dunnettreader + ontology   50

Amie L. Thomasson, Ontology Made Easy - Reviewed by Matti Eklund | NDOR - March 2017
Amie L. Thomasson, Ontology Made Easy, Oxford University Press, 2015, 345pp., $53.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780199385119.
Reviewed by Matti Eklund, Uppsala University
Carnap  analytical_philosophy  metaphysics  reviews  ontology  epistemology  kindle-available  books 
march 2017 by dunnettreader
Reading Hegel: The Introductions - open access book (2008) | re-press,org
Editors’ Introduction: The Circle of Knowledge
Chapter 1: Phenomenology of Spirit
Chapter 2: Science of Logic
Chapter 3: Philosophy of Right
Chapter 4: Philosophy of History
Chapter 5: Philosophy of Fine Art
Chapter 6: Philosophy of Religion
Chapter 7: History of Philosophy
Editors’ Epilogue: The End of Introductions
Further Readings
Index
Hegel-philosophy_of_right  19thC  Hegel-aesthetics  books  Germany  philosophy_of_history  open_access  ontology  Kant  Absolute_idealism  Hegel-logic  Hegel  etexts  downloaded  German_Idealism  historiography-19thC  philosophy_of_science 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Ludovic Duhem - L’idée d’« individu pur » dans la pensée de Simondon | Appareil 2009
Le projet ontologique de Gilbert Simondon est de penser l’individu à travers l’individuation dans tous les domaines de réalité : physique, biologique, et psycho-social ou « transindividuel ». Il s’agit précisément pour lui de renverser le privilège ontologique accordé par la métaphysique à l’être sur le devenir, au résultat sur l’opération, à l’individu sur l’individuation, et d’en faire la condition de toute connaissance complète de la réalité. Or, l’idée d’individu pur, telle qu’elle est développée dans deux textes de L’individuation à la lumière des notions de forme et d’information, dans le domaine biologique et psycho-technique, semble contrarier le maintien de ce renversement en réintroduisant une forme de substantialisme. Cette difficulté portant Simondon à sa propre limite sera l’occasion d’examiner deux cas d’individuation et, à travers eux, la cohérence et la portée de sa pensée.
individuation  essence  hylomorphism  epistemology  French_intellectuals  social_process  techne  20thC  Aristotle  modernity  technology  metaphysics  downloaded  substance  Simondon  article  ontology  continental_philosophy 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Ian Hacking - A Tradition of Natural Kinds | JSTOR - Philosophical Studies (1991)
Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition, Vol. 61, No. 1/2, The Twenty-Ninth Oberlin Colloquium in Philosophy (Feb., 1991), pp. 109-126 -- the colloquium was Realism and Relativism -- Hacking was commented on by Richard Boyd and Hacking responded in writing -- both are also downloaded to Note
article  jstor  metaphysics  ontology  natural_kinds  philosophy_of_science  epistemology  epistemology-social  constructivism  nominalism  Mill  Locke-Essay  Quine  Peirce  downloaded 
march 2016 by dunnettreader
Gyula Klima - Quine, Wyman, and Buridan: Three approaches to ontological commitment (2005) - PhilPapers
Quine, Wyman, and Buridan: Three approaches to ontological commitment, Korean Journal of Logic 8:1-22 (2005) -- This paper provides a comparison of three fundamentally different approaches to the issue of ontological commitment. It argues that despite superficial similarities on either side, Buridan’s approach provides an intriguing third alternative to the two commonly recognized modern approaches. Keywords: ontological commitment, existence, meaning, reference.. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  metaphysics  medieval_philosophy  ontology  meaning  reference  Quine  downloaded 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
John Sellars - An Ethics of the Event: Deleuze’s Stoicism (2006) | Academia.edu
Angelaki, Journal of the Theoretical Humanities, Vol 11, No. 3, (Dec 2006) -- I may finally start to figure out what Deluze's project was from how Sellars positions him! -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  Academia.edu  intellectual_history  20thC  post-WWII  France  French_intellectuals  Deleuze  Stoicism  empiricism  James_William  Whitehead  Spinoza  Nietzsche  Kierkegaard  style-philosophy  metaphysics  ontology  ethics  bibliography  downloaded 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
John Sellars - Stoic Ontology and Plato's "Sophist" (2010) | Academia.edu
in V. Harte, M.M. McCabe, R.W. Sharples, A. Sheppard, eds, Aristotle and the Stoics Reading Plato, Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, Suppl. 107 (2010), 185-203 -- Keywords: Metaphysics, Plato, and Stoicism -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  Academia.edu  intellectual_history  Stoicism  metaphysics  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  ontology  Being  nothing  ideas-theories  concepts  universals  categories  Plato  Platonism  Seneca  Zenon_of_Citium  commentaries  late_antiquity  ancient_Rome  bibliography  downloaded 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
John Sellars - Aiôn and Chronos: Deleuze and the Stoic Theory of Time (2007) | Academia.edu
[published in Collapse 3 (2007), 177-205] -- Gilles Deleuze outlines a supposedly Stoic dual theory of time: on the one hand there is aiôn, comprising an infinite past and future; on the other there is chronos, the extended present. In the scholarly literature on Stoicism, however, either a single theory is reconstructed or the evidence is dismissed as too thin and incoherent. I offer an explanation for this distance between the Deleuzian and scholarly presentations of the Stoic theory of time. I conclude by answering the question to what extent, if any, the Deleuzian theory of aiôn and chronos deserves to be called Stoic.-- downloaded pdf to Note
article  Academia.edu  intellectual_history  ancient_philosophy  late_antiquity  commentaries  Diogenes_Laertius  Plutarch  Stoicism  time  cosmology  ontology  20thC  Deleuze  poststructuralist  postmodern  downloaded 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
philosophy bites: Galen Strawson on Panpsychism
Is there something that it is like to be an electron? That sounds implausible. Yet Galen Strawson believes this is the best explanation of how things are. Find out why.

Listen to Galen Strawson on Panpsychism

Listen to an earlier interview with Galen Strawson on the Sense of Self
metaphysics  naturalism  audio  ontology  panpsychic_monism  Strawson_Galen  physicalism 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Guyer and Rolf-Peter Horstmann - Idealism | Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - 1st published August 2015
This entry discusses philosophical idealism as a movement chiefly in the 18thC and 19thC, although anticipated by certain aspects of 17thC philosophy. It examines the relationship between epistemological idealism (the view that the contents of human knowledge are ineluctably determined by the structure of human thought) and ontological idealism (the view that epistemological idealism delivers truth because reality itself is a form of thought and human thought participates in it). After discussing precursors, the entry focuses on the eighteenth-century versions of idealism due to Berkeley, Hume, and Kant, the nineteenth-century movements of German idealism and subsequently British and American idealism, and then concludes with an examination of the attack upon idealism by Moore and Russell. -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Idealism in early modern Rationalism -- 3. Idealism in early modern British philosophy -- 4. Kant -- 5. German Idealism -- 6. Schopenhauer -- 7. Nietzsche -- 8. British and American Idealism -- 9. The Fate of Idealism in the Twentieth Century -- downloaded as pdf to Note (62 pgs!)
intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  idealism  idealism-transcendental  German_Idealism  epistemology  ontology  Berkeley  Kant  Hegel  Hegelian  Schopenhauer  Nietzsche  neo-Kantian  Absolute_Idealism  British_Idealism  Royce  Bradley  Moore_GE  Russell_Bertrand  analytical_philosophy  Logical_Positivism  Pittsburgh_Hegelians  philosophy_of_science  mind  bibliography  downloaded 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Barry Allen, "Vanishing into Things: Knowledge in Chinese Tradition" (Harvard University Press, 2015)
Barry Allen's new book carefully considers the problem of knowledge in a range of Chinese philosophical discourses, creating a stimulating cross-disciplinary dialogue that's as much of a pleasure to read as it will be to teach with. Taking on the work of Confucians, Daoists, military theorists, Chan Buddhists, Neo-Confucian philosophers, and others, Vanishing into Things: Knowledge in Chinese Tradition (Harvard University Press, 2015) looks at the common threads and important differences in the ways that scholars have attempted to conceptualize and articulate what it is to be a knowing being in the world. Some of the major themes that recur throughout the work include the nature of non-action and emptiness, the relationship between knowledge and scholarship, the possibility of Chinese epistemologies and empiricisms, and the importance of artifice. Allen pays special attention to the ways that these scholars relate knowledge to a fluid conception of "things" that can be "completed" or "vanished into" by the knower, and to their understanding of things as parts of a collective economy of human and non-human relationships. The book does an excellent job of maintaining its focus on Chinese texts and contexts while making use of comparative cases from Anglophone and European-language philosophy that brings Chinese scholars into conversation with Nietzsche, Latour, Deleuze and Guattari, Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, and beyond - 1 hour interview
books  interview  audio  intellectual_history  Chinese_philosophy  China  Chinese_history  Asian_philosophy  epistemology  Buddhism  Confucianism  empiricism  epistemology-social  ontology  human_nature  human-non-human_relations  military_theory  military_history  Neo-Confucian  Nietzsche  Deleuze  Aristotle  Machiavelli  Plato  Latour  consciousness  perception 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Frédérique Aït-Touati, Stephen Gaukroger, Le monde en images. Voir, représenter, savoir, de Descartes à Leibniz (2015) | Classiques Garnier, coll. « Histoire et philosophie des sciences »
Frédérique Aït-Touati, Stephen Gaukroger, Le monde en images. Voir, représenter, savoir, de Descartes à Leibniz, Paris, Classiques Garnier, coll. « Histoire et philosophie des sciences », 2015, 128 p., ISBN : 978-2-8124-2589-9. -- Dans les débats classiques des 17thC-18thC, la représentation est considérée avant tout comme une question rhétorique et psychologique, mais à la fin du 18thC, elle devient une question épistémologique. Cet ouvrage explore le contexte de cette transformation et ses sources. l’émergence du problème de la représentation -- not edited collection, but co-authored study of a bit over 100 pages -- Chapters in TOC -- 1. Rhétorique et théorie de l’image vive 2. la révolution cartésienne  3. représenter l’invisible - Philosophie naturelle et visualisation chez Robert Hooke   4. les limites de la visualisation - Le débat entre Newton et Leibniz sur l’algèbre (a) La géométrie contre l’analyse  (b) L’analyse infnitésimale et la question de la preuve directe (c) La géométrie contre le calcul diférentiel  (d) Visualisation et capacités cognitives humaines  (e) Visualisation -- online pruce 19€
books  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  natural_philosophy  astronomy  ontology  epistemology  17thC  18thC  Descartes  representation-metaphysics  ideas-theories  Hooke  Leibniz  Newton  scientific_method  scientific_culture  instruments  microscope  telescope  unobservables  mathematics  geometry  calculus  cognition  analysis-logic  images  rhetoric  rhetoric-visual 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Markus Gabriel interview with Richard Marshall - Why The World Does Not Exist But Unicorns Do | 3AM - May 2015
Markus Gabriel broods on why the world doesn’t exist and never stops wondering about Kant, existence, pluralism, fields of sense, Huw Price, about why he isn’t po-mo, nor a Meinongian, about why unicorns exist, about why he’s a realist, about dissolving the hard problem, about why naturalism and physicalism are wrong, about Schelling and post-Kantian idealism, about Badiou and Meillassouz, Heidegger, about resisting skepticism, about negative philosophy, mythology, madness, laughter and the need for illusions in metaphysics, and about the insult that is the continental/analytic divide . Gird up for an amazing story… -- humongous interview divided into 2 pages - each about twice as long as one of Marshall's regular interviews -- only page 1 picked up by Instapaper, and no single page option -- saved as 2 pdfs to Note
Instapaper  downloaded  intellectual_history  philosophy  metaphysics  ontology  ontology-social  realism  realism-speculative  postmodern  Rorty  Kant  Schelling  German_Idealism  pragmatism  pragmatism-analytic  Husserl  Heidegger  scepticism  myth  Brandom  French_intellectuals  continental_philosophy  philosophy_of_science  analytical_philosophy  Russell_Bertrand  Frege  physicalism  materialism  naturalism  from instapaper
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Silas Peterson - Thomas Pfau and the emergence of the modern individual « The Immanent Frame - Oct 2014
Thomas Pfau’s presentation of modernity in Minding the Modern fails to incorporate both the sociopolitical dimensions of modernity’s emergence and its positive aspects. He sees modernity as the home of the “modern subject” of the Western world, or the “quintessentially modern, solitary individual” in his “palpable melancholy,” both “altogether adrift” and without “interpersonal relations.” (..) a challenge to those whom he sometimes calls the “modern apologists of secular, liberal, Enlightenment society.” -- Pfau draws upon a narrative which might be called the “middle age voluntarism to modern alienation theory.” This has many predecessors in the second half of the 20thC (..). The geopolitical situation in the 1980s and 1990s is one of the important features of the historical context of many of these narratives (..) a variety of intellectual assaults were waged in the Western world against what had become the dominant intellectual paradigm in the West. (..) Over the last 30 years (..) this critical diagnosis of modernity has become more precise; there has been a consolidation of the sources and arguments -- Alasdair MacIntyre, Michael J. Buckley, Charles Taylor, Colin E. Gunton, Stanley Hauerwas, John Milbank, Michael Allen Gillespie, and more recently David B. Hart, Adrian Pabst and Brad S. Gregory. Pfau’s Minding the Modern is a new contribution to this anti-modern diagnosis of contemporary Western culture and the modern individual. (..)some of the arguments can be found in the French Catholic reform theologians of the early 20thC. There were also many German-speaking intellectuals in the 1920s and 1930s who were developing sweeping narratives that cast a dark light on modernity and thus, both implicitly and explicitly, called into question the rationale and legitimacy of the liberal political order. Pfau claims that his book does not provide one of these narratives (..). It does seem to be similar, however, to the classic decline-and-fall narratives. Even the essays at the end of the book about “retrieving the human” are analogous. -- downloaded post as pdf to Note
books  kindle-available  reviews  modernity  modernity-emergence  reform-legal  intellectual_history  medieval_philosophy  theology  Renaissance  humanism  Erasmus  Thomism  Thomism-21stC  voluntarism  Ockham  Luther  liberalism  self  alienation  18thC  Enlightenment  Enlightenment_Project  Counter-Enlightenment  Counter-Reformation  19thC  Coleridge  transcendence  ontology  individualism  17thC  English_Civil_War  religious_wars  religious_culture  Hobbes  20thC  21stC  declinism  MacIntyre  Taylor_Charles  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Christopher Bartley, review - Matthew R. Dasti and Edwin F. Bryant (eds.), Free Will, Agency, and Selfhood in Indian Philosophy // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // September 16, 2014
Reviewed by Christopher Bartley, University of Liverpool -- This is a fine collection of learned essays replete with translations from primary sources, but a sense of frustration may be induced in the reader attracted by the book's title. Most of the contributors admit that the topics of free will, agency and selfhood as understood in the West today don't really have equivalents in the Indian traditions of thought and practice under consideration.
books  reviews  Indian_religion  Indian_philosophy  Hinduism  Buddhism  Sanskrit  free_will  self  ontology  metaphysics  reincarnation  metempsychosis  emotions  desire  agency 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, by Simon Blackburn | Answers.com
The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, by Simon Blackburn, Oxford University Press
This dictionary covers every aspect of philosophy from Aristotle to Zen. Entries include biographies of famous and influential philosophers, in-depth analysis of philosophical terms and concepts, a chronology of philosophical events from antiquity to the present day, and coverage of themes from Chinese, Indian, Islamic and Jewish philosophy.
books  etexts  reference  intellectual_history  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_language  philosophy_of_history  philosophy_of_social_science  philosophy_of_religion  metaphysics  metaethics  epistemology  ontology  logic  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  political_philosophy 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Philosophy at 3:AM: Questions and Answers with 25 Top Philosophers : Richard Marshall : 9780199969531
Contents -- i. Introduction. ; Chapter 1. Brian Leiter: 'Leiter Reports' ; Chapter 2. Jason Stanley : 'Philosophy As The Great Naivete' ; Chapter 3. Eric Schwitzgebel: 'The Splintered Skeptic' ; Chapter 4. Mark Rowlands: 'Hour Of The Wolf' ; Chapter 5. Eric T Olson: 'The Philosopher With No Hands' ; Chapter 6. Craig Callender: ' Time Lord' ; Chapter 7. Kieran Setiya: ' What Anscombe Intended and Other Puzzles' ; Chapter 8. Kit Fine: 'Metaphysical Kit' ; Chapter 9. Patricia Churchland: 'Causal Machines' ; Chapter 10. Valerie Tiberius: 'Mostly Elephant, ErgoEL' ; Chapter 11. Peter Carruthers: 'Mind Reader' ; Chapter 12. Josh Knobe: 'Indie Rock Virtues' ; Chapter 13. Al Mele: 'The Four Million Dollar Philosopher ; Chapter 14.Graham Priest: 'Logically Speaking' ; Chapter 15. Ursula Renz: 'After Spinoza: Wiser, Freer, Happier' ; Chapter 16. Cecile Fabre: ' On The Intrinsic Value Of Each Of Us' ; Chapter 17. Hilde Linderman: ' No Ethics Without Feminism' ; Chapter 18. Elizabeth S. Anderson: 'The New Leveller' ; Chapter 19. Christine Korsgaard: 'Treating People As End In Themselves' ; Chapter 20. Michael Lynch: 'Truth, Reason and Democracy' ; Chapter 21. Timothy Williamson : 'Classical Investigations' ; Chapter 22. Ernie Lapore: 'Meaning, Truth, Language, Reality' ; Chapter 23. Jerry Fodor: 'Meaningful Words Without Sense, And Other Revolutions.' ; Chapter 24. Huw Price: 'Without Mirrors' ; Chapter 25. Gary Gutting: 'What Philosophers Know'
books  buy  philosophy  intellectual_history  metaphysics  metaethics  ontology  scepticism  analytical_philosophy  political_philosophy  epistemology  feminism  philosophy_of_language  mind  mind-body  consciousness  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_law  pragmatism  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Charles Taliaferro - Dualism and the Problem of Individuation | JSTOR: Religious Studies, Vol. 22, No. 2 (Jun., 1986), pp. 263-276
Quite helpful review of various metaphysical debates from Descartes onwards, how the "substance" debates have evolved, including the old identity of indiscernables claim that's been thoroughly challenged in post WWII analytical_philosophy. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  20thC  Descartes  Locke  Butler  Reid  metaphysics  ontology  substance  soul  dualism  physicalism  mind-body  consciousness  immortality  universals  particulars  identity  self  analytical_philosophy  logic  Leibniz  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Anthony Chemero and Michael Silberstein - After the Philosophy of Mind: Replacing Scholasticism with Science | JSTOR: Philosophy of Science, Vol. 75, No. 1 (January 2008), pp. 1-27
We provide a taxonomy of the two most important debates in the philosophy of the cognitive and neural sciences. The first debate is over methodological individualism: is the object of the cognitive and neural sciences the brain, the whole animal, or the animal—environment system? The second is over explanatory style: should explanation in cognitive and neural science be reductionist‐mechanistic, interlevel mechanistic, or dynamical? After setting out the debates, we discuss the ways in which they are interconnected. Finally, we make some recommendations that we hope will help philosophers interested in the cognitive and neural sciences to avoid dead ends. -- partially a lit survey so good bibliography -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  philosophy_of_science  metaphysics  mind  mind-body  neuroscience  reductionism  mechanism  cognition  ontology  methodology  levels_of_analyis  critical_realism  emergence  individualism-methodology  unit_of_analysis  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Review by: Jose Luis Bermudez - Jonathan Lowe, Subjects of Experience | JSTOR: The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 49, No. 195 (Apr., 1999), pp. 272-275
Lowe develops his anti-physicalist approach to self, mind-body etc - Cartesian that self is substantial, Locke that it's primarily psychological, Aristotle that it's not immaterial -- implications for other areas beyond philosophy of mind, such as language -- an earlier version of his publications in the 2000s before his death? -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  jstor  metaphysics  ontology  philosophy_of_language  mind  mind-body  Descartes  Locke  physicalism  dualism  nominalism  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
"BEYOND THEOCRACY AND SECULARISM (PART I): TOWARD A NEW PARADIGM FOR LA" by Mark C. Modak-Truran
To move beyond theocracy (pre-modern) and secularism (modern), this article closes by identifying the trajectory for a new constructive postmodern paradigm that embraces legal indeterminacy and secularizing the text of the law but argues that a plurality of religious convictions implicitly legitimates and thereby desecularizes the law. Desecularizing the law does not result in the imposition of the religion of the ruler (theocracy) in a pluralistic democratic society. Rather, the constructive postmodern paradigm of law and religion allows for the religious pluralism in society to provide a plurality of religious ontologies that implicitly legitimate the law and close the ontological gap between legal theory and legal practice. -- Mark C. Modak-Truran. "BEYOND THEOCRACY AND SECULARISM (PART I): TOWARD A NEW PARADIGM FOR LAW AND RELIGION" Mississippi College Law Review 27.1 (2008): 159-233. -- downloaded pdf to Note
philosophy_of_law  ontology  ontology-social  social_theory  foundationalism  moral_philosophy  secularism  secular_humanism  post-secular  postmodern  legal_indeterminancy  values  pluralism  legal_theory  legal_culture  political-theology  politics-and-religion  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Bix - [Scandinavian legal realists] Ross and Olivecrona on Rights :: SSRN - Australian Journal of Legal Philosophy, 2009
Scandinavian legal realism was a movement of the early and middle decades of the 20th century, which paralleled the American legal realist movement, while presenting a more skeptical challenge to legal reasoning and discourse. The present paper was written for a forthcoming Oxford University Press collection on the Scandinavian realists. The approach to jurisprudence of Scandinavian realists Alf Ross and Karl Olivecrona was simultaneously simple and radical: they wanted to rid our thinking about law of all the mystifying references to abstract concepts and metaphysical entities. This paper offers a critical overview of Ross's and Olivecrona's views on legal rights, while also summarizing the critiques of those views (e.g., by H.L.A. Hart and Joseph Raz). -- Keywords: legal rights, Scandinavian legal realism, Alf Ross, Karl Olivecrona -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  analytical_philosophy  philosophy_of_language  metaphysics  ontology  concepts  legal_realism  rights-legal  intellectual_history  20thC  Scandinavia  Anglo-American  Hart  Raz  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Giuseppina D’Oro - Le fossé dans l’explication n’est pas épistémologique mais sémantique | Érudit | Philosophiques v36 n1 2009, p. 183-192 |
Giuseppina D’Oro - Université de Keele -- Traduction de l’anglais par Jérôme Havenel -- This paper explores an alternative to the metaphysical challenge to physicalism posed by Jackson and Kripke and to the epistemological one exemplified by the positions of Nagel, Levine and Mcginn. On this alternative the mind-body gap is neither ontological nor epistemological, but semantic. I claim that it is because the gap is semantic that the mind body-problem is a quintessentially philosophical problem that is not likely to wither away as our natural scientific knowledge advances. -- downloaded pdf to Note
metaphysics  ontology  epistemology  mind-body  consciousness  concepts  semantics  analytical_philosophy  Kripke  Nagel  reductionism  physicalism  naturalism  idealism  downloaded  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard Marshall interview with Alastair Wilson - Multiverses and sleeping beauty » 3:AM Magazine June 2014
Alastair Wilson is a Vulcan somewhere else in the multiverse. He thinks about what a metaphysics of science might be and never stops contemplating the Everettian multiverse, which he thinks is one of the most beautiful ideas in the history of science. It’s a theory that he thinks shows physicists to be less conservative than philosophers. He looks at the philosophical puzzles connected with it, criticises overlapping worlds, is puzzled by questions of identity criteria, thinks Sleeping Beauty has an important connection to the theory, is less sure about crystal balls and indecisive Gods, thinks it is definitely science and can’t be junked, thinks the laws of nature are metaphysically necessary, has deep thoughts on quiddities, and has things to say about the spats between metaphysicians and scientists.
metaphysics  philosophy_of_science  modality  modal_logic  multiverse  cosmology  quantum_physics  physics  time  ontology  emergence  chance  probability  necessity  laws_of_nature  bibliography  Quine  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
The Question of Certainty by John Dewey (1929)
Source: The Quest for Certainty (1933), publ. Capricorn Books, 1960. -- Chapter II - Philosophy's Search for the Immutable -- The failure and frustration of actual life is then attributed to the fact that this world is finite and phenomenal, sensible rather than real, or to the weakness of our finite apprehension, which cannot see that the discrepancy between existence and value is merely seeming, and that a fuller vision would behold partial evil an element in complete good. Thus the office of philosophy is to project by dialectic, resting supposedly upon self-evident premises, a realm in which the object of completest cognitive certitude is also one with the object of the heart's best aspiration. The fusion of the good and the true with unity and plenitude of Being thus becomes the goal of classic philosophy. -- Practical activity is dismissed to a world of low grade reality. Desire is found only where something is lacking and hence its existence is a sign of imperfection of Being. Hence one must go to passionless reason to find perfect reality and complete certitude. But nevertheless the chief philosophic interest is to prove that the essential properties of the reality that is the object of pure knowledge are precisely those characteristics which have meaning in connection with affection, desire and choice. After degrading practical affairs in order to exalt knowledge, the chief task of knowledge turns out to be to demonstrate the absolutely assured and permanent reality of the values with which practical activity is concerned! Can we fall to see the irony in a situation wherein desire and emotion are relegated to a position inferior in every way to that of knowledge, while at the same time the chief problem of that which is termed the highest and most perfect knowledge is taken to be the existence of evil-that is, of desires errant and frustrated?
etexts  Dewey  pragmatism  epistemology  ontology  Great_Chain_of_Being  Platonism  idealism-transcendental  Hegelian  evil  theodicy  certainty  desire  moral_philosophy  values  morality-objective  morality-conventional  moral_psychology  epistemology-social  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Francis Hutcheson - Logic, Metaphysics, and the Natural Sociability of Mankind - Online Library of Liberty
Francis Hutcheson, Logic, Metaphysics, and the Natural Sociability of Mankind, ed. James Moore and Michael Silverthorne, texts translated from the Latin by Michael Silverthorne, introduction by James Moore (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2006). 5/5/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1723> Until the publication of this Liberty Fund edition, all but one of the works contained in Logic, Metaphysics, and the Natural Sociability of Mankind were available only in Latin. This milestone English translation will provide a general audience with insight into Hutcheson’s thought. In the words of the editors: “Hutcheson’s Latin texts in logic and metaphysics form an important part of his collected works. Published respectively in 1756 and, in its second edition, 1744, these works represent Hutcheson’s only systematic treatments of logic, ontology, and pneumatology, or the science of the soul. They were considered indispensable texts for the instruction of students in the eighteenth century.” -- the introduction is very useful -- pdf of LibFund typesetting
etexts  translation  18thC  Scottish_Enlightenment  education-higher  Hutcheson  logic  metaphysics  natural_law  human_nature  social_order  EF-add  books  Aristotelian  ontology  free_will  Stoicism  state-of-nature  sociability  moral_sentiments  ideas-theories  categories  soul  mind-body  Malebranche  More_Henry  downloaded 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeffrey A. Bell, review - Adrian Johnston, Prolegomena to Any Future Materialism, Volume One: The Outcome of Contemporary French Philosophy // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // Dec 2013
In this first of a projected three-volume Prolegomena to Any Future Materialism, Adrian Johnston places his materialist philosophy into the lineage of contemporary French philosophy. The French philosophers Johnston has most in mind are Jacques Lacan, Alain Badiou, and Quentin Meillassoux, and each of them fails, on Johnston’s reading, despite professed intentions to the contrary, to develop a thoroughly materialist philosophy. ...each ultimately “backslides” into a form of religious thinking that is also coupled with an under-appreciation of, if not outright hostility to, the life sciences. It is precisely by developing the philosophical implications of recent developments in the life sciences, and in particular the neurosciences (on this point Johnston follows Catherine Malabou), that a proper materialist philosophy can be established .... Johnston’s focus upon the work of Lacan and his disciples is not simply to lay out a critical exegesis but rather to fulfill the promise of a materialist philosophy that can only be accomplished, Johnston argues, if one properly harnesses Lacan’s central insight - namely, the idea that the real entails an irreducible gap or rupture. By contrast, a common metaphysical assumption that is shared by both naïve scientific materialism and religious theism, Johnston argues, is the notion that Nature/God is an inviolable “One-All.” -- If one aligns one’s metaphysical views of materialism with contemporary life sciences, however, Johnston claims that we no longer have the “big Other,” the “self-consistent One-All” that provides the metaphysical foundation for science; to the contrary, “what remains,” Johnston argues, “lacks any guarantee of consistency right down to the bedrock of ontological fundaments.” (23). Instead of a material being that is a consistent One-All and a continuation of the “idea of God,” we have “antagonisms and oppositions at the very heart of material being.” (24). -- Key to this effort is the development of the concept of weak nature, a concept that Johnston derives from Hume’s project (of which more below) and which will become the central topic of the second volume of Johnston’s Prolegomena, titled Weak Nature.
books  reviews  continental_philosophy  materialism  scientism  metaphysics  ontology  theism  dialectic  Hume-causation  scepticism  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Timothy J. Nulty, review - David Egan, Stephen Reynolds, and Aaron James Wendland (eds.), Wittgenstein and Heidegger // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // Jan 2014
Readers familiar with both Heidegger and Wittgenstein will find in this book detailed and thorough expressions of perhaps some of their own intuitions about the similarities and differences between these two influential twentieth-century philosophers. The 16 essays provide insights and arguments published for the first time. Even those who consider themselves well-versed in the works of Heidegger and Wittgenstein are sure to find this book worth their time... -- Braver examines Heidegger's and Wittgenstein's views of fundamental logical principles [and] succeeds in showing how Wittgenstein and Heidegger gave very similar answers to questions about the basic principles that are supposed to guide our thinking. For Wittgenstein, the target of critique was the Law of Non-contradiction, while for Heidegger it was the Principle of Sufficient Reason. Both philosophers return logic and reason to the human domain. One is reminded of the American pragmatist William James and his attempt to provide an account of truth that was cognizant of the finite, contextual nature of human understanding. Logic and reason are not transcendent to our practices; they are not answerable to "Meaning or Reason or anything metaphysical or capitalized" ... In giving up a transcendent source of justification, we only lose what we never had in the first place.
books  reviews  20thC  intellectual_history  metaphysics  logic  philosophy_of_language  ontology  Wittgenstein  Heidegger  phenomenology  empiricism  pragmatism  James_William  Bolingbroke  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Val Dusek - Bruno Latour, An Inquiry into Modes of Existence: An Anthropology of the Moderns // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // March 2014
The strongest chapter is the one concerning technology. This is an area Latour worked on extensively much earlier. Actor network theory started with technology. Latourcriticizes the identification of technological objects with beings of reproduction (natural objects). He makes use of the need for technological artifacts to be continually maintained and improved. "Sociotechnical systems" designates the heterogeneity of technology, but there is no realm of technology as such. Technology becomes invisible as soon as it is functioning successfully. He plays on Heraclitus with "Technology likes to hide." The language of form fitted to function is, according to Latour, as misleading as the correspondence between thought and things in reference. During a breakdown the extreme heterogeneity is most manifest. Latour identifies technology not with the artifacts but with the activity of technologizing. Technology is properly referred to not with a noun, but with an adjective or an adverb, and less commonly a verb. Technology is not an object, but the gaps of alterity in the network of tinkering. -- A problem for philosophies that make massive claims that our ordinary views are illusory is the explanation of why the illusion exists and persists. Latour as an anthropologist claims that moderns are no more different from non-moderns than any other group or culture is from another. However, it seems that neither Trobriand Islanders nor any other non-modern group have such illusory values and ideals impossible to live by as do the moderns. It would seem moderns really are different from peoples of other cultures for Latour, but not in the way in which moderns represent their own special nature in terms of the triumph of science and reason. Why the moderns are in this supposedly deplorable situation is never really explained.
books  reviews  kindle-available  21stC  modernity  anthropology  metaphysics  ontology  ontology-social  epistemology  mind  mind-body  perception  James_William  Whitehead  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology-process  sociology_of_religion  Cartesian  technology  science-and-religion  scientific_culture  Latour 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
LEEMON B. McHENRY - Quine's Pragmatic Ontology | JSTOR: The Journal of Speculative Philosophy, New Series, Vol. 9, No. 2 (1995), pp. 147-158
Claims Quine shouldn't be put in with the pragmatists -- lots of references to key Quine articles with links -- see bibliography on jstor information page -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  20thC  analytical_philosophy  pragmatism  Quine  ontology  epistemology  bibliography  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Manuel García-Carpintero - Qualia That It Is Right to Quine | JSTOR: Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 67, No. 2 (Sep., 2003), pp. 357-377
Dennett (1988) provides a much discussed argument for the nonexistence of qualia, as conceived by philosophers like Block, Chalmers, Loar and Searle. My goal in this paper is to vindicate Dennett's argument, construed in a certain way. The argument supports the claim that qualia are constitutively representational. Against Block and Chalmers, the argument rejects the detachment of phenomenal from information-processing consciousness; and against Loar and Searle, it defends the claim that qualia are constitutively representational in an externalist understanding of this. The core of the argument is contained in section 3. In the first part, I contrast a minimal conception of qualia, relative to which their existence is not under dispute, with the sort of view to which I will object. In the second part I set the stage by presenting the facts about (minimal) qualia on which a Dennett-like argument can be based. -- lit survey of debate -- didn't download
article  jstor  20thC  21stC  analytical_philosophy  ontology  mind  mind-body  consciousness  qualia  representation-metaphysics  Quine  Dennett  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Olli Koistinen - Spinoza's Proof of Necessitarianism | JSTOR: Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 67, No. 2 (Sep., 2003), pp. 283-310
This paper consists of four sections. The first section considers what the proof of necessitarianism in Spinoza's system requires. Also in the first section, Jonathan Bennett's (1984) reading of 1p16 as involving a commitment to necessitarianism is presented and accepted. The second section evaluates Bennett's suggestion how Spinoza might have been led to conclude necessitarianism from his basic assumptions. The third section of the paper is devoted to Don Garrett's (1991) interpretation of Spinoza's proof. I argue that Bennett's and Garrett's interpretations of Spinoza's necessitarianism have short-comings which justify an attempt to offer an alternative proof. In the proof given in the fourth section, it is argued that Spinoza derived necessitarianism from the conjunction of the following principles: (i) necessary existence of the substances; (ii) substance-property ontology; (iii) superessentialism; and (iv) the 'no shared attribute' thesis. -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  17thC  Spinoza  metaphysics  substance  properties  ontology  necessity  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Nathan Stemmer - The Mind-Body Problem and Quine's Repudiation Theory | JSTOR: Behavior and Philosophy, Vol. 29 (2001), pp. 187-202
Most scholars who presently deal with the Mind-Body problem consider themselves monist materialists. Nevertheless, many of them also assume that there exist (in some sense of existence) mental entities. But since these two positions do not harmonize quite well, the literature is full of discussions about how to reconcile the positions. In this paper, I will defend a materialist theory that avoids all these problems by completely rejecting the existence of mental entities. This is Quine's repudiation theory. According to the theory, there are no mental entities, and the behavioral or physiological phenomena that have been attributed to mental entities, or that point to the existence of these entities, are exclusively caused by physiological factors. To be sure, several objections have been raised to materialist theories that do not assign some role to mental entities. But we will see that Quine is able to give convincing replies to these objections. -- frequently cited -- didn't download
article  jstor  analytical_philosophy  metaphysics  ontology  mind-body  mind  Quine  behavioralism  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Nathan Stemmer - On universals: an extensionalist alternative to Quine's resemblance theory | JSTOR: Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie, Vol. 38, No. 1 (April, 2007), pp. 75-90
The notion of similarity plays a central role in Quine's theory of Universals and it is with the help of this notion that Quine intends to define the concept of kind which also plays a central role in the theory. But as Quine has admitted, his attempts to define kinds in terms of similarities were unsuccessful and it is mainly because of this shortcoming that Quine's theory has been ignored by several philosophers (see, e.g., Armstrong, D. M. (1978a). Nominalism and realism: Universals and Scientific realism (Vol. I). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). In the present paper, I propose an alternative framework that accounts for the phenomena that Quine intends to explain with his resemblance theory. The framework agrees with Quine's austere ontology; in particular, it does not assume the existence of properties and of possible worlds. (I will mention below Quine's reason for rejecting properties and possible worlds. For a theory of Universals that assumes possible worlds, see, e.g., Rodriguez-Pereyra, G. (2002). Resemblance nominalism: A solution to the problem of Universals. Oxford: Clarendon Press.) Moreover, the framework is extensionalist since the abstract entities it assumes are classes and these can be individuated extensionally, for classes are identical if their members are identical. Finally, I will refute some of the objections to Quine's approach that have been raised by Armstrong and Oliver [(1996). The metaphysics of properties. Mind, 105, 1-80.] and I will argue that, contrary to what has been claimed by Oliver in a comment on Lewis [(1986). On the plurality of worlds. Oxford: Blackwell.], Quine is able to specify an important set of sparse properties. -- looks helpful re the reemergence of old metaphysics re ontology -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  20thC  21stC  Quine  metaphysics  ontology  analytical_philosophy  universals  nominalism  kinds  possible_worlds  properties  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Nathan Stemmer - Quine's Eliminativism and the Crystal Spheres | JSTOR: Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie, Vol. 38, No. 2 (November, 2007), pp. 315-327
Quine's eliminativist theory has largely been ignored by the philosophical community. This is highly regrettable because Quine's theory is probably close to correct. Now, the probable correctness of Quine's theory has an important consequence since, according to the theory, there are no mental entities (events, states, phenomena, properties, etc.) nor do such entities play any role in a scientific account of the relevant phenomena. But the hundreds or probably thousands of publications that deal with issues such as mental causation, the nature of qualia, supervenience of the mental, or multiple realizability, presume the existence of, or at least attribute a positive role to, mental entities. The probable correctness of Quine's theory therefore suggests that all these publications are worthless and reading them is a waste of time just as reading studies about how crystal spheres can move planets is considered nowadays a waste of time. -- gets rid of mental entities without complete reductionism -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  20thC  ontology  philosophy_of_science  mind-body  mind  reductionism  Quine  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Adam Timmins, review - Peter Icke, Frank Ankersmit's Lost Historical Cause: A Journey from Language to Experience (2011) | Reviews in History IHR
The lesson here for all philosophers of history is that one has to do due diligence when entering the realm of the philosophy of science – more often than not, cherry picking will come back to haunt one...... Icke quotes Martin Davies/ George Steiner to the effect that the past is thinkable and knowable only through the current semiotic or symbolic system – history in the human sense is a language net cast backwards. The inference seems to be that language provides an inescapable conceptual scheme which must inevitably circumscribe how we view historical evidence, or the remains of the-past-in-itself. Therefore, unmediated access to the past itself is impossible. But the fact that we cannot gain unmediated access to the past does not mean that we cannot find out anything about it at all..... Indeed, many philosophers of science are now arguing for something like anti-representationalist theory of objectivity, or at the very least, a modest form of realism. Herein lies one of the problems with postmodernist historical theorists – the pendulum swings from one extreme to the other. Historians are attributed with striving for a hard version of epistemic realism; a position which is then rejected, and the conclusion is drawn that all that is left is an equally extreme constructivism. As William Child, writing about Davidson’s moderate realism points out, ‘the realists’ claim that some [conceptual] classifications are more natural than others need not appeal to Archimedean points or the imagined comparisons between them’.
books  reviews  historiography  philosophy_of_history  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_language  ontology  epistemology  postmodern  Rorty  Kuhn 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Daniel Little - Understanding Society: What is reduction? Sept 2013
Discusses Wimsatt re models of (good and bad) reduction in biology - paper downloaded to Note -- His article "Reductionism and its heuristics: Making methodological reductionism honest" is particularly useful (link). Wimsatt distinguishes among three varieties of reductionism in the philosophy of science: inter-level reductive explanations, same-level reductive theory succession, and eliminative reduction (448).
social_theory  ontology-social  ontology  philosophy_of_science  causation  reductionism  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2013 by dunnettreader
Daniel Little: Structural realism and social realities? - Nov 2013 | Understanding Society
It is a refinement to the theory of scientific realism advocated by philosophers like Hilary Putnam and Dick Boyd -- the view that we have reason to believe that the world has approximately the features attributed to it by the best available scientific theories....

Structural realism gets going, then, if we concede that the history of physics shows radical change at the level of the properties attributed to natural objects but we maintain that it also shows a strong degree of continuity when it comes to the basic structural properties that are postulated by theories of physics.

This is a very weak form of realism, as Worrall acknowledges:

[The structural realist] insists that it is a mistake to think that we can ever "understand" the nature of the basic furniture of the universe.... On the structural realist view what Newton really discovered are the relationships between phenomena expressed in the mathematical equations of his theory, the theoretical terms of which should be understood as genuine primitives.

....It is the transformations, equations, and constants that we can be realistic about, not the concrete theories of the mechanics of the things that embody these equations. [And Little notes it's not an ontology useful for social sciences since they don't deal with that degree of mathematical precision (or the sorts of causality and predictability?)]
metaphysics  ontology  ontology-social  realism  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  Kuhn  social_theory  EF-add 
november 2013 by dunnettreader
John Worrall - Structural Realism: The Best of Both Worlds? - Dialectica (1989) | Wiley Online Library
Worrall, J. (1989), Structural Realism: The Best of Both Worlds?. Dialectica, 43: 99–124. doi: 10.1111/j.1746-8361.1989.tb00933.x -- Downloaded pdf to Note

The main argument for scientific realism is that our present theories in science are so successful empirically that they can't have got that way by chance - instead they must somehow have latched onto the blueprint of the universe. The main argument against scientific realism is that there have been enormously successful theories which were once accepted but are now regarded as false. The central question addressed in this paper is whether there is some reasonable way to have the best of both worlds: to give the argument from scientific revolutions its full weight and yet still adopt some sort of realist attitude towards presently accepted theories in physics and elsewhere. I argue that there is such a way - through structural realism, a position adopted by Poincare, and here elaborated and defended.

Google Scholar cites - 580+
article  Wiley  20thC  metaphysics  ontology  philosophy_of_science  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2013 by dunnettreader
Kamila Stullerova: The knowledge of suffering: On Judith Shklar's "Putting Cruelty First" (2013)
Contemporary Political Theory advance online publication 11 June 2013; doi: 10.1057/cpt.2013.12 -- Judith Shklar’s dictum, ‘the worst evil of cruelty’, is well known. What this means for her political theory and how such theory is construed are rarely explored. This article maintains that Shklar’s turn towards cruelty/suffering has a specific role in the development of her political argument. It allows her both to curb her long-standing skepticism, and to use it creatively. This is because suffering must be examined from the perspectives of history and philosophy, which produce two sets of knowledge, each limiting the overbearing tendencies of the other. The way Shklar uses the tension between history and philosophy for progressive purposes, and her idea that politics can mediate between history and philosophy, makes her a very contemporary theorist, similar to those who critically engage foundationalism without wanting to dispose of it completely. Approaching Shklar’s ‘Putting Cruelty First’ through her engagement with history and philosophy, and making use of the concepts of ‘realism’ (Bernard Williams) and ‘weak ontology’ (Stephen White) to do so are a more productive route to understanding her dictum than the usual one of examining it through the prism of her ‘liberalism of fear’.

Keywords: 

Judith N. Shklar; history; philosophy; Hegel; realism; weak ontology
article  paywall  intellectual_history  20thC  political_philosophy  scepticism  historicism  ontology  epistemology  Hegel  Shklar  Williams_Bernard  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader

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