dunnettreader + norms   64

Andrew March - Rethinking Religious Reasons in Public Justification (2013) | American Political Science Review on JSTOR
Abstract
This article intervenes in the debate on the place of religious arguments in public reason. I advance the debate not by asking whether something called "religious reasons" ought to be invoked in the justification of coercive laws, but by creating a typology of (a) different kinds and forms of religious arguments and, more importantly, (b) different areas of political and social life which coercive laws regulate or about which human political communities deliberate. Religious arguments are of many different kinds, are offered to others in a variety of ways, and the spheres of life about which communities deliberate pose distinct moral questions. Turning back to the public reason debate, I argue then that political liberals ought to be concerned primarily about the invocation of a certain subset of religious reasons in a certain subset of areas of human activity, but also that inclusivist arguments on behalf of religious contributions to public deliberation fail to justify the use of religious arguments in all areas of public deliberation. - downloaded via iphone to dbox
jstor  norms  liberalism-public_reason  politics-and-religion  discourse-political_theory  article  public_reason  political_theory  liberal_democracy  downloaded  democracy  deliberation-public  political_discourse  bibliography 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
Aligica
Revisiting the theory of institutional hybridity and diversity developed by Vincent and Elinor Ostrom to cope with the challenge of the "neither states nor markets" institutional domain, this article reconstructs the Ostromian system along the "value heterogeneity-co-productionpolycentricity" axis. It articulates the elements of a theory of value heterogeneity and of the fuzzy boundaries between private and public. It rebuilds the model of co-production, clarifying the ambiguity surrounding a key technical public choice theoretical assumption, and it demonstrates (a) why it should not be confused with the Alchian-Demsetz team production model and (b) how co-production engenders a type of market failure that has been neglected so far. In light of this analysis, the article reconsiders polycentricity, the capstone of the Ostromian system, explaining why polycentricity may be seen as a solution both to this co-production market failure problem and to the problems of social choice in conditions of deep heterogeneity. It also discusses further normative corollaries. - Downloaded via iphone
power  market_failure  political_economy  centralization  power-asymmetric  governance  downloaded  public-private_gaps  bargaining  institutional_economics  commons  article  normativity  accountability  common_good  jstor  political_science  decentralization  public_goods  public_choice  norms 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
Stathis Gourgouris - Democracy is a Tragic Regime | Academia.edu - PMLA 129-4, Theories and Methodologies
Begins with Castoriadas analysis and classical Athens - the "tragic" aspect inherent in democracy is a function of hubris - which is a failure of self-limitation - that since democracy is self-authorizing, it has no foundational or transcendent norms, no categorical imperatives - basic situation is that anything *can* be done - but not everything *ought * to be - downloaded to Tab S2
article  downloaded  political_philosophy  democracy  intellectual_history  political_history  ancient_Greece  ancient_philosophy  self-control  self-government  hubris  tragedy  Athens  normativity  norms  moral_philosophy  morality-conventional  morality-divine_command  obligation 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
(107) NOW Published: How Hume
How Hume and Kant Reconstruct Natural Law: Justifying Strict Objectivity  without Debating Moral Realism, Clarendon Press (2016)
Front matter including both overview TOC and very detailed TOC plus introductory chapter -- He explains in the intro how both Hume and Kant (via Rousseau) pursued "moral constructivist" approaches using a (modified) "natural law" framework - after Hume had successfully attacked weaknesses in traditional approach to natural law. Notes that "justice" traditionally one of the 2 branches of moral philosophy (the other ethics). He's especially concerned with failure of "business ethics " as cause of financial crisis and Great Recession - but "business ethics" meaningless without a framework of "Justice." His target audience includes lawyers and legal/jurisprudence students and scholars - he thinks legal positivism and legal realism has run out of steam. He returns to accountancy standards in final chapter. -- pdf is the same material as kindle sample -- downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
books  legal_system  constructivism  morality-objective  justice  legal_theory  norms  accountability  legal_realism  18thC  norms-business  downloaded  moral_sentiments  moral_economy  jurisprudence  morality-conventional  legal_positivism  accounting  moral_realism  moral_psychology  Hume  kindle-available  natural_law  moral_philosophy  morality  Kant 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
William T. Lynch - Steve Fuller’s Account of Knowledge as a Divine Spark for Human Domination (pages 191-205) | Symposion. Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences - April 2016
ABSTRACT: In his new book, Knowledge: The Philosophical Quest in History, Steve Fuller returns to core themes of his program of social epistemology that he first outlined in his 1988 book, Social Epistemology. He develops a new, unorthodox theology and philosophy building upon his testimony in Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District in defense of intelligent design, leading to a call for maximal human experimentation. Beginning from the theological premise rooted in the Abrahamic religious tradition that we are created in the image of God, Fuller argues that the spark of the divine within us distinguishes us from animals. I argue that Fuller’s recent work takes us away from key insights of his original work. In contrast, I advocate for a program of social epistemology rooted in evolutionary science rather than intelligent design, emphasize a precautionary and ecological approach rather than a proactionary approach that favors risky human experimentation, and attend to our material and sociological embeddedness rather than a transhumanist repudiation of the body. - Asst Prof of History at Wayne State - 2001 Stanford book on early Riyal Society
theodicy  anthropocentrism  posthumanism  intelligent_design  gnostic  downloaded  sociology_of_knowledge  books  Innovation  Darwinism  risk_management  risk-mitigation  imago_dei  transhumanism  populism  social_costs  article  epistemology-social  norms  technology  social_contract  constructivism  sociology_of_science_ 
may 2016 by dunnettreader
Quaker bankers: building trust on the basis of sincerity, reciprocity and charity | Magic, Maths & Money - Feb 2016
This post follows discussions of the norms sincerity, reciprocity and charity in financial markets. It suggests that the success of Quaker finance, that funded… Tracks the importance of Quaker-owned banks to the development of UK financial system - the number of big-name banking families with Quaker founders is striking. Their personalized methods of working on reputation (theirs and their borrowers) based on shared standards of probity and transparency, disciplined by membership in the Quaker community - allowed them to not only grow in the loan business, but become big in the bills market. The Quaker method of collecting views re appropriate moral life practices, which were documented and circulated among the members - and set mutual expectations for ethical practices, including areas like bookkeeping and full disclosure. The Quaker firms were central to the system of country banks, capable of providing liquidity to halt bank runs, wind down problem institutions etc. Their bills business didn't survive the switch to the Bank of England becoming lender of last resort in the 1844 crisis. And their information advantages don't seem to have remained a competitive advantage as it had been in the pre Napoleonic_Wars era.
Instapaper  economic_history  financial_innovation  banking  17thC  18thC  19thC  British_history  Quakers  dissenters  Industrial_Revolution  ethics  norms  norms-business  accounting  accountability  reputation  disclosure  information-intermediaries  information-markets  money_market  Bank_of_England  country_banks  financial_crisis  bank_runs  lender-of-last-resort  from instapaper
february 2016 by dunnettreader
André Lang - La part maudite du politique chez Machiavel, ou le retour aux origines (2005) - Cairn.info
I - L’anacyclosis révisée
II - Les constitutions à l’épreuve de l’histoire
III - Le retour au principe
IV - Le moment Romuléen et le moment Numéen
V - Le principe comme puissance de régénération
VI - Les exécutions ou l’équivoque politique du retour à l’origine
VII - Brutus ou la part souveraine de la violence des principes
De l’exécution à l’exécutif : conclusion et perspectives
Pour citer cet article

Lang André, « La part maudite du politique chez Machiavel, ou le retour aux origines. », Le Philosophoire 2/2005 (n° 25) , p. 213-230
URL : www.cairn.info/revue-le-philosophoire-2005-2-page-213.htm.
DOI : 10.3917/phoir.025.0213.
Aristotle  class_conflict  political_participation  Pocock  Polybius  corruption  state_of_exception  republicanism  violence  article  norms  dialectic-historical  common_good  political_philosophy  Machiavelli  interest_groups  civic_virtue  downloaded  politics-and-history  mixed_government  historical_change  history_as_examples  cyclical_history  rule_of_law  cycles  republics-Ancient_v_Modern 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Vincent Citot - « La modernité et son devenir contemporain. Notices bibliographiques sur quelques parutions récentes» (2095) - Cairn.info
Plan de l'article
Sociologie du temps présent. Modernité avancée ou postmodernité ?, de Y. Bonny
Le hors-série de Sciences Humaines sur Foucault-Derrida-Deleuze, et la question du devenir de la pensée postmoderne
L’individu hypermoderne, Sciences Humaines n°l54
Les actes du colloque L’individu hypermoderne, dirigés par N. Aubert
L’invention de soi, de J.-C. Kaufmann
Citot Vincent, « La modernité et son devenir contemporain. Notices bibliographiques sur quelques parutions récentes», Le Philosophoire 2/2005 (n° 25) , p. 153-162
URL : www.cairn.info/revue-le-philosophoire-2005-2-page-153.htm.
DOI : 10.3917/phoir.025.0153.
Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
alienation  French_intellectuals  downloaded  Deluze  Foucault  books  multiculturalism  subjectivity  norms  modernity  consumerism  postmodern  change-social  social_order  bibliography  Derrida  social_theory  self-fashioning  poststructuralist  community  phenomenology  identity  anti-humanism  reviews  human_nature  self 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Dominique Schaffer - Du progrès indéfini de la démocratie ? (2911) - Cairn.info
Les sociétés démocratiques sont aujourd’hui affectées d’un malaise qui suscite bien des interrogations sur leur avenir. Ce malaise est un produit de la logique interne de ce type de régime. La fragilité est inscrite dans les principes mêmes de la démocratie, dans la mesure où elle peut être pensée comme un épuisement progressif de la transcendance politique, une marche vers l’égalité généralisée et un relativisme des valeurs et des opinions. De cette corruption, nous subissons concrètement en Occident les effets délétères dans notre vie quotidienne ; ils touchent la famille, l’éducation et, de proche en proche, toutes les relations sociales. -- downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
civil_liberties  identity  article  individualism  political_participation  governance  democracy  downloaded  common_good  national_ID  norms  republicanism  declinism  political_philosophy  citizenship 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Muel-Dreyfus - La rééducation de la sociologie sous le régime de Vichy (2004) - Cairn.info
Les polémiques contre la sociologie durkheimienne ont une longue histoire qui remonte aux attaques contre la Nouvelle Sorbonne et à l’affaire Dreyfus. En ce sens, elles font partie de l’« inconscient d’école » propre à l’univers académique français dont ce qu’on pourrait appeler l’« inconscient anti-sociologique » est une des composantes. Leur réactivation sous le régime de Vichy tient à la conjonction de plusieurs facteurs : la mise en œuvre d’une politique scolaire conservatrice qui assimile sociologie/pédagogie/« esprit primaire » dans sa condamnation de l’école républicaine ; la reconquête d’une influence de l’enseignement libre qui vitupère la morale laïque inspirée par la sociologie ; l’expansion d’une science sociale réduite à l’expertise au service de l’ordre moral – psychosociologie de la famille et sociobiologie des « inadaptations » notamment. Ces courants différents ont en commun de refuser toute idée d’historicisation et de détermination sociale des faits, des institutions, des croyances et des destins collectifs ou individuels au profit de différentes formes de naturalisation du social et de différentes idéologies du « don naturel » dont la convergence en période de crise, propice au retour de la raison mythique, impose l’idée d’une éternité de cette vision du mon
conservatism  morality-objective  Vichy  social_order  norms  France  downloaded  article  social_sciences  Catholics-and-politics  Durkheim  intellectual_history  sociology_of_knowledge  20thC  hierarchy  cultural_authority  education  19thC  laïcité  cultural_history  social_theory  political_culture 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Barry Allen - Another New Nietzsche - review of Bernard Williams, Truth and Truthfulness | JSTOR - History and Theory (2003)
Another New Nietzsche
Reviewed Work: Truth and Truthfulness: An Essay in Genealogy by Bernard Williams
Review by: Barry Allen
History and Theory
Vol. 42, No. 3 (Oct., 2003), pp. 363-377
Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
incentives  perspectivism  Williams_Bernard  pragmatism  reviews  norms  downloaded  books  Nietzsche  punishment  sub_species_aeternis  genealogy-method  epistemology-social  kindle  Rorty  morality-conventional  biocultural_evolution  certainty  epistemology  moral_philosophy  relativism  truth 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Krasnow et al - Group Cooperation without Group Selection: Modest Punishment Can Recruit Much Cooperation, PLoS ONE (April 2015) | via Researchgate
Max M Krasnow, Andrew W Delton, Leda Cosmides, John Tooby -- PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0124561. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124561 (Impact Factor: 3.23). -- ABSTRACT -- Humans everywhere cooperate in groups to achieve benefits not attainable by individuals. Individual effort is often not automatically tied to a proportionate share of group benefits. This decoupling allows for free-riding, a strategy that (absent countermeasures) outcompetes cooperation. Empirically and formally, punishment potentially solves the evolutionary puzzle of group cooperation. Nevertheless, standard analyses appear to show that punishment alone is insufficient, because second-order free riders (those who cooperate but do not punish) can be shown to outcompete punishers. Consequently, many have concluded that other processes, such as cultural or genetic group selection, are required. Here, we present a series of agent-based simulations that show that group cooperation sustained by punishment easily evolves by individual selection when you introduce into standard models more biologically plausible assumptions about the social ecology and psychology of ancestral humans. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  biocultural_evolution  evolutionary_biology  evolution-social  evo_psych  natural_selection  cooperation  free-riding  evolution-group_selection  game_theory  punishment-altruistic  norms  agent-based_models  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Stéphane Madelrieux, review - David Lapoujade, Fictions du pragmatisme. William et Henry James - La Vie des idées -27 juin 2008
Recensé : David Lapoujade, Fictions du pragmatisme. William et Henry James, Paris, Les Éditions de Minuit, 2008, 287 pages, 29 €. -- Qu’est-ce que Henry et William James ont en commun, à part d’être frères ? Peut-être d’avoir partagé une même vision du pragmatisme. Le livre de David Lapoujade renouvelle la comparaison entre l’œuvre de l’écrivain et celle du philosophe à travers une analyse deleuzienne qui ne le cède en rien aux approches biographiques. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  French_language  intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  James_William  James_Henry  pragmatism  Deleuze  Bergson  perspectivism  mind-theory_of  alienation  Spinoza  Nietzsche  norms  epistemology  downloaded 
december 2015 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - The Death of God and the Death of Morality [Nietzsche] :: SSRN - September 16, 2015
University of Chicago -' Nietzsche famously proclaimed the "death of God," but in so doing it was not God's death that was really notable -- Nietzsche assumes that most reflective, modern readers realize that "the belief in the Christian god has become unbelievable" (GS 343) -- but the implications of that belief becoming unbelievable, namely, "how much must collapse now that this faith has been undermined," in particular, "the whole of our European morality" (GS 343). What is the connection between the death of God and the death of morality? I argue that Nietzsche thinks the death of God will undermine two central aspects of our morality: its moral egalitarianism, and its belief in moral responsibility and warranted guilt. I offer an account of how Nietzsche sees the connections, and conclude with some skeptical considerations about whether Nietzsche was right that atheism would, in fact, undermine morality. -- Number of Pages in PDF File: 25 -- Keywords: Nietzsche, theism, morality -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  moral_philosophy  religious_belief  religious_culture  19thC  Nietzsche  theism  atheism  God-existence  moral_psychology  morality-Nietzche  morality-divine_command  morality-Christian  morality-conventional  morality-objective  Kant-ethics  egalitarian  guilt  norms  obligation  responsibility  free_will  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - Civility and Formality :: SSRN October 2013
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 13-57 -- Civility is a distinctive virtue in social and political relations, not an all-embracing one. In this paper, I suggest that civility is also a "chilly" virtue, associated more with formality than with niceness; that is, I argue that its importance is best accounted for on this basis. I pursue the theme of formality in a number of different areas: formality in market relations; formality in political inclusiveness; formality in the willingness to listen and "stay present" for the articulation of views to which is utterly opposed; and formality in democratic deliberations. So defined, civility is not everything and it may need to be balanced against other principles and requirements of politics. But the account I give of its relation to formality enables us to see it in the distinctive importance that it has, even though its importance may not be absolute. -- Pages in PDF File: 22 -- Keywords: civility, disagreement, difference, formality, legal rights, legislation, markets, inclusiveness, toleration -- downloaded pdf to Note
political_philosophy  political_culture  democracy  civic_virtue  commerce-doux  civility-political  manners  markets-structure  tolérance  deliberation-public  inclusion  social_psychology  norms  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Noah Millnan - Fighting Outrage Porn Addiction | The American Conservative - September 2015
Before writing this post, I took a scroll down my Facebook feed, to see what news stories my friends are linking to. Here are the first four stories I…
Instapaper  US_politics  US_society  social_media  social_psychology  partisanship  tribalism  bad_journalism  empathy  norms  emotions-manipulation  public_opinion  from instapaper
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Nicola Lacey - Jurisprudence, History, and the Institutional Quality of Law (Symposium - Jurisprudence and (Its) History) | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 919 (2015)
A cri de coeur for putting legal theory and history back together with social theory and empirical social sciences,. -- In the early part of my career, legal history and the history of legal ideas were closed books to me, as I made my way in a field of criminal law scholarship dominated by doctrinal scholarship and by concept-focused philosophical analysis of the foundations of criminal law. These 2 very different paradigms have 1 big thing in common: They tend to proceed as if the main intellectual task is to unearth the deep logic of existing legal doctrines, not infrequently going so far as to read them back onto history, as if things could never have been other than they are. (..)I have increasingly found myself turning to historical resources (1) [to examine] the contingency of particular legal arrangements, and (2) ...to develop causal and other theses about the dynamics which shape them and hence about the role and quality of criminal law as a form of power in modern societies. So, in a sense, I have been using history in support of an analysis driven primarily by the social sciences. (..) it is no accident that all of the great social theorists, from Marx to Foucault via Weber, Durkheim, and Elias, ..have incorporated significant historical elements into their interpretations .... Indeed, without the diachronic perspective provided by history (or the perspective offered by comparative study) we could have no critical purchase on social theory’s characterizations of or causal hypotheses about the dynamics of social systems. Hence, (...) my boundless gratitude to the historians whose meticulous research makes this sort of interpretive social theory possible). -- Lacey is not over-dramatizing -- see the "commentary" from a "legal philosopher" who believes the normative basis of criminal responsibility can be investigated as timeless "moral truths". -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  social_theory  historical_sociology  historical_change  institutions  institutional_change  philosophy_of_law  philosophical_anthropology  philosophy_of_social_science  jurisprudence  legal_theory  analytical_philosophy  concepts  morality-conventional  morality-objective  criminal_justice  responsibility  mind  human_nature  norms  power-asymmetric  power-symbolic  power  Neoplatonism  neo-Kantian  a_priori  historiography  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_culture  moral_philosophy  evidence  mental_health  social_order  epistemology  epistemology-moral  change-social  change-intellectual  comparative_law  comparative_anthropology  civil_liberties  women-rights  women-property  rights-legal  rights-political  access_to_services  discrimination  legal_culture  legal_system  legal_reasoning  Foucault  Marx  Weber  Durkheim  metaethics  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Gerald J. Postema - Jurisprudence, the Sociable Science (Symposium - Jurisprudence and (Its) History) | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 869 (2015)
Renaissance jurisprudence strove to be a sociable science. Following Ulpian’s lead, it refused to relegate jurisprudence either to pure speculation or to mere practice. Jurisprudence was a science, a matter of knowledge and of theoretical understanding, not merely an applied art or practice of prudence innocent of theory. It was regarded as the very heart of theoretical studies, drawing to itself all that the traditional sciences of theology, metaphysics, and moral philosophy, as well as the newly emerging humanist sciences of philology and hermeneutics, had to offer. No less resolutely, however, it refused to abandon its foothold in the life of practice. (..) Rather than reject philosophical reflection, (..) Renaissance jurists sought to locate it in concrete human life and experience. (..) Philosophy.., was most true to its vocation, and was most engaged in human life, when its reflections were anchored in the social life acknowledged, comprehended, and informed by and informing law. Jurisprudence, vera philosophia, was ...the point at which the theoretical and the practical intersected (..) at its “sociable” best sought to integrate them. Analytic jurisprudence began as self-consciously, even militantly, “unsociable,” and its matured and much-sophisticated descendant, fin de siècle analytic legal philosophy, remained largely if not exclusively so. (..) It may be time, in this period of self-conscious attention to jurisprudential method, to press beyond the current limits of this debate over method to a reassessment of the ambitions of jurisprudence and of philosophy’s role in it. (..) my aim is not critical but constructive. (..) to recover something of the ideal of jurisprudence as a sociable science, to retrieve as much as our disenchanted age can be challenged to embrace, or at least to entertain, of the ambition of jurisprudence as vera philosophia. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jurisprudence  philosophy_of_law  social_theory  social_sciences  intellectual_history  Renaissance  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  common_law  moral_philosophy  morality-conventional  norms  analytical_philosophy  concepts  concepts-change  change-social  change-intellectual  social_order  legal_history  legal_theory  legal_reasoning  pragmatism  Peirce  continuity  historical_change  methodology-qualitative  downloaded 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Charles Barzun and Dan Priel - Jurisprudence and (Its) History - Symposium Introduction | Virginia Law Review 101 Va. L. Rev. 849 (2015)
Whereas legal philosophers offer “analyses” that aim to be general, abstract, and timeless, legal historians offer “thick descriptions” of what is particular, concrete, and time-bound. But surface appearances can deceive. Perhaps unlike other areas of philosophy, the subject matter of jurisprudence is at least partially (if not entirely) a social phenomenon. Courts, legislatures, judicial orders, and statutes are the products of human efforts, both collective and individual, and they only exist as legislatures, courts, and the like insofar as they possess the meaning they do in the eyes of at least some social group. For this reason, legal philosophers since at least H.L.A. Hart have recognized their task to be a “hermeneutic” one—one which aims to discern or make explicit the “self-understanding” of legal actors. At the same time, legal historians aim not simply to record legal rules that existed at some given point in history, but to unearth the meaning that actual people—judges, lawyers, politicians, and ordinary citizens—have attached to law. When they do so, they might be seen as uncovering evidence of those same “self-understandings” that philosophers claim constitute law. Perhaps, then, philosophical and historical inquiries about law do not differ so radically from each other after all. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_law  philosophy_of_language  ordinary_language_philosophy  jurisprudence  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  intellectual_history  historiography  legal_history  legal_theory  legal_reasoning  constitutional_law  Founders  originalism  contextualism  change-social  change-economic  change-intellectual  norms  hermeneutics  positivism-legal  philosophy_of_history  institutional_change  downloaded 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Conscience Wars: Complicity-Based Conscience Claims in Religion and Politics by Douglas NeJaime, Reva Siegel :: SSRN - Yale Law Journal, Vol. 124, pp. 2516-2591, 2015
Douglas NeJaime, University of California, Irvine School of Law -- Reva Siegel, Yale University - Law School -- (...) Complicity claims focus on the conduct of others outside the faith community. Their accommodation therefore has potential to harm those the claimants view as sinning. (..) Some, tacitly acknowledging the democratic contests in which complicity claims are entangled, urge religious accommodation in the hopes of peaceful settlement. Yet, as we show, complicity-based conscience claims can provide an avenue to extend, rather than settle, conflict about social norms. We highlight the distinctive form and social logic of complicity-based conscience claims so that those debating accommodation do so with the impact on third parties fully in view. The Article considers a range of legal and institutional contexts in which complicity claims are arising, paying particular attention to RFRA. We show how concern about the third-party impact of accommodation structured the Court’s decision in Hobby Lobby. And looking beyond Hobby Lobby, we show how this concern with third-party harm is an integral part of the compelling interest and narrow tailoring inquiries that courts undertake in applying the statute. At issue is not only whether but how complicity claims are accommodated. -- Pages in PDF File: 76 -- Keywords: religion, accommodation, complicity, Hobby Lobby, Holt, contraception, abortion, marriage, exemptions, religious liberty, religious freedom, equality, liberty, healthcare, burwell -- saved to briefcase
paper  SSRN  constitutional_law  politics-and-religion  culture_wars  US_politics  US_constitution  religious_belief  religious_culture  health_care  women-rights  liberty  equality  employee_benefits  work-life_balance  labor_law  freedom_of_conscience  norms  discrimination 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Noah Millman - Was Origen the Caitlyn Jenner of the Transabled? | The American Conservative - June 2015
I’m afraid I’m going to re-enter the fray. Rod Dreher has a piece today wondering whether the next step in our cultural development (or decline) will be the… Another superb piece by Millman illustrating how Dreher's hostility to changing cultural norms gets wrapped in a blanket condemnation of "modernity" (and liberalism, individualism, autonomy, and generally Enlightenment values) yet Dreher is committed to Enlightenment benefits of increased knowledge, and insists on liberalism's commitment to personal religious liberty. So it basically comes down to liberty for me but not for thee, with the Church authority for norm-setting both impervious to scientific and cultural change, and claiming an extension over those who don't recognize the Chyrch's authority. The example of Origen, whose spiritual commitment led to self-castration, and who wasn't condemned by the senior hierarchy (prior to the Church legislating on a range of norms dealing with the body and especially sexuality and gender, which was one reason Origen was never made a saint). Millman also has a lengthy passage from Tolstoy about a priest, sexual tension, spiritual demands and self-mutilation, with Tolstoy's final conclusion that this sort of psychological turmoil wasn’t the praiseworthy attitudes and action of a saint but self-absorbed cintra Christ's teaching. Tl; dr -- Dreher can't have it both ways (or in his case what seems like an ever-growing laundry list of contradictory ways). -- saved to Instapaper
Instapaper  sexuality  gender  gender-and-religion  norms  Early_Christian  theology  declinism  modernity  liberalism  Orthodox_Christianity  authority  individualism  autonomy  culture_wars  culture-American  cultural_change  cultural_authority  psychology  identity  biology  physiology  neuroscience  Tolstoy  religious_experience  religious_culture  religion-established  civil_liberties  bill_of_rights  from instapaper
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Jag Bhalla - Astronaut vs. Cowboy Ethics | Big Think - May 2015
by Jag Bhalla “Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all.” So says Garrett Hardin reassessing his misnamed “tragedy of the commons” parable. He’s right, and since… -- they'd all die in space if the "negative liberty" model served as source of normativity -- lots of links
moral_philosophy  norms  liberty-negative  collaboration  community  sociability  human_nature  practical_reason  praxis  libertarianism  links  Instapaper  from instapaper
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Noah Millman - Love’s Triumph, Love’s Tragedy - May 2015 | The American Conservative
Q. How do you make an obscure 400-year-old play relevant to today? A. Put it on stage. That’s my feeling after seeing Red Bull Theater‘s production of ‘Tis Pity She's a Whore... Fabulous review
theatre-production  reviews  16thC  English_lit  tragedy  norms  Instapaper  from instapaper
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Stephen Turner, review essay - Searle's Social Reality | - Academia.edu
This is a survey and critique of Searle's thinking about social norms and collective intentionality up to 1999 or so, and provides an account of why his views evolved as they did. The essay also argues against the account of normativity that Searle espouses at this point and later revises.
Research Interests: Social Ontology, Collective Intentionality, John R. Searle, John Searle, and collective intentionality, Searle -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  kindle-available  social_theory  ontology-social  constructivism  Searle  intentionality-collective  norms  normativity  philosophy_of_language  philosophy_of_social_science  speech-act  downloaded 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Raymond Boudon - Utilité ou Rationalité (2002) | Scribd
21 page article -- Explains why "rational choice" fails as explanatory theory in lots of collective action, public opinion, game theory, etc. -- domains where decisions to act aren't based exclusively on instrumental, consequentialist, cost-benefit calculative, and egoistic (directly concerned with impact on self) forms of, and context for, reasoning. Boudon finds "rational choice" superior to hand-wavy explanations that are speculative "black boxes" -- e.g. (1) sociobiology or evo-devo that we're hardwired, (2) Kahneman and Tversky heuristics and biases -- fascinating observations but aren't explanatory, (3) social/cultural explanations such as "socialization" which are tautological or a black box that provide no mechanisms that can differentiate situations or variations in outcomes. E.g. in Roman Empire peasants were more likely to remain pagan and soldiers were more likely to be attracted to the new religion. "Socialization" doesn't explain why soldiers raised in the traditional religious milieu and belief system were more likely to change their beliefs. Great examples of how rationality includes cognitive processes dealing with (1) non-instrumental contexts - e.g. identification with communitarian concerns ranging from voting to immigration policies, (2) aligning actions with one's judgment of what's more likely "true" based on core beliefs and how one has learned to evaluate "evidence" [e.g. Swedes are even more likely to reject "lump of labor" than Americans!] (3) axiological reasoning, including norms of fairness that may be fairly universal (e.g. reaction to Antigone, ultimatum game) or specific to a culture (e.g. due process in political application of "rule of law") -- see article for his tripartite classification of rationality and types of cognition that "rational choice" rejects in its definition. He thinks Weber and Adam Smith got there before, and better than, Becker.
article  Scribd  social_theory  mechanisms-social_theory  evolutionary_biology  evo_psych  rational_choice  rationality-economics  rationality-bounded  rationality  reasons  Weber  Smith  Becker_Gary  Simon_Herbert  fairness  community  identity  norms  epistemology-social  game_theory  altruism  cognitive_bias  cognition  cognition-social  democracy  citizens  voting  political_participation  collective_action  political_culture  public_choice  public_opinion  common_good  socialization  social_psychology  cost-benefit  self-interest  self-interest-cultural_basis  self-and-other  EF-add 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Steve Shapin - The Virtue of Scientific Thinking | Boston Review - Jan 2015
scientific reeearch may not make you more vitruous, or scientists as a group better people, but the disenchantment (severing assumed link between divine design of the cosmos and our ability to learn more and better understand how man fits in) described hy Weber in Vocation priduces a few worrisome trends. One is the hubris of "playing God" scientism, The Sam Harris and Steve Pinker types that think science can explain enough about hiw humans got to whete we are and how we function in modernity to be philosopher-kings on defining moral values and how our political and social structures should operate for what ends. The other disturbing consequence of cutting the link is the loss of discipline via internalized norms of the religious and miral worth of disinyetested inquiry. As profit and funding increasingly drive all levels of scientific research, and the rnds are increasingly narrowed to technology that can be exploited for profit or power (or both in the military-industrial-( academia) complex, what's to distinguish scientists from bankers. The foundation of trust in scientific results is at extreme risk. The only positive, which ashapin doesn't drvelop, is scepticism re the trustworthiness of the scientific enterprise may threaten the future of the planet via climate change, but few will be eager to put their trust in tge claims of the candidates nominating themselves as philosopher-kings.
Social_Darwinism  Pocket  cosmology  18thC  morality  virtue  scientism  post-WWII  moral_philosophy  17thC  21stC  19thC  history_of_science  mioitary-industrial_complex  20thC  cultural_history  Cold_War  morality-objective  curiosity  is-ought  natural_theology  norms  Reformation  intellectual_history  sociology_of_knowledge  morality-conventional 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
James Chandler, ed. - The Cambridge History of English Romantic Literature (pbk 2012) | Cambridge University Press
The Romantic period was one of the most creative, intense and turbulent periods of English lit (..) revolution, reaction, and reform in politics, and by the invention of imaginative literature in its distinctively modern form. (..) an engaging account of 6 decades of literary production around the turn of the 19thC. Reflecting the most up-to-date research, (..) both to provide a narrative of Romantic lit and to offer new and stimulating readings of the key texts. (...) the various locations of literary activity - both in England and, as writers developed their interests in travel and foreign cultures, across the world. (..) how texts responded to great historical and social change. (..) a comprehensive bibliography, timeline and index, **--** Choice: 50 years ago, lit studies was awash in big theories of Romanticism, (e.g. M. H. Abrams, Geoffrey Hartman, Harold Bloom); 2 decades later, Marilyn Butler argued that the very label "Romantic" was "historically unsound." This collection suggests that no consensus has yet emerged: instead, the best of the essays suggest continuities with periods before and after. Rather than big theories, (..) kaleidoscopic snapshots of individual genres (the novel, the "new poetry," drama, the ballad, children's literature); larger intellectual currents (Brewer ... on "sentiment and sensibility"); fashionable topics (imperialism, publishing history, disciplinarity); and--most interesting--the varying cultures of discrete localities (London, Ireland, Scotland).(..) an excellent book useful not as a reference resource, (..) but for its summaries of early-21st-century thinking about British lit culture 1770s-1830s. -- downloaded pdfs of front matter and excerpt to Note
books  English_lit  Romanticism  literary_history  literary_language  literary_theory  lit_crit  18thC  19thC  British_history  cultural_history  literature-and-morality  politics-and-literature  French_Revolution-impact  sociology_of_knowledge  Enlightenment  religious_lit  genre  gender_history  historicism  art_history  art_criticism  novels  rhetoric-writing  intellectual_history  morality-conventional  norms  sensibility  social_order  public_sphere  private_life  lower_orders  publishing  publishing-piracy  copyright  British_politics  British_Empire  Scotland  Scottish_Enlightenment  Ireland  Ireland-English_exploitation  landed_interest  landowners-Ireland-Anglo_elite  authors  authors-women  political_culture  elite_culture  aesthetics  subjectivity  self  self-fashioning  print_culture  readership  fashion  credit  poetry  literary_journals  historical_fiction  historical_change  reform-political  reform-social  French_Revolution  anti-Jacobin  Evangelical  literacy  theater  theatre-sentimental  theatre-politics  actors  downloaded 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Anna Plassart - The Scottish Enlightenment and the French Revolution (to be released April 2015) | Ideas in Context series | Cambridge University Press
Historians of ideas have traditionally discussed the significance of the French Revolution through the prism of several major interpretations, including the commentaries of Burke, Tocqueville and Marx. This book argues that the Scottish Enlightenment offered an alternative and equally powerful interpretative framework for the Revolution, which focused on the transformation of the polite, civilised moeurs that had defined the 'modernity' analysed by Hume and Smith in the 18thC. The Scots observed what they understood as a military- and democracy-led transformation of European modern morals and concluded that the real historical significance of the Revolution lay in the transformation of warfare, national feelings and relations between states, war and commerce that characterised the post-revolutionary international order. This book recovers the Scottish philosophers' powerful discussion of the nature of post-revolutionary modernity and shows that it is essential to our understanding of 19thC political thought. **--** Part I. The Burke–Paine Debate and Scotland's Science of Man: 1. The Burke–Paine debate and the Scottish Enlightenment *-* 2. The heritage of Hume and Smith: Scotland's science of man and politics **--** Part II. The 1790s: 3. Scotland's political debate *-* 4. James Mackintosh and Scottish philosophical history *-* 5. John Millar and the Scottish discussion on war, modern sociability and national sentiment *-* 6. Adam Ferguson on democracy and empire **--** Part III. 1802–15: 7. The French Revolution and the Edinburgh Review *-* 8. Commerce, war and empire
books  find  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_economy  18thC  19thC  British_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Revolution  Smith  Hume  Hume-politics  civil_society  civilizing_process  commerce  commerce-doux  science_of_man  social_sciences  IR_theory  French_Revolutionary_Wars  Napoleonic_Wars  nationalism  national_ID  historiography-18thC  historiography-Whig  military  Military_Revolution  mass_culture  levée_en_masse  conscription  sociability  social_order  empires  empire-and_business  imperialism  Great_Powers  balance_of_power  philosophy_of_history  progress  social_theory  change-social  change-economic  Burke  Paine  Mackintosh_James  Millar_John  Edinburgh_Review  British_Empire  British_foreign_policy  Scottish_politics  1790s  1800s  1810s  international_political_economy  international_system  international_law  democracy  morality-conventional  norms  global_economy  mercantilism 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
R.I. Moore - The Formation of a Persecuting Society: Authority and Deviance in Western Europe 950-1250, 2nd ed (2007) | Wiley Online Library
The 10th to 13thCs in Europe saw the appearance of popular heresy and the establishment of the Inquisition, the expropriation and mass murder of Jews, and the propagation of elaborate measures to segregate lepers from the healthy and curtail their civil rights. These were traditionally seen as distinct and separate developments, and explained in terms of the problems which their victims presented to medieval society. In this stimulating book, first published in 1987 and now widely regarded as a a classic in medieval history, Moore argues that the coincidences in the treatment of these and other minority groups cannot be explained independently, and that all are part of a pattern of persecution which now appeared for the first time to make Europe become, as it has remained, a persecuting society. Moore updates and extends his original argument with a new, final chapter, "A Persecuting Society". Here and in a new preface and critical bibliography, he considers the impact of a generation's research and refines his conception of the "persecuting society" accordingly, addressing criticisms of the 1st ed. -- free access to pdfs of new preface, a final bibliographical essay & the bibliography & index -- downloaded all pdfs but index to Air
books  bibliography  medieval_history  religious_history  political_history  social_history  10thC  11thC  12thC  13thC  persecution  heterodoxy  heresy  Judaism  Inquisition  Papacy  religious_culture  civil_liberties  authority  deviance  norms  hierarchy  Crusades  power  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Brian Z. Tamanaha - What is Law? :: SSRN - Jan 2015
Brian Z. Tamanaha -- Washington University in St. Louis Legal Studies Research Paper No. 15-01-01 -- Theorists who tackle “What is law?” usually acknowledge the difficulty of the question, then, with hardly a pause, launch into their proposed answer. Instead, focusing on three main categories of concepts of law, I examine in detail why previous attempts have failed to achieve a consensus. Several factors have contributed. One source of disagreement involves clashes among intuitions about law. Further problems are created by the narrowness of functional analysis, on which nearly all concepts of law are based. Confusion also arises because law shares basic characteristics with many social institutions, as I show drawing on insights from the philosophy of society. Theorists also typically fail to recognize two distinct orientations of law, and multiple forms of law, which singular concepts of law cannot accommodate. Finally, variability and change owing to the social-historical nature of law defeats efforts of legal philosophers to identify essential features and universally true concepts of law. At the conclusion I present a way of understanding law that emerges out of the lessons learned from past unsuccessful efforts. -- topic headings in the essay: Three Categories of the Concept of Law; Pivotal Role of Intuitions About Law; Over-Inclusiveness of Functionalism; Under-Inclusiveness of Functionalism; Why Functionalism Cannot Answer ‘What is Law?’; Error of Conflating ‘Rule System’ and ‘Legal System’; Law as Part of the Institutional Substrate of Society; State Law’s Two Orientations; Coexisting Multiple Legal Forms; Necessary and Essential Features Or Typical Features; Universal Application Versus Universal Truth; What is Law -- No. Pages: 49 -- Keywords: jurisprudence, philosophy of law, law and society, legal anthropology, legal sociology, legal history, and comparative law -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  jurisprudence  legal_history  legal_theory  legal_culture  legal_realism  legal_reasoning  legal_validity  functionalism  institutions  institutional_change  social_order  universalism  normativity  norms  custom  customary_law  sociology_of_law  comparative_law  concepts  concepts-change  rule_of_law  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Law's Evolution and Law as Custom by William A. Edmundson :: SSRN
William A. Edmundson, Georgia State University College of Law -- 51 San Diego L. Rev. (December 2014, Forthcoming). -- Georgia State University College of Law, Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-15 -- Legal discourse centrally involves a family of normative expressions – “obligation,” “right,” “permission,” and so on – whose surface grammar parallels that of moral discourse. Is the normativity of legal discourse then a moral normativity? Or is it a distinct type of normativity altogether? (..) Custom is among the sources of law. That much is agreed. But custom can also be law, independently of promulgation, or so many believe. (..) Insofar as a customary norm is (or becomes) a legal norm, does it manifest (or acquire) a different kind of normativity? Or does its original normativity contribute to the normativity of law? Another set of questions has to do with custom as a condition of legal validity. [Different positions of Kelsen and Hart] I will explore the hypothesis that every legally normative utterance resolves into one expressing (a) custom-implicating moral normativity, (b) custom-extending moral normativity, or (c) normativity “in the manifesto sense” (to enlist a phrase of Joel Feinberg’s). If this is correct, there is no such thing as a distinctively legal brand of normativity. -- No. Pages: 30 -- Keywords: legal theory, legal philosophy, philosophy of law, normativity, norm, custom, validity, moral, desuetudo, moral philosophy -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  jurisprudence  legal_history  legal_theory  legal_culture  sociology_of_law  legal_realism  legal_reasoning  normativity  moral_philosophy  morality-conventional  morality-objective  legal_validity  norms  custom  customary_law  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Brian Tamanaha - Balkinization: Whither Jurisprudence? - Jan 2015
Scott Hershovitz's "The End of Jurisprudence" is a terrific article. [Downloaded from SSRN] For the past four decades, he asserts, "jurisprudence has been dominated by the Hart-Dworkin debate," and it is time to move on. -- "The time has come for jurisprudence to drop the metaphysics and take up morals. The question that jurisprudence should aim to answer is how our legal practices affect our moral rights, obligations, privileges, and powers. The metaphysical question posed in the Hart-Dworkin debate was a distraction; we have no good reason to think that our legal practices generate a distinctively legal domain of normativity, or quasi-normativity, whose metaphysics we must unravel. But the moral question is vital; it is contested everyday, in court and out, with serious consequences for peoples’ lives." (..) Though I agree this deserves attention, I do not agree that jurisprudence has or requires a particular end, whether this one or any other. The field thrives best when jurisprudence scholars pursue many different intellectual projects. In my view, jurisprudence remains vital by focusing on important legal phenomena and by drawing from other disciplines for insights. On that note, I offer my draft essay "What is Law?" [Downloaded from SSRN, as well as 2014 article by Roger Cotterrell]
philosophy_of_law  jurisprudence  judiciary  legal_theory  legal_realism  normativity  moral_philosophy  norms  morality-conventional  obligation  Hart  Dworkin 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Full transcript: President Obama, Dec 4 2013 - Inequality and rolling back Reagan Revolution | The Washington Post
But starting in the late ‘70s, this social compact began to unravel.Technology made it easier for companies to do more with less, eliminating certain job occupations. A more competitive world led companies ship jobs anyway. And as good manufacturing jobs automated or headed offshore, workers lost their leverage; jobs paid less and offered fewer benefits. As values of community broke down and competitive pressure increased, businesses lobbied Washington to weaken unions and the value of the minimum wage. As the trickle-down ideology became more prominent, taxes were slashes for the wealthiest while investments in things that make us all richer, like schools and infrastructure, were allowed to wither. And for a certain period of time we could ignore this weakening economic foundation, in part because more families were relying on two earners, as women entered the workforce. We took on more debt financed by juiced-up housing market. But when the music stopped and the crisis hit, millions of families were stripped of whatever cushion they had left. And the result is an economy that’s become profoundly unequal and families that are more insecure. (..) it is harder today for a child born here in America to improve her station in life than it is for children in most of our wealthy allies, countries like Canada or Germany or France. They have greater mobility than we do, not less.(..) The combined trends of increased inequality and decreasing mobility pose a fundamental threat to the American dream, our way of life and what we stand for around the globe. And it is not simply a moral claim that I’m making here. There are practical consequences to rising inequality and reduced mobility. -- downloaded as pdf to Note
speech  Obama  inequality  supply-side  labor_share  business-ethics  norms  norms-business  morality-conventional  morality-Christian  utilitarianism  globalization  technology  US_foreign_policy  US_economy  US_politics  US_society  US_government  US_history  common_good  civic_virtue  economic_growth  economic_culture  distribution-income  distribution-wealth  unemployment  health_care  public_goods  public_opinion  public_policy  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Jennifer Bishop, review - Brodie Waddell, God, Duty and Community in English Economic Life, 1660-1720 (Boydell Press 2012) | Reviews in History - March 2014
For the majority of ordinary people in early modern England, the moral and the economic were closely aligned. Alongside material changes and a growing market ideology, traditional ideas about religion, duty, and community continued to influence economic relationships and practices well into the 18th century. This is the subject of Brodie Waddell’s new book, which sets out to explore the economic culture of later Stuart England. Focusing on concepts such as divine will, social duty, and communal ties, Waddell shows how these all have an underlying logic in common, combining to form a world view based on notions of reciprocity, hierarchy, mutuality, and order. His central contention is that these cultural ideas and moral codes did not decline in importance over the 17th century, as some historical narratives have suggested, but rather continued to shape and define the social and economic lives of ordinary people in later Stuart England. This in itself is not a new argument, and Waddell acknowledges that there are important existing studies of economic culture in early modern England. However, he suggests that previous scholarship has neglected several essential areas, and his book sets out to remedy these gaps. -- she doesn't think he's as original as he claims and makes some suggestions as to how different pieces might have been knit together a bit better, but generally positive -- downloaded as pdf to Note
books  reviews  17thC  18thC  Europe-Early_Modern  British_history  cultural_history  religious_history  religious_culture  religious_belief  community  moral_sentiments  economic_culture  norms  norms-business  morality-conventional  morality-Christian  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Donald Frey, review - Gabriel Abend, Moral Background: An Inquiry into the History of Business Ethics (2014) | EH.net Review - August 2014
Princeton University Press, 2014. ix + 399 pp., ISBN: 978-0-691-15944-7. -- Donald E. Frey, Department of Economics, Wake Forest University, author of America’s Economic Moralists: A History of Rival Ethics and Economics (SUNY Press, 2009). -- Gabriel Abend argues that a range of cultural beliefs and thought patterns provide an influential “moral background” as context for the more obvious everyday morality. Most of his book looks at business ethics during the period from the 1850s through the 1930s through the lens of the moral background concept. (..) In my own work on economic moralists, something like a “moral background” appeared to be enlightening. My thesis was that economic moralities (yes, two competing moralities, just as Abend deals with two competing business ethics) drew support from alternative economic theories (again differing economic theories, just as Abend has different moral backgrounds). Perhaps economic theory is a much narrower kind of “moral background” than Abend envisions, but it is a reasonable proxy for a moral background. It is a distinct body of thought, often familiar — in one form or another — to much of the population. And economic theory can indeed support or undermine some kinds of moralities (for example, if economic outcomes are viewed as the efficient work of impersonal markets, moral concerns for equity are put on the defensive). I think Abend might have described a convincing moral foundation in Chapter 6, perhaps by linking the Standards school to antecedents such as Benjamin Franklin (briefly noted in Chapter 2), and to ideas that were abroad in economics. Abend, I think, has a good concept, and is at least partially successful.
books  reviews  18thC  19thC  20thC  US_history  business-ethics  norms  norms-business  morality-conventional  morality-Christian  utilitarianism  Franklin_Ben  economic_theory  economic_sociology  economic_culture  education-higher  professionalization  managerialism  self-interest  self-regulation  lobbying  business-and-politics  business_practices  business_schools  business_influence  market_fundamentalism  invisible_hand  efficiency  cultural_history  fairness  elites  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
François Jarrige, « E. P. Thompson, une vie de combat » | La Vie des idées, 6 janvier 2015
Grand historien de la classe ouvrière anglaise, figure intellectuelle majeure des débats sur le marxisme dans les années 1960-1970, militant antinucléaire à l’origine d’une critique écologiste du capitalisme : tels furent les visages multiples d’Edward Palmer Thompson, dont l’œuvre continue d’imprégner en profondeur l’ensemble des sciences sociales. -- the French are (re)discovering Thompson and his particular version of a Marxian approach that was highly allergic to Theory. -- extensive footnotes -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  books  historians  historians-and-politics  historiography  historiography-postWWII  20thC  social_history  Europe-Early_Modern  British_history  British_politics  18thC  19thC  working_class  Thompson_EP  moral_economy  morality-conventional  norms  Industrial_Revolution  Marxist  social_theory  social_sciences  political_philosophy  Marxism  industrialization  Whigs-oligarchy  property_rights  capitalism  capitalism-systemic_crisis  environment  sustainability  downloaded 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Solutions Journalism - Toolkit for Reporting Internationally
Downloaded guide to iPhone -- This meaty guidebook has two objectives: (1) to highlight and dissect the solutions-oriented work of four Pulitzer Center grantees; and (2) to offer general guidance about howto report on solutions stories internationally – and how to get your story idea funded. This guidebook has been produced in partnership with the Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting, which supports international journalism across media platforms.
report  downloaded  journalism  narrative  public_sphere  public_policy  development  urbanism  family  migration  public_health  education  women-education  public_disorder  racism  civil_wars  environment  climate  poverty  access_to_services  labor  labor_standards  political_participation  gender  violence  norms 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Claus Holm, Morten Balling and Thomas Poulsen - Corporate governance ratings as a means to reduce asymmetric information (2014) | T&A Online
Downloaded to iPhone -- Cogent Economics & Finance - Volume 2, Issue 1, 2014 -- Can corporate governance ratings reduce problems of asymmetric information between companies and investors? To answer this question, we set out to examine the information basis for providing such ratings by reviewing corporate governance attributes that are required or recommended in laws, accounting standards, and codes, respectively. After that, we scrutinize and organize the publicly available information on the methodologies actually used by rating providers. However, important details of these methodologies are treated as confidential property, thus we approach the evaluation of corporate governance ratings as a means to reduce asymmetric information in a more general manner. We propose that the rating process may be seen as consisting of two general activities, namely a data reduction phase, and a data weighting, aggregation, and classification phase. Findings based on a Danish data-set suggest that rating providers by selecting relevant attributes in an intelligent way can improve the screening of companies according to governance quality. In contrast, it seems questionable that weighting, aggregation, and classification of corporate governance attributes considerably improve discrimination according to governance quality.
paper  corporate_finance  asymmetric_information  capital_markets  disclosure  investors  risk  asset_prices  corporate_governance  ratings  reputation  EMH  accountability  financial_regulation  self-regulation  norms  business_practices  business-ethics  downloaded 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
The Irrelevance of Legitimacy by Xavier Marquez :: SSRN - Sept 2014
Xavier Marquez , Victoria University of Wellington - September 17, 2014 --  Both popular and academic explanations of the stability, performance, and breakdown of political order make heavy use of the concept of legitimacy. But prevalent understandings of the idea of legitimacy, while perhaps useful and appropriate ways of making sense of the political world in ordinary public discourse, cannot play the more rigorous explanatory roles with which they are tasked in the social sciences. To the extent that the concept of legitimacy appears to have some explanatory value, this is only because explanations of social and political order that appeal to legitimacy in fact conceal widely different (and often inconsistent) accounts of the mechanisms involved in the production of obedience to authority and submission to norms. I suggest in this paper that explanatory social science would be better off abandoning the coarse concept of legitimacy for more precise accounts of the operation of these mechanisms in particular contexts. -- Keywords: legitimacy, Max Weber, social explanation, norms, David Beetham - Posted: March 22, 2012 ; Last revised: Sept 25, 2014 -- downloaded to Dropbox
paper  SSRN  political_philosophy  political_science  political_sociology  social_theory  government-forms  authority  legitimacy  public_opinion  causation-social  norms  mechanisms-social  Weber  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Jack A. Goldstone and Bert Useem - Putting Values and Institutions Back into the Theory of Strategic Action Fields | JSTOR: Sociological Theory, Vol. 30, No. 1 (MARCH 2012), pp. 37-47
Neil Fligstein and Doug McAdam have presented a new theory of how collective action creates the structure and dynamics of societies. At issue is the behavior of social movements, organizations, states, political parties, and interest groups. They argue that all of these phenomena are produced by social actors (which may be individuals or groups) involved in strategic action. This allows Fligstein and McAdam to advance a unified theory of "strategic action fields." This article takes issue with aspects of Fligstein and McAdam's important contribution. We argue that that all organizations are not essentially the same; in addition to the location and interactions of their strategic actors, their dynamics are shaped and distinguished by differing values and norms, by the autonomy of institutions embedded in strategic action fields, and by the fractal relationships that nested fields have to broader principles of justice and social organization that span societies. We also criticize the view that social change can be conceptualized solely in terms of shifting configurations of actors in strategic action fields. Rather, any theory of social action must distinguish between periods of routine contention under the current institutions and norms and exceptional challenges to the social order that aim to transform those institutions and norms. -- Sage paywall on a 3 year delay for jstor
article  jstor  paywall  social_theory  collective_action  social_movements  organizations  nation-state  parties  partisanship  institutions  strategic_action_fields  political_culture  civil_society  social_order  institutional_change  old_institutionalism  new_institutionalism  rational_choice  norms  contention  conflict  social_process  change-social  change-intellectual  levels_of_analyis  networks-political  networks-social  networks  networks-policy  networks-religious  power  action-social  action-theory  revolutions  reform-social  reform-political  EF-add 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
JON GARTHOFF - LEGITIMACY IS NOT AUTHORITY | JSTOR: Law and Philosophy, Vol. 29, No. 6 (November 2010), pp. 669-694
The two leading traditions of theorizing about democratic legitimacy are liberalism and deliberative democracy. Liberals typically claim that legitimacy consists in the consent of the governed, while deliberative democrats typically claim that legitimacy consists in the soundness of political procedures. Despite this difference, both traditions see the need for legitimacy as arising from the coercive enforcement of law and regard legitimacy as necessary for law to have normative authority. While I endorse the broad aims of these two traditions, I believe they both misunderstand the nature of legitimacy. In this essay I argue that the legitimacy of a law is neither necessary nor sufficient for its normative authority, and I argue further that the need for legitimacy in law arises regardless of whether the law is coercively enforced. I thus articulate a new understanding of the legitimacy and authority of law. -- didn't download -- bibliography heavily classic modern and contemporary philosophers
article  jstor  social_theory  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  philosophy_of_law  institutions  authority  legitimacy  legal_culture  legal_validity  liberalism  social_contract  consent  reasons  enforcement  deliberation-public  Habermas  democracy  norms  normativity  obligation  Enlightenment  Locke  Mill  Rawls  bibliography  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Scott J. Shapiro - What is the Rule of Recognition (and Does it Exist)? [chapter] :: SSRN in THE RULE OF RECOGNITION AND THE U.S. CONSTITUTION, Matthew Adler, Kenneth Himma, eds., Oxford University Press, 2009
Yale Law School, Public Law Working Paper No. 184 -- One of the principal lessons of The Concept of Law is that legal systems are not only comprised of rules, but also founded on them ....we cannot account for the way we talk and think about the law - as an institution which persists over time, imposes duties and confers powers, enjoys supremacy over other kinds of practices, resolves doubts and disagreements about what is to be done in a community and so on - without supposing that it is regulated by what he called the secondary rules of recognition, change and adjudication. -- In Part 1 I try to state Hart's doctrine of the rule of recognition with some precision. -- I also explore in this part whether the US Constitution can be considered the Hartian rule of recognition for the US legal system. In Part 2 I attempt to detail the many roles that the rule of recognition plays within Hart's theory of law. -- In Part 3 I examine three important challenges to Hart's doctrine: 1) the rule is under- and over-inclusive; 2) Hart cannot explain how social practices are capable of generating rules that confer powers and impose duties and hence cannot account for the normativity of law; 3) Hart cannot explain how disagreements about the criteria of legal validity that occur within actual legal systems are possible. In Parts 4 & 5, I address these objections. ...athough Hart's particular account of the rule of recognition is flawed, a related notion should be substituted - roughly, to treat the rule of recognition as a shared plan which sets out the constitutional order of a legal system. As I try to show, understanding the rule of recognition in this new way allows the legal positivist to overcome the challenges lodged against Hart's version while still retaining the power of the original idea. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  books  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  legal_system  social_theory  social_order  political_order  change-social  institutions  constitutions  constitutional_law  constitutionalism  normativity  norms  obligation  institutional_change  positivism-legal  Hart  Dworkin  Raz  Finnis  US_constitution  conflict_of_laws  natural_law  legal_validity  legal_realism  sociology_of_law  community  planning  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - Socioeconomic Rights and Theories of Justice (2010) :: SSRN
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 10-79 -- This paper considers the relation between theories of justice (like John Rawls’s theory) and theories of socio-economic rights. In different ways, these two kinds of theory address much the same subject-matter. But they are quite strikingly different in format and texture. Theories of socio-economic rights defend particular line-item requirements: a right to this or that good or opportunity (e.g., housing, health care, education, social security). Theories of justice tend to involve a more integrated normative account of a society’s basic structure (though they differ considerably among themselves in their structure). So how exactly should we think about their relation? The basic claim of the paper is that we should strive to bring these two into closer relation with one another, since it is only in the context of a theory of justice that we can properly assesses the competition that arises between claims of socio-economic right and other claims on public and private resources. -- Number of Pages in PDF File: 31 -- Keywords: Nozick, Rawls, justice, human rights, rights, scarcity, socioeconomic rights
paper  SSRN  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  philosophy_of_law  liberalism  libertarianism  social_order  norms  moral_economy  poverty  human_rights  inequality  Rawls  Nozick  property  common_good  commons  capitalism  political_economy  justice  power-asymmetric 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - What are Moral Absolutes Like? (2011) :: SSRN
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 11-62 -- This paper (originally presented as the Harvard Review of Philosophy Annual Guest Lecture in April 2011) explores the challenges involved in stating, characterizing and defending moral absolutes. The first part of the paper looks at the formulation of moral absolutes: must we assume that they are simple, directly prescriptive or prohibitive, not loaded with thick moral terms (as in "Do not kill the innocent"), etc? The paper compares the formulation of moral absolutes with the formulation of legal absolutes. And it considers some philosophical work on the subject, by Anscombe, Hare, Kant, and Finnis. The second part of the paper examines the ways in which moral absolutes – such as the rule against torture – deal with the burden of the humanitarian considerations arrayed against them in e.g. "ticking bomb" hypotheticals. ...the most powerful challenge is that posed by Bentham ... who imagined that torturing one person may be the only way to save hundreds of people from being tortured. -- ...opponents of torture have made things too easy for themselves in just focusing on how bad (depraved, brutal, violative, etc.) torture really is. ..., the paper indicates a number of possible lines of inquiry – one in particular involving the idea of "tainted goods," -- and a number of other lines are explored. Along the way, the paper takes a couple of sly kicks at something called "threshold deontology." But at the end, ... much more work to be done. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  moral_philosophy  metaethics  morality-objective  rights-legal  norms  torture  Anscombe  Finnis  Kant-ethics  morality-divine_command  deontology  consequentialism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - What is Natural Law Like? (2012) :: SSRN
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 12-27 -- “The State of Nature,” said John Locke, “has a Law of Nature to govern it, which obliges every one.” But what is “a law of nature”? How would we tell, in a state of nature, that there was a natural law as opposed to something else...? What form should we expect natural law to take in our apprehension of it? This paper argues three things. (a) John Finnis’s work on natural law provides no answer to these questions; his “theory of natural law” is really just a theory of the necessary basis in ethics for evaluating positive law. (b) We need an answer to the question “What is natural law like” not just to evaluate the work of state-of-nature theorists like Locke, but also to explore the possibility that natural law might once have played the role now played by positive international law in regulating relations between sovereigns. And (c), an affirmative account of what natural law is like must pay attention to (1) its deontic character; (2) its enforceability; (3) the ancillary principles that have to be associated with its main normative requirements if it is to be operate as a system of law; (4) its separability ...from ethics and morality, even from objective ethics and morality; and (5) the shared recognition on earth of its presence in the world. Some of these points — especially 3, 4, and 5 — sound like characteristics of positive law. But the paper argues that they are necessary nevertheless if it is going to be plausible to say that natural law has ever operated (or does still operate) as law in the world. -- Number of Pages: 21 -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  IR  IR_theory  international_law  international_system  sovereignty  natural_law  positive_law  norms  Aquinas  Locke  Locke-2_Treatises  state-of-nature  enforcement  legal_validity  Finnis  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Scott J. Shapiro - What is the Internal Point of View? (2006 working paper) :: SSRN
In "The Concept of Law," Hart showed that sanction-centered accounts of every stripe ignored an essential feature of law. This feature he termed the internal point of view. Seen from the internal point of view, the law is not simply sanction-threatening, directing, or predicting, but rather obligation-imposing. Though the internal point of view is perhaps Hart's greatest contribution to jurisprudential theory, this concept is also often and easily misunderstood. This is unfortunate, not only because these misreadings distort Hart's theory, but, more importantly, because they prevent us from appreciating the true infirmities of sanction-centered theories and the compelling reasons why they ought to be rejected. -- The internal point of view is the practical attitude of rule-acceptance - it does not imply that people who accept the rules accept their moral legitimacy, only that they are disposed to guide and evaluate conduct in accordance with the rules. The internal point of view plays four roles in Hart's theory: (1) it specifies a particular type of motivation that someone may take towards to the law; (2) it constitutes one of the main existence conditions for social and legal rules; (3) it accounts for the intelligibility of legal practice and discourse; (4) it provides a naturalistically acceptable semantics for legal statements. Finally, sanction-centered theories are unacceptable for three reasons: (1) they are myopic in that they ignore one of the motivations that people might have for obeying the law; (2) they are unable to account for the existence of legal systems; (3) they cannot account for the intelligibility of legal practice and discourse. --
paper  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  social_theory  intellectual_history-distorted  20thC  21stC  Hart  positivism-legal  sociology_of_law  legal_system  norms  normativity  obligation  moral_psychology  morality-conventional  moral_sentiments  punishment  reasons-internalism  reasons-externalism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - The Epistemic Status of the Human Sciences: Critical Reflections on Foucault (2008) :: SSRN
U of Chicago, Public Law Working Paper No. 279 -- Any reader of Foucault's corpus recognizes fairly quickly that it is animated by an ethical impulse, namely, to liberate individuals from a kind of oppression from which they suffer. This oppression, however, does not involve the familiar tyranny of the Leviathan or the totalitarian state; it exploits instead values that the victim of oppression herself accepts, and which then leads the oppressed agent to be complicit in her subjugation. It also depends, crucially, on a skeptical thesis about the epistemology of the social sciences. It is this conjunction of claims - that individuals oppress themselves in virtue of certain moral and epistemic norms they accept - that marks Foucault's uniquely disturbing contribution to the literature whose diagnostic aim is, with Max Weber, to understand the oppressive character of modernity, and whose moral aim is, with the Frankfurt School, human liberation and human flourishing. I offer here both a reconstruction of Foucault's project - focusing on the role that ethical and epistemic norms play in how agents subjugate themselves - and some modestly critical reflections on his project, especially the weaknesses in his critique of the epistemic standing of the human sciences. -- Number of Pages in PDF File: 18 -- Keywords: Foucault, Nietzsche, human sciences, epistemology -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  social_theory  20thC  Germany  France  Foucault  Weber  Frankfurt_School  ethics  power  institutions  social_order  modernity  flourishing  social_sciences-post-WWII  epistemology-social  norms  socialization  self  morality-conventional  morality-critics  scepticism  agency  agency-structure  sociology_of_knowledge  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Legal Realisms, Old and New :: SSRN (2012 Seegers Lecture in Jurisprudence) - Forthcoming in Valparaiso Law Review (2013)
“Legal Realism” now has sufficient cache that scholars from many different fields and countries compete to claim the mantle of the "Realist program": from political scientists who study judicial behavior, to the "law and society" scholars associated with the Wisconsin New Legal Realism project, to philosophers interested in a naturalized jurisprudence. But what does it mean to be a “legal realist”? What unites the two most famous “old” Legal Realisms — the American and the Scandinavian — with the “new legal realism” invoked, variously, by sociologists, anthropologists, and political scientists, among others? -- I argue that (1) American and Scandinavian Realism have almost nothing in common — indeed, that H.L.A. Hart misunderstood the latter as he did the former, and that the Scandinavians are closer to Hart and even Kelsen than they are to the Americans; (2) all Realists share skepticism about the causal efficacy of legal doctrine in explaining judicial decisions ("the Skeptical Doctrine") (though the Scandinavian skepticism on this score is not at all specific to the legal domain, encompassing all explanation in terms of norms); (3) American Realism almost entirely eschewed social-scientific methods in its defense of the Skeptical Doctrine, contrary to the impression given by much recent work by "new" legal realists; (4) the myth that the American Realists were seriously interested in social science derives mainly from two unrepresentative examples, Underhill Moore's behaviorism and Llewellyn's work with the Cheyenne Indians. -- Keywords: American legal realism, Scandinavian legal realism, Karl Llewellyn, Axel Hagerstrom, Alf Ross, naturalism, H.L.A. Hart, Hans Kelsen, judicial behavior
article  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  social_theory  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  legal_theory  legal_realism  social_sciences  anthropology  sociology_of_law  normativity  norms  causation  causation-social  positivism-legal  naturalism  social_process  judiciary  behavioralism  Hart  Kelsen  US_legal_system  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Bix - Radbruch's Formula and Conceptual Analysis :: SSRN - American Journal of Jurisprudence, Vol. 56, pp. 45-57, 2011 (last revised 2012 )
Minnesota Legal Studies Research Paper No. 12-13 -- Gustav Radbruch, in well-known work that appeared just after World War II, put forward a formula that stated that state-promulgated rules that are sufficiently unjust lose their status as valid law. Radbruch’s Formula has generally been understood as a claim about the nature of law, and recent variations of Radbruch’s Formula, like Robert Alexy’s “claim to correctness,” have similarly been characterized as offering a truth about the nature of law. Additionally, both Radbruch’s and Alexy’s theories have been presented as criticisms of, and alternatives to, legal positivism. An alternative understanding of the Formula (and its modern variations) is as (mere) prescriptions for judicial decision-making, and thus compatible with a variety of different conceptual theories of the nature of law, including legal positivism. This article shows the difficulties of understanding Radbruch’s Formula as it was presented and conventionally understood. In particular, the article focuses on the way that seeing the Formula as a claim about the nature of law leads to outcomes inconsistent with the basic reasons for the Formula. -- Keywords: Gustav Radbruch, Radbruch's Formula, Robert Alexy, Conceptual Analysis
article  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  analytical_philosophy  positivism-legal  natural_law  concepts  legal_theory  norms 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jesse R. Harrington and Michele J. Gelfand - Tightness–looseness across the 50 united states | PNAS | Mobile
Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD -- This research demonstrates wide variation in tightness–looseness (the strength of punishment and degree of latitude/permissiveness) at the state level in the United States, as well as its association with a variety of ecological and historical factors, psychological characteristics, and state-level outcomes. Consistent with theory and past research, ecological and man-made threats—such as a higher incidence of natural disasters, greater disease prevalence, fewer natural resources, and greater degree of external threat—predicted increased tightness at the state level. Tightness is also associated with higher trait conscientiousness and lower trait openness, as well as a wide array of outcomes at the state level. Compared with loose states, tight states have higher levels of social stability, including lowered drug and alcohol use, lower rates of homelessness, and lower social disorganization. However, tight states also have higher incarceration rates, greater discrimination and inequality, lower creativity, and lower happiness relative to loose states. In all, tightness–looseness provides a parsimonious explanation of the wide variation we see across the 50 states of the United States of America. -- downloaded pdf to Note
culture  culture-American  norms  inequality  discrimination  US_politics  conservatism  liberalism  crime  punishment  deviance  tolerance  social_order  ecology  social_psychology  US_society  creativity  Innovation  happiness  hierarchy  culture_wars  culture-tightness  culture-looseness  prisons  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Charles Tilly - Another View of Conventions | JSTOR: The American Sociologist, Vol. 41, No. 4 (December 2010), pp. 390-399
Originally published in Italian 2006 - in English in Tilly memorial issue. Didn't download -- Conventions consist of conventionally accepted reasons for dereliction, deviation, distinction, or good fortune. Their use facilitates coordination of interpersonal effort through appeal to shared understandings that emerge from the push and pull of social interaction, but then constrain further rounds of that interaction. The use of conventions differs from three other well defined and widely used forms of reason giving: codes, technical accounts, and stories. All four do relational work, but conventions operate most easily and effectively when participants in social relations are simply confirming the character of those relations rather than establishing them anew, contesting them, terminating them, or transforming them. In those cases, participants are more likely to employ codes, technical accounts, or stories.
article  jstor  social_theory  relations-social  morality-conventional  norms  reasons  coordination  Tilly  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Milan Z. Zafirovski - Spencer Is Dead, Long Live Spencer: Individualism, Holism, and the Problem of Norms | JSTOR: The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 51, No. 3 (Sep., 2000), pp. 553-579
The debate between the advocates of sociological individualism and those of holism has been pervasive in the development of social theory. This debate is often situated in the false problems of sociology, since it is seen as a particular form of the perennial and irresolvable dilemma between social nominalism and realism, as well as between freedom and determinism. Nevertheless, the debate is far from over within contemporary sociology and other social science, as indicated by the resurgence of individualism in rational action theory and its repudiation by holistic social theories. The aim of this paper is to identify some modern variations on this theme as well as to discern certain common tendencies of two seemingly opposite theoretical perspectives, viz. the convergence upon a normative solution to the problem of social order. This convergence is therefore denoted normative convergence between sociological individualism and holistic sociology. -- paywall -- large references list
article  jstor  paywall  intellectual_history  social_theory  individualism-methodology  rational_choice  microfoundations  social_order  norms  bibliography  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
David Enoch - Agency, Shmagency: Why Normativity Won't Come from What Is Constitutive of Action | JSTOR: The Philosophical Review, Vol. 115, No. 2 (Apr., 2006), pp. 169-198
Enoch is a moral realist - Clearest target is Korsgaard who herself is answering scepticism. Probably useful in sorting out realist and anti-realist, internalist vs externalist, varieties of scepticism, and varieties of action-theory. Didn't download
article  jstor  metaethics  morality-objective  action-theory  norms  bibliography  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Mark Bevir - Foucault and Critique: Deploying Agency Against Autonomy [eScholarship]
Published in Political Theory, February 1 1999, Volume 27, No. 1. © 1999 Sage Publications. -- also in jstor -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  eScholarship  jstor  social_theory  self  self-development  autonomy  agency  power  Foucault  norms  poststructuralist  Enlightenment-ongoing  cultural_critique  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Joseph Henrich - A cultural species: How culture drove human evolution | Science Brief - Am Psychological Assoc Nov 2011
Recognizing the centrality of culture in human life leads to a novel evolutionary theory of status and status psychology. Evolutionary researchers have tended to assume that human status is merely an extension of primate dominance hierarchies. However, because humans are so heavily dependent on an information economy for survival, our species has evolved a second avenue to social status that operates alongside dominance and has its own suite of cognitive and affective processes. -- This work connects with the emotion literature where prior empirical studies had indicated the existence of two facets for the emotion pride—labeled authentic and hubristic pride. Our ongoing efforts suggest that hubristic pride is associated with dominance-status and authentic pride with prestige-status. -- Much empirical work treats status as a uni-dimensional construct, and then unknowingly operationalizes it as either prestige or dominance, or some mix of the two. -- The cultural evolution of norms over tens or hundreds of thousands of years, and their shaping by cultural group selection, may have driven genetic evolution to create a suite of cognitive adaptations we call norm psychology. -- This suite facilitates, among other things, our identification and learning of social norms, our expectation of sanctions for norm violations, and our ability to internalize normative behavior as motivations. This approach also predicts that humans ought to be inclined to “over-imitate” for two different evolutionary reasons, one informational and the other normative. The informational view hypothesizes that people over-imitate because of an evolved reliance on cultural learning to adaptively acquire complex and cognitively-opaque skills, techniques and practices that have been honed, often in nuanced and subtle ways, over generations. However, because individuals should also “over-imitate” because human societies have long been full of arbitrary norms (behaviors) for which the “correct” performance is crucial to one’s reputation (e.g., rituals, etiquette), we expect future investigations to reveal two different kinds of over-imitation. -- The selection pressures created by reputational damage and punishment for norm-violation may also favour norm-internalization. Neuroeconomic studies suggest that social norms are in fact internalized as intrinsic motivations in people’s brains.
biocultural_evolution  social_psychology  norms  status  power  leaders  learning  children  innate_ideas  incentives  behavioral_economics  moral_psychology  emotions  morality-conventional  sociology_of_religion  trust  cooperation  Innovation  tools  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Joe Henrich - Website | University of British Columbia
Research Program: Coevolution, Development, Cognition & Cultural Learning -- Published Papers and Book Chapters by Category

- Societal Complexity and Cultural Evolution
- Social Norms and Cooperation
- Social Status (Prestige and Dominance)
- Religion
- Methodological Contributions and Population Variations
- Overviews
- Cultural Learning (Models and Evidence)
- Ethnography (Fiji, Machiguenga, Mapuche)
- Chimpanzee Sociality
- General Interest
bibliography  research  paper  biocultural_evolution  culture  social_psychology  anthropology  behavioral_economics  sociology_of_religion  status  norms  morality-conventional  moral_psychology  emotions  networks  institutions  complexity  demography  children  learning  tools  cooperation  competition  Innovation 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Joseph R. Gusfield: On Legislating Morals: The Symbolic Process of Designating Deviance - JSTOR: California Law Review, Vol. 56, No. 1 (Jan., 1968), pp. 54-73
On Legislating Morals: The Symbolic Process of Designating Deviance
Joseph R. Gusfield
California Law Review
Vol. 56, No. 1 (Jan., 1968) (pp. 54-73)
Page Count: 20 - 58 references

Revision and expansion of Moral Passage: The Symbolic Process in Public Designations of Deviance, Social Problems,Vol. 15, No. 2 (Autumn, 1967) (pp. 175-188) - Abstract - The fact of public affirmation of a norm through law and government action expresses the public worth of one sub-culture vis-à-vis others. Because different forms of deviance affect that normative status in different ways, they incur different responses from the designators. Three forms of deviance are disinguished: repentant, sick, and enemy. One form threatens the public affirmation of the norm more than another. The public definition of deviance undergoes changes from one form to another, as illustrated in issues of drinking control. Where consensus on the norm is lacking and deviants become enemies, movements for legal restrictions are most likely. It is not the frequency of deviant acts but the symbolic import of deviance for the status of the norm which is determinative of these reactions.
social_theory  sociology  moral_psychology  norms  deviance  morality-conventional  law  legitimacy  symbolic_interaction  enemies  sub-cultures  culture  culture_wars  downloaded  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Urmi Bhowmik: Facts and Norms in the Marketplace of Print: John Dunton's Athenian Mercury (2003)
JSTOR: Eighteenth-Century Studies, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Spring, 2003), pp. 345-365 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- This essay discusses the division of knowledge within the context of a popular periodical, the Athenian Mercury (1691-1697). The separation of fields of knowledge in the Enlightenment was merely the prelude to the attempt to establish disciplines on a common basis. I trace a similar process in the Mercury', which treated questions about natural science and moral dilemmas as if they shared an analogous structure—of particular instantiations of universal laws. I argue that this identification of facts and norms constituted the public subject simultaneously as subject to the law and the authority before which the law must legitimate itself.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_history  cultural_history  17thC  1690s  publishing  Dunston  public_sphere  sociology_of_knowledge  disciplines  natural_law  natural_philosophy  moral_philosophy  norms  facts  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Amalia D. Kessler: Enforcing Virtue: Social Norms and Self-Interest in an Eighteenth-Century Merchant Court (2004)
JSTOR: Law and History Review, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Spring, 2004), pp. 71-118 -- though I don't think she frames it this way the merchant court was a sort of self-regulatory organization that imposed norms of charitable virtue where ordinary contract law would have produced anomalous results -- enforcement of community norms reduced transaction costs and supplemented trust networks which expanded the zone of profitable commerce beyond what Ancien_régime legal system would have produced -- though community norms were Christian the Court and its officials could see themselves as promoting common good as virtuous citizens in contrast with a narrow self-interest of eg caveat emptor or strict contract construction
article  jstor  legal_history  economic_history  18thC  France  commerce  merchants  norms  transaction_costs  contracts  SROs  charity  civic_virtue  bibliography  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Taxes, norms & belief equilibria | Chris Dillow
One claim of neoliberalism is that individuals are entitled to their incomes, as these are the result of work and contribution to society rather than to, say, luck or accidents ofhistory. If people believe this, then they will have lower tax morale.
Neoliberalism is performative; it doesn't just describe the world, but creates it.
norms  trust  institutional_economics  political_economy  politics-and-money  neoliberalism  social_theory 
june 2013 by dunnettreader

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