperialists, confidently building towards their global empire of the 19thC. In reality, 18thC Britons frequently fretted about the threat of invasion, military weakness, possible financial collapse, and potential revolution. Historical developments only look inevitable in hindsight and with the aid of the social sciences. The struggle to defend itself in Europe during the Seventy Years War saw Britain develop a ‘fiscal-naval state’ that built a global empire.
Keywords: Britain, ancien regime, warfare, eighteenth century.
article  paywall  18thC  British_history  British_Empire  British_Navy  British_foreign_policy  Anglo-French  War_of_Austrian_Succession  Seven_Years_War  American_Revolution  French_Revolutionary_Wars  Napoleonic_Wars  balance_of_power  fiscal-military_state  colonialism  imperialism  English_Channel  French_foreign_policy  French_army  French_Navy  French_Empire  blue_water_strategy  British_Empire-military  British_Army  Britain-invasion  Britain-Continent 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
JAMES LIVESEY, review essay - Berkeley, Ireland and 18thC Intellectual History (Aug 2015) | Cambridge Journaks - Modern Intellectual History Modern Intellectual History - BERKELEY, IRELAND AND EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY INTELLECTUAL HISTORY - Cambridge Journals O
Modern Intellectual History / Volume 12 / Issue 02 / August 2015, pp 453-473
Department of History, School of Humanities, University of Dundee -- (1) Marc A. Hight ed., The Correspondence of George Berkeley (Cambridge University Press, 2013) (2) Scott Breuninger , Recovering Bishop Berkeley: Virtue and Society in the Anglo-Irish Context (Palgrave, 2010) (3) Daniel Carey and Christopher J. Finlay , eds., The Empire of Credit: The Financial Revolution and the British Atlantic World, 1688–1815 (Irish Academic Press, 2011) -- 18thC Irish intellectual history has enjoyed a revival in recent years. New scholarly resources, such as the Hoppen edition of the papers of the Dublin Philosophical Society and the recently published Berkeley correspondence, have been fundamental to that revival. Since 1986 the journal Eighteenth-Century Ireland: Iris an dá chultúr has sponsored a complex conversation on the meaning and legacy of the 18thC in Irish history. Work in the journal and beyond deploying “New British” and Atlantic histories, as well as continuing attention to Europe, has helped to enrich scholarly understanding of the environments in which Irish people thought and acted. The challenge facing historians of Ireland has been to find categories of analysis that could comprehend religious division and acknowledge the centrality of the confessional state without reducing all Irish experience to sectarian conflict. Clearly the thought of the Irish Catholic community could not be approached without an understanding of the life of the Continental Catholic Church. Archivium Hibernicum has been collecting and publishing the traces of that history for a hundred years and new digital resources such as the Irish in Europe database have extended that work in new directions. The Atlantic and “New British” contexts have been more proximately important for the Protestant intellectual tradition
books  reviews  article  paywall  intellectual_history  18thC  Ireland  Berkeley  British_history  Three_Kingdoms  Church_of_England  Catholics-Ireland  Protestants-Ireland  Atlantic  economic_history  financial_system  finance_capital  credit  Glorious_Revolution  colonialism  Protestant_Ascendancy 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
Two Philosophers’ Views on the Point of College | Daily Nous - September 2015
This week, two philosophers—Kwame Anthony Appiah (NYU) in the New York Times Magazine and Gary Gutting (Notre Dame) in The Chronicle of Higher Education—have discussed the point of a college education. - Both distinguish -long between the utilitarian (and subject mastery) function oriented toward what employers are likely to find useful and the intellectual or academic, oriented toward developing mental habits of learning with an open mind as a key part of whole-person development and life-long ability to be part of, at a minimum, middle brow culture. (The latter is more explicit in Gutting. The major difference is that Appiah takes a somewhat defensive faute de mieux approach, given the enormous economic pressures that are producing corporatized institutions that don't understand or appreciate the intellectual excellence tradition. Whereas Gutting (like Appiah) acknowledges the pressures for a "training " track that meets employer and employee expectations, he thinks the job should be shifted from what's effectively remedial classes in the first year or so of college with an effective J-12 education. Including shifting parties of college teachers )along with their budgets) to the K-12 system. He clearly thinks Appiah's defensive approach is going to fail. The demands if both students and employers are legitimate, and in the absence of another set of institutions to meet those legitimate expectations, the corporatism of universities will proceed at wn ever increasing pace.
education-finance  paywall  education-training  education-privatization  public_goods  intelligentsia  US_government  human_capital  university-contemporary  public_education  public_finance  Pocket  local_government  education-K-12  education-higher  US_politics  from pocket
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Michael Cragg and Rand Ghayad - Growing Apart: The Evolution of Income vs. Wealth Inequality | The Economists' Voice - July 2015
Michael Cragg and Rand Ghayad are employed by The Brattle Group. -- The gap between the richest Americans and the rest of the nation has changed dramatically over the past three decades – becoming one of the most challenging political and economic trends for the nation. For decades prior to that, the distribution of wealth and income had been relatively stable, so much that a central problem posed in the economics literature was to explain this stability. But beginning in the early 1980s, inequality began to grow rapidly and has recently been attracting substantial attention from policymakers and researchers reflecting a widespread concern that reflecting a widespread concern that growing labor incomes of senior executives, finance professionals, and successful entrepreneurs is entailing large economic costs to society. The dominant paradigm in the media and Washington is that inequality is purely a matter of divergence in earned (labor) income inequality which can be ameliorated by making earned income taxes more progressive and shifting spending to help the poorer. However, this is not the story: wealth inequality, as it turns out, is much worse. This warrants emphasis for a variety of reasons: (1) a growing body of research that suggests that in the head-on comparison it is wealth inequality, rather than income inequality or poverty that has a negative, statistically significant effect on economic growth.1 (2) Historically societies have failed when wealth has become overly concentrated; and (3) the wedge between earned and unearned income tax rates reduces progressivity as capital income rises. We offer a number of solutions which should generate debate amongst economists as they test conventional wisdom.
paper  paywall  economic_history  economic_growth  inequality  inequality-wealth  labor_share  wages 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Leeper, Traum, Walker - Clearing Up the Fiscal Multiplier Morass: Prior and Posterior Analysis | NBER Working Paper July 2015
Eric M. Leeper, Nora Traum, Todd B. Walker -- NBER Working Paper No. 21433 -- We use Bayesian prior and posterior analysis of a monetary DSGE model, extended to include fiscal details and two distinct monetary-fiscal policy regimes, to quantify government spending multipliers in U.S. data. The combination of model specification, observable data, and relatively diffuse priors for some parameters lands posterior estimates in regions of the parameter space that yield fresh perspectives on the transmission mechanisms that underlie government spending multipliers. Posterior mean estimates of short-run output multipliers are comparable across regimes—about 1.4 on impact—but much larger after 10 years under passive money/active fiscal than under active money/passive fiscal—means of 1.9 versus 0.7 in present value. -- quelle surprise
paper  paywall  NBER  fiscal_policy  monetary_policy  monetary_policy-effectiveness  countercyclical_policy 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Jay Tolson, Return of the Repressed - review of Michael Walzer, The Paradox of Liberation: Secular Revolutions and Religious Counterrevolutions | IASC: The Hedgehog Review - Volume 17, No. 2 (Summer 2015)
Yale University Press, 2015 -- The paradox explored in this short book, which grew out of the Henry L. Stimson lectures at Yale University, can be summed up in a single question: Why did so many states that gained independence in the post–World War II era and were founded on secular and democratic ideals soon face the powerful challenges of religious revivalism? Walzer’s inquiry into the inability of “the leaders and militants of secular liberation…to consolidate their achievements and reproduce themselves” focuses on three cases: Israel, where the secularist ideology of Labor Zionism now meets with powerful opposition from champions of a more messianic strain of Zionism as well as ultra-Orthodox Judaism; Algeria, where the secularist (and, briefly, democratic) ideals of the National Liberation Front have been repeatedly challenged and were nearly overturned by militant Islamists; and India, where the ambitious reform program of Jawaharlal Nehru’s Congress party has come up against the fervor and electoral successes of Hindu nationalists determined to assert their primacy within the constitutional order. -- behind paywall
books  kindle-available  reviews  paywall  political_history  20thC  post-colonial  nationalism  national_ID  national_origins  national_tale  politics-and-religion  secularism  secularization  democracy  democracy_deficit  political_participation  opposition  modernity  modernization_theory  images-political  Israel  Islamist_fundamentalists  Judaism  Algeria  India  Indian_religion  Hinduism  right-wing  civil_liberties  civil_society  civility-political  tolerance  majoritarian  constitutionalism  post-WWII  religion-fundamentalism  elite_culture  elites-self-destructive  populism 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Beaudry, Dana Galizia, Franck Portier - Reviving the Limit Cycle View of Macroeconomic Fluctuations | NBER - June 2015
NBER Working Paper No. 21241 --There is a long tradition in macroeconomics suggesting that market imperfections may explain why economies repeatedly go through periods of booms and busts, with booms sowing the seeds of the subsequent busts. This idea can be captured mathematically as a limit cycle. For several reasons, limit cycles play almost no role in current mainstream business cycle theory. In this paper we present both a general structure and a particular model with the aim of giving new life to this mostly dismissed view of fluctuations. We begin by showing why and when models with strategic complementarities—which are quite common in macroeconomics—give rise to unique equilibrium dynamics characterized by a limit cycle. We then develop and estimate a fully-specified dynamic general equilibrium model that embeds a demand complementarity to see whether the data favors a configuration supportive of a limit cycle. Booms and busts arise endogenously in our setting because agents want to concentrate their purchases of goods at times when purchases by others are high, since in such situations unemployment is low and therefore taking on debt is perceived as being less risky. A key feature of our approach is that we allow limit-cycle forces to compete with exogenous disturbances in explaining the data. Our estimation results indicate that US business cycle fluctuations in employment and output can be well explained by endogenous demand-driven cycles buffeted by technological disturbances that render those fluctuations irregular. -- Duh!
paper  paywall  economic_theory  macroeconomics  neoclassical_economics  Keynesianism  economic_models  business_cycles  demand-side  credit  animal_spirits 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Lucian A. Bebchuk, Alon Brav, Wei Jiang - The Long-Term Effects of Hedge Fund Activism | NBER June 2015
NBER Working Paper No. 21227 -- We test the empirical validity of a claim that has been playing a central role in debates on corporate governance—the claim that interventions by activist hedge funds have a negative effect on the long-term shareholder value and corporate performance. We subject this claim to a comprehensive empirical investigation, examining a long five-year window following activist interventions, and we find that the claim is not supported by the data. We find no evidence that activist interventions, including the investment-limiting and adversarial interventions that are most resisted and criticized, are followed by short-term gains in performance that come at the expense of long-term performance. We also find no evidence that the initial positive stock-price spike accompanying activist interventions tends to be followed by negative abnormal returns in the long term; to the contrary, the evidence is consistent with the initial spike reflecting correctly the intervention’s long-term consequences. Similarly, we find no evidence for pump-and-dump patterns in which the exit of an activist is followed by abnormal long-term negative returns. Our findings have significant implications for ongoing policy debates.
paper  paywall  corporate_governance  hedge_funds  investors  long-term_orientation  equity-corporate  equity_markets 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Andrew W. Lo - The Gordon Gekko Effect: The Role of Culture in the Financial Industry | NBER June 2015
NBER Working Paper No. 21267 -- Culture is a potent force in shaping individual and group behavior, yet it has received scant attention in the context of financial risk management and the recent financial crisis. I present a brief overview of the role of culture according to psychologists, sociologists, and economists, and then present a specific framework for analyzing culture in the context of financial practices and institutions in which three questions are answered: (1) What is culture?; (2) Does it matter?; and (3) Can it be changed? I illustrate the utility of this framework by applying it to five concrete situations—Long Term Capital Management; AIG Financial Products; Lehman Brothers and Repo 105; Société Générale’s rogue trader; and the SEC and the Madoff Ponzi scheme—and conclude with a proposal to change culture via “behavioral risk management.” -- check SSRN
paper  paywall  SSRN  financial_instiutions  business_practices  business-norms  risk_management  economic_culture  financial_crisis  financial_regulation  incentives  incentives-distortions  social_psychology  economic_sociology  firms-structure  firms-organization 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Stephen Conway - ‘Founded in Lasting Interests’: British Projects for European Imperial Collaboration in the Age of the American Revolution (2015) | The International History Review - Volume 37, Issue 1 - T&A Online
This article examines various British proposals for co-operation with other European imperial powers to counter the rebellion of the American colonies or curb the pretentions of the new United States. Historians have paid little attention to these projects, mainly because none of them eventuated in the co-operation their authors envisaged. But their lack of success is not a reason to dismiss them as unimportant; their failure reveals much about British attitudes at the time. -- Keywords - European imperial co-operation, American Revolution, eighteenth century
article  paywall  18thC  diplomatic_history  American_Revolution  British_history  British_foreign_policy  colonialism  France  French_foreign_policy  French_Empire  Spain  Spanish_Empire  North_America 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Laurence Badel - Conflicting Identities: French Economic Diplomacy between the State and Companies in the 20thC | Diplomacy & Statecraft - Volume 25, Issue 3 - Taylor & Francis Online
The question of diplomatic identity has rarely seen study from a specifically historical perspective rooted in the long term. This analysis explores the role and self-perceptions of an unknown and, yet, central actor in the French economic diplomacy: the commercial counsellor. It offers new and stimulating ideas on the entangled links between State and the business sphere in France. The fundamental ambivalence of the commercial counsellor’s identity illuminates the atypical nature of French commercial diplomacy from 1918 to the 2000s. Through assimilation into the Ministry of Economy and in a Janus-like role facing both the Quai d’Orsay and French companies, French commercial counsellors have had to endure a complicated situation whilst remaining the Cinderella of the diplomatic sphere. Deploying an historical analysis to enrich the contemporary debate on the state of diplomacy, this study explores the impact of interventions by non-state actors at the heart of the diplomatic machinery. Far from being an innovation of the 1990s, this intervention was a recurring theme throughout the twentieth century, and its examination sheds new light on the persistence of the neo-corporatist practice of commercial diplomacy in France. -- paywall
article  paywall  diplomatic_history  20thC  France  economic_history  business-and-politics  business_influence  diplomacy-  non-state_actors  international_economics  trade-policy  competition-interstate  FDI  corporatism  neo-colonialism  diplomats 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Xavier Giroud, Holger M. Mueller - Firm Leverage and Unemployment during the Great Recession | NBER April 2015
NBER Working Paper No. 21076 -- We argue that firms’ balance sheets were instrumental in the propagation of shocks during the Great Recession. Using establishment-level data, we show that firms that tightened their debt capacity in the run-up (“high-leverage firms”) exhibit a significantly larger decline in employment in response to household demand shocks than firms that freed up debt capacity (“low-leverage firms”). In fact, all of the job losses associated with falling house prices during the Great Recession are concentrated among establishments of high-leverage firms. At the county level, we find that counties with a larger fraction of establishments belonging to high-leverage firms exhibit a significantly larger decline in employment in response to household demand shocks. Thus, firms’ balance sheets also matter for aggregate employment. -- paywall
paper  paywall  NBER  Great_Recession  financial_crisis  corporate_finance  leverage  unemployment  macroeconomics  economic_models  economic_shocks-propagation  networks-business  demand-side  housing  business_practices  business_cycles 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Seth Holm - The Specter of Tantalus: Didactic Latency in "De rerum natura" | Project MUSE
From: Transactions of the American Philological Association, Volume 143, Number 2, Autumn 2013, pp. 385-403 | At the end of his third book, Lucretius concludes his arguments against the fear of death and the neurotic desires brought on by this fear with a metaphor that has been difficult for interpreters to fathom: et sitis aequa tenet vitai semper hiantis (3.1084). This paper offers a new reading of this passage as a tacit reference to the myth of Tantalus, which functions as a latent mythological allegory for chronic psychological dissatisfaction. This reading solves local problems of interpretation and, more significantly, provides insight into the didacticism of Lucretius’s sub-surface polemic against myth.
article  Project_MUSE  paywall  intellectual_history  ancient_Rome  ancient_philosophy  Epicurean  Lucretius  myth  allegory 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Geoffrey Jones, Marco H.D. van Leeuwen, and Stephen Broadberry - The Future of Economic, Business, and Social History | Scandinavian Economic History Review 60, no. 3 (November, 2012): 225–253
3 leading scholars in the fields of business, economic, and social history review the current state of these disciplines and reflect on their future trajectory. Jones reviews the development of business history since its birth at HBS during the 1920s. He notes the discipline's unique record as a pioneer of the scholarly study of entrepreneurship, multinationals, and the relationship between strategy and structure in corporations, as well as its more recent accomplishments, including exploring new domains such as family business, networks and business groups, and retaining an open architecture and inter-disciplinary approach. Yet Jones also notes that the discipline has struggled to achieve a wider impact, in part because of methodological under-development. He discusses 3 alternative futures for the discipline. (1) which he rejects, is a continuing growth of research domains to create a diffuse "business history of everything." (2) is a re-integration with the sister discipline of economic history, which has strongly recovered from its near-extinction 2 decades ago through a renewed attention to globalization and the Great Divergence between the West and the Rest. (3) which he supports, is that business historians retain a distinct identity by building on their proud tradition of deep engagement with empirical evidence by raising the bar in methodology and focusing on big issues for which many scholars, practitioners and students seek answers. He identifies 4 such big issues related to debates on entrepreneurship, globalization, business and the natural environment, and the social and political responsibility of business.
article  economic_history  economic_sociology  business_history  business-and-politics  business-norms  business_practices  business-ethics  globalization  MNCs  methodology  environment  climate-adaptation  entrepreneurs  CSR  paywall 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Rasmus Karlsson and Jonathan Symons - Making Climate Leadership Meaningful: Energy Research as a Key to Global Decarbonisation - Feb 2015 | Global Policy Journal- Wiley Online Library
This article revisits a number of familiar debates about climate change mitigation yet draws some unorthodox conclusions. First, that progress towards a renewable small-scale energy future in environmentally conscious countries such as Germany and Sweden may take the world as a whole further away from climate stability by reducing the political pressure to finance breakthrough innovation. Second, that without such game-changing innovations, developing countries will continue to deploy whatever technologies are domestically available, scalable and affordable, including thermal coal power in most instances. Third and finally, that as any realistic hope of achieving climate stability hinges on the innovation of breakthrough technologies, the urgency of climate change calls not so much for the domestic deployment of existing energy technologies but rather a concentrated effort to develop technologies that will be adopted globally. These arguments imply that national innovation policy, and an international treaty establishing a ‘Low-Emissions Technology Commitment’ should be the central focus of climate policy. -- added to Wiley profile
article  paywall  Wiley  global_governance  energy  climate  technology  Innovation  technology-adoption  technology_transfer  green_finance  development  IR  IR-domestic_politics  economic_growth  IP-global_governance  innovation-government_policy  industrial_policy  industrialization 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
JAMES LIVESEY, Review Essay - BERKELEY, IRELAND AND 18thC INTELLECTUAL HISTORY (Dec 2014) | Modern Intellectual History - Cambridge Journals Online
Department of History, School of Humanities, University of Dundee -- Books reviewed: (1) Marc A. Hight ed., The Correspondence of George Berkeley (Cambridge University Press, 2013), (2) Scott Breuninger , Recovering Bishop Berkeley: Virtue and Society in the Anglo-Irish Context (Palgrave, 2010), (3) Daniel Carey and Christopher J. Finlay , eds., The Empire of Credit: The Financial Revolution and the British Atlantic World, 1688–1815 (Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2011) -- 18thC Irish intellectual history has enjoyed a revival in recent years. New scholarly resources, such as the Hoppen edition of the papers of the Dublin Philosophical Society and the recently published Berkeley correspondence, have been fundamental to that revival. Since 1986 the journal Eighteenth-Century Ireland: Iris an dá chultúr has sponsored a complex conversation on the meaning and legacy of the 18thC in Irish history. Work in the journal and beyond deploying “New British” and Atlantic histories, as well as continuing attention to Europe, has helped to enrich scholarly understanding of the environments in which Irish people thought and acted. The challenge facing historians of Ireland has been to find categories of analysis that could comprehend religious division and acknowledge the centrality of the confessional state without reducing all Irish experience to sectarian conflict. Clearly the thought of the Irish Catholic community could not be approached without an understanding of the life of the Continental Catholic Church. Archivium Hibernicum has been collecting and publishing the traces of that history for a hundred years and new digital resources such as the Irish in Europe database have extended that work in new directions. The Atlantic and “New British” contexts have been more proximately important for the Protestant intellectual tradition. -- paywall
articles  books  reviews  paywall  intellectual_history  18thC  Ireland  Protestants-Ireland  Catholics-Ireland  Berkeley  Anglo-Irish_constitution  British_politics  reform-social  reformation_of_manners  virtue_ethics  civic_virtue  Protestant_Ascendancy  Whigs-oligarchy  Church_of_England  Church_of_Ireland  patronage  networks-political  networks-social  networks-information  fiscal-military_state  public_finance  taxes  credit  financial_innovation  financial_sector_development  economic_history  political_economy  politics-and-religion  politics-and-money 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
NICOLAS GUILHOT - THE FIRST MODERN REALIST: FELIX GILBERT'S MACHIAVELLI AND THE REALIST TRADITION IN INTERNATIONAL THOUGHT | Modern Intellectual History (Feb 2015) - Cambridge Journals Online
Centre national de la recherche scientifique, New York University E-mail: nicolas.guilhot@nyu.edu -- In the disciplines of political science and international relations, Machiavelli is unanimously considered to be “the first modern realist.” This essay argues that the idea of a realist tradition going from the Renaissance to postwar realism founders when one considers the disrepute of Machiavelli among early international relations theorists. It suggests that the transformation of Machiavelli into a realist thinker took place subsequently, when new historical scholarship, informed by strategic and political considerations related to the transformation of the US into a global power, generated a new picture of the Renaissance. Focusing on the work of Felix Gilbert, and in particular his Machiavelli and Guicciardini, the essay shows how this new interpretation of Machiavelli was shaped by the crisis of the 1930s, the emergence of security studies, and the philanthropic sponsorship of international relations theory. -- * I would like to thank Samuel Moyn and three anonymous reviewers for their comments on a prior version of this paper. I greatly benefited from discussions with Volker Berghahn, Anthony Molho, and Jacques Revel. -- paywall
article  paywall  find  libraries  IR_theory  intellectual_history  IR-realism  20thC  entre_deux_guerres  post-WWII  strategic_studies  Renaissance  15thC  16thC  Machiavelli  Guicciardini  historiography-postWWII  US_foreign_policy  hegemony  EF-add 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Special Issue: Microfinance -- AEAweb: American Economic Journal: Applied Economics Vol. 7 No.1, Jan 2015
Abstract of introductory article -- Causal evidence on microcredit impacts informs theory, practice, and debates about its effectiveness as a development tool. The six randomized evaluations in this volume use a variety of sampling, data collection, experimental design, and econometric strategies to identify causal effects of expanded access to microcredit on borrowers and/or communities. These methods are deployed across an impressive range of locations—six countries on four continents, urban and rural areas—borrower characteristics, loan characteristics, and lender characteristics. Summarizing and interpreting results across studies, we note a consistent pattern of modestly positive, but not transformative, effects. We also discuss directions for future research. -- broad conclusion to be expected contra the hype -- but focus still seems to be on *credit* (with assumptions re micro and SME entrepreneurs and business formation) rather than access to services -- also question whether the former Yugoslavia study really dealt with "micro", likely the sort of labeling of SMEs as micro like Aftab's programs
journals-academic  article  paywall  microfinance  access_to_finance  development  economic_growth  economic_sociology  development-impact  RCT  econometrics  causation  causation-social  financial_sector_development  financial_economics  financial_access  institutional_economics  banking  credit  financial_innovation  SMEs  access_to_services  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Barry Eichengreen - Secular Stagnation: The Long View | NBER Working Paper No. 20836 Issued in January 2015
NBER Program(s): DAE Four explanations for secular stagnation are distinguished: a rise in global saving, slow population growth that makes investment less attractive, averse trends in technology and productivity growth, and a decline in the relative price of investment goods. A long view from economic history is most supportive of the last of these four views.
paper  paywall  macroeconomics  US_economy  OECD_economies  economic_growth  secular_stagnation 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
EFRAIM PODOKSIK. NEO-KANTIANISM AND GEORG SIMMEL'S INTERPRETATION OF KANT. Modern Intellectual History
available on CJO2014. - Hebrew University of Jerusalem -- This essay explores the development of Georg Simmel's interpretation of Immanuel Kant's philosophy in the context of neo-Kantianism and its preoccupation with the question of unity in modern diversity. It argues that the neo-Kantian movement can be divided into two periods: in the first, unity was addressed with regard to Kant's epistemology; in the second period, the main issue was the overall coherence of Kantian teaching. Simmel, who belonged to the younger generation of neo-Kantians, absorbed the conclusions of the previous generation that purged Kantian epistemology from its metaphysical foundations related to the noumenal world. Yet he did not share the views of his peers who considered Kant to be the philosopher of cultural plurality. On the contrary, he argued that Kant's system is thoroughly intellectualistic, and that ethics, aesthetics and religion within it are subordinated to logic. At the same time, his own philosophy presupposed cultural plurality akin to that of other neo-Kantians. In other words, Simmel abandoned Kant in order to develop his own version of neo-Kantianism.
article  paywall  intellectual_history  social_theory  German_Idealism  German_scholars  Simmel  metaphysics  sociology  neo-Kantian  19thC  20thC  culture  diversity  modernity  pluralism 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
The Reformation in Global Perspective
Abstract Concepts and methods introduced by the “new world history” present important opportunities to contextualize the European Reformation in transregional frames of reference. A global approach allows historians to situate the Reformation more fully within the orbit of people, ideas, and cultural goods that interacted with one another across the early modern world. A number of historians who study missionary encounters, especially those of Jesuits, have already initiated global methodologies in analyzing the Reformation overseas. Other scholars have pointed to ways in which an engagement with the wider world influenced European societies. These works indicate the rich possibilities for looking at the Reformation with new eyes. In assessing this scholarship, this article discusses the prospects and challenges for adopting global perspectives in the study of the Reformation.
religious_history  missionaries  cultural_history  latin  america  article  16thc  east  asia  historiography  china  reformation  catholics  africa  colonialism  world  history  counter-reformation  17thc  north  protestants  india  mena  paywall  cross-border 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
KATE DAVISON - OCCASIONAL POLITENESS AND GENTLEMEN'S LAUGHTER IN 18thC ENGLAND (2014) - Abstract | The Historical Journal - Cambridge Journals Online
The Historical Journal / Volume 57 / Issue 04 / December 2014, pp 921-945 -- University of Sheffield -- This article considers the intersection between polite manners and company in eighteenth-century England. Through the laughter of gentlemen, it makes a case for a concept of occasional politeness, which is intended to emphasize that polite comportment was only necessary on certain occasions. In particular, it was the level of familiarity shared by a company that determined what was considered appropriate. There was unease with laughter in polite sociability, yet contemporaries understood that polite prudence could be waived when men met together in friendly homosocial encounters. In these circumstances, there existed a tacit acceptance of looser manners that might be called ‘intimate bawdiness’, which had its origins in a renaissance humanist train of thought that valorized wit as the centrepiece of male sociability. This argument tempers the importance of politeness by stressing the social contexts for which it was – and was not – a guiding principle. Ultimately, it suggests that the category of company might be one way of rethinking eighteenth-century sociability in a more pluralistic fashion, which allows for contradictory practices to co-exist. As such, it moves towards breaking down the binary oppositions of polite and impolite, elite and popular, and theory and practice that have been imposed on the period. -- Cambridge University Press paywall
article  paywall  find  cultural_history  elite_culture  18thC  British_history  politeness  sociability  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Talisse, R. B. (2011), A Farewell to Deweyan Democracy. Political Studies, 59: 509–526 | Wiley Online Library
Talisse, R. B. (2011), A Farewell to Deweyan Democracy. Political Studies, 59: 509–526. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9248.2010.00860.x The revival of pragmatism has brought renewed enthusiasm for John Dewey's conception of democracy. Drawing upon Rawlsian concerns regarding the fact of reasonable pluralism, I argue that Deweyan democracy is unworthy of resurrection. A modified version of Deweyan democracy recently proposed by Elizabeth Anderson is then taken up and also found to be lacking. Then I propose a model of democracy that draws upon Peirce's social epistemology. The result is a non-Deweyan but nonetheless pragmatist option in democratic theory.
article  Wiley  paywall  political_philosophy  pragmatism  democracy  epistemology-social  Rawls  Dewey  Peirce  pluralism 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Jack A. Goldstone and Bert Useem - Putting Values and Institutions Back into the Theory of Strategic Action Fields | JSTOR: Sociological Theory, Vol. 30, No. 1 (MARCH 2012), pp. 37-47
Neil Fligstein and Doug McAdam have presented a new theory of how collective action creates the structure and dynamics of societies. At issue is the behavior of social movements, organizations, states, political parties, and interest groups. They argue that all of these phenomena are produced by social actors (which may be individuals or groups) involved in strategic action. This allows Fligstein and McAdam to advance a unified theory of "strategic action fields." This article takes issue with aspects of Fligstein and McAdam's important contribution. We argue that that all organizations are not essentially the same; in addition to the location and interactions of their strategic actors, their dynamics are shaped and distinguished by differing values and norms, by the autonomy of institutions embedded in strategic action fields, and by the fractal relationships that nested fields have to broader principles of justice and social organization that span societies. We also criticize the view that social change can be conceptualized solely in terms of shifting configurations of actors in strategic action fields. Rather, any theory of social action must distinguish between periods of routine contention under the current institutions and norms and exceptional challenges to the social order that aim to transform those institutions and norms. -- Sage paywall on a 3 year delay for jstor
article  jstor  paywall  social_theory  collective_action  social_movements  organizations  nation-state  parties  partisanship  institutions  strategic_action_fields  political_culture  civil_society  social_order  institutional_change  old_institutionalism  new_institutionalism  rational_choice  norms  contention  conflict  social_process  change-social  change-intellectual  levels_of_analyis  networks-political  networks-social  networks  networks-policy  networks-religious  power  action-social  action-theory  revolutions  reform-social  reform-political  EF-add 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Rita Felski - "Context Stinks!" | JSTOR: New Literary History, Vol. 42, No. 4 (AUTUMN 2011), pp. 573-591
This essay draws on the work of Bruno Latour to question conventional methods of "historicizing" and "contextualizing" works of art. Context is typically equated with original historical context, and the act of historicizing a text becomes a matter of linking it to other texts and events in the same slice of time. Such historicist approaches, I argue, cannot account for the transtemporal movement of texts, their ability to resonate across different periods, and the ways in which they speak to us now. Moreover, traditional models of context and its correlates (society, power, ideology, etc.) tend to downplay or actively deny the agency of artworks. What if we were to think of these artworks as nonhuman actors who modify states of affairs by making a difference? Such an approach calls on us to recognize the specificity of works of art as well as their sociability and wordliness. Artworks are not heroic actors engaged in endless opposition, subversion, and resistance; rather they are coactors and codependents, enmeshed in multiple attachments and associations that enable them to survive. -- Project MUSE
article  jstor  paywall  Project_MUSE  historiography  literary_history  literary_theory  art_history  historicism  contextualism  influence-literary  influence-art  Latour  EF-add 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Joseph E. Stiglitz - Reconstructing Macroeconomic Theory to Manage Economic Policy | NBER - September 2014
Macroeconomics has not done well in recent years: The standard models didn't predict the Great Recession; and even said it couldn't happen. After the bubble burst, the models did not predict the full consequences. The paper traces the failures to the attempts, beginning in the 1970s, to reconcile macro and microeconomics, by making the former adopt the standard competitive micro-models that were under attack even then, from theories of imperfect and asymmetric information, game theory, and behavioral economics. The paper argues that any theory of deep downturns has to answer these questions: What is the source of the disturbances? Why do seemingly small shocks have such large effects? Why do deep downturns last so long? Why is there such persistence, when we have the same human, physical, and natural resources today as we had before the crisis? The paper presents a variety of hypotheses which provide answers to these questions, and argues that models based on these alternative assumptions have markedly different policy implications, including large multipliers. It explains why the apparent liquidity trap today is markedly different from that envisioned by Keynes in the Great Depression, and why the Zero Lower Bound is not the central impediment to the effectiveness of monetary policy in restoring the economy to full employment. -- paywall
paper  paywall  macroeconomics  microfoundations  economic_theory  economic_models  Great_Recession  monetary_policy  Keynes  liquidity  fiscal_policy  Stiglitz 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Brayden G King and Nicholas A. Pearce - The Contentiousness of Markets: Politics, Social Movements, and Institutional Change in Markets | JSTOR: Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 36 (2010), pp. 249-267
While much of economic sociology focuses on the stabilizing aspects of markets, the social movement perspective emphasizes the role that contentiousness plays in bringing institutional change and innovation to markets. Markets are inherently political, both because of their ties to the regulatory functions of the state and because markets are contested by actors who are dissatisfied with market outcomes and who use the market as a platform for social change. Research in this area focuses on the pathways to market change pursued by social movements, including direct challenges to corporations, the institutionalization of systems of private regulation, and the creation of new market categories through institutional entrepreneurship. Much contentiousness, while initially disruptive, works within the market system by producing innovation and restraining capitalism from destroying the resources it depends on for survival. -- still paywall -- 155 references-- see bibliography on jstor information page
article  jstor  paywall  social_theory  political_sociology  economic_sociology  markets-structure  markets_in_everything  Innovation  social_movements  conflict  political_economy  regulation  capitalism  environment  institutional_change  social_process  change-social  CSR  corporate_governance  corporate_citizenship  self-regulation  bibliography  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Julio J. Rotemberg - The Federal Reserve's Abandonment of its 1923 Principles | NBER Working Paper No. 20507, September 2014
This paper studies the persistence and some of the consequences of the eventual abandonment by the FOMC of the principles embedded in the Federal Reserve’s Tenth Annual Report of 1923. The three principles I focus on are 1) the discouraging of speculative lending by commercial banks, 2) the desire to meet the credit needs of business and 3) the preference of a focus on credit over a focus on monetary aggregates. I show that the first two principles remained important in FOMC deliberations until the mid-1960’s. After this, the FOMC also spent less time discussing the composition of bank loans. -- paywall
paper  paywall  US_economy  economic_history  central_banks  Fed  financial_regulation  credit  banking  speculative_finance  monetary_policy  macroprudential_policies 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Franco Fiordelisi, Davide Salvatore Mare - Competition and financial stability in European cooperative banks | Journal of International Money and Finance, July 2014, Vol.45:1–16 — ScienceDirect
doi:10.1016/j.jimonfin.2014.02.008 Highlights • We investigate competition and financial stability in European cooperative banks. • We assess the dynamic relationship both in the short and long run. • Higher competition increases bank stability. • No impact of the recent financial crisis on the competition and stability link. • Herding behaviour affects positively bank stability. **--** Cooperative banks are a driving force for socially committed business at the local level, accounting for around one fifth of the European Union (EU) bank deposits and loans. Despite their importance, little is known about the relationship between bank stability and competition for these small credit institutions. Does competition affect the stability of cooperative banks? Does the financial stability of banks increase/decrease when competition is higher? We assess the dynamic relationship between competition and bank soundness (both in the short and long run) among European cooperative banks between 1998 and 2009. We obtain three main results. First, we provide evidence in line with the competition-stability view proposed by Boyd and De Nicolò (2005). Bank market power negatively “Granger-causes” banks' soundness, meaning that there is a positive relationship between competition and stability. Second, we find that this fundamental relationship does not change during the 2007–2009 financial crisis. Third, we show that increased homogeneity in the cooperative banking sector positively affects bank soundness. Our findings have important policy implications for designing and implementing regulations that enhance the overall stability of the financial system and in particular of the cooperative banking sector.
paper  paywall  financial_economics  financial_sector_development  financial_system  competition  banking  SMEs  Eurozone  financial_regulation 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Jonathan Gorman - Hayden White as analytical philosopher of mind | Rethinking History Vol. 17, Iss. 4, 2013 - Special Issue : Hayden White’s " Metahistory " 40 Years On - Taylor & Francis Online
Philosophers and historians in Cambridge did not recognise either the relevance or the importance of Metahistory when it was published in 1973. The reasons are here explained in terms of the nature of the analytical tradition: the principled distinctiveness of analytical philosophy from (1) history, (2) speculative metaphysics, and (3) political morality. Following an analysis of ‘analysis’, Metahistory is argued to be an exercise in the recovery of paradigm cases in Strawsonian descriptive metaphysics that offers the outlines of an advanced philosophy of mind and philosophy of time. -- Jonathan Gorman is Emeritus Professor of Moral Philosophy at the Queen's University of Belfast. His books in philosophy of history are The Expression of Historical Knowledge (Edinburgh 1982), Understanding History (Ottawa 1992) and Historical Judgement (Stocksfield 2007), and he has many articles and reviews in theory of history journals and collections. He continues to apply analytic pragmatic philosophy to historical thought, and writes also in other branches of philosophy and in legal theory.
article  paywall  find  intellectual_history  20thC  post-WWII  historiography  narrative  analytical_philosophy  ordinary_language_philosophy  speech-act  philosophy_of_history  mind  time  metaphysics  Strawson_PF  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Peter Burke - Metahistory: before and after | Rethinking History Vol. 17, Iss. 4, 2013 - Special Issue : Hayden White’s " Metahistory " 40 Years On - Taylor & Francis Online
This article tries to place Hayden White's Metahistory between two trends: one before and one after 1973. The first is the trend towards studying the rhetoric of history: a trend that goes back to classical antiquity itself, was revived at the Renaissance and – following the moment of positivism – enjoyed a second revival in the age of the linguistic turn. The second trend, after 1973, is essentially the story of responses to White's book, whether negative or positive. Particular emphasis is given to attempts to extend his rhetorical analysis to more historians or to utilize his approach in other disciplines, among them anthropology, geography and international relations. -- Peter Burke is Emeritus Professor of Cultural History, University of Cambridge, and Fellow of Emmanuel College. He began his studies of the history of historiography at Oxford in 1961, under the supervision of Hugh Trevor-Roper, and is the author of studies ranging from The Renaissance Sense of the Past (1969) to The French Historical Revolution (1990).
article  paywall  intellectual_history  historiography  post-WWII  rhetoric-writing  narrative  linguistic_turn  constructivism  social_sciences-post-WWII  anthropology  geography  IR_theory  social_theory 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Gabrielle M. Spiegel - Above, about and beyond the writing of history: a retrospective view of Hayden White's "Metahistory" | Rethinking History Vol. 17, Iss. 4, 2013 - Special Issue: Hayden White’s "Metahistory" 40 Years On - Taylor & Francis Online
Since its publication 40 years ago, Hayden White's Metahistory has been recognized as a foundational work for the literary analysis of historical writing. Long thought to be primarily concerned with questions of narrative, new interpretations have recently revised our understanding of White's principal aims as a theorist and philosopher of history. What has emerged from these works is a novel view of the status and meaning of tropes in Metahistory, the underlying existentialist engagements that guided White's thinking about them, and the ways in which both served his encompassing goal not only to critique the reigning Rankean paradigm of ‘history’ but to free contemporary historians and historiography altogether from the ‘burden of history’ for the sake of a morally responsible future. The article analyses the ways in which these new interpretations of White alter our understanding of the corpus of his work, from his early article on the ‘burden of history’ to his most recent writings on ‘the practical past’, with a principal focus on the re-readings of Metahistory itself. -- Gabrielle M. Spiegel is Krieger-Eisenhower Professor of history at Johns Hopkins University and a past president of the American Historical Association. She has written extensively on historical writing in the Middle Ages in Latin and Old French and on the implications of contemporary critical theory for the practice of historiography.
article  paywall  intellectual_history  20thC  post-WWII  historiography  narrative  lit_crit  philosophy_of_history  constructivism  usable_past  historicism  historiography-19thC  Ranke  existentialism  White_Hayden 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
David D. Roberts - Rethinking Hayden White's treatment of Croce | Rethinking History Vol. 17, Iss. 4, 2013 - Special Issue: Hayden White’s "Metahistory" 40 Years On - Taylor & Francis Online
Hayden White began as a partisan of the earlier Italian thinker Benedetto Croce. After 1963, however, White gradually turned against Croce, finally, in Metahistory, casting Croce's position as the limiting ironic outcome of nineteenth-century historiographical realism. Croce putatively left the historian as a passive observer, cut off from using historical understanding to help shape events. Whereas most students of White say little about White's encounter with Croce, this article argues that both thinkers were seeking to establish a post-realist cultural framework. Although White had plausible reasons to dissent from Croce, he sidestepped the challenge of the Crocean alternative by forcing Croce into a limiting mold as a time-bound, bourgeois ideological spokesman. This was to restrict unnecessarily and unfortunately the terms of post-realist debate. -- David D. Roberts is Albert Berry Saye Professor of History, Emeritus, at the University of Georgia (U.S.A.). His most recent books are The Totalitarian Experiment in Twentieth-Century Europe: Understanding the Poverty of Great Politics (Routledge, 2006) and Historicism and Fascism in Modern Italy (Toronto, 2007). Among his earlier writings on Benedetto Croce are Benedetto Croce and the Uses of Historicism (California, 1987); Nothing but History: Reconstruction and Extremity after Metaphysics (California, 1995); and Una nuova interpretazione del pensiero di Croce: Lo storicismo crociano e il pensiero contemporaneo (Istituti Editoriali e Poligrafici Internazionali, 1995).
article  paywall  intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  historiography  historiography-19thC  realism  narrative  philosophy_of_history  historicism  White_Hayden  Croce  postmodern  epistemology-history  historians-and-politics 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Trevor A. Harley - History lessons: what can we learn about history? | Rethinking History Vol. 18, Iss. 3, 2014 - Taylor & Francis Online
What can we learn from the past? This paper examines the nature of the past and discusses the extent to which historical outcomes are robust over different starting conditions, using primarily the example of the origin of the Great War. It reviews the mathematical and psychological literature on complexity theory, and considers the idea that history can indeed in some circumstances be robust across initial conditions. I introduce the notion of a dynamic historical attractor to account for the way in which the past unfolds over time, and relate dynamic attractors to post-modern approaches to historical interpretation. -- Keywords: complexity, chaos, dynamic historical attractors, alternative histories, causality, narrative, post-modernism -- T&F paywall
article  paywall  historiography  causation-social  causation  complexity  chaos_theory  dynamic_attractors  counterfactuals  narrative  narrative-contested  postmodern  WWI  contingency  social_theory  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
PATRICK A. WALSH -- THE FISCAL STATE IN IRELAND, 1691–1769 (2013).| The Historical Journal, 56, pp 629-656 Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
PATRICK A. WALSH - University College, Dublin (& UCL post doc fellowship) -- This article examines the Irish fiscal-military state in the eighteenth century. It locates the Irish state within a broader imperial context showing how Ireland contributed to the wider British imperial project. In particular, this article looks at the development of an efficient tax-gathering apparatus, showing how the revenue board, the most pervasive agency of the eighteenth-century Irish state, extracted increasing levels of taxation from a sometimes hostile population. Drawing extensively on the records of the Irish revenue commissioners, a very rich if under utilized source, it demonstrates for the first time the levels of taxation raised in Ireland, while also exploring how these taxes were collected. It concludes that this period saw the expansion of an increasingly professional bureaucracy, challenging existing interpretations that have focused predominantly on politicization. The final section looks at issues of evasion and compliance, showing the difficulties faced by the Irish state in this period, as it expanded deeper into Irish society. -* I would like to thank Stephen Conway, Niamh Cullen, Julian Hoppit, Eoin Magennis, and Ivar McGrath, as well as the two anonymous readers, for their comments on earlier drafts.
article  paywall  find  17thC  18thC  British_history  Ireland  Ireland-English_exploitation  taxes  fiscal-military_state  tax_collection  bureaucracy  state-building  British_Empire  British_Empire-constitutional_structure  UK_Government  UK_government-colonies  primary_sources  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
JOEL ISAAC -- DONALD DAVIDSON AND THE ANALYTIC REVOLUTION IN AMERICAN PHILOSOPHY, 1940–1970 (2013). | The Historical Journal, 56, pp 757-779 - Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
JOEL ISAAC - Christ's College, Cambridge -- Histories of analytic philosophy in the United States have typically focused on the reception of logical positivism, and especially on responses to the work of the Vienna Circle. Such accounts often call attention to the purportedly positivist-inspired marginalization of normative concerns in American philosophy: according to this story, the overweening positivist concern for logic and physics as paradigms of knowledge displaced questions of value and social relations. This article argues that the reception framework encourages us to mistake the real sources of the analytic revolution in post-war philosophy. These are to be found in debates about intentional action and practical reasoning – debates in which ‘normative’ questions of value and social action were in fact central. Discussion of these topics took place within a transatlantic community of Wittgensteinians, ordinary languages philosophers, logical empiricists, and decision theorists. These different strands of ‘analytical’ thinking were bound together into a new philosophical mainstream not by a positivist alliance with logic and physics, but by the rapid development of the mathematical and behavioural sciences during the Second World War and its immediate aftermath. An illustrative application of this new framework for interpreting the analytic revolution is found in the early career and writings of Donald Davidson.
article  paywall  intellectual_history  20thC  analytical_philosophy  Logical_Positivism  Wittgenstein  ordinary_language_philosophy  behavioralism  social_sciences-post-WWII  decision_theory  mathematics  logic  empiricism  US  cultural_history  academia  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
OLIVER J. W. COX -- FREDERICK, PRINCE OF WALES, AND THE FIRST PERFORMANCE OF ‘RULE, BRITANNIA!’ (2013). | The Historical Journal, 56, pp 931-954. - Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
OLIVER J. W. COX - University College, Oxford -- The words and music of ‘Rule, Britannia!’ are synonymous with the expansionist, triumphalist, and imperialist Britain symbolized by fluttering Union Jacks on the Last Night of the Proms. This article explores the cultural and political contexts of the first performance of this important national cultural artefact as the finale of Alfred: a masque to suggest that this opening night served a very different purpose. The first audience was a court in exile from the metropolitan heart of London, popular amongst the general public, but without any prospects of government. Two of the most important members of this group of peers, politicians, poets and a prince had recently died, and with them any cohesive identity. Alfred is both a desperate plea for unity, a rallying cry which forcefully restated the key tenets of this group's identity, and a delayed expression of patriotic celebration occasioned by Admiral Vernon's capture of Portobello. Through addressing this performance, this article makes an important contribution to our understanding of Hanoverian political culture and highlights the continuing impact of Anglo-Saxon England on mid-eighteenth-century Britain. -* For comments and advice on earlier versions of my argument, I am grateful to Dr Hannah Smith and Dr Geoffrey Tyack. - Thanks are also due to John and Virginia Murray who ensured archival work at 50 Albemarle Street was always a pleasure.
article  paywall  find  18thC  British_history  British_politics  1740s  Whigs-opposition  Whigs-oligarchy  George_II  Walpole  Frederick_Prince_of_Wales  Britannia  Bolingbroke  Mallet  political_culture  political_nation  political_spectacle  theater  theatre-politics  elite_culture  patriotism  Anglo-Saxons  cultural_authority  cultural_pessimism  War_of_Austrian_Succession  British_Navy  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
RANDOLPH C. HEAD -- DOCUMENTS, ARCHIVES, AND PROOF AROUND 1700 (2013). | The Historical Journal, 56, pp 909-930 - Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
RANDOLPH C. HEAD - University of California, Riverside -- Jean Mabillon's De re diplomatica, whose importance for diplomatics and the philosophy of history is well recognized, also contributed to the seventeenth-century European debate over the relationship among documents, archives, and historical or juridical proof. This article juxtaposes early works on diplomatics by Mabillon, Daniel Papebroche, and Barthélémy Germon against German ius archivi theorists including Rutger Ruland and Ahasver Fritsch to reveal two incommensurate approaches that emerged around 1700 for assessing the authority of written records. Diplomatics concentrated on comparing the material and textual features of individual documents to authentic specimens in order to separate the genuine from the spurious, whereas the ius archivi emphasized the publica fides (public faith) that documents derived from their placement in an authentic sovereign's archive. Diplomatics' emergence as a separate auxiliary science of history encouraged the erasure of archivality from the primary conditions of documentary assessment for historians, however, while the ius archivi's privileging of institutional over material criteria for authority foreshadowed European state practice and the evolution of archivistics into the twentieth century. This article investigates these competing discourses of evidence and their implications from the perspective of early modern archival practices.
article  paywall  find  intellectual_history  historiography  17thC  18thC  historians  historiography-17thC  historiography-18thC  France  Germany  humanism  evidence  archives  manuscripts  Mabillon  Académie_des_Inscriptions  scepticism  Europe-Early_Modern  philosophy_of_history  authority  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
BRENT S. SIROTA -- THE OCCASIONAL CONFORMITY CONTROVERSY, MODERATION, AND THE ANGLICAN CRITIQUE OF MODERNITY, 1700–1714 (2014) | The Historical Journal, 57, pp 81-105 - Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
BRENT S. SIROTA - North Carolina State University -- The occasional conformity controversy during the reign of Queen Anne has traditionally been understood as a straightforward symptom of the early eighteenth-century ‘rage of party’. For all the pious rhetoric concerning toleration and the church in danger, the controversy is considered a partisan squabble for short-term political gain. This traditional interpretation has, however, never been able to account for two features of the controversy: first, the focus on ‘moderation’ as a unique characteristic of post-Revolutionary English society; and second, the prominence of the Anglican nonjurors in the debate. This article revisits the occasional conformity controversy with an eye toward explaining these two related features. In doing so, it will argue that the occasional conformity controversy comprised a referendum on the Revolution settlement in church and state. Nonjurors lit upon the practice of occasional conformity as emblematic of the broader malady of moderation afflicting post-Revolutionary England. From their opposition to occasional conformity, the nonjurors, and soon the broader Anglican high-church movement, developed a comprehensive critique of religious modernity that would inform the entire framework of debate in the early English Enlightenment. -* I thank James Vaughn, Steve Pincus, Bill Bulman, Robert Ingram, and the participants in the ‘God and the Enlightenment’ conference at Ohio University in October 2012 for their generous engagement with earlier drafts of this article. Thanks also to Phil Withington and the anonymous reviewers for their assistance in shaping this article into its final form.
article  paywall  find  18thC  British_history  British_politics  1700s  1710s  occasional_conformity  nonjurors  High_Church  Church_of_England  religious_history  church_history  religious_culture  religion-established  politics-and-religion  political_press  pamphlets  political_participation  tolerance  latitudinarian  secularization  atheism_panic  partisanship  Tories  Whigs  dissenters  Whig_Junto  moderation  modernity  Enlightenment  Queen_Anne  Harley  Bolingbroke  comprehension-church  Convocation  church-in-danger  sermons  religious_lit  cultural_critique  Atterbury  popular_politics  popular_culture  Revolution_Principles  Glorious_Revolution  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
RICHARD REX -- THE RELIGION OF HENRY VIII (2014) | The Historical Journal, 57, pp 1-32. - Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
RICHARD REX - University of Cambridge --This article takes issue with the influential recent interpretation of Henry VIII's religious position as consistently ‘Erasmian’. Bringing to the discussion not only a re-evaluation of much familiar evidence but also a considerable quantity of hitherto unknown or little-known material, it proposes instead that Henry's religious position, until the 1530s, sat squarely within the parameters of ‘traditional religion’ and that the subsequent changes in his attitudes to the cult of the saints, monasticism, and papal primacy were so significant as to be understood and described by Henry himself in terms of a veritable religious ‘conversion’. This conversion, which was very much sui generis, is not easily to be fitted within the confessional frameworks of other sixteenth-century religious movements (though it was by no means unaffected by them). It hinged upon Henry's new understanding of kingship as a supreme spiritual responsibility entrusted to kings by the Word of God, but long hidden from them by the machinations of the papacy. His own providential deliverance from blindness was, he believed, but the beginning of a more general spiritual enlightenment
article  paywall  religious_history  church_history  16thC  British_history  British_politics  Henry_VIII  Reformation  Erastianism  religion-established  religious_belief  Church_of_England  divine_right  kingship  Papacy  Papacy-English_relations  Erasmus  Providence  Absolutism  Tudor  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
CAROLYN POLIZZOTTO -- WHAT REALLY HAPPENED AT THE WHITEHALL DEBATES? A NEW SOURCE (2014). | The Historical Journal, 57, pp 33-51. - Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
CAROLYN POLIZZOTTO - The University of Western Australia -- A variant transcription of one of the Whitehall Debates has been identified among the Clarke papers. Located in volume 16 of the Worcester MSS, it records the latter part of the longest debate, on 14 December 1648, concerning the Second Agreement of the People. The fair copy of this debate by army secretary William Clarke (in volume 65 of the Worcester MSS) was previously believed to be the only surviving record. The new source provides additional text, clarifies obscure passages, and is generally easier to understand. Historians now have the advantage of another account of the meeting, which reveals its importance more fully. Although the Levellers’ Agreement was never to be implemented, the Whitehall Debates took place between Pride's Purge and the trial and execution of Charles I. The variant therefore sheds new light on the thinking of the army command and its advisers both religious and lay at this time of unprecedented constitutional crisis. It also provides the first documentary evidence that the army debates at Putney (1647) and Whitehall (1648–9) were not recorded by Clarke alone, but by a team of at least three secretaries. -* For their invaluable advice in the preparation of this article, I would like to express my gratitude to Dr Clive Holmes and Prof. Ian Gentles. Dr Joanna Parker, Librarian, Worcester College, Oxford, and the staff of the Scholars’ Centre in the University of Western Australia Library, especially Azra Tulic
article  paywall  17thC  British_history  British_politics  English_Civil_War  Levellers  New_Model_Army  English_constitution  religious_history  godly_persons  Puritans  Independents  radicals  primary_sources  manuscripts  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
ANDERS INGRAM -- THE OTTOMAN SIEGE OF VIENNA, ENGLISH BALLADS, AND THE EXCLUSION CRISIS (2014).| The Historical Journal, 57, pp 53-80.- Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
ANDERS INGRAM - National University of Ireland, Galway --The second Ottoman siege of Vienna (1683) generated a higher volume of English writing than any other seventeenth-century event involving the Ottomans. This article focuses upon ballads written in the immediate aftermath of the siege and relates them to the concurrent English political context of the Tory reaction to the exclusion crisis. Situating these ballads within the publication milieu of pamphlet news and political polemic, it examines the figures who produced them and the audiences they were aimed at. Following from this, it shows how the use of commonplace images and associations with the ‘Turk’ as a recurring figure in early modern writing allowed these ballads to find, or depict, synchronicities between the events of the siege of Vienna, and the English political scene. -* I am grateful to Daniel Carey and Christine Woodhead for their help and comments at various stages.
article  paywall  find17thC  British_history  British_politics  political_culture  Exclusion_Crisis  Tories  Ottomans  Austria  Holy_Roman_Empire  military_history  Christendom  Christianity-Islam_conflict  despotism  popular_politics  popular_culture  political_press  ballads  pamphlets  newspapers  1680s  Charles_II  Whigs  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
KATRINA FORRESTER -- CITIZENSHIP, WAR, AND THE ORIGINS OF INTERNATIONAL ETHICS IN AMERICAN POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY, 1960–1975 (2014). | The Historical Journal, 57, pp 773-801. - Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
KATRINA FORRESTER - St John's College, Cambridge -- This article examines a series of debates about civil disobedience, conscription, and the justice of war that took place among American liberal philosophers, lawyers, and activists during the civil rights movement and the Vietnam War. It argues that these debates fundamentally reshaped American political philosophy, by shifting the focus from the welfare state to the realm of international politics. In order to chart this transition from the domestic to the international, this article focuses on the writings of two influential political theorists, John Rawls and Michael Walzer. The turn to international politics in American political philosophy has its origins, in part, in their arguments about domestic citizenship. In tracing these origins, this article situates academic philosophical arguments alongside debates among the American public at large. It offers a first account of the history of analytical political philosophy during the 1960s and 1970s, and argues that the role played by the Vietnam War in this history, though underappreciated, is significant. -* I would like to thank Duncan Bell, Kenzie Bok, Christopher Brooke, Adam Lebowitz, Peter Mandler, Jamie Martin, Samuel Moyn, Andrew Preston, David Runciman, Tim Shenk, Brandon Terry, Mira Siegelberg, Joshua Specht, and two anonymous reviewers for their comments
article  paywall  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  analytical_philosophy  20thC  US_politics  US_foreign_policy  post-WWII  Vietnam_War  citizenship  civil_liberties  IR-liberalism  IR-domestic_politics  IR_theory  liberalism  Rawls  Walzer  power  power-asymmetric  justice  welfare_state  just_war  moral_philosophy  US_government  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
MALCOLM CROOK and JOHN DUNNE -- THE FIRST EUROPEAN ELECTIONS? VOTING AND IMPERIAL STATE-BUILDING UNDER NAPOLEON, 1802–1813. (2014). | The Historical Journal, 57, pp 661-697 - Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
MALCOLM CROOK University of Keele and JOHN DUNNE --This article establishes the significance of elections held in the annexed departments of the Napoleonic Empire from 1802 to 1813. It thus represents an original, and perhaps surprising, contribution to recent debate on the nature of Napoleonic imperialism, in which attention has shifted from core to periphery, and away from purely military matters. The electoral process under this authoritarian regime has been alternately neglected or derided, especially where the newly created departments of the Low Countries and parts of Germany and Italy are concerned. However, extensive archival research demonstrates that it was taken extremely seriously by both regime and voters, especially outside metropolitan France. These ‘First European Elections', as they may be dubbed, took place in regular fashion right across the Empire and are studied here on a transnational basis, which also involves the metropolitan departments. Though open to all adult males at the primary level, they were not exercises in democracy, but they did create some rare political space which local people were not slow to exploit for their own purposes. Above all, they served as a means of integrating ‘new Frenchmen’, particularly members of indigenous elites, into the Napoleonic system.
article  paywall  19thC  political_history  political_culture  Napoleonic_Empire  elections  Germany  Italy  Dutch  Netherlands  France  local_politics  elites  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
JONATHAN ALLEN GREEN -- FRIEDRICH GENTZ'S TRANSLATION OF BURKE'S "REFLECTIONS" (2014). | The Historical Journal, 57, pp 639-659. - Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
JONATHAN ALLEN GREEN - Trinity Hall, Cambridge -- In his influential work on German Romanticism, Isaiah Berlin suggested that Edmund Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) catalysed the growth of the nineteenth-century counter-Enlightenment. This causal thesis, however, ignored the extent to which the Reflections' German translator, Friedrich Gentz (1764–1832), altered the meaning of the text to suit his own philosophical agenda. Although Burke saw rationalism and revolution as natural allies, Gentz – a student of Immanuel Kant – used the Reflections to articulate a conservative form of rationalism that, he believed, could stand up to the philosophes' radicalism. Through his selective translation, numerous in-text annotations, and six long interpretive essays, Gentz pressed Burke's Reflections into a Kantian epistemological paradigm – carving out a space for a priori right in the logic of the text, and demoting traditional knowledge from a normative to a prudential role. In Gentz's translation, Burke thus appeared as a champion, not a critic, of Enlightenment. -- * Many thanks to John Robertson, Joachim Whaley, and William O'Reilly for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of this article.
article  paywall  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  Counter-Enlightenment  18thC  Burke  French_Revolution  translation  Germany  German_Idealism  Kant  rationalist  Enlightenment  Enlightenment-conservative  philosophes  French_Enlightenment  Berlin_Isaiah  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
WILLIAM A. PETTIGREW and GEORGE W. VAN CLEVE -- PARTING COMPANIES: THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION, COMPANY POWER, AND IMPERIAL MERCANTILISM. (2014). | The Historical Journal, 57, pp 617-638. Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
WILLIAM A. PETTIGREW - University of Kent and GEORGE W. VAN CLEVE - Seattle University School of Law --This article revisits the late seventeenth-century histories of two of England's most successful overseas trading monopolies, the East India and Royal African Companies. It offers the first full account of the various enforcement powers and strategies that both companies developed and stresses their unity of purpose in the seventeenth century. It assesses the complex effects that the ‘Glorious Revolution’ had on these powers and strategies, unearthing much new material about the case law for monopoly enforcement in this critical period and revising existing accounts that continue to assert the Revolution's exclusively deregulating effects and that miss crucial subtleties in the case law and related alterations in company behaviour. It asks why the two companies parted company as legal and political entities and offers an explanation that connects the fortunes of both monopoly companies to their public profile and differing constituencies in the English empire and the varying non-European political contexts in which they operated. -- * We warmly thank Michael R. T. Macnair for his indispensable advice and assistance regarding matters of seventeenth-century English law and are grateful to Clive Holmes for encouraging us to look into these issues and to Simon Douglas and Jeffrey Hackney for initial help in doing so. Paul Halliday, Daniel Hulsebosch, and Philip J. Stern provided helpful responses to specific research queries.
article  paywall  find  17thC  British_history  British_politics  economic_history  Glorious_Revolution  mercantilism  monopolies  trading_companies  East_India_Company  Royal_African_Co  colonialism  slavery  piracy  competition  parties  London  legal_history  judiciary  commercial_law  interest_groups  Whig_Junto  Tories  James_II  William_III  Parliament  institutional_economics  North-Weingast  regulation  West_Indies  ports  shipping  trade-policy  entrepôts  exports  imports  luxury_goods  consumers  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
JORDAN S. DOWNS - "THE CURSE OF MEROZ" AND THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR (2014). | The Historical Journal, 57, pp 343-368. - Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
JORDAN S. DOWNS -- University of California, Riverside -- This article attempts to uncover the political significance of the Old Testament verse Judges 5:23, ‘the curse of Meroz’, during the English Civil War. Historians who have commented on the printed text of Meroz have done so primarily in reference to a single edition of the parliamentarian fast-day preacher Stephen Marshall's 1642 Meroz cursed sermon. Usage of the curse, however, as shown in more than seventy unique sermons, tracts, histories, libels, and songs considered here, demonstrates that the verse was far more widespread and politically significant than has been previously assumed. Analysing Meroz in its political and polemical roles, from the outbreak of the Irish Rebellion in 1641 and through the Restoration of Charles II in the 1660s, sheds new light on the ways in which providentialism functioned during the Civil Wars, and serves, more specifically, to illustrate some of the important means by which ministers and polemicists sought to mobilize citizens and construct party identities. --* I am grateful to Richard Cust, Barbara Donagan, Peter Lake, Isaac Stephens, Stefania Tutino, and the two anonymous reviewers who read and commented on earlier versions of this article. Special thanks are due to Tom Cogswell for his guidance and extensive feedback
article  paywall  17thC  British_history  British_politics  English_Civil_War  Restoration  religious_history  religious_culture  Providence  sermons  religious_lit  Bible-as-history  Biblical_authority  Old_Testament  political_press  pamphlets  popular_culture  popular_politics  partisanship  parties  identity  identity_politics  Parliamentarians  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
GABY MAHLBERG - "LES JUGES JUGEZ, SE JUSTIFIANTS" (1663) AND EDMUND LUDLOW‘S PROTESTANT NETWORK IN 17thC SWITZERLAND (2014). | The Historical Journal, 57, pp 369-396. - Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract -
GABY MAHLBERG - University of Northumbria -- This article aims to locate English republican thought and writing in a wider European context and to understand the personal connections that aided the distribution and reception of English republican ideas abroad. It does so through the case-study of a little-known pamphlet published by the English regicide Edmund Ludlow during his exile in Switzerland after the restoration of the Stuart monarchy in 1660. Les juges jugez, se justifiants (1663) was a French translation of the dying speeches and other miscellaneous texts of some of the English regicides, produced in Geneva and subsequently printed in Yverdon with the help of Ludlow's local Protestant network. Rather than propagating a secular republican ideology, Ludlow offered his work to a European Protestant audience in the language of Geneva, promoting a primarily religious cause in an attempt to make martyrs out of political activists. It is therefore to Ludlow's Protestant networks that we need to turn to find out more about the transmission of English republican ideas in francophone Europe and beyond. - * The author would like to thank Cesare Cuttica, J. C. Davis, Andrew McKenzie-McHarg, and the anonymous readers at the Historical Journal for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of this article.
article  paywall  find  intellectual_history  17thC  Europe-Early_Modern  Protestant_International  republicanism  political_philosophy  British_history  British_politics  Restoration  regicide  martyrs  Geneva  France  Dutch  Huguenots  networks  networks-religious  networks-political  diffusion  Bolingbroke-family  exiles  Republic_of_Letters  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
MARK HEWITSON - ON WAR AND PEACE: GERMAN CONCEPTIONS OF CONFLICT, 1792–1815 (2014). | The Historical Journal, 57, pp 447-483 - Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
MARK HEWITSON - University College London -- This article re-examines some of the principal portrayals of military conflict in academic treatises and works of art, arguing that the changing visions of war and peace which they presented were indicative of a wider acceptance within critical sections of the various public spheres of the German lands. The majority of recent studies, which have sought to debunk the myth of national ‘wars of liberation’, have tended to overlook the reasons for and ramifications of such shifts. This study shows how contemporary commentators, faced with an unending series of revolutionary and Napoleonic campaigns, gave up any hope of a perpetual peace and accepted, however reluctantly, the necessity of military conflict. Writers', artists', academics', and other publicists' failure to acknowledge the actual conditions of revolutionary and Napoleonic warfare, despite evidence that the nature of combat had altered, meant that conflicts could be viewed as patriotic, heroic, and defensive struggles, which served to simplify the divided loyalties and complicated diplomacy of the Napoleonic era.
article  paywall  18thC  19thC  intellectual_history  cultural_history  Germany  Napoleonic_Wars  revolutions  military_history  diplomatic_history  patriotism  nationalism  German_lit  German_Idealism  Romanticism  art_history  political_press  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
ALEXIS D. LITVINE, review essay - THE INDUSTRIOUS REVOLUTION, THE INDUSTRIOUSNESS DISCOURSE, AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN ECONOMIES (2014) | The Historical Journal, 57, pp 531-570. - Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
ALEXIS D. LITVINE - Trinity College, Cambridge -- The idea of industriousness has been an ever-recurring issue since Max Weber launched it as a putative explanation of the advent of economic modernity. The notion of ‘industrious revolution’ has provoked a renewed flourishing of publications focusing on this issue. Although most historians agree on the emergence of industriousness in seventeenth-century Europe, there is no consensus regarding the chronology, hence the real causes, of this mental and discursive shift. This article emphasizes the problematic role played by literary evidences in these social and cultural models of diffusion of new consumer values and desires. It then establishes the timing of the emergence of the ‘industriousness discourse’ using an original approach to diffusion based both on the quantitative analysis of very large corpora and a close reading of seventeenth-century economic pamphlets and educational literature. It concludes first that there was not one but several competing discourses on industriousness. It then identifies two crucial hinges which closely match the chronology proposed by Allen and Muldrew, but refutes that championed by de Vries and McCloskey. The industrious revolution as described by these authors would have happened both too late to fit its intellectual roots and too early to signal the beginning of a ‘consumer revolution’. -- * I am extremely grateful to Peter Mandler, Craig Muldrew, participants in the Early Modern Economic and Social History seminar, and two anonymous referees, for their comments on previous versions of this article. I am also indebted to Andrew Hardie, Jean-Baptiste Michel, and Paul Schaffner for allowing me to use their data and to Billy Janitsch, Andreas Vlachos, and Andrew Wilson for technical assistance.
article  paywall  find  historiography  17thC  Europe-Early_Modern  Great_Divergence  economic_history  intellectual_history  cultural_history  social_order  consumerism  Industrial_Revolution  industriousness  virtue  discourse  bourgeoisie  modernity-emergence  education  values  publishing  readership  Protestant_Ethic  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
MATTHEW NEUFELD - PARLIAMENT AND SOME ROOTS OF WHISTLE BLOWING DURING THE NINE YEARS WAR | The Historical Journal / Volume 57 / Issue 02 / June 2014, pp 397-420 - Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
MATTHEW NEUFELD - University of Saskatchewan -- This article argues that the failed campaign of one former clerk against corruption in the Royal Navy's sick and wounded service during the Nine Years War sheds light on some roots of modern whistle blowing. During the 1690s, England's parliament took important steps towards becoming an organ of inquiry into the workings of all government departments. Parliament's desire for information that could assist it to check Leviathan's actions, coupled with the end of pre-publication censorship in 1695, encouraged the advent of pamphleteering aimed at showing how to improve or correct abuses within the administrative structure and practices of the expanding fiscal-military state. It was from this stream of informative petitioning directed at the Commons and the Lords that informants such as Samuel Baston, as well as George Everett, William Hodges, and Robert Crosfeild, tried to call time on either systematic injustices or particular irregularities within the naval service for what they claimed was the public interest. What they and others called ‘discovering’ governmental malfeasance should be seen as early examples of blowing the whistle on wrongdoing. -- This was post Queen Mary's death, and she was associated with sick and injured servicemen, Greenwich etc - did whistleblowers take advantage of that to position themselves not only as public servants re House of Commons, but drawing attention to government failure to implement the Royal will? Or was there an anti Dutch element?
article  paywall  17thC  British_history  British_politics  1690s  Nine_Years_War  British_Navy  Parliament  House_of_Commons  governance  oversight-legislature  political_press  censorship  scandale  pamphlets 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
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