dunnettreader + natural_rights   63

Alan Greer - Commons and Enclosure in the Colonization of North America | American Historical Review
On Junto March Madness list - The American Historical Review (2012) 117 (2): 365-386. doi: 10.1086/ahr.117.2.365 - WHAT WERE THE BROAD PROCESSES by which settlers of European stock created new forms of tenure and wrested control of lands from indigenous peoples, first in the Americas and later across wide stretches of Africa and Oceania? Anyone interested in this basic question about colonization and dispossession in an Atlantic world setting may be tempted to think in terms of a great “enclosure movement” that took shape first in England and Western Europe and then extended overseas to the New World, bringing survey lines, fences, and legal rules fostering exclusive access and transferability. More than one historian has pointed in the direction of such an extended conception of enclosure, although none has so far made the case in detail. (...) In relation to the 18thC and 19thC, EP Thompson has also pointed to a connection between enclosure within England and the imposition of private property across the overseas British Empire, notably in India, where the Permanent Settlement of Bengal (1793) represented a particularly brutal and doctrinaire attempt to establish unitary proprietorship over land. Thompson's argument about enclosure and colonization appeared in an essay published late in his life, (...). Richly suggestive, it remains schematic and preliminary, pointing to a long‐term global movement to privatize the commons that emanated outward from the British Isles. Certainly, there is an intriguing, if rough, coincidence of peak periods of enclosure in England—the Tudor period and the late 18thC—with times of imperial expansion and reinvigoration. - good tour d'horizon of lit on settler colonialism as well as East Asia property relations creation - and different takes on Locke - downloaded pdf to Note
article  economic_history  social_history  legal_history  British_Empire  settler_colonies  property  property_rights  commons  enclosure  property-confiscations  North_America  American_colonies  Australia  New_Zealand  India  India-British_Empire  political_economy  political_history  historiography  Locke-2_Treatises  natural_law  natural_rights  political_philosophy  political_culture  democracy  downloaded 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Spencer J. Pack, Eric Schliesser - Smith's Humean Criticism of Hume's Account of the Origin of Justice (2006) | Project MUSE
From: Journal of the History of Philosophy, Volume 44, Number 1, January 2006 pp. 47-63 | 10.1353/hph.2006.0004 *--* It is argued that Adam Smith criticizes David Hume's account of the origin of and continuing adherence to the rule of law for being not sufficiently Humean. ["Humean" is used for his tendency to use proto-evolutionary explanations of social phenomena in terms of psychological and material factors acting on individuals rather than rationalistic explanations] Hume explained that adherence to the rule of law originated in the self-interest to restrain self-interest. [Treatise 3.2.2,13-14, 316] [Smith says Hume's account is "too refined - TMS II, ii.3.5 ] According to Smith, Hume does not pay enough attention to the "unsocial" passion of resentment and the passion of admiration, which have their source in the imagination. Smith's offers a more naturalistic and evolutionary account [more Humean than Hume] of the psychological pre-conditions of the establishment and morality of justice. Yet, Smith's account also makes room for a thin conception of Lockean natural right to property, while rejecting the contractualist and rationalistic elements in Locke. It emerges that Smith severs the intimate connection that Hobbes and Hume made between justice and property. - paywall
article  paywall  intellectual_history  moral_philosophy  human_nature  18thC  Smith  Hume  justice  passions  imagination  resentment  property  property_rights  self-interest  Hobbes  self-protection  Locke-2_Treatises  natural_law  natural_rights 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Robert Pippin - The Unavailability of the Ordinary: Strauss on the Philosophical Fate of Modernity | JSTOR- Political Theory (2003)
Political Theory, Vol. 31, No. 3 (Jun., 2003), pp. 335-358 -- In Natural Right and History Leo Strauss argues for the continuing "relevance " of the classical understanding of natural right. Since this relevance is not a matter of a direct return, or a renewed appreciation that a neglected doctrine is simply true, the meaning of this claim is somewhat elusive. But it is clear enough that the core of Strauss's argument for that relevance is a claim about the relation between human experience and philosophy. Strauss argues that the classical understanding articulates and is continuous with the "lived experience" of engaged participants in political life, the ordinary, and he argues (in a way quite similar to claims in Heidegger) that such an ordinary or everyday point of view has been "lost." The author presents here an interpretation and critique of such a claim. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  Strauss  modernity  natural_rights  ancient_philosophy  political_culture  Heidegger  liberalism  liberalism-post-WWII  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Samuel Moyn review of Larry Siedentop's Invention of the Individual" - Did Christianity Create Liberalism? | Boston Review
Very interesting re the (19thC) "French" approach to liberalism -- historicist stressing process, contingency. Contrast with Anglo-Saxon social contract that takes the individual as its (unexamined) premiss, as does economic theory based on satisfying individual preferences etc. LS wrote an important article on the French approach. So Moyn sees LS as working to update and revise Guizot. Problem is LS (and all those claiming Christianity the basis of individual "natural rights") can't explain how the next world focus of Jesus and Paul became a this-world focus with the role of the individual as foundational. Moyn critiques the steps LS takes starting with the moral revolution of Augustine and working through the Middle Ages.
theology  natural_law  France  Instapaper  liberty  medieval_history  political_philosophy  Augustine  Guizot  liberalism  social_theory  historiography-19thC  individualism  medieval_philosophy  reviews  EF-add  social_contract  Constant  books  natural_rights  intellectual_history  moral_philosophy  Augustinian  kindle-available  19thC  from instapaper
december 2015 by dunnettreader
Cédric Rio, review - Pierre Crétois, Le Renversement de l’individualisme possessif: de Hobbes à l’État social Droit de propriété et intérêt collectif - La Vie des idées - 24 août 2015
Recensé : Pierre Crétois, Le Renversement de l’individualisme possessif : de Hobbes à l’État social, Paris, Classiques Garnier, 2014, 356 p.-- Mots-clés : propriété | libéralisme | solidarité | républicanisme -- En France l’idée que la propriété est un droit naturel émerge et triomphe au XVIIIe siècle, sous l’impulsion des physiocrates. C’est une telle conception que le mouvement solidariste critiquera un siècle plus tard afin de promouvoir l’État social. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  French_language  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  18thC  19thC  French_Enlightenment  Physiocrats  Hobbes  Locke-2_Treatises  Rousseau  property  property_rights  individualism  individualism-possessive  republicanism  common_good  solidarity  socialism  socialism-19thC  social_contract  social_movements  political_economy  political_press  economic_theory  liberalism  liberalism-19thC  welfare_state  natural_law  natural_rights  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Forum - Samuel Moyn's "Christian human rights" - overview page | The Immanent Frame
In 2010, Samuel Moyn published The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History, which offered an alternative historical explanation for the origins of human rights. He rejected narratives that viewed human rights as a long-term historical product of the Judeo-Christian tradition, The French Revolution, or Enlightenment rationalism, arguing that human rights as it is now understood began to emerge only during the 1970s. Prior to this, according to Moyn, rights were connected to the nation-state and had nothing to do with an international standard of morality or justice. In addressing critiques of The Last Utopia, Moyn has given considerable attention to the relationship between human rights and religion, conceding that there is, undoubtedly, a relationship between Christianity—Catholicism in particular—and human rights, but arguing that the “death of Christian Europe” by the 1960s “forced a complete reinvention of the meaning of human rights embedded in European identity both formally and really since the war”. Contributors offer their thoughts on Moyn’s article “Personalism, Community, and the Origins of Human Rights,” which became a central focus (see excerpt) in his forthcoming book, Christian Human Rights (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015). Contributors also respond to “Christian Human Rights,” the introductory essay written for this series. -- downloaded pdfs but their footnotes and links don't work, so collected them in Evernote them
books  intellectual_history  narrative-contested  bad_history  intellectual_history-distorted  religious_history  church_history  moral_philosophy  theology  human_rights  natural_rights  medieval_philosophy  Europe-Medieval  Enlightenment  Enlightenment_Project  Enlightenment-ongoing  French_Revolution  IR  Europe  20thC  WWI  WWII  entre_deux_guerres  post-Cold_War  post-colonial  nation-state  genocide  Holocaust  UN  international_law  natural_law  law_of_nations  law_of_the_sea  justice  jurisprudence  philosophy_of_law  political_philosophy  political_culture  democracy  equality  liberty  Christendom  Judeo-Christian  links  Evernote 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Dan Priel - Toward Classical Legal Positivism (Symposium - Jurisprudence and (Its) History) | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 987 (2015)
I have two major aims: (1) set the historical record straight(...) Hobbes’s and Bentham’s work that seeks to understand their views on law not by isolating it from the rest of their wide-ranging body of work, but by understanding their jurisprudential work as part of a broader project. (2) My main aim is to contribute to contemporary jurisprudential debates and to suggest that the largely neglected approach of earlier positivists is superior to the view held by most contemporary legal positivists. (...) to what extent it is useful for us to call Hobbes and Bentham “legal positivists.” My answer to this question consists of three interrelated points. The first is that we draw an explicit link between their ideas and the view that (some time later) would come to be known as “positivism,” roughly the view that the methods of the “human sciences” are essentially the same as those of the natural sciences. The second point is that the classical legal positivists’ decisive break with natural law ideas prevalent in their day is to be found exactly here, in their views about metaphysics and nature. The third point is that this aspect of their work has been, in my view regrettably, abandoned by contemporary legal positivists. Though all three points are related, in this Article I will say relatively little about the first point, as I discussed it in greater detail elsewhere. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_law  jurisprudence  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  Hobbes  Bentham  natural_law  natural_rights  positivism-legal  analytical_philosophy  metaphysics  natural_philosophy  nature  human_nature  scientific_method  social_theory  social_sciences  positivism  positive_law  Methodenstreit  methodology-quantitative  epistemology  sociology_of_knowledge  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Jeffrey A. Pojanowski - Positivism(s): A Commentary on Priel's "Toward Classical Legal Positivism" | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 1023 (2015)
Anglo-American jurisprudence, before it insulated itself in conceptual analysis and defined itself in opposition to broader questions, was properly a “sociable science,” to use Professor Postema’s phrase from his symposium article. And, in part due to the exemplars of history, so it may become again. By drawing on Bentham and Hobbes, Professor Dan Priel’s Toward Classical Positivism points forward toward more fruitful methods of jurisprudence while illuminating the recent history and current state of inquiry. His article demonstrates the virtues and promise of a more catholic approach to jurisprudence. It also raises challenging questions about the direction to take this rediscovered path, and I am not sure I always agree with his suggested answers. Any misgivings I have about Priel’s particular approach, however, do not diminish my appreciation; I find even the points of disagreement to be live and meaningful, and that itself is refreshing. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_law  jurisprudence  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  Hobbes  Bentham  natural_law  natural_rights  positivism-legal  analytical_philosophy  metaphysics  natural_philosophy  nature  human_nature  scientific_method  social_theory  social_sciences  positivism  positive_law  Methodenstreit  methodology-quantitative  epistemology  sociology_of_knowledge  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Alice Ristroph - Sovereignty and Subversion (Symposium - Jurisprudence and (Its) History) | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 1029 (2015)
Hobbes’s account of law, like his account of punishment, does not fit well into our existing scholarly categories. (..). He was neither a legal positivist nor a natural law theorist, at least not as we usually use these labels. He adopted neither a retributive nor a consequentialist justification of punishment. Yet his account of human interaction, particularly with respect to law and punishment, captures actual experience better than the more familiar alternatives. Moreover, the space for subversion in Hobbes’s theory may make his account more normatively appealing than it has seemed to modern liberals. (...) 3 questions about Hobbesian theory: What is law? What is its relationship to punishment? And what are the implications of Hobbes’s theory for contemporary efforts to describe law or the relationship of law to punishment? The first (..) Hobbes’s legal theory is still so widely mischaracterized, sometimes even by Hobbes scholars, that it is worth returning to his claims. The second question has received much less attention, perhaps because a right to resist punishment seems so discordant with the authoritarian Hobbes we know, or think we know. And the third question has received still less attention, for contemporary jurisprudence scholarship rarely cites anyone who wrote before Jeremy Bentham and John Austin. I hope to show that, in many instances, Hobbes has been misread; even more importantly, I hope to persuade scholars of jurisprudence that what Hobbes actually said is worthy of their engagement. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jurisprudence  philosophy_of_law  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  Hobbes  17thC  political_philosophy  social_theory  natural_law  natural_rights  positivism-legal  sovereignty  authority  obligation  punishment  resistance  liberalism  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Mark C. Murphy - A Commentary on Ristroph’s “Sovereignty and Subversion” | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 1055 (2015)
She is correct in rejecting the assimilation of Hobbes’s legal theory to Austin’s, and in noting the strands of Hobbes’s view that disqualify him from counting as any sort of legal positivist. And I agree, on the whole, with her characterization of Hobbes’s account of justified punishment, and that this account has its attractions yet produces some puzzles which Hobbes does not fully resolve. My disagreements are with her second-order characterization of Hobbes’s legal theory. I want to discuss two related areas of disagreement. The first disagreement concerns whether we should assess Hobbes’s account of law in terms of the standards of general descriptive jurisprudence: Ristroph denies that it should be; I disagree. The second concerns whether we should take Hobbes’s treatment of the political as explanatorily prior to the legal to show that Hobbes was in some way apart from the natural law tradition in jurisprudence: Ristroph affirms this; I disagree. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jurisprudence  philosophy_of_law  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  Hobbes  17thC  political_philosophy  social_theory  natural_law  natural_rights  positivism-legal  sovereignty  authority  obligation  punishment  resistance  liberalism  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - What do the Philosophers Have against Dignity? (Nov 2014) :: SSRN
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 14-59 -- Among analytic philosophers, there is considerable antipathy towards the concept of human dignity. It is not always expressed, but the impression is conveyed that this is a rather disreputable idea and that its trumpeting in legal and political theory is to be deplored. The present paper tries to get to grips with the sources of this antipathy. Is it based on the unclarity of the concept, its religious overtones, its speciesism, or its redundancy as a moral idea. The paper makes a case for dignity as a status-concept -- denoting a particular sort of moral/legal status that all humans have. -- Pages in PDF File: 23 -- Keywords: definition, dignity, foundationalism, human dignity, religion, rights -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  jurisprudence  legal_theory  analytical_philosophy  concepts  dignity  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  status  human_rights  foundationalism  politics-and-religion  natural_law  natural_rights  downloaded 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Sandy Levinson - The continuing relevance of Stephen A. Douglas: "Popular sovereignty," federalism, and moral relativism" | Balkinization - June 2015
Consider the following passages from the anguished dissents (..by) Scalia and Alito in Obergefell: [re their "indifference" re substance of SSM - notes how much this clashes with their Catholic beliefs that insist on moral absolutes determined by "natural law"] -- Federalism is (..) as a practical matter, as a means of acknowledging the diverse views we have about matters of political or social morality (..) there's much to said for this as a means for maintaining social peace, albeit at the cost of accepting the maintenance of what many might consider significant injustice in some of the states. But note well that what Scalia and Alito are doing is really reviving the theory of "popular sovereignty" best identified with the Little Giant Sen. Stephen A. Douglas with regard to the issue of slavery. (,.) Douglas professed himself indifferent to the moral critique of slavery. (..) What this translated into was the desirability of letting each state, as it joined the Union, make its own decision as to slavery or freedom. Somewhat more complicated was the right of the pre-state territory to make its own decision, in territorial legislatures, to welcome slaveowners. Douglas, to his political detriment, argued that they could place stumbling blocks in the way of the slaveowners, but, if they chose not to, that was all right too. The important thing was to recognize the fundamentally "federal" nature of the Union, a collection of people with decidedly different views about the legitimacy of owning other human beings as chattels, and to allow that decision to be made locally rather than on a one-size-fits-all national basis.
Instapaper  SCOTUS  constitutional_law  19thC  states_rights  federalism  slavery  morality-conventional  morality-divine_command  morality-Christian  rights-legal  natural_law  natural_rights  positivism-legal  Holmes  Douglas_Stephen  Lincoln  antebellum_era  abolition  marriage  Thomism  Thomism-21stC  Catholics  Papacy  from instapaper
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Stephen Turner - Max Weber and the Dispute Over Reason and Value (Routledge, 1984) | bookmark for book abstract - Academia.edu
The problem of the nature of values and the relation between values and rationality is one of the defining issues of twentieth-century thought and Max Weber was one of the defining figures in the debate. In this book, Turner and Factor consider the development of the dispute over Max Weber's contribution to this discourse, by showing how Weber's views have been used, revised and adapted in new contexts. The story of the dispute is itself fascinating, for it cuts across the major political and intellectual currents of the twentieth century, from positivism, pragmatism and value-free social science, through the philosophy of Jaspers and Heidegger, to Critical Theory and the revival of Natural Right and Natural Law. As Weber's ideas were imported to Britain and America, they found new formulations and new adherents and critics and became absorbed into different traditions and new issues. This book was first published in 1984 by Routledge. -- Research Interests: Ethics, Political Theory, Continental Philosophy, Max Weber (Philosophy), Social and Political Philosophy, and Max Weber
books  intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  Weber  social_theory  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  philosophy_of_social_science  epistemology  epistemology-social  positivism  rationality  values  fact-value  constructivism  pragmatism  German_scholarship  German_historical_school  hermeneutics  Heidegger  Frankfurt_School  critical_theory  natural_law  natural_rights  positivism-legal 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Dan Edelstein, The Republic, Nature and Right -- response to review by Annie Jourdan of his "The Terror of Natural Right" | Books & ideas - La Vie des Idèes- 2010
Dan Edelstein, « The Republic, Nature and Right », Books and Ideas, 2 September 2010. Translated from French by John Zvesper with the support of the Fondation Maison des Sciences de l’Homme -- First published in laviedesidees.fr, 15 February 2010 -- This article is a response to the review of Dan Edelstein’s book, The Terror of Natural Right. Republicanism, the Cult of Nature and the French Revolution (University of Chicago Press), by Annie Jourdan, published as "Le mystère de la Terreur. Violence et droit naturel"[“The mystery of the Terror. Violence and Natural Right”], in La Vie des idées l15 February 2010. -- both review and response (in both languages) available as pdfs -- downloaded English translation of Edelstein to Note
books  bookshelf  reviews  18thC  intellectual_history  political_history  French_Revolution  American_Revolution  natural_rights  natural_law  political_philosophy  political_culture  Terror  Jacobins  Founders  republicanism  Locke-2_Treatises  civic_virtue  downloaded 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Khan, B. - An Economic History of Copyright in Europe and the United States | EH.Net Encyclopedia, edited by Robert Whaples. March 16, 2008
The US created a utilitarian market-based model of intellectual property grants which created incentives for invention, with the primary objective of increasing social welfare and protecting the public domain. The checks and balances of interest group lobbies, the legislature and the judiciary worked effectively as long as each institution was relatively well-matched in terms of size and influence. However, a number of scholars are concerned that the political influence of corporate interests, the vast number of uncoordinated users over whom the social costs are spread, and international harmonization of laws have upset these counterchecks, leading to over-enforcement at both the private and public levels. International harmonization with European doctrines introduced significant distortions in the fundamental principles of US copyright and its democratic provisions. One of the most significant of these changes was also one of the least debated: compliance with the precepts of the Berne Convention accorded automatic copyright protection to all creations on their fixation in tangible form. This rule reversed the relationship between copyright and the public domain that the US Constitution stipulated. According to original US copyright doctrines, the public domain was the default, and copyright a limited exemption to the public domain; after the alignment with Berne, copyright became the default, and the rights of the public and of the public domain now merely comprise a limited exception to the primacy of copyright. The pervasive uncertainty that characterizes the intellectual property arena today leads risk-averse individuals and educational institutions to err on the side of abandoning their right to free access rather than invite challenges and costly litigation. Many commentators are also concerned about other dimensions of the globalization of intellectual property rights, such as the movement to emulate European grants of property rights in databases, which has the potential to inhibit diffusion and learning.
article  economic_history  publishing  property  property_rights  legal_history  legal_system  IP  regulation-harmonization  natural_rights  natural_law  copyright  patents  US_constitution  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  international_law  France  French_Revolution  censorship  British_history  authors  artists  playwrights  democracy  knowledge_economy  Internet  globalization  global_economy  digital_humanities  transparency  open_access  scientific_culture  science-public  education  R&D  education-higher  common_law  civil_code  civil_society  civic_humanism  US_legal_system 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Hugo Grotius -- The Enhanced Edition of "The Rights of War and Peace" (1625) [etext edition 2014] - Online Library of Liberty
Hugo Grotius, The Enhanced Edition of The Rights of War and Peace (1625) (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2014). 08/28/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2637> -- This “Enhanced Edition” of Grotius’s famous work on the law of war does not contain the entire text of the Rights of War and Peace as it a very long 3 volume work. It comprises some Supplemantary Material including two introductions to different editions of his book, a biographical essay by his 18th century translator (Barbeyrac), and the “Liberty Matters” online discussion forum on Grotius’s views. This is followed by Grotius’s “Preliminary Discourse” on natural law and a selection of chapters from the book which deal with the nature of war, when it is just to go to war, when it is unjust to go war, and how war might be moderated once it has been declared. This Enhanced Edition is only available in PDF, epub, and Kindle ebook formats -- Liberty Fund's edition is based upon that of the Jean Barbeyrac and also includes the "Prolegomena" to the first edition of Rights of War and Peace (1625); and an Introduction by the historian of political thought Richard Tuck.
books  etexts  Liberty_Fund  downloaded  17thC  intellectual_history  natural_law  IR_theory  legal_theory  legal_history  international_law  natural_rights  political_philosophy  just_war  Barbeyrac 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Scott D. Gerber, review essay - The Republican Revival in American Constitutional Theory | JSTOR: Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 47, No. 4 (Dec., 1994), pp. 985-997
Reviewed work(s): We the People: Foundations by Bruce A. Ackerman; Traces of Self-Government by Frank I. Michelman; Laws Republic; The Partial Constitution by Cass R. Sunstein - 1980s interest in classical republicanism, citizen participation and common good and how to reconcile with a liberalism of private interests and rights -- all 3 authors criticized for (1) excessive reliance on the "least dialogic" institution, the judiciary, as protector an/or promoter of the republican dimension of "liberal republicanism" and (2) a selective misreading of the Founders -- didn't download
article  review  jstor  US_constitution  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  US_politics  judiciary  judicial_review  natural_rights  property_rights  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  liberalism-republicanism_debates  liberalism  legal_history  legal_theory  Congress  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - The Decline of Natural Right [chapter] (2009) :: SSRN in THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF NINETEENTH CENTURY PHILOSOPHY, Allen Wood and Songsuk Susan Hahn, eds., Cambridge University Press
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 09-38 -- What happened to the doctrine of natural right in the 19thC? We know that it flourished in the 17thC and 18thC. We know that something like it - the doctrine of human rights and new forms of social contract theory - flourished again in the second half of the 20thC and continues to flourish in the 21stC. In between there was a period of decline and hibernation - ... in which to invoke natural right was always to invite intellectual ridicule and accusations of political irresponsibility. Thus article asks: How far can the decline of natural right in the 19thC be attributed to the reaction against the revolution in France? How far it was the effect of independent streams of thought, like positivism and historicism? Why was radical thought so ambivalent about natural right throughout the 19thC, and why was socialist thought in particular inclined to turn its back on it? As a framework for thought, natural right suffered a radical decline in the social and political sciences. But things were not so clear in jurisprudence, and natural right lived on to a much riper old age in the writings of some prominent economists. What is it about this theory that allowed it to survive in these environments, when so much of the rest of intellectual endeavor in the 19thC was toxic or inhospitable to it. Finally, I shall ask how far American thought represents an exception to all of this. Why and to what extent did the doctrine survive as a way of thinking in the United States, long after it had lost its credibility elsewhere. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  SSRN  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  philosophy_of_law  philosophy_of_social_science  natural_law  natural_rights  human_rights  counter-revolution  historicism  positivism  legal_theory  nationalism  national_interest  conservatism  socialism  social_contract  relativism  revolutions  1848_revolutions  French_Revolution  anticlerical  Bentham  Burke  Hume  Jefferson  Kant  Locke  Marx  Mill  Savigny  Spencer_Herbert  George_Henry  US_society  American_exceptionalism  liberalism  social_theory  social_sciences  Social_Darwinism  social_order  mass_culture  political_participation  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - The Image of God: Rights, Reason, and Order (2010) :: SSRN
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 10-85 -- The idea that humans are created in the image of God is often cited as a foundation for human rights theory. In this paper, this use of imago dei is surveyed, and while the paper is basically favorable to this foundation, it draws attention to some difficulties (both theological and practical) that using imago dei as a foundation for human rights may involve. Also it explores the suggestion that the image of God idea may be more apt as a foundation for some rights rather than others. Its use in relation to political rights is specifically explored. The moral of the discussion is that foundations do make a difference. We should not expect that, if we simply nail this idea onto the underside of a body of human rights theory as a foundation, everything in the theory will remain as it is. -- Number of Pages in PDF File: 21 -- Keywords: death penalty, foundationalism, human rights, image of God, political liberalism, political rights, religion, rights, secularism
paper  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  imago_dei  foundationalism  human_rights  liberalism  rights-political  secularism  humanism  natural_rights  universalism  morality-Christian  morality-divine_command  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter -The Radicalism of Legal Positivism (2010) :: SSRN - Guild Practitioner, 2010
U of Chicago, Public Law Working Paper No. 303 -- “Legal positivism” is often caricatured by its jurisprudential opponents, as well as by lawyers and legal scholars not immediately interested in jurisprudential inquiry. “Positivist” too often functions now as an “epithet” in legal discourse, equated (wrongly) with “formalism,” the view that judges must apply the law “as written,” regardless of the consequences. Lon Fuller, Ronald Dworkin, and the Critical Legal Studies writers have all contributed in different ways to the sense that "positivism" is either a political conservative or politically sterile position. This essay revisits the actual theory of law developed by positivist philosophers like Bentham, Hart, and Raz, emphasizing why it is, and was, understood by its proponents, to be a radical theory of law, one unfriendly to the status quo and anyone, judge or citizen, who thinks obedience to the law is paramount. To be clear, the leading theorists of legal positivism thought the theory gave the correct account of the nature of law as a social institution; they did not endorse it because of the political conclusions it entailed, and which they supported. Yet these theorists realized that the correct account of the nature of law had radical implications for conventional wisdom about law. We would do well to recapture their wisdom today. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  18thC  19thC  20thC  positivism-legal  conservatism  radicals  Bentham  Hart  Raz  Critical_Legal_Studies  Dworkin  Fuller  natural_rights  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  institutions  institutional_change  reform-legal  formalism-legal  judiciary  sociology_of_law  social_theory  social_order  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Beyond the Hart/Dworkin Debate: The Methodology Problem in Jurisprudence (2005) :: SSRN
Heavily cited -- U of Texas Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 34 -- For three decades now, much of the Anglo-American legal philosophy curriculum has been organized around something called the Hart/Dworkin debate, a debate whose starting point is Ronald Dworkin's 1967 critique of the seminal work of Anglophone jurisprudence in the twentieth-century, H.L.A. Hart's 1961 book, The Concept of Law. This essay reviews the Hart/Dworkin debate and argues that it no longer deserves to play the same organizing role in the jurisprudential curriculum of the twenty-first century that it played at the close of the twentieth: on the particulars of the Hart/Dworkin debate, Hart has emerged the clear victor, so much so that even the heuristic value of the Dworkinian criticisms of Hart are now in doubt. (Dworkin's quite recent polemic against legal positivism in the 2002 Harvard Law Review is also addressed briefly.) The significant philosophical challenges that face legal positivists are now different, often in kind, from the ones Dworkin made famous. These, I shall argue, fall into two broad categories: first, the correct account of the content of the rule of recognition and its relationship to the possibility of law's authority (the Hart/Raz debate); and second, the proper methodology of jurisprudence, a debate which aligns defenders of descriptive conceptual jurisprudence (like Hart and Raz) against two sets of opponents: natural lawyers like Finnis, Perry and Stavropoulos who challenge whether jurisprudence can be descriptive; and philosophical naturalists, like the present author, who question whether conceptual analysis is a fruitful philosophical method in jurisprudence (or elsewhere). -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  20thC  21stC  intellectual_history  positivism-legal  legal_realism  naturalism  natural_law  natural_rights  social_theory  social_sciences-post-WWII  Hart  Dworkin  Finnis  Raz  moral_philosophy  concepts  concepts-change  historical_change  analytical_philosophy  sociology_of_law  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Marx, Law, Ideology, Legal Positivism (2014) :: SSRN
This essay -- for the UVA conference on "Jurisprudence and History" -- offers an account of Marx’s theory of history and his claim that law (and morality) are "ideological," and then asks what theory of law is adequate to explain the way the Marxist theory understands law in both its ideological and non-ideological senses. In Marx's theory we need to be able to say what law is in three contexts: (1) there are the laws that constitute the relations of production, i.e., the scheme of property rights in the existing forces of production; (2) there are the laws (and associated legal beliefs, e.g., "you are entitled to equal protection of the law") that are superstructural and ideological in the pejorative sense; and (3) there are the laws that are non-ideological and superstructural because they characterize the legal relations of a non-class-based, i.e., a communist, society. I explain these different senses of law in Marx's theory and then argue that legal positivism, unlike other views about the nature of law, gives us a sensible explanation of law for purposes of the Marxist theory of historical change. That fact, in turn, gives us another data point in favor of positivism as the only serious explanation of the concept of law. -- Keywords: Iegal positivism, Marx, Hart, Dworkin Finnis, ideology -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  social_theory  historiography  historical_sociology  historiography-19thC  historiography-Marxist  historical_change  legal_history  legal_system  ideology  property  property_rights  positivism-legal  Marx  Hart  Dworkin  Finnis  natural_law  natural_rights  rights-legal  legal_culture  legal_realism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - Constitutionalism: A Skeptical View (2012) :: SSRN
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 10-87 - May 1, 2012 -- This paper examines the ideology that goes by the name of "constitutionalism." The first part of the paper considers the significance of "written constitutions" The second part of the paper casts a skeptical eye at conceptions of constitutionalisim that emphasize "limited" government. Once "limited government" is contrasted carefully with "restrained government" (restraints upon specific actions by government) and with "controlled government" (e.g. insistence upon democratic control), we see that the association of constitutionalism with general limitations on the scope of government ought to make it a much more controversial ideal than the general anodyne acceptance of the term "constitutionalism" might lead us to expect. Finally, the anti-democratic implications of constitutionalism are explored. The paper argues that, by insisting on limited government, constitutionalism downplays the important role that constitutions have to perform in the modern world in establishing and securing specifically democratic authority. -- Keywords: authority, constitution, constitutionalism, constitutional law, democracy, judicial review, limited government, rights, written constitution
paper  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  legal_system  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  constitutionalism  government-forms  democracy  judicial_review  constitutional_law  authority  legitimacy  political_participation  rights-legal  natural_rights  limited_government  accountability  constitutions  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Natural Law Theory: The Modern Tradition by Brian Bix :: SSRN
Posted 1999 - chapter in OXFORD HANDBOOK OF JURISPRUDENCE AND PHILOSOPHY OF LAW, Jules L. Coleman & Scott Shapiro, eds., Oxford University Press, 2002 -- The works of contemporary Natural Law theorists, including Lon Fuller, Michael Moore, Ronald Dworkin, and John Finnis, are discussed critically and their views are placed within the context of a tradition thousands of years old. In the summary of the broader context, the paper considers the connections and relationships between natural law theory and nature, God, natural rights, law, and legal positivism. The article also includes an extensive (but not exhaustive) bibliography. -- downloaded pdf to Note
chapter  books  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  legal_system  legal_history  intellectual_history  religious_history  ancient_philosophy  medieval_philosophy  Aquinas  moral_philosophy  natural_law  natural_rights  positivism-legal  positive_law  obligation  divine_command  sociology_of_law  nature  natural_religion  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Bix - Rights, Responsibilities, and Roles: A Comment on Waldron :: SSRN Arizona State Law Journal, Forthcoming (last revised 2012)
In his Edward J. Schoen Leading Scholar Lecture, "Dignity, Rights, and Responsibilities," Jeremy Waldron raises important issues regarding the connections between rights and responsibilities and rights and dignity. In this brief comment, I focus on the first set of connections - Waldron’s claim that "some rights actually are responsibilities" - examining in particular, the analytical claim he offers regarding a certain subset of rights. The paper ultimately concludes that Waldron’s argument that there is a type of right that is equivalent to a responsibility remains a provocative but not (yet) fully persuasive idea. Likely examples, like those involving a parent and the care and upbringing of a child, seem more like the combination of right and duty that is found in offices and roles, rather than being best understood as a distinctive form of legal or moral right. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  moral_philosophy  rights-legal  natural_rights  responsibility  duties  office  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Liberty Matters Forum: John Locke on Property (January, 2013) - Online Library of Liberty
This online discussion is part of the series “Liberty Matters: A Forum for the Discussion of Matters pertaining to Liberty.” Eric Mack discusses John Locke’s theory of property to which Jan Narveson, Peter Vallentyne, and Michael Zuckert respond in a series of essays and comments. -- downloaded ebook to Note
etexts  intellectual_history  17thC  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  political_economy  Locke  Locke-2_Treatises  property  property_rights  social_contract  natural_law  natural_rights  state-of-nature  labor  landowners  landed_interest  lower_orders  reformation_of_manners  mass_culture  political_participation  popular_politics  popular_culture  public_disorder  public_goods  Native_Americans  colonialism  development  common_good  commons  liberalism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Samuel von Pufendorf, Two Books of the Elements of Universal Jurisprudence [1660] trans. William Abbott Oldfather, 1931. Revised and ed. Thomas Behme (2009) - Online Library of Liberty
Samuel von Pufendorf, Two Books of the Elements of Universal Jurisprudence, translated by William Abbott Oldfather, 1931. Revised by Thomas Behme. Edited and with an Introduction by Thomas Behme (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2009). 07/16/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2220> -- This was Pufendorf’s first work, published in 1660. Its appearance effectively inaugurated the modern natural-law movement in the German-speaking world. The work also established Pufendorf as a key figure and laid the foundations for his major works, which were to sweep across Europe and North America. Pufendorf rejected the concept of natural rights as liberties and the suggestion that political government is justified by its protection of such rights, arguing instead for a principled limit to the state’s role in human life. - downloaded ebook to Note
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july 2014 by dunnettreader
Liberty Matters Forum: George H. Smith and “The System of Liberty” (September, 2013) - Online Library of Liberty
This online discussion is part of the series “Liberty Matters: A Forum for the Discussion of Matters pertaining to Liberty.” Jason Brennan, David Gordon, and Ralph Raico discuss with George Smith his new book The System of Liberty: Themes in the History of Classical Liberalism (CUP 2013). Smith describes how he came to write the book, the works of the history of political thought which inspired him, and the methodology he uses in approaching the history of ideas. He demonstrates his approach with a brief discussion of one of the key ideas he has identified in the history of classical liberal thought, namely, the idea of “inalienable rights.” -- downloaded ebook to Note
etexts  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_economy  moral_philosophy  liberalism  18thC  19thC  historiography  natural_rights  liberty  liberty-negative  liberty-positive  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Liberty Matters: Hugo Grotius on War and the State (March 2014) - Online Library of Liberty
This online discussion is part of the series “Liberty Matters: A Forum for the Discussion of Matters pertaining to Liberty.” Fernando R. Tesón, a professor at Florida State University College of Law, explores what Grotius thought about the proper relationship between the laws of nature and the laws of nations, what limits (if any) can be legitimately and rightly placed on the conduct of states engaged in war, and what relevance his insights may have today. Responding to his essay are Hans W. Blom, Paul Carrese, and Eric Mack. -- downloaded ebook to Note
etexts  17thC  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  legal_history  human_nature  international_law  natural_law  natural_rights  natural_religion  property_rights  just_war  navigation  trade  colonialism  war  Dutch_Revolt  Dutch  VOC  commercial_law  state-of-nature  consent  legitimacy  social_contract  sociability  self-interest  self-defense  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Hugo Grotius, The Rights of War and Peace (2005, Richard Tuck ed.) vol. 2 (Book II) - from the Edition by Jean Barbeyrac - Online Library of Liberty
Hugo Grotius, The Rights of War and Peace, edited and with an Introduction by Richard Tuck, from the Edition by Jean Barbeyrac (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005). Vol. 2. 07/14/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1947> -- Grotius’s Rights of War and Peace is a classic of modern public international law which lays the foundation for a universal code of law and which strongly defends the rights of individual agents – states as well as private persons – to use their power to secure themselves and their property. This edition is based upon that of the eighteenth-century French editor Jean Barbeyrac and also includes the Prolegomena to the first edition of Rights of War and Peace (1625); this document has never before been translated into English and adds new dimensions to the great work. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  17thC  18thC  intellectual_history  natural_law  international_law  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  natural_rights  IR_theory  trade  just_war  property  property_rights  conquest  Grotius  Barbeyrac  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Hugo Grotius, The Rights of War and Peace (2005, Richard Tuck ed.) vol. 3 (Book III) - from the Edition by Jean Barbeyrac | Online Library of Liberty
Hugo Grotius, The Rights of War and Peace, edited and with an Introduction by Richard Tuck, from the Edition by Jean Barbeyrac (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005). Vol. 3. 07/14/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1427> -- Grotius’s Rights of War and Peace is a classic of modern public international law which lays the foundation for a universal code of law and which strongly defends the rights of individual agents – states as well as private persons – to use their power to secure themselves and their property. This edition is based upon that of the eighteenth-century French editor Jean Barbeyrac and also includes the Prolegomena to the first edition of Rights of War and Peace (1625); this document has never before been translated into English and adds new dimensions to the great work. -- Vol 3 has significant appendices and bibliographies re both Grotius and Barbeyrac references -- Downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  17thC  18thC  intellectual_history  natural_law  international_law  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  natural_rights  IR_theory  trade  just_war  property  property_rights  conquest  Grotius  Barbeyrac  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Hugo Grotius, The Rights of War and Peace (2005, Richard Tuck ed.) vol. 1 of 3 (Book I) - from the Edition by Jean Barbeyrac | Online Library of Liberty
Hugo Grotius, The Rights of War and Peace, edited and with an Introduction by Richard Tuck, from the Edition by Jean Barbeyrac (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005). Vol. 1. 07/14/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1425> -- Grotius’s Rights of War and Peace is a classic of modern public international law which lays the foundation for a universal code of law and which strongly defends the rights of individual agents – states as well as private persons – to use their power to secure themselves and their property. This edition is based upon that of the eighteenth-century French editor Jean Barbeyrac and also includes the Prolegomena to the first edition of Rights of War and Peace (1625); this document has never before been translated into English and adds new dimensions to the great work. -- downloaded Vol 1 pdf to Note - for Tuck introduction and apparatus
books  etexts  17thC  18thC  intellectual_history  natural_law  international_law  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  natural_rights  IR_theory  trade  just_war  property  property_rights  conquest  Grotius  Barbeyrac  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
John Locke, A Letter concerning Toleration and Other Writings, ed. Mark Goldie - Online Library of Liberty
John Locke, A Letter concerning Toleration and Other Writings, edited and with an Introduction by Mark Goldie (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2010). 07/13/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2375> -- Part of the Thomas Hollis Library (series editor David Wormersley) published by Liberty Fund. This volume contains A Letter Concerning Toleration, excerpts of the Third Letter, An Essay on Toleration, and various fragments, including Constitution of Carolina excerpts, pamphlet debates e.g. with Samuel Parker. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  17thC  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  theology  Locke  Locke-religion  British_history  British_politics  religious_history  politics-and-religion  tolerance  dissenters  religion-established  religious_belief  religious_lit  religious_culture  political_culture  Church_of_England  atheism_panic  scepticism  Epicurean  heterodoxy  Christology  salvation  soul  natural_law  natural_rights  obligation  Catholics-England  Papacy  Papacy-English_relations  Protestant_International  colonialism  American_colonies  UK_government-colonies  reformation_of_manners  English_constitution  constitutionalism  Carolina  Shaftesbury_1st_Earl  Board_of_Trade  civil_liberties  civil_religion  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Michael Oakeshott, Hobbes on Civil Association, foreword by Paul Franco - Online Library of Liberty
Michael Oakeshott, Hobbes on Civil Association, foreword by Paul Franco (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2000). 07/13/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/668> -- Hobbes on Civil Association consists of Oakeshott’s four principal essays on Hobbes and on the nature of civil association as civil association pertains to ordered liberty. The essays are “Introduction to Leviathan” (1946); “The Moral Life in the Writings of Thomas Hobbes” (1960); “Dr. Leo Strauss on Hobbes” (1937); and, “Leviathan : A Myth” (1947). The foreword remarks the place of these essays within Oakeshott’s entire corpus. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  17thC  20thC  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  Hobbes  Oakeshott  Strauss  natural_law  natural_rights  social_theory  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
John Adams, Revolutionary Writings, ed. C. Bradley Thompson - Online Library of Liberty
John Adams, The Revolutionary Writings of John Adams, Selected and with a Foreword by C. Bradley Thompson (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2000). 07/12/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/592> -- This volume contains the principal shorter writings in which Adams addresses the prospect of revolution and the form of government proper to the new United States. There are pieces on the nature of the British Constitution and the meaning of rights, sovereignty, representation, and obligation. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_history  Adams_John  British_Empire-constitutional_structure  British_history  British_politics  English_constitution  US_constitution  American_colonies  US_politics  American_Revolution  citizenship  natural_rights  civil_liberties  sovereignty  representation  representative_institutions  obligation  authority  legitimacy  Early_Republic  government-forms  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Johann Gottlieb Heineccius, A Methodical System of Universal Law: Or, the Laws of Nature and Nations [1737] with Supplements and a Discourse by George Turnbull trans., eds. Thomas Albert and Peter Schröder - Online Library of Liberty
Johann Gottlieb Heineccius, A Methodical System of Universal Law: Or, the Laws of Nature and Nations, with Supplements and a Discourse by George Turnbull. Translated from the Latin by George Turnbull, edited with an Introduction by Thomas Albert and Peter Schröder (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2008). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2305> -- The natural law theory of Johann Gottlieb Heineccius was one of the most influential to emerge from the early German Enlightenment. Heineccius continued and, in important respects, modified the ideas of his predecessors, Samuel Pufendorf and Christian Thomasius. He developed distinctive views on central questions such as the freedom of the human will and the natural foundation of moral obligation, which also sharply distinguished him from his contemporary Christian Wolff. The Liberty Fund edition is based on the translation by the Scottish moral philosopher George Turnbull (1698–1748). It includes Turnbull’s extensive comments on Heineccius’s text, as well as his substantial Discourse upon the Nature and Origin of Moral and Civil Laws. These elements make the work into one of the most extraordinary encounters between Protestant natural law theory and neo-republican civic humanism. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Germany  Heineccius  Pufendorf  Thomasius  Wolff  Turnbull_George  natural_law  international_law  legal_theory  legal_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  human_nature  obligation  free_will  state-of-nature  government-forms  authority  legitimacy  natural_rights  natural_religion  civic_humanism  civic_virtue  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui, The Principles of Natural and Politic Law [c 1750, tran 1763], trans. Thomas Nugent, ed. Peter Korkman - Online Library of Liberty
Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui, The Principles of Natural and Politic Law, trans. Thomas Nugent, ed. and with an Introduction by Peter Korkman (Indianpolis: Liberty Fund, 2006). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1717> -- The basis of this version of The Principles of Natural and Politic Law is Thomas Nugent’s 1763 English translation, which became a standard textbook at Cambridge and at many premier American colleges, including Princeton, Harvard, and the University of Pennsylvania. The first scholarly work on Burlamaqui was written by an American, M. Ray Forrest Harvey, who in 1937 argued that Burlamaqui was well known among America’s Founding Fathers and that his writings exerted considerable influence on the American constitutional system. In his introduction, Nugent said of Burlamaqui: “His singular beauty consists in the alliance he so carefully points out between ethics and jurisprudence, religion and politics, after the example of Plato and Tully, and the other illustrious masters of antiquity.”
books  etexts  17thC  18thC  Enlightenment  intellectual_history  natural_law  political_philosophy  human_nature  moral_psychology  obligation  sovereignty  Geneva  Calvinist  natural_rights  mixed_government  aristocracy-natural  elites  bourgeoisie  democracy  authority  legitimacy  civil_liberties  civil_religion  happiness  rationalist  Grotius  Pufendorf  Barbeyrac  Leibniz  Rousseau  governing_class  government-forms  governance  state-building  state-of-nature  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Hugo Grotius, The Rights of War and Peace (2005 ed.) 3 vols., ed. Richard Tuck (2005 from Barbeyrac's edition) - Online Library of Liberty
Hugo Grotius, The Rights of War and Peace, edited and with an Introduction by Richard Tuck, from the Edition by Jean Barbeyrac (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005). 3 vols. 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1877> -- Grotius’s Rights of War and Peace is a classic of modern public international law which lays the foundation for a universal code of law and which strongly defends the rights of individual agents – states as well as private persons – to use their power to secure themselves and their property. This edition is based upon that of the eighteenth-century French editor Jean Barbeyrac and also includes the Prolegomena to the first edition of Rights of War and Peace (1625); this document has never before been translated into English and adds new dimensions to the great work.
books  etexts  17th  18thC  Grotius  Barbeyrac  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  legal_history  international_law  natural_law  natural_rights  property_rights  sovereignty  IR_theory  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Natural Rights on the Threshold of the Scottish Enlightenment: The Writings of Gershom Carmichael, ed. James Moore and Michael Silverthorne (2002)- Online Library of Liberty
Gershom Carmichael, Natural Rights on the Threshold of the Scottish Enlightenment: The Writings of Gershom Carmichael, ed. James Moore and Michael Silverthorne (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2002). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1707> -- Carmichael was a Scottish jurist and philosopher who became the first Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Glasgow in 1727. His writings on natural rights theory, theology, and logic were very influential. [The volume has selections in each of the foregoing categories] -- since he wrote mainly in Latin, this edition is one of few ways to get access today to his thought -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  Carmichael_Gershom  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  theology  logic  natural_law  natural_rights  natural_religion  civil_society  moral_sentiments  human_nature  sociability  Pufendorf  Hutcheson  Kirk  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Heinrich Rommen, The Natural Law: A Study in Legal and Social History and Philosophy (1936) trans. Thomas R. Hanley, ed. Russell Hittinger - Online Library of Liberty
Heinrich Rommen, The Natural Law: A Study in Legal and Social History and Philosophy, trans. Thomas R. Hanley. Introduction and Bibliography by Russell Hittinger (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund 1998). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/676> -- Originally published in German in 1936, The Natural Law is the first work to clarify the differences between traditional natural law as represented in the writings of Cicero, Aquinas, and Hooker and the revolutionary doctrines of natural rights espoused by Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau. Beginning with the legacies of Greek and Roman life and thought, Rommen traces the natural law tradition to its displacement by legal positivism and concludes with what the author calls “the reappearance” of natural law thought in more recent times. In seven chapters each Rommen explores “The History of the Idea of Natural Law” and “The Philosophy and Content of the Natural Law.” In his introduction, Russell Hittinger places Rommen’s work in the context of contemporary debate on the relevance of natural law to philosophical inquiry and constitutional interpretation. - part of the German émigrés to the US - he sees the same sort of 17thC break as Strauss - wound up at Georgetown - didn't download
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july 2014 by dunnettreader
Samuel von Pufendorf, Of the Nature and Qualification of Religion, in Reference to Civil Society, trans. Jodocus Crull (1698), ed. Simone Zurbuchen - Online Library of Liberty
Samuel von Pufendorf, Of the Nature and Qualification of Religion, in Reference to Civil Society, trans. Jodocus Crull, ed. and with an introduction by Simone Zurbuchen (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2002). 07/10/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/887> -- written in response to Revocation of the Edict of Nantes -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  17thC  Pufendorf  Germany  Holy_Roman_Empire  France  Edict_of_Nantes  religion-established  civil_society  tolerance  sovereignty  ecclesiology  natural_law  natural_rights  religious_belief  British_politics  1690s  dissenters  Whigs  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
James Schmidt - Of Rights and Witches: Bentham’s Critique of the Declaration of Independence | Persistent Enlightenment - July 3 2014
Schmidt transcribes the text from 1777 publication -- Bentham provided the last chapter of a anti colonist propaganda book that dismantled the Declaration of Independence "fact" by alleged "fact" -- Bentham attacks the Preamble and natural rights that would make any and all government impossible -- disdainful re calomnies against a "patriot King"
etexts  18thC  British_history  British_politics  Atlantic  American_colonies  American_Revolution  natural_rights  political_philosophy  revolutions  Patriot_King  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Kenneth R. Westphal - Enlightenment Fundamentals: Rights, Responsibilities & Republicanism | Diametros
Kenneth R. Westphal is Professorial Fellow in the School of Philosophy, University of East Anglia (Norwich), and currently Visiting Professor of Philosophy at the Martin-Luther-Universität Halle Wittenberg. -- This essay re-examines some key fundamentals of the Enlightenment regarding individual rights, responsibilities and republicanism which deserve and require re-emphasis today, insofar as they underscore the character and fundamental importance of mature judgment, and how developing and fostering mature judgment is a fundamental aim of education. These fundamentals have been clouded or eroded by various recent developments, including mis-guided educational policy and not a little scholarly bickering. Clarity about these fundamentals is more important today than ever. Sapere aude! -- Keywords - Hobbes Hume Rousseau Kant Hegel, rational justification, mature judgment, moral constructivism, realism objectivity rights responsibilities republicanism media culture, Euthyphro question, natural law, Dilemma of the Criterion -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  British_history  French_Enlightenment  Germany  German_Idealism  voluntarism  obligation  morality-conventional  morality-objective  natural_rights  civil_liberties  civil_society  civic_virtue  Hobbes  Hume  Hume-ethics  Hume-politics  Rousseau  Kant  Kant-ethics  Hegel  judgment-political  public_sphere  media  political_culture  values  education-civic  education-higher  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add  21stC  Dewey  Quine  Sellars  analytical_philosophy  academia  professionalization 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jonathan Israel - “Radical Enlightenment” – Peripheral, Substantial, or the Main Face of the Trans-Atlantic Enlightenment (1650-1850) | Diametros
“Radical Enlightenment” and “moderate Enlightenment” are general categories which, it has become evident in recent decades, are unavoidable and essential for any valid discussion of the Enlightenment broadly conceived (1650-1850) and of the revolutionary era (1775-1848). Any discussion of the Enlightenment or revolutions that does not revolve around these general categories, first introduced in Germany in the 1920s and taken up in the United States since the 1970s, cannot have any validity or depth either historically or philosophically. “Radical Enlightenment” was neither peripheral to the Enlightenment as a whole, nor dominant, but rather the “other side of the coin” an inherent and absolute opposite, always present and always basic to the Enlightenment as a whole. Several different constructions of “Radical Enlightenment” have been proposed by the main innovators on the topic – Leo Strauss, Henry May, Günter Mühlpfordt, Margaret Jacob, Gianni Paganini, Martin Mulsow, and Jonathan Israel – but, it is argued here, the most essential element in the definition is the coupling, or linkage, of philosophical rejection of religious authority (and secularism - the elimination of theology from law, institutions, education and public affairs) with theoretical advocacy of democracy and basic human rights. -- Keywords - Enlightenment Radical Enlightenment moderate Enlightenment democracy aristocracy universal education equality emancipation republicanism mixed government poverty economic oppression crypto-radicalism positivism American revolution -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  political_history  political_culture  politics-and-religion  historiography  economic_history  political_economy  17thC  18thC  19thC  Enlightenment  Radical_Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  religious_culture  authority  anticlerical  Absolutism  secularism  democracy  natural_rights  civil_liberties  egalitarian  American_Revolution  French_Revolution  1848_revolutions  Spinozism  education  aristocracy  poverty  Ancien_régime  mixed_government  tolerance  positivism  natural_law  domination  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  natural_philosophy  British_history  Dutch  Germany  Atlantic  American_colonies  Early_Republic  Republic_of_Letters  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Margaret C. Jacob - How Radical Was the Enlightenment? What Do We Mean by Radical? | Diametros
Distinguished Professor of History, UCLA Email: mjacob@history.ucla.edu
-- The Radical Enlightenment has been much discussed and its original meaning somewhat distorted. In 1981 my concept of the storm that unleashed a new, transnational intellectual movement possessed a strong contextual and political element that I believed, and still believe, to be critically important. Idealist accounts of enlightened ideas that divorce them from politics leave out the lived quality of the new radicalism born in reaction to monarchical and clerical absolutism. Taking the religious impulse seriously and working to defang it of bellicosity would require years of labor. First all the world’s religions had to be surveyed, see Picart’s seven folio volumes; and Rousseau’s Savoyard vicar had to both preach and live religion simply as true virtue; and finally Jefferson editing the Bible so as to get the irrational parts simply removed, thus making people more fit to grant a complete religious toleration. Throughout the century all these approaches to revealed religion may be legitimately described as radical. Each produced a different recommendation for its replacement. As I have now come to see, the pantheism I identified in 1981 would lead in many directions, among them lay the search to understand all human religiosity and to articulate a universal natural religion. -- Keywords - Atheism materialism absolutism French Protestant refugees Dutch cities religious toleration Bernard Picart Jonathan Israel English freethinkers Papal condemnation Rousseau pantheism Jefferson -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  religious_history  cultural_history  political_history  17thC  18thC  Dutch  British_history  Enlightenment  Radical_Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  political_culture  politics-and-religion  religion-established  religious_belief  comparative_religion  comparative_anthropology  monotheism  natural_religion  natural_philosophy  materialism  tolerance  natural_rights  naturalism  pantheism  atheism  atheism_panic  anticlerical  Absolutism  monarchy  monarchy-proprietary  publishing  public_sphere  Picart  Rousseau  Jefferson  revelation  Biblical_authority  Bible-as-history  Biblical_criticism  Huguenots  free-thinkers  Papacy  papal_infallibility  censorship  Republic_of_Letters  rational_religion  American_colonies  Early_Republic  ecclesiology  querelle_des_rites  virtue  moral_philosophy  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Christian Nadeau, review essay - Blaise Bachofen (dir.), Le libéralisme au miroir du droit. L’État, la personne, la propriété - Philosophiques v36 n1 2009, p. 249-253 | Érudit 
Christian Nadeau - Université de Montréal -- Ces auteurs, pour la plupart spécialistes de philosophie politique moderne, se sont penchés sur des notions fondamentales du libéralisme en les situant dans leur contexte théorique d’émergence. Sont ainsi passés au crible de l’analyse philosophique les oeuvres de Locke, Hume, Montesquieu, Bentham, Constant et Tocqueville, mais aussi, celles des auteurs associés au conservatisme, comme Burke ou Bonald. Dans son introduction, Blaise Bachofen explique les raisons pour lesquelles les textes rassemblés dans ce recueil se recoupent sur la notion de libéralisme normatif, et plus précisément de libéralisme juridique. La norme de droit propre au libéralisme permet en effet de rendre compte à la fois de sa dimension politique et de sa dimension économique. L’égal traitement de droit contient en lui-même les motivations morales des principes fondamentaux du libéralisme. -- Trois grandes notions ont été retenues pour expliciter le paradigme du libéralisme juridique : L’État, comme lieu des échanges et des protections individuelles ; la personne, comme sujet du droit et de la liberté ; la propriété, comme notion canonique du rapport de l’individu à lui-même et aux objets qu’il peut légitimement faire siens. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  British_history  France  Locke-2_Treatises  Hume-politics  Hume-ethics  Montesquieu  Bentham  Burke  Constant  Tocqueville  liberalism  property  property_rights  equality  civil_liberties  nation-state  utilitarianism  legal_system  counter-revolution  social_contract  legitimacy  public_opinion  political_culture  natural_law  natural_rights  downloaded  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
John Parkin & Timothy Stanton, eds. - Natural Law and Toleration in the Early Enlightenment (2013) | - Oxford University Press
The early enlightenment has been seen as an epoch-making period, marking the beginnings of the transition from a 'religious' to an essentially 'secular' understanding of human relations and generating in the process new accounts of the relationship between religion and politics, in which toleration was a central idea. Leading scholars challenge that view and explore ways that important discussions of toleration were shaped by natural theology and natural law. Far from representing a shift to non-religious ways of thinking about the world, the essays reveal the extent to which early enlightenment discussions of toleration presupposed a world-view in which God-given natural law established the boundaries between church and state and provided the primary point of reference for understanding claims to religious freedom. -- 1. Religious Commitment and Secular Reason: Pufendorf on the Separation between Religion and Politics, Simone Zurbuchen *--* 2. Samuel Pufendorf and Religious Intolerance in the Early Enlightenment, Thomas Ahnert *--* 3. Natural law, Nonconformity and Toleration: Two Stages on Locke's Way, Timothy Stanton *--* 4. John Locke and Natural Law: Free Worship and Toleration, Ian Harris *--* 5. The Tolerationist Programmes of Thomasius and Locke, Ian Hunter *--* 6. Leibniz's Doctrine of Toleration: Philosophical, Theological, and Pragmatic Reasons, Maria Rosa Antognazza *--* 7. Toleration as Impartiality? Civil and Ecclesiastical Toleration in Jean Barbeyrac, Petter Korkman *--* 8. Natural Rights or Political Prudence? Francis Hutcheson on Toleration, Knud Haakonssen *--* Postface. The Grounds for Toleration and the Capacity to Tolerate, John Dunn -- only hdbk
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june 2014 by dunnettreader
Ryan Patrick Hanley - Enlightened Nation Building: The "Science of the Legislator" in Adam Smith and Rousseau | JSTOR: American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 52, No. 2 (Apr., 2008), pp. 219-234
Rousseau is famous as an advocate of the politics of "denaturing." But attention to his conception of the "science of the legislator," as developed in the Geneva Manuscript and his writings on Poland and Corsica, reveals a more moderate approach to statecraft. Here Rousseau claims that legislative science requires tempering commitment to principles of political right with sensitivity to actual political conditions-a claim that importantly and unexpectedly parallels the better known account of the science of the legislator developed by Adam Smith. In comparing these conceptions, this article draws three conclusions: first, Smith's and Rousseau's shared moderation reveals their common commitment to accommodating the passions and prejudices of modernity; second, their fundamental difference concerns not practical legislative methods but rather differing conceptions of natural justice and political right; and finally, their prudential approach to legislation helps clarify the specific types of "moderation" and "intelligence" required of contemporary nation builders. -- see bibliography -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  18thC  Smith  Rousseau  nation-state  institution-building  political_culture  political_science  political_economy  modernity  natural_law  natural_rights  liberty  justice  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Kristen Irwin, review - Nicholas Wolterstorff, The Mighty and the Almighty: An Essay in Political Theology // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // Jan 2014
The Mighty and the Almighty takes on the task of theorizing a political theology for the Christian. [T]his book originated in his 1998 Stone Lectures at Princeton... [and] retains both the advantages and the disadvantages of its original lecture format: astonishingly clear and accessible, but a relatively light sketch ...Despite the specifically Christian orientation of his project, Wolterstorff asks for the attention of the nonreligious: "In a participatory democracy such as ours, it's important that we each be open with and open to our fellow citizens concerning the deep sources of how we think about political issues". -- Though political theology is not nearly so popular as in the days of Augustine or Calvin -- two of Wolterstorff's foils -- Wolterstorff argues that it's overdue for careful contemporary consideration.-- a substantive account of the relationship between political authority and divine authority. -- The most innovative part of the book is Wolterstorff's use of the above distinction to offer a rereading of Romans 13... Rather than counseling universal submission to civil authorities, Wolterstorff argues, Paul is counseling submission to civil authorities insofar as they are executing "the God-assigned task of government to curb injustice. . . . to protect the rights of the public". Government clearly has the positional authority to issue whatever directives it deems appropriate to its citizens, but insofar as its directives violate justice or the rights of the public, government forfeits its performance-authority. The corollary is that "the directives that the government issues to the public for the purpose of curbing injustice are binding". -- In other words, the political authority of the state as the institution responsible for "protecting members of the public from being wronged by their fellows" can be derived both from natural rights, and from divine authority.
books  reviews  kindle-available  political_philosophy  political-theology  liberalism  liberalism-public_reason  authority  obligation  natural_rights  Early_Christian  Paul  Augustine  Calvinist  resistance_theory  passive_obedience  justice  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Vivienne Brown - "Rights" in Aristotle's "Politics" and "Nicomachean Ethics"? | JSTOR: The Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 55, No. 2 (Dec., 2001), pp. 269-295
Follows up lengthy debates (especially Review of Metaphysics symposium in mid 1990s) - she argues that rights weren't part of Greek political or ethical theories re justice etc. -- useful for lit survey as well as how she sees Politics and Nicomachean Ethics working together or leaving some things not addressed --didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  Aristotle  natural_rights  human_rights  justice  civic_virtue  bibliography  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Horacio Spector - Four Conceptions of Freedom | JSTOR: Political Theory, Vol. 38, No. 6 (December 2010), pp. 780-808
Contemporary political philosophers discuss the idea of freedom in terms of two distinctions: Berlin's famous distinction between negative and positive liberty, and Skinner and Pettit's divide between liberal and republican liberty. In this essay I proceed to recast the debate by showing that there are two strands in liberalism, Hobbesian and Lockean, and that the latter inherited its conception of civil liberty from republican thought. I also argue that the contemporary debate on freedom lacks a perspicuous account of the various conceptions of freedom, mainly because it leaves aside the classic contrast between natural liberty and civil liberty. Once we consider both the negative/positive distinction and the natural/civil one, we can classify all conceptions of freedom within four basic irreducible categories. In light of the resulting framework I show that there are two distinct conceptions of republican liberty, natural and civil, and that the former is coupled with an ideal of individual self-control. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  liberty  liberalism  liberalism-republicanism_debates  republicanism  neo-republicanism  liberty-negative  liberty-positive  domination  slavery  natural_rights  civil_liberties  Hobbes  Locke  Berlin_Isaiah  Skinner  Pettit  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Steven B. Smith - What Is "Right" In Hegel's Philosophy of Right? | JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 83, No. 1 (Mar., 1989), pp. 3-18
I provide a thematic reconstruction of Hegel's positive concept of right. Against those who charge that Hegel denies any role to substantive political evaluation, I argue that the Philosophy of Right articulates a notion of the right to recognition (Anerkennung) as the central feature of the modern state. The concept of recognition, I contend, requires not just toleration of others but a more robust notion of respect for the @'free personality@' that is the philosophical ground of right. The right to recognition is, furthermore, intended to provide the foundation for a new form of ethical life (Sittlichkeit), Hegel's modern analogue to classical conceptions of civic virtue. In conclusion I examine briefly two objections that stand in the way of a contemporary rehabilitation of Hegelian political Philosophy.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  19thC  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  Hegel  natural_rights  tolerance  recognition  civic_virtue  civil_liberties  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Joshua Foa Dienstag - Between History and Nature: Social Contract Theory in Locke and the Founders | JSTOR: The Journal of Politics, Vol. 58, No. 4 (Nov., 1996), pp. 985-1009
Part of the problem with the debate between "liberal" and "republican" historians of early American political thought is the use both sides have made of a false conceptual dichotomy between "nature" and "history" where the first is taken to be the province of liberal theory and the second belongs to republicanism. A careful reading of Locke's philosophy, however, shows that his theory is carefully positioned between history and nature. A further reading of the theoretical texts of Jefferson and Adams then shows that these two Founders, at least, followed Locke's theory at a very high level of detail. It is Locke's theory that authorizes a simultaneous claim of natural and historical rights. -- extensive bibliography -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  political_philosophy  Locke  Adams_John  Jefferson  natural_law  natural_rights  liberalism-republicanism_debates  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Review essay by: James H. Tully - Current Thinking about Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Political Theory (1981)
JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Jun., 1981), pp. 475-484 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Reviewed work: --**-- Natural Rights Theories: Their Origin and Development by Richard Tuck; --**-- John Locke and the Theory of Sovereignty: Mixed Monarchy and the Rights of Resistance in the Political Thought of the English Revolution by Julian H. Franklin; --**-- Sir Robert Filmer and English Political Thought by James Daly; --**-- Order and Reason in Politics: Theories of Absolute and Limited Monarchy in Early Modern England by Robert Eccleshall
books  reviews  intellectual_history  historiography  political_philosophy  16thC  17thC  Britain  France  Dutch  Italy  Spain  Locke  Filmer  Grotius  Hobbes  Pufendorf  natural_law  natural_rights  sovereignty  Absolutism  limited_monarchy  mixed_government  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Charles D. Tarlton: Does Chapter 5 of Locke's Second Treatise, 'Of PROPERTY,' Deconstruct Itself? (2006)
JSTOR: Philosophy, Vol. 81, No. 315 (Jan., 2006), pp. 107-127 -- the answer is clearly YES, so let's count the ways -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  social_theory  17thC  Britain  Locke  property  property_rights  labor  natural_rights  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Alexander Lee: Roman Law and Human Liberty: Marsilius of Padua on Property Rights (2009)
JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 70, No. 1 (Jan., 2009), pp. 23-44 -- pdf available -- builds on work of Brian Tierney and Annabelle Brett
article  jstor  14thC  intellectual_history  legal_history  church_history  Roman_law  property_rights  property  liberty  natural_rights  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Kari Saastamoinen - Pufendorf on Natural Equality, Human Dignity, and Self-Esteem (2010)
Project MUSE - Kari Saastamoinen. "Pufendorf on Natural Equality, Human Dignity, and Self-Esteem."Journal of the History of Ideas 71.1 (2010): 39-62. Project MUSE. Web. 28 Aug. 2013. <http://muse.jhu.edu/>. ?...Downloaded pdf to Note - also available in html. ?... It is often maintained that Samuel Pufendorf founded natural equality on human dignity. This article partly questions this interpretation, maintaining that the dignity Pufendorf attributed to human nature did not indicate the Kantian idea of absolute and incomparable worth but only superiority in relation to other animals. This comparative dignity of humanity implied that all humans are equally obliged to obey natural law, but it did not offer a foundation for the similarity of their innate duties. The latter followed from the fundamental principle of natural law, the duty to maintain sociality, and from observations concerning human self-esteem.

?.... useful links to discussion of other 17thC and 18thC authors as well as centrality of Cicero in working through modern version of rights and duties.
article  Project_MUSE  antiquity  17thC  18thC  intellectual_history  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  natural_law  natural_rights  equality  obligation  Cicero  Pufendorf  Locke  sociability  self-love  emulation  dignity  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader

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