dunnettreader + networks-information   32

Michael Mann, review essay on 8 books on slavery and abolition, especially in South Asia and British Empire | H-Net Reviews - Jan 2016
Michael Mann. Review of Campbell, Gwyn; Elizabeth Elbourne, Sex, Power, and Slavery and Campbell, Gwyn; Stanziani, Alessandro, Bonded Labour and Debt in the Indian Ocean World and Harms, Robert; Freamon, Bernard K.; Blight, David W., Indian Ocean Slavery in the Age of Abolition and Major, Andrea, Slavery, Abolitionism and Empire in India, 1772-1843 and Miller, Joseph, The Problem of Slavery as History: A Global Approach and Mulligan, William; Bric, Maurice, A Global History of Anti-Slavery Politics in the Nineteenth Century and Retzlaff, Carolin, »Wont the law give me my freedom?«: Sklaverei vor Gericht (1750-1800). H-Soz-u-Kult, H-Net Reviews. January, 2016. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  social_history  economic_history  political_history  18thC  19thC  slavery  Indian_Ocean  South_Asia  British_Empire  abolition  labor_history  globalization  transnational_elites  networks-exchange  networks-information  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Nile Green - The Love of Strangers: What Six Muslim Students Learned in Jane Austen’s London | Princeton University Press
In July 1815, six Iranian students arrived in London under the escort of their chaperone, Captain Joseph D’Arcy. Their mission was to master the modern sciences behind the rapid rise of Europe. Over the next four years, they lived both the low life and high life of Regency London, from being down and out after their abandonment by D’Arcy to charming their way into society and landing on the gossip pages. Drawing on the Persian diary of the student Mirza Salih and the letters of his companions, Nile Green vividly describes how these adaptable Muslim migrants learned to enjoy the opera and take the waters at Bath. But there was more than frivolity to their student years in London. Burdened with acquiring the technology to defend Iran against Russia, they talked their way into the observatories, hospitals, and steam-powered factories that placed England at the forefront of the scientific revolution.The Love of Strangers chronicles the frustration and fellowship of six young men abroad to open a unique window onto the transformative encounter between an Evangelical England and an Islamic Iran at the dawn of the modern age. This is that rarest of books about the Middle East and the West: a story of friendships. Nile Green is professor of history at UCLA. His many books include Sufism: A Global History. -- Intro downloaded pdf to Note
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  religious_history  cultural_history  19thC  British_history  British_Empire  Industrial_Revolution  technology_transfer  Iran  Islam  London  Austen  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  networks-social  networks-information  British_foreign_policy  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Guillaume Calafat & Éric Monnet - Le retour de l’histoire économique ? - La Vie des idées - 5 janvier 2016
Le récent succès d’ouvrages d’histoire économique, alors même que cette spécialité paraît souvent négligée à l’université, ainsi que des évolutions disciplinaires simultanées, font espérer de nouveaux rapprochements entre l’histoire et l’économie. -- downloaded pdf to Note
economic_history  economic_theory  Great_Divergence  Industrial_Revolution  trade  trade-cultural_transmission  networks-information  networks-business  development  sociology_of_knowledge  economic_sociology  economic_culture  econometrics  consumer_revolution  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Translation and the Circulation of Knowledge in Early Modern Science

Friday 28 June 2013
Programme - Poster

In recent decades, scholars have offered myriad new insights into the exchange and propagation of scientific ideas in the early modern Republic of Letters. Within this vibrant field, however, the part played by translation and translators remains little studied. This colloquium will explore the role of translation in early modern science, providing a forum for discussion about translations as well as the translators, mediators, agents, and interpreters whose role in the intellectual history of the period remains ill defined and deserves greater attention.

Organized by: Sietske Fransen (Warburg Institute) and Niall Hodson (Durham University)

Keynote speaker: Sven Dupré (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science and Freie Universität Berlin)

Speakers: Felicity Henderson (Royal Society), Charles van den Heuvel (Huygens ING), Niall Hodson (Durham University), Ana Carolina Hosne (Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg), Jan van de Kamp (Independent), Clare Griffin (UCL), Margaret O. Meredith (Maastricht University), José Maria Pérez Fernandez (Universidad de Granada), Iolanda Plescia (Sapienza – Università di Roma), Fabien Simon (Université Paris Diderot – Paris 7)
history_of_science  conference  sociology_of_knowledge  video  YouTube  networks-information  translation  Republic_of_Letters  17thC  intellectual_history  natural_philosophy 
december 2015 by dunnettreader
Genius.it to Annotate the World - Brad DeLong's Grasping Reality - August 2015
Must-Read: Genius: Annotate the World: "Genius lets you add line-by-line annotations... ...to any page on the Internet. Put Genius.it/ in front of any URL (or install our Chrome extension or our…
Internet  information  knowledge_management  collaboration  research  networks-information  software  tips 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Emily Erikson : Between Monopoly and Free Trade: The English East India Company, 1600–1757 | Princeton University Press
The EIF was one of the most powerful and enduring organizations in history. "Between Monopoly and Free Trade" locates the source of that success in the innovative policy by which the Court of Directors granted employees the right to pursue their own commercial interests while in the firm’s employ. Exploring trade network dynamics, decision-making processes, and ports and organizational context, Emily Erikson demonstrates why the EIC was a dominant force in the expansion of trade between Europe and Asia, and she sheds light on the related problems of why England experienced rapid economic development and how the relationship between Europe and Asia shifted in the 18thC and 19thC.(..) Building on the organizational infrastructure of the Company and the sophisticated commercial institutions of the markets of the East, employees constructed a cohesive internal network of peer communications that directed English trading ships during their voyages. This network integrated Company operations, encouraged innovation, and increased the Company’s flexibility, adaptability, and responsiveness to local circumstance. -- assistant professor in the department of sociology and the school of management (by courtesy) at Yale University, as well as a member of the Council of South Asian Studies. -- excerpt Chapter 1 downloaded pdf to Note
books  kindle-available  buy  economic_history  business_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  British_history  British_Empire  British_foreign_policy  colonialism  imperialism  networks-business  networks-political  networks-information  networks-social  India  Indian_Ocean  Central_Asia  Chinese_history  China-international_relations  monopolies  trading_companies  trading_privileges  VOC  East_India_Company  trade  trade_finance  shipping  ports  British_Navy  business-and-politics  business_practices  business_influence  business-norms  nabobs  MPs  Board_of_Trade  Parliament  entrepreneurs  organizations  firms-structure  firms-organization  consumer_revolution  exports  Navigation_Acts  Anglo-Dutch_wars  French_foreign_policy  competition-interstate  risk-mitigation  risk_management  corporate_governance  corporate_citizenship  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Nadia Urbinati, - Between hegemony and distrust: Representative democracy in the Internet era | Reset Dialogues on Civilizations - 7 April 2014
Nadia Urbinati, Columbia University -- Iceland's crowd-sourced constitution and the impact of Beppe Grillo's blog on Italian politics reveal how "Internet democracy" has opened a new phase of democratic innovation. The relationship between citizens and politicians may never be the same again. -- see if this elaborates on some "Disfigured Democracy" ideas -- downloaded pdf to Note
political_philosophy  political_culture  democracy  democracy_deficit  democracy-direct  political_participation  legitimacy  opposition  Internet  networks-social  networks-information  networks-political  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Jürgen Habermas interviewed by Markus Schwering - Essays: Internet and Public Sphere What the Web Can't Do | Reset Dialogues on Civilizations - 24 July 2014
"After the inventions of writing and printing, digital communication represents the third great innovation on the media plane. With their introduction, these three media forms have enabled an ever growing number of people to access an ever growing mass of information. These are made to be increasingly lasting, more easily. With the last step represented by Internet we are confronted with a sort of “activation” in which readers themselves become authors. Yet, this in itself does not automatically result in progress on the level of the public sphere. [...] The classical public sphere stemmed from the fact that the attention of an anonymous public was “concentrated” on a few politically important questions that had to be regulated. This is what the web does not know how to produce. On the contrary, the web actually distracts and dispels." This is how, among many more subjects, Jürgen Habermas comments the evolution of democratic participation in the internet era. Reset-DoC is pleased to republish the translated version of a long interview published last June on the "Frankfurter Rundschau" for the philosopher's eighty-fifth birthday. -- downloaded pdf to Note
social_theory  public_sphere  information-intermediaries  printing  print_culture  Internet  communication  community-virtual  media  political_culture  political_participation  political_press  Habermas  post-secular  cultural_history  cultural_change  networks-information  networks-political  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Michael Kwass, review essay - Reassessing Enlightenment Economics - Reinert's "Translating Empire" | Books & ideas - 25 March 2013
Reviewed: Sophus A. Reinert, Translating Empire: Emulation and the Origins of Political Economy. Harvard University Press, 438 pp - Resurrecting the life of John Cary’s Essay on the State of England, a book which travelled all over Europe throughout the 18th century, S.A. Reinert challenges our understanding of Enlightenment economics, while calling for a more nuanced and historically-informed understanding of political economy in general. (..) By resurrecting the life of a text that scholars have dismissed as “mercantilist” and repositioning that work at the center of 18th-century political economy, Reinert challenges our basic understanding of Enlightenment economics, so often reduced to the free-trade doctrines of the physiocrats and Adam Smith. He argues that the diffusion of Cary’s work demonstrates that state-centered approaches to the creation of wealth enjoyed wide resonance at the very moment when discussions of economic policy were expanding beyond state chambers to engage a broader public. Far from being eclipsed by theories of laissez-faire economics, as conventional histories of economic thought would have us believe, such approaches became “the absolute mainstream in Europe” by the late 18th century -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  kindle  18thC  economic_history  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  political_economy  Enlightenment  economic_theory  mercantilism  laisser-faire  Physiocrats  Smith  British_history  British_foreign_policy  nation-state  economic_growth  development  public_policy  public_goods  government-roles  Italy  Austria  Germany  readership  history_of_book  print_culture  information-intermediaries  networks-information  networks-business  networks-policy  Republic_of_Letters  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Video - Robert C. Merton (2014) : Measuring the Connectedness of the Financial System: Implications for Systemic Risk Measurement and Management
Abstract -- Macrofinancial systemic risk is an enormous issue for both governments and large asset pools. The increasing globalization of the financial system, while surely a positive for economic development and growth, does increase the potential impact of systemic risk propagation across geopolitical borders, making its control and repairing the damage caused a more complex and longer process. (..) . The Financial Crisis of 2008-2009 and the subsequent European Debt Crisis were centered around credit risk, particularly credit risk of financial institutions and sovereigns, and the interplay of the two. The propagation of credit risk among financial institutions and sovereigns is related to the degree of “connectedness” among them. The effective measurement of potential systemic risk exposures from credit risk may allow the realization of that risk to be avoided through policy actions. Even if it is not feasible to avoid the systemic effects, the impact of those effects on the economy may be reduced by dissemination of that information and subsequent actions to protect against those effects and to subsequently repair the damage more rapidly. This paper applies the structural credit models of finance to develop a model of systemic risk propagation among financial institutions and sovereigns. Tools for applying the model for measuring connectedness and its dynamic changes are presented using network theory and econometric techniques. Unlike other methods that require accounting or institutional positions data as inputs for determining connectedness, the approach taken here develops a reduced-form model applying only capital market data to implement it. Thus, this model can be refreshed almost continuously with “forward-looking” data at low cost and therefore, may be more effective in identifying dynamic changes in connectedness more rapidly than the traditional models. This new research is still in progress. (..) In particular, it holds promise for creating endogenously specified stress test formulations. The talk closes with some discussion of the importance of a more integrated approach to monetary, fiscal and stability policies so as to better recognize the unintended consequences of policy actions in one of these on the others.
video  financial_system  financial_economics  financial_crisis  risk-systemic  networks-financial  networks-information  macroprudential_policies  macroprudential_regulation 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Lucie Campos interview with Gisèle Sapiro - Geopolitics of Translation in Social Sciences and Humanities - Books & ideas - March 2015 (French original 2014)
Translated by Lucy Garnier -- Tags : translation | publishing | Bourdieu -- As publishing markets become increasingly international, sociology looks at the translation of work in the social sciences and humanities. Gisèle Sapiro shows the effects that the crossover between the academic and publishing spheres has on translation practices. -- Gisèle Sapiro is Director of the European Centre for Sociology and Political Science. She edited the collective volumes Pierre Bourdieu, sociologue (Fayard: 2004) and Pour une histoire des sciences sociales (Fayard: 2004) and has written several books of reference on the sociology of knowledge production, the intellectual field, and the international circulation of ideas, including Translatio. Le marché de la traduction en France à l’heure de la mondialisation (CNRS: 2008), Les Contradictions de la globalisation éditoriale (Nouveau Monde: 2009), and L’Espace intellectuel en Europe, XIXe-XXIe siècles: de la formation des États-nations à la mondialisation (La Découverte: 2009). The author and her research team have published a series of reports on literary exchange in the era of globalisation. After Traduire la littérature et les sciences humaines and Paris-New York the latest of these accounts, "Les Sciences humaines et sociales françaises en traduction" published online in July 2014, presents some of the directions taken by the European project she is coordinating on international cooperation in the social sciences and humanities. -' saved in Instapaper
19thC  20thC  21stC  Republic_of_Letters  intellectual_history  translation  social_theory  sociology_of_knowledge  networks  networks-information  intelligentsia  literary_theory  cultural_influence  cultural_exchange  language-national  humanities  publishing  academia  social_sciences  social_sciences-post-WWII  globalization  cosmopolitanism  circulation-ideas  Bourdieu  Foucault  Derrida  humanities-finance  social_sciences-finance  education-higher  education-finance  universal_language-Latin  universal_language-English  books  Instapaper  from instapaper
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Tim Neff, review - Andrew Pettegree, The Invention of News: How the World Came to Know About Itself | Public Books — April 2015
How did we go from that to the news as we now know it, broadcast across the globe and in cycles measured in milliseconds? Pettegree, a professor of modern history at the University of St. Andrews, in Scotland, finds answers by linking the emergence of news as a mass commodity to Western Europe’s development of communications networks between the 15th and 18th centuries. This network perspective decenters news as a singular object. Instead, what we get is a richly detailed history that shows the invention of news as a messy cultural process, with abrupt turns and setbacks. Major advances in information networks were quickly followed by retreats. Printers would reinvent news, only to fold a year or two later. When newspapers first appeared, a mass readership had to learn how to read brief accounts that provided much less context than the narrative histories with which they were familiar. Pettegree’s history of news suggests that crisis has shadowed journalism from the start. The Invention of News divides the earliest stirrings of modern news into three epochs, starting with the 15th and early 16th centuries, when the printing press spurred the transition from largely private news networks to the earliest forms of public news industries. Next, in the 16th and early 17th centuries, improved communications networks enabled the news to spread faster and to more people at less cost. Finally, in the 17th and 18th centuries, advertising expanded circulations, and Enlightenment ideals brought an empirical approach to news that led it to shed moral overtones.
books  reviews  kindle-available  cultural_history  cultural_change  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  Europe-Early_Modern  news  newspapers  publishing  readership  journalism  communication  information  information-markets  Enlightenment  mass_culture  networks-information  public_sphere  disinformation  witchcraft  public_opinion  public_disorder 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Emmanuelle de Champs - Enlightenment and Utility: Bentham in French, Bentham in France (to be released March 2015) | Ideas in Context series | Cambridge University Press
Jeremy Bentham (..) was a seminal figure in the history of modern political thought. This lively monograph presents the numerous French connections of an emblematic British thinker. (..) Placing Bentham's thought in the context of the French-language Enlightenment through to the post-Revolutionary era, (..) the case for a historical study of 'Global Bentham'. Examining previously unpublished sources, she traces the circulation of Bentham's letters, friends, manuscripts, and books in the French-speaking world. (..) transnational intellectual history reveals how utilitarianism, as a doctrine, was both the product of, and a contribution to, French-language political thought at a key time(..). The debates (re) utilitarianism in France cast new light on the making of modern Liberalism. **--** Intro **--** Part I. An Englishman in the Republic of Letters: 1. Languages of Enlightenment *-* 2. Satire and polemics *-* 3. Defining utilitarianism: private connections and correspondence **--** Part II. 'Projet d'un corps de loix complet' and the Reform of Jurisprudence in Europe: 4. The Genesis of Projet *-* 5. Projet in Enlightenment legal thought *-* 6. The politics of legal reform **--** Part III. Reflections for the Revolution in France: 7. Frenchmen and Francophiles: Lord Lansdowne's network *-* 8. British expertise for French legislators *-* 9. Utility, rights and revolution: missed encounters? **--** Part IV. Utile Dulcis? Bentham in Paris, 1802: 10. Dumont's editorship: from the Bibliothèque Britannique to Traités de législation civile et pénale *-* 11. A mixed reception *-* 12. Autumn 1802: Bentham in Paris **--** Part V. Liberty, Utility and Rights (1815–1832): 13. 'For one disciple in this country, I have 50 at least in France' *-* 14. Utilitarian arguments in French politics *-* 15. A Utilitarian moment? French liberals and utilitarianism *-* Epilogue: Bentham in the July Revolution *-* Conclusion -- marketing materials not yet available
books  find  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_economy  legal_theory  18thC  19thC  British_history  France  French_Enlightenment  Enlightenment  Bentham  utilitarianism  utility  reform-political  reform-social  reform-legal  reform-economic  jurisprudence  civil_code  Republic_of_Letters  networks-policy  networks-information  Anglo-French  British_foreign_policy  diplomats  diplomacy-environment  francophile  Landsdowne_Marquis_of  faction  British_politics  patrons  patronage  elite_culture  cross-border  cultural_history  cultural_influence  technical_assistance  criminal_justice  liberalism  rights-legal  rights-political  civil_law  civil_liberties  civil_society  French_Revolutionary_Wars  Peace_of_Amiens  Napoleonic_Wars  Restoration-France  bourgeoisie  July_Monarchy  legal_reasoning  positivism-legal 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
JAMES LIVESEY, Review Essay - BERKELEY, IRELAND AND 18thC INTELLECTUAL HISTORY (Dec 2014) | Modern Intellectual History - Cambridge Journals Online
Department of History, School of Humanities, University of Dundee -- Books reviewed: (1) Marc A. Hight ed., The Correspondence of George Berkeley (Cambridge University Press, 2013), (2) Scott Breuninger , Recovering Bishop Berkeley: Virtue and Society in the Anglo-Irish Context (Palgrave, 2010), (3) Daniel Carey and Christopher J. Finlay , eds., The Empire of Credit: The Financial Revolution and the British Atlantic World, 1688–1815 (Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2011) -- 18thC Irish intellectual history has enjoyed a revival in recent years. New scholarly resources, such as the Hoppen edition of the papers of the Dublin Philosophical Society and the recently published Berkeley correspondence, have been fundamental to that revival. Since 1986 the journal Eighteenth-Century Ireland: Iris an dá chultúr has sponsored a complex conversation on the meaning and legacy of the 18thC in Irish history. Work in the journal and beyond deploying “New British” and Atlantic histories, as well as continuing attention to Europe, has helped to enrich scholarly understanding of the environments in which Irish people thought and acted. The challenge facing historians of Ireland has been to find categories of analysis that could comprehend religious division and acknowledge the centrality of the confessional state without reducing all Irish experience to sectarian conflict. Clearly the thought of the Irish Catholic community could not be approached without an understanding of the life of the Continental Catholic Church. Archivium Hibernicum has been collecting and publishing the traces of that history for a hundred years and new digital resources such as the Irish in Europe database have extended that work in new directions. The Atlantic and “New British” contexts have been more proximately important for the Protestant intellectual tradition. -- paywall
articles  books  reviews  paywall  intellectual_history  18thC  Ireland  Protestants-Ireland  Catholics-Ireland  Berkeley  Anglo-Irish_constitution  British_politics  reform-social  reformation_of_manners  virtue_ethics  civic_virtue  Protestant_Ascendancy  Whigs-oligarchy  Church_of_England  Church_of_Ireland  patronage  networks-political  networks-social  networks-information  fiscal-military_state  public_finance  taxes  credit  financial_innovation  financial_sector_development  economic_history  political_economy  politics-and-religion  politics-and-money 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Stephanie Snow, review - Michael Brown, Performing Medicine: Medical Culture and Identity in Provincial England, c.1760-1850 (Manchester University Press, 2011) | Reviews in History
Dr Stephanie Snow, Centre for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine, University of Manchester -- Brown takes a cultural historical approach (..) the ways in which medical identity and culture were transformed over the period from the late 18thC importance of liberal learning and the values of gentility and politeness to the early 19thC focus on vocationally specific forms of knowledge and association. (..) Through a case study of the social and intellectual activities of medical practitioners in the city of York, (..) crucial shifts in the culture of medicine between the 1760s and the 1850s. York (..) a geographical midway point between two key medical metropolises – London and Edinburgh; it did not experience the transformations associated with the processes of industrialization; yet it was shaped by many of the specific characteristics of the period such as political factionalism, the urban renaissance movement and ideologies of socio-scientific progressivism. (..) the ways through which medical practitioners fashioned their identities through public displays of knowledges such as botany, natural history, poetry and literature. Improvements in the health of the population (..) were principally due to the civic improvements in York such as paving and new drains as well as inoculation and other medical advances. [In the later 1830s] successive enactments of medical identity and authority set the stage for a new compact between medicine and society in which medical practitioners were nationally cast as experts in medical science with a collective desire and duty to alleviate disease and suffering. The transformations (..) are underlined by the public’s acceptance of the Medical School’s authority, under the provisions of the Anatomy Act, to dissect the body of a local man who had drowned in the river Ouse in 1835. Only 3 years earlier, (..) popular resistance to such activities during the cholera epidemic was high indeed. (..)case for the relevance of this history to the present dilemmas and controversies over professionalism and medicine and rightly stresses the social and political contingency of medical ideas and values. -- downloaded as pdf to Note
books  reviews  18thC  19thC  British_history  cultural_history  history_of_science  medicine  professionalization  scientific_culture  public_health  politeness  gentility  networks-social  networks-information  authority  improvement  urbanization  education-training  education-professional  public_policy  public_opinion  status  self-fashioning  identity  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Project VRM (Vendor Relationship Management) | Wiki Main Page
R&D connected to the various Harvard internet-related programs (at eg HLS, HBS) -- VRM tools provide customers with both independence from vendors and better ways of engaging with vendors. The same tools can also support individuals' relations with schools, churches, government entities and other kinds of organizations. -- VRM is part of a larger picture as well. Perhaps the best name and description for that larger picture is Life Management Platforms, coined by Martin Kuppinger of Kuppinger Cole. He describes them this way: "Life Management Platforms will change the way individuals deal with sensitive information like their health data, insurance data, and many other types of information – information that today frequently is paper-based or, when it comes to personal opinions, only in the mind of the individuals. They will enable new approaches for privacy- and security-aware sharing of that information, without the risk of losing control of that information.
Internet  privacy  e-commerce  cyberlaw  networks-information  technology  open_source  networks-business  net_neutrality  internet-protocols  business_practices  website 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Michael Sallah, Robert O’Harrow Jr., Steven Rich - 3-part WaPo Investigation: "Stop and Seize on America's highways" | The Washington Post September 2014
Part 1: In recent years, thousands of people have had cash confiscated by police without being charged with crimes. -- Part 2: One training firm started a private intelligence-sharing network and helped shape law enforcement nationwide. -- Part 3: Motorists caught up in the seizures talk about the experience and the legal battles that sometimes took more than a year. **--** After the terror attacks on 9/11, the government called on police to become the eyes and ears of homeland security on America’s highways. Local officers, county deputies and state troopers were encouraged to act more aggressively in searching for suspicious people, drugs and other contraband. Dept Homeland Security and DOJ spent millions on police training. The effort succeeded, but it had an impact that has been largely hidden from public view: the spread of an aggressive brand of policing that has spurred the seizure of $100s millions in cash from motorists and others not charged with crimes. Thousands of people have been forced to fight legal battles to get their money back. Behind the rise in seizures is a cottage industry of private police-training firms that teach the techniques of “highway interdiction” to departments across the country. One firm created a private intelligence network that enabled police nationwide to share detailed reports about motorists — criminals and the innocent alike — including their Social Security numbers, addresses and identifying tattoos, as well as hunches about which drivers to stop. Many of the reports have been funneled to federal agencies and fusion centers as part of the government’s burgeoning law enforcement intelligence systems — despite warnings from state and federal authorities that the information could violate privacy and constitutional protections. A thriving subculture of road officers on the network now competes to see who can seize the most cash and contraband, describing their exploits in the network’s chat rooms and sharing “trophy shots” of money and drugs. Some police advocate highway interdiction as a way of raising revenue for cash-strapped municipalities.
US_society  US_constitution  US_foreign_policy  US_legal_system  US_politics-race  national_security  judiciary  local_government  state_government  government_finance  police  privacy  networks-information  power-asymmetric  abuse_of_power  public-private_partnerships  crime  criminal_justice  civil_liberties  terrorism  due_process  property-confiscations  intelligence_agencies  militarization-society  incentives  civil_society  governmentality  government_officials  authoritarian  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - The Case Against Free Speech (July 2014 working paper) :: SSRN
Free societies employ a variety of institutions — including courts and schools — in which speech is heavily regulated on the basis of its content ... in order to promote other desirable ends, including discovery of the truth. I illustrate this with the case of courts and rules of evidence. Three differences between courts and the polity might seem to counsel against extending that approach more widely. First, the courtroom has an official and somewhat reliable (as well as reviewable) arbiter of the epistemic merits, while the polity may not. Second, no other non-epistemic values of speech are at stake in the courtroom, whereas they are in the polity. Third, the courtroom’s jurisdiction is temporally limited in a way the polity’s may not be. I argue that only the first of these poses a serious worry about speech regulation outside select institutions like courts. I also argue for viewing "freedom of speech" like "freedom of action": speech, like everything else human beings do, can be for good or ill... and thus the central question in free speech jurisprudence should really be how to regulate speech effectively — to minimize its very real harms, without undue cost to its positive values — rather than rationalizing (often fancifully) the supposed special value of speech. In particular, I argue against autonomy-based defenses of a robust free speech principle. I conclude that the central issue in free speech jurisprudence is not about speech but about institutional competence; I offer some reasons — from the Marxist "left" and the public choice "right"— for being skeptical that capitalist democracies have the requisite competence; and make some suggestive but inconclusive remarks about how these defects might be remedied. - No of Pages: 41
paper  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  political_philosophy  free_speech  Mill  Hayek  Adorno  Frankfurt_School  Kant  Kant-ethics  Marx  autonomy  networks-information  evidence  epistemology-social  education  regulation  public_choice  public_sphere  public_opinion  political_participation  competition 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
"Toward an Ecology of Intellectual Property: Lessons from Environmental" by Frank Pasquale | 8 Yale Journal of Law and Technology 78 (2006)
Keywords -- copyright, intellectual property, environmental, economics -- The fair use defense in copyright law shields an intellectual commons of protected uses of copyrighted material from infringement actions. In determining whether a given use is fair, courts must assess the new use's potential effect on the market for the copyrighted work. Fair use jurisprudence too often fails to address the complementary, network, and long-range effects of new technologies on the market for copyrighted works. These effects parallel the indirect, direct, and option values of biodiversity recently recognized by environmental economists. Their sophisticated methods for valuing natural resources in tangible commons can inform legal efforts to address the intellectual commons' effect on the market for copyrighted works. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  legal_theory  IP  copyright  Internet  political_economy  economic_theory  environment  commons  property  property_rights  networks-information  technology  valuation  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Kurtuluş Gemici - Uncertainty, the problem of order, and markets: a critique of Beckert, "Theory and Society", May 2009 | JSTOR: Theory and Society, Vol. 41, No. 1 (January 2012), pp. 107-118
Jens Beckert's 2009 article on the constitution and dynamics of markets is a bold attempt to define a novel research agenda. Deeming uncertainty and coordination essential for the constitution of social action in markets, Beckert proposes a framework centered on the resolution of three coordination problems: valuation, cooperation, and competition. The empirical study of these three coordination problems has the potential to contribute considerably to the sociological analysis of markets. However, the assertion that such a theoretical vantage point can explain the constitution and dynamics of markets is not compelling because it (1) conflates social interaction with social structures, (2) fails to address power relations, institutions, and macro-level structures, and (3) neglects the historically contingent and socially contested nature of markets themselves. The present article shows that these three pitfalls are the result of starting from the problem of order and building upon uncertainty as the basis of action in markets, lending the suggested framework a methodologically individualist bent. Therefore, Beckert's suggested framework is in danger of mystifying the very power relations, institutions, and macro-level structures that are at the heart of the constitution and dynamics of markets. -- paywall -- see bibliography on jstor information page
article  jstor  paywall  economic_sociology  markets  institutions  networks-exchange  networks-information  networks-business  action-social  power  microfoundations  agency-structure  bibliography 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Jonathan Den Hartog - Trans-Atlantic Anti-Jacobinism: Reaction and Religion | Project MUSE - Early American Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal Volume 11, Issue 1, Winter 2013 pp. 133-145
This article identifies an important transnational political ideology and identity in the Atlantic world in the 1790s-1810s: trans-Atlantic Anti-Jacobinism. Opposition to the French Revolution, although present in individual nations, gained force and variety through connections forged between individuals from the European Continent to Great Britain, Canada, and the United States. Lines of communication that were formed through the practices of writing and printing, correspondence, diplomacy, and travel kept the movement unified against a common enemy. The two most salient elements of this Anti-Jacobinism were concerns over political reaction and religion or, stated differently, vigorous defenses of the established political order and the received religious belief, Protestant or Catholic Christianity. Interlocked, these two main concerns of Anti-Jacobins inspired active response. Ironically, a desire to defend individual nations, political arrangements, and faith traditions led to a political alignment that crossed national boundaries and bound individuals together in a common cause. The formation and operation of Anti-Jacobinism thus occurred simultaneously on subnational and supranational levels, demonstrating the multiple valences of political opinion in the Age of Revolutions. -- paywall
article  Project_MUSE  paywall  18thC  19thC  political_history  political_culture  politics-and-religion  political_press  counter-revolution  Counter-Enlightenment  anti-Jacobin  networks-information  networks-policy  diplomatic_history  Atlantic  public_sphere  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Audrey Horning, Ireland in the Virginian Sea: British colonialism in the Atlantic (2013) | UNC Press -
In the late 16thC, the English started expanding westward, establishing control over parts of neighboring Ireland as well as exploring and later colonizing distant North America. Audrey Horning deftly examines the relationship between British colonization efforts in both locales, depicting their close interconnection as fields for colonial experimentation. Focusing on the Ulster Plantation in the north of Ireland and the Jamestown settlement in the Chesapeake, she challenges the notion that Ireland merely served as a testing ground for British expansion into North America. Horning instead analyzes the people, financial networks, and information that circulated through and connected English plantations on either side of the Atlantic. In addition, Horning explores English colonialism from the perspective of the Gaelic Irish and Algonquian societies and traces the political and material impact of contact. The focus on the material culture of both locales yields a textured specificity to the complex relationships between natives and newcomers while exposing the lack of a determining vision or organization in early English colonial projects. -- She is professor of archaeology and director of research for Past Cultural Change at Queen's University Belfast. This is her fifth book.
books  16thC  17thC  British_history  British_politics  British_Empire  American_colonies  Ireland  colonialism  networks-business  networks-information  plantations  Irish-Gaelic  Native_Americans 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Eric Steinhart - Royce's Model of the Absolute | JSTOR: Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society, Vol. 48, No. 3 (Spring 2012), pp. 356-384
At the end of the 19th century, Royce uses the mathematical ideas of his day to describe the Absolute as a self-representative system. Working closely with Royce's texts, I will develop a model of the Absolute that is both more thoroughly formalized and that is stated in contemporary mathematical language. As I develop this more formal model, I will show how structures found within it are similar to structures widely discussed in current analytic metaphysics. The model contains structures found in the recent analytic metaphysics of modality; it contains Democritean worlds as defined by Quine; it contains Turing-computable sequences; and it contains networks of interacting software objects as defined by Dennett. Much of the content of recent analytic metaphysics is already implicit in Royce's study of the Absolute. Far from being an obsolete system of historical interest only, Royce's metaphysics is remarkably relevant today. -- paywall
article  jstor  paywall  intellectual_history  19thC  US  pragmatism  idealism  mathematics  Absolute  analytical_philosophy  Quine  metaphysics  systems-self-representative  Dennett  networks-information  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Petru L. Curşeu, Steffie E. A. Janssen and Jörg Raab - Connecting the dots: social network structure, conflict, and group cognitive complexity | JSTOR: Higher Education, Vol. 63, No. 5 (May 2012), pp. 621-629
The current paper combines arguments from the social capital and group cognition literature to explain two different processes through which communication network structures and intra group conflict influence groups' cognitive complexity (GCC). We test in a sample of 44 groups the mediating role of intra group conflict in the relationship between communication network density and fragmentation on the one hand and groups' cognitive complexity on the other hand. The results show that network fragmentation has a positive effect on GCC by fostering task conflict, while network density has a positive impact on GCC by reducing relationship conflict in student groups. The paper makes an important contribution to both theory and practice in the field of collaborative learning, by exploring how groups' affective and a cognitive dynamics impact on emergent collective cognitive structures. -- paywall -- see bibliography on jstor information page -- may be interesting for differentiating political party configuration, problems, success and failures from Popish_Plot through fall of Walpole
article  jstor  paywall  social_theory  groups-conflict  groups-cognition  networks-social  networks-information  networks-architecture  Bolingbroke  bibliography  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Contents | Yi-Cheng Zhang - The Structure of Information Economy [book chapter drafts]
TOC and links to chapter drafts. Zhang is at Fribourg, a physicist who uses Soros reflexivity insights as part of top level Darwinian inflected theory of NESS - non-equilibrium social sciences.
books  philosophy_of_social_science  economic_theory  evolution-as-model  evolution-social  Soros  reflexivity  information-markets  information-asymmetric  cognition  cognition-social  fallibility  Innovation  marketing  networks-social  supply_chains  equilibrium  networks-information  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Yi-Cheng Zhang :: Broader scopes of the reflexivity principle in the economy - Journal of Economic Methodology [Soros special issue] - Volume 20, Issue 4 -Taylor & Francis Online
pages 446-453 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- The reflexivity principle of George Soros – that man's fallible understanding can have reflexivity impacts that shape reality – challenges mainstream economics in a fundamental way. This essay will outline a research program that corroborates the reflexivity principle and extends it to broader economic issues. We shall often use examples of consumer and finance markets, but the implications go beyond these examples. The following eight sections build up our main thesis that reflexivity plays an essential role in understanding the economy. -- see bookmark for his draft book on information economy (Oxford 2014 or 2015) and the project he leads on NESS non-equilibrium social sciences
article  philosophy_of_social_science  economic_theory  evolution-as-model  evolution-social  Soros  reflexivity  information-markets  information-asymmetric  cognition  cognition-social  fallibility  Innovation  marketing  networks-social  supply_chains  equilibrium  networks-information  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader

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