dunnettreader + moral_psychology   127

How do modern individuals form a sense of the vast societies in which they live? Social cognition has evolved to make sense of small, intimate social groups; but in complex mass societies, comparable vivid social cues are scarcer. Extant research on political attitudes and behavior has emphasized media and interpersonal networks as key sources of cues. Extending a classical argument, we provide evidence for the importance of an alternative and internal source: imagination. With a focus on social welfare, we collected survey data from two very different democracies; the United States and Denmark, and conducted several studies using explicit, implicit, and behavioral measures. By analyzing the effects of individual differences in imagination, we demonstrate that political cognition relies on vivid, mental simulations that engage evolved social and emotional decision-making mechanisms. It is in the mind's eye that vividness and engagement are added to people's sense of mass politics. - didn't download
political_spectacle  moral_psychology  jstor  images-political  imagined_communities  political_science  article  imagination  symbols-political  political_culture  social_psychology  mass_culture  discourse-political_theory  comparative_politics  politics-and-aesthetics  political_sociology  bibliography  political_press 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
Deepak Malhotra & J. Keith Murnighan - The Effects of Contracts on Interpersonal Trust (2002)| Administrative Science Quarterly at JSTOR
Administrative Science Quarterly
Vol. 47, No. 3 (Sep., 2002), pp. 534-559
DOI: 10.2307/3094850
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3094850
Topics: Contracts, Cooperation, Trust, Interpersonal interaction, Psychology, Social interaction, Social psychology, Situational attribution, Motivation, Organizational behavior
social_psychology  contracts  article  altruism  moral_psychology  punishment-altruistic  trust  organizations  downloaded  cooperation  firms-organization  motivation 
april 2017 by dunnettreader
PROUST, Marcel – À la recherche du temps perdu (Œuvre intégrale) | Litterature audio.com
Donneurs de voix : Projet collectif | Durée : 145h 18min | Genre : Romans
À la recherche du temps perdu est un roman de Marcel Proust, écrit entre 1908-1909 et 1922 et publié entre 1913 et 1927 en sept tomes, dont les trois derniers parurent après la mort de l’auteur. Plutôt que le récit d’une séquence déterminée d’événements, cette œuvre s’intéresse non pas aux souvenirs du narrateur mais à une réflexion sur la littérature, sur la mémoire et sur le temps. (Source : Wikipédia).
À l’occasion du centenaire de ce monument littéraire, retrouvez les sept tomes disponibles dans leur intégralité sur Littérature audio.com, ainsi qu’une sélection d’extraits :
- Du côté de chez Swann (+ une autre version du chapitre Un amour de Swann),
- À l’ombre des jeunes filles en fleurs,
- Le Côté de Guermantes,
- Sodome et Gomorrhe,
- La Prisonnière,
- Albertine disparue (+ une autre version du Chapitre 1),
- Le Temps retrouvé.
> Projet collectif, Danièle Jouffroy, Monique Vincens, Orangeno, Pomme, René Depasse
audio-books  French_lit  French_language  Proust  19thC  20thC  Fin-de-Siècle  pre-WWI  cultural_history  cultural_critique  France  WWI  social_order  socialization  elite_culture  hierarchy  Catholics-France  3rd_Republic  moral_psychology  morality-conventional  stratification  sexuality  homosexuality  French_intellectuals  hypocrisy 
november 2016 by dunnettreader
Peter Müller - Hobbes, Locke and the Consequences: Shaftesbury's Moral Sense and Political Agitation in Early 18thC England (2013) - Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies - Wiley Online Library
This article examines the political (and Whig) agenda behind the earl of Shaftesbury's moral and religious thought, offering a reading of the so-called ‘moral sense’ that, based on Terry Eagleton's Marxist interpretation of moral-sense philosophy in general and Shaftesbury's use of the concept in particular, illuminates how far the moral sense serves a propagandistic purpose in Shaftesbury's writings. A close examination of this aspect, which has so far not been considered in the relevant literature on Shaftesbury, illuminates the anti-Hobbist and, by implication, anti-Tory (and High Church) tendency of his moral philosophy in the context of Low Church Anglicanism. -- Keywords: Shaftesbury; Thomas Hobbes; John Locke; Latitudinarianism; moral sense; Whiggism; Anglicanism
article  paywall  Wiley  18thC  British_history  British_politics  Whigs  Whig_culture  Shaftesbury  Hobbes  Locke  Church_of_England  High_Church  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  moral_sentiments  latitudinarian 
november 2016 by dunnettreader
RJW Mills - Lord Kames's analysis of the natural origins of religion: the 'Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion' (1751) - (2016) - Historical Research - Wiley Online Library
This article investigates the discussion of the origins and development of religious belief within the Scottish jurist and philosopher Henry Home, Lord Kames's Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion (1751). Kames's work is argued to be a significant yet understudied contribution to the Scottish Enlightenment's examination of religion as a human phenomenon. The Principles contained one of the lengthiest analyses on the topic published by a Scottish literatus. In particular, Kames placed into a historical trajectory the internal sense theory's account of the non-rational origins of religious belief. In doing so, he provided an apologetic account of the progress from polytheism to monotheism resulting from the emergence of civil society, which set the tone for later Scottish discussions of religion.
article  paywall  Wiley  18thC  philosophical_anthropology  historiography-18thC  historical_change  stadial_theories  Kames  religious_history  sociology_of_religion  polytheism  monotheism  Bolingbroke  Hume  natural_religion  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  moral_sentiments  civil_society  Scottish_Enlightenment  Kirk 
november 2016 by dunnettreader
Eric Schwitzgebel - A Dispositional Approach to the Attitudes: Thinking Outside of the Belief Box - 2013
in N. Nottelmann, ed., New Essays on Belief (Palgrave, 2013). -- Abstract: I argue that to have an attitude is, primarily, (1.) to have a dispositional profile that matches, to an appropriate degree and in appropriate respects, a stereotype for that attitude, typically grounded in folk psychology, and secondarily, (2.) in some cases also to meet further stereotypical attitude-specific conditions. To have an attitude, on the account I will recommend here, is mainly a matter of being apt to interact with the world in patterns that ordinary people would regard as characteristic of having that attitude. I contrast this view with alternative views that treat having an attitude as a matter of possessing some particular internally stored representational content or some other "deep" structural feature. -- downloaded to Tab S2
chapter  human_nature  moral_psychology  dispositions  character  character-formation  propositions  representation  folk_psychology  downloaded 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Embodied Cognition (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
1. Embodied vs Traditional Cognitive Science
2. Some Historical Anchors for Embodied Cognitive Science
2.1 Metaphor and Cognition
2.2 Enactive Cognition.
2.3 Rethinking Robotics.
2.4 Ecological Perception.
2.5 Dynamicism and Development
2.6 Phenomenology
3. What Embodied Cognition Is
4. Embodiment vs Tradition on Three Issues
4.1 Modularity
4.2 Mental Representation.
4.3 Nativism
5. Empirical Domains for Embodied Cognition
5.1 Visual Consciousness
5.2 Concepts
5.3 Memory.
5.4 Other Minds.
5.5 Moral Cognition.
6. Sharper Divides Over Embodied Cognition
6.1 Payoffs for empirical research.
6.2 Accommodation by traditional cognitive science
6.3 Embodied cognition and the extended mind thesis.
6.4 Agency, the self, and subjectivity.
bibliography  philosophy_of_mind  mind-body  mind  embodied_cognition  neuroscience  phenomenology  innatism  innate_ideas  theory_of_mind  perception  memory  cognition  emotions  representation-metaphysics  child_development  language  moral_psychology 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
(107) NOW Published: How Hume
How Hume and Kant Reconstruct Natural Law: Justifying Strict Objectivity  without Debating Moral Realism, Clarendon Press (2016)
Front matter including both overview TOC and very detailed TOC plus introductory chapter -- He explains in the intro how both Hume and Kant (via Rousseau) pursued "moral constructivist" approaches using a (modified) "natural law" framework - after Hume had successfully attacked weaknesses in traditional approach to natural law. Notes that "justice" traditionally one of the 2 branches of moral philosophy (the other ethics). He's especially concerned with failure of "business ethics " as cause of financial crisis and Great Recession - but "business ethics" meaningless without a framework of "Justice." His target audience includes lawyers and legal/jurisprudence students and scholars - he thinks legal positivism and legal realism has run out of steam. He returns to accountancy standards in final chapter. -- pdf is the same material as kindle sample -- downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
books  legal_system  constructivism  morality-objective  justice  legal_theory  norms  accountability  legal_realism  18thC  norms-business  downloaded  moral_sentiments  moral_economy  jurisprudence  morality-conventional  legal_positivism  accounting  moral_realism  moral_psychology  Hume  kindle-available  natural_law  moral_philosophy  morality  Kant 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Matthew Sharpe - Ilsetraut Hadot’s Seneca: ancient philosophy and spiritual direction (2015) | Academia.edu
Abstract: Exegetical and reflective presentation for Sydney conference "In pursuit of wisdom: Ancient Chinese and Greek perspectives on cultivation" on Ilsetraut Hadot's magisterial *Sénèque: Direction Spirituelle et pratique de la philosophie* (2015, Vrin. - Research Interests: Stoicism, Philosophy as Therapy, Roman Stoicism, Philosophy as a way of life, and Pierre Hadot -- downloaded
lecture  ancient_philosophy  Stoicism  Seneca  Hadot  Hadot_  Ilsetraut  philosophy_as_way_of_life  moral_philosophy  cosmology  moral_psychology  Hellenism  books  French_language  reviews  downloaded 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Leo Damrosh - The Enlightenment: Invention of the Modern Self | The Great Courses
Enlightenment Invention of the Modern Self - from opening views in 17thC, through stages of the Enlightenment - a road to its (inevitable?) backlash in Romanticism
24 lectures
Only available as Audio download (and streaming) - list price $130
Rave reviews
Uses literary works and philosophical texts together
Frex completes the 2 lectures on British empiricism (focus on Locke and Hume re the self) with how Pope struggles with capturing complex psychology within the empiricist framework
After an introduction of 17thC religious and secular conceptions of the self, starts with 2 on La Princesse de Clèves
After empiricism, 2 on Voltaire and theodicy in Candide
3 lectures on Diderot and Jacques le fataliste
A lot of Rousseau - not the novels but the autobiographical works - how he analyzes himself in Confessions and Solitary Walker
Lots of biography, with Boswell's Johnson the vehicle
Some Franklin and Smith
Finishes with Laclos and Blake
Romanticism  bibliography  reason-passions  poetry  Boswell  self  moral_psychology  French_Enlightenment  Enlightenment  English_lit  French_Revolution-impact  Rousseau  free_will  Locke-education  buy  human_nature  Diderot  Blake_William  Locke  Hume-causation  autobiography  17thC  Rousseau-self  Hume-ethics  altruism  Johnson  Voltaire  novels  empiricism  18thC  moral_philosophy  Locke-Essay  intellectual_history  cultural_history  Pope_Alexander  courses  French_lit  Smith  Hume  determinism  epistemology  emotions  character  audio  psychology 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Harro Hopfl - Jesuit Political Thought (2008) | Cambridge University Press
Harro Höpfl presents here a full-length study of the single most influential organized group of scholars and pamphleteers in early modern Europe (1540–1630), namely the Jesuits. He explores the academic and political controversies in which they were engaged in and their contribution to academic discourse around ideas of 'the state' and 'politics'. He pays particular attention to their actual teaching concerning doctrines for whose menacing practical implications Jesuits generally were vilified: notably tyrannicide, the papal power to depose rulers, the legitimacy of 'Machiavellian' policies in dealing with heretics and the justifiability of breaking faith with heretics. Höpfl further explores the paradox of the Jesuits' political activities being at once the subject of conspiratorial fantasies but at the same time being widely acknowledged as among the foremost intellects of their time, with their thought freely cited and appropriated. This is an important work of scholarship. -- Intro excerpt downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
16thC  Counter-Reformation  downloaded  resistance_theory  politico-theology  kindle-available  religious_history  political_philosophy  17thC  Absolutism  universalism  Erastianism  enlightened_absolutism  intellectual_history  moral_psychology  moral_philosophy  Papacy  church_history  politics-and-religion  Church-and-State  Jesuits  books  authority  religion-established 
march 2016 by dunnettreader
Mildred Galland-Szymkowiak - Le mérite chez La Rochefoucauld ou l'héroïsme de l'honnêteté - Cairn.info - Revue d'Histoire Littéraire de la France (2002)
L’analyse du couple être/apparaître dans les Maximes de La Rochefoucauld met en évidence, au-delà de la critique des masques sociaux et au-delà du doute porté sur la responsabilité de l’individu quant à ses prétendues qualités éthiques, que l’idée sociale et morale du mérite n’est pas unilatéralement annihilée par le moraliste, mais bien plutôt transfigurée au sein de la société restreinte des honnêtes gens : la vérité du mérite y est indiquée en effet comme proportion et renforcement mutuel de l’apparence polie et de la valeur essentielle. -- downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
honnête  literary_history  moral_psychology  17thC  downloaded  article  French_lit  La_Rochefoucauld  elite_culture  moral_philosophy 
march 2016 by dunnettreader
John Conley - Madeleine de Scudéry (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Long framed by her critics as a pedantic précieuse, Scudéry has only recently attracted the interest of professional philosophers. Critics have dismissed her lengthy novels as unreadable, her famous Saturday salon as amateurish, and her philosophical ideas as derivative and confused. In the recent feminist expansion of the canon of humanities, however, another Scudéry has appeared. In this reevaluation, the philosophical significance of her writings has emerged. Her literary corpus presents a novel version of the ancient philosophical method of dialogue; it also expresses original, sophisticated theories concerning the ethical, aesthetic, and theological disputes of early modernity.
17thC  French_intellectuals  French_lit  Scudéry  intellectual_history  cultural_history  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  Montaigne  scepticism  libertine_erudite  salons  Louis_XIV  court_culture  virtue_ethics  women-intellectuals  women-rights  aesthetics  genre  novels  dialogue  précieuses 
march 2016 by dunnettreader
Stefan Linder, Nicolai J. Foss - Agency Theory :: SSRN April 23, 2013
Stefan Linder, ESSEC Business School -- Nicolai J. Foss, Copenhagen Business School - Department of Strategic Management and Globalization *--* Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex ante (“hidden characteristics”) as well as ex post information asymmetry (“hidden action”), and examines conditions under which various kinds of incentive instruments and monitoring arrangements can be deployed to minimize the welfare loss. Its clear predictions and broad applicability have allowed agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism. -- PDF File: 35 -- Keywords: adverse selection, agency costs, compensation, conflict of interest, contracting, corporate governance, delegation, hidden action, hidden characteristics, incentive intensity, information asymmetry, informativeness, monitoring, moral hazard, motivation, nexus of contracts, pay-for-performance -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  economic_theory  social_sciences-post-WWII  microeconomics  microfoundations  behavioral_economics  incentives  incentives-distortions  agency  agents  game_theory  rational_choice  rationality-economics  rationality-bounded  information-asymmetric  adverse_selection  delegation  moral_psychology  moral_hazard  contracts  principal-agent  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Damien Couet, review - Michael Slote, A Sentimentalist Theory of the Mind - La Vie des idées - 30 décembre 2015
Recensé : Michael Slote, A Sentimentalist Theory of the Mind, Oxford University Press, 2014, 272 p. -- L’éthique du care entend réhabiliter le rôle des émotions occulté par la pensée morale occidentale. Mais elle a besoin pour cela d’une conception sentimentaliste de l’esprit, dont M. Slote souhaite jeter les fondements. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  kindle-available  reviews  moral_philosophy  moral_sentiments  moral_psychology  ethics  ethic_of_care  sympathy  empathy  epistemology  reason-passions  reasons-internalism  reasons-externalism  feminism  mind  rationality  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
John Sellars - The Stoics (on Evil) | Academia.edu
Chapter for The History of Evil in Antiquity (Acumen) - in press -- downloaded pdf to Note
chapter  intellectual_history  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  physics  Stoicism  evil  virtue  Providence  downloaded 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul A. Newberry - Joseph Butler on Forgiveness: A Presupposed Theory of Emotion | JSTOR - Journal of the History of Ideas (2001)
Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 62, No. 2 (Apr., 2001), pp. 233-244 -- corrects misreading of Butler's position - not overcoming emotions of resentment but restraining one's actions or forbearance of taking revenge -- and discusses why Butler has been misread -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  18thC  Butler  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  theology  forgiveness  moral_sentiments  morality-Christian  emotions  reason-passions  action-theory  agency  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - The Death of God and the Death of Morality [Nietzsche] :: SSRN - September 16, 2015
University of Chicago -' Nietzsche famously proclaimed the "death of God," but in so doing it was not God's death that was really notable -- Nietzsche assumes that most reflective, modern readers realize that "the belief in the Christian god has become unbelievable" (GS 343) -- but the implications of that belief becoming unbelievable, namely, "how much must collapse now that this faith has been undermined," in particular, "the whole of our European morality" (GS 343). What is the connection between the death of God and the death of morality? I argue that Nietzsche thinks the death of God will undermine two central aspects of our morality: its moral egalitarianism, and its belief in moral responsibility and warranted guilt. I offer an account of how Nietzsche sees the connections, and conclude with some skeptical considerations about whether Nietzsche was right that atheism would, in fact, undermine morality. -- Number of Pages in PDF File: 25 -- Keywords: Nietzsche, theism, morality -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  moral_philosophy  religious_belief  religious_culture  19thC  Nietzsche  theism  atheism  God-existence  moral_psychology  morality-Nietzche  morality-divine_command  morality-Christian  morality-conventional  morality-objective  Kant-ethics  egalitarian  guilt  norms  obligation  responsibility  free_will  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter, review - Christian Emden, "Nietzsche's Naturalism: A Critical Assessment" :: SSRN - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews, July 22, 2015
I review and evaluate the intellectual historian Christian Emden's recent book Nietzsche's Naturalism: Philosophy and the Life Sciences in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge University Press, 2014). Topics addressed include: the meaning of naturalism; the relationship between substantive and methodological versions of naturalism and physicalism and other reductionisms; the role of Kant and NeoKantians like Lange and Helmholtz in Nietzsche's philosophy; the actual role of the life sciences in Nietzsche's naturalism; and what is involved in a naturalistic account of normativity. --PDF File: 12 pgs --- Keywords: Nietzsche, Kant, Lange, naturalism, physicalism -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  intellectual_history  19thC  German_scholars  Nietzsche  naturalism  materialism-19thC  Kant  neo-Kantian  Lange_FA  biology  Helmholtz  normativity  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  morality-objective  human_nature  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Neil Sinhababu, review - Maudemarie Clark, Nietzsche on Ethics and Politics (OUP 2015) | Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews - September 09, 2015
Nietzsche scholarship has made impressive progress over the last thirty years, with lots of excellent work now available to help puzzled readers understand Nietzsche's provocative and often beautiful writing. Maudemarie Clark's Nietzsche on Truth and Philosophy was a big step forward in our understanding of his metaphysics and epistemology. Her Nietzsche on Ethics and Politics is a collection of fourteen essays mostly on Nietzsche's practical philosophy, ending with four on metaphysical issues that are related to the normative issues discussed earlier in the book. Most were published previously -- the oldest in 1987 and the newest in 2014 -- though two are revised versions of unpublished lectures and one is a remix of material from her recent book. Some appeared in obscure venues, so this volume helps readers access all of them. -- Highly recommends the introduction discussing each essay and broader framework for placing her discussion
Instapaper  books  reviews  intellectual_history  19thC  Nietzsche  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  metaphysics  political_philosophy  free_will  responsibility  from instapaper
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Symposium on Jack Russell Weinstein’s "Adam Smith’s Pluralism: Rationality, Education And The Moral Sentiments" | Cosmos + Taxis, Vol2, Issue 3, 2015
Rather than a classic intellectual_history of Adam Smith, Weinstein’s aim is to use Smith to reinvigorate modern liberalism -- Introduction to Symposium - Nathaniel Wolloch *--* Context-dependent Normativity and Universal Rules of Justice - María Alejandra Carrasco. **--** “… but one of the multitude”. Justice, Pluralism and Rationality in Smith and Weinstein… - Lisa Herzog. **--** The Dynamics of Sympathy and the Challenge of Creating New Commonalities - Dionysis Drosos. **--** The “Spectator” and the Impartial Spectator in Adam Smith’s Pluralism - Spiros Tegos **--** Was Adam Smith an Optimist? - Maria Pia Paganelli. **--** The Political Hypotheses of Adam Smith’s Pluralism: A response to my commentators - Jack Russell Weinstein -- downloaded pdf to Note
journal  article  political_philosophy  political_economy  moral_psychology  moral_philosophy  liberalism  Smith  justice  pluralism  emergence  social_order  sympathy  empathy  morality-conventional  moral_sentiments  downloaded 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Hadot, Pierre | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Table of Contents -- 1. Biography **--** 2. Philology and Method **--** 3. Early Work: Plotinus and the Simplicity of Vision **--** 4. What is Ancient Philosophy? -- (a) Philosophical Discourse versus Philosophy -- (b) Philosophy as a Way of Life -- (b) The Figure of Socrates -- (c) The Figure of the Sage **--** 5. Spiritual Practices -- (a) Askesis of Desire -- (b) Premeditation of Death and Evils -- (c) Concentration on the Present Moment -- (d) The View from Above -- (e) Writing as Hypomnemata, and The Inner Citadel **--** 6. The Transformation of Philosophy after the Decline of Antiquity -- (a) The Adoption of Spiritual Practices in Monasticism -- (b) Philosophical Discourse as Handmaiden to Theology and the Natural Sciences -- (c) The Permanence of the Ancient Conception of Philosophy **--** 7. References and Further Reading -- (a) Works in French. -- (b) Works in English. -- (c) Selected Articles on Hadot -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  Socrates  eudaimonia  Stoicism  Epicurean  spiritual_practices  self-knowledge  self-sufficiency  self-development  self  self-control  passions  emotions  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  desire  judgment-emotions  meditation  Plotinus  Neoplatonism  transcendence  late_antiquity  monasticism  theology  philosophy_of_religion  natural_philosophy  medieval_philosophy  Hadot_Pierre  French_intellectuals  20thC  21stC  post-WWII  Hellenism  bibliography  downloaded 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Roundtable - Romanticism, Enlightenment, and Counter-Enlightenment | Philoctetes Center - April 17, 2010
, 2:30 PM
Romanticism, Enlightenment, and Counter-Enlightenment

Participants: Akeel Bilgrami, Taylor Carman, Garrett Deckel, Colin Jager, Joel Whitebook Isaiah Berlin introduced the work of a range of philosophers in the German romantic and German idealist tradition to the English-speaking world. His fascination with some of their ideas was accompanied by a concomitant anxiety about them. The anxiety issued from his staunch liberal commitment to the orthodox Enlightenment. Yet, the fascination was an implicit acknowledgement on his part of some of the limitations of the Enlightenment's liberal ideas. This roundtable will look at this underlying tension in Berlin, which many liberals feel to this day. Panelists will probe the role of reason, perception, and emotion in our individual and political psychology, and ask the question of whether or not there is something for liberalism to learn from what Berlin—rightly or wrongly—called the "Counter-Enlightenment." -- see YouTube bookmark for direct link -- video also embedded in program page
video  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  Enlightenment  Counter-Enlightenment  Romanticism  Enlightenment_Project  Enlightenment-ongoing  German_Idealism  liberalism  Berlin_Isaiah  reason  rationality  perception  emotions  reason-passions  political_philosophy  political_culture  social_psychology  moral_psychology  nature  nature-mastery  cognition  prejudice  cognitive_bias  mind  mind-body  philosophical_anthropology 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Ronald Osborn - The Great Subversion: The Scandalous Origins of Human Rights | IASC: The Hedgehog Review - Volume 17, No. 2 (Summer 2015)
Hopgood’s bracing critique of rights talk and his call for a less lofty, more pragmatic dispensation forces us to face the implications of the loss of theological anthropology for concepts of human equality and dignity. Can we have a rationally coherent, morally compelling, and historically sustainable discourse as well as a practice of humanistic values and human rights absent a “thick” metaphysical or religious framework, such as the one provided in the Western tradition for some two millennia by Judeo-Christian sources? Put another way, the question “Can we be good without God?” does not strike nearly deep enough. The urgent question is: Will we still be good to the stranger in our midst, or good in the same ways, once we have fully grasped the contestable character of humanism and once we have utterly abandoned the essentially religious idea that every person is made, in the enigmatic language of Scripture, in the image of God? It is a question that even committed atheists, for the sake of good atheism, should find worthy of consideration. -- balance behind paywall
books  reviews  human_rights  theodicy  teleology  cosmology  modernity  disenchantment  morality-divine_command  philosophical_anthropology  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  imago_dei  recognition  dignity  equality  foundationalism 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Kimberly Kessler Ferzan - Of Weevils and Witches: What Can We Learn from the Ghost of Responsibility Past? A Commentary on Lacey's "Jurisprudence, History, and the Institutional Quality of Law" | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 947 (2015)
Lacey's article (..) criticizes the scholarship on criminal responsibility for being too concerned with “its conceptual contours and moral foundations,” “rather than with what it is for[:] its social roles, meaning, and functions.” Here is what she is arguing against. There are theorists, myself included, who think of questions of responsibility in philosophical terms. These moral truths are not socially or historically contingent; they are constant questions to which we seek answers. (..) In some ways, this is a (boring) methodological debate. What I care about as responsibility is not what she cares about as responsibility. -- YIKES -- Apart from the travesty of equating legal norms with "moral truths," this looks like moral realism run amok -- the questions may be "constant" but who gets to frame the Qs, what values are doing the framing (blood money, retribution, restitution, prevention, hierarchy reinforcement, group purification), what anthropology and epistemology implicitly govern the framing (universal depravity, trial by ordeal, women's testimony is unreliable?), the defined criteria (lower orders don't have honor they can defend, husbands can't commit rape), how criteria are to be applied, by whom (civil vs religious authority, manor courts vs king's law, lie detector operators, NSA algorithms?) -- "Philosophical" inquiry is limited to *a priori* concerns, and "philosophical" answers are limited to eternal Platonic "moral truths". But if normative Qs & As are by definition not contingent on changing institutions and social assumptions re behavior, what's's the foundation for her inquiry process? Armchair "fine-grained" intuitions re "mental states"? So do we get new "moral truths" along with the each new neuroscience study? "Proof there's no free will!"="moral truth" (let everybody out of jail?) and next month "Latest study finds the free will spot"=oops, new eternal "moral truth" (can we test it like DNA?) -- Analytic philosophy rediscovering Aristotelian categories is bad enough, but analytic neo-Platonic anthropology gets me actively hostile, and it's even more absurd if we're talking about criminal law -- didn't download
article  analytical_philosophy  a_priori  moral_philosophy  morality-objective  jurisprudence  criminal_justice  biocultural_evolution  human_nature  moral_psychology 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Vanessa Carbonell, review - Lisa Tessman, Moral Failure: On the Impossible Demands of Morality | Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews - May 26, 2015
Reviewed by Vanessa Carbonell, University of Cincinnati -- (..) she seeks to show that those impossible actions really were required and that you really did fail -- not in the sense of being to blame, but at least in the sense of having done wrong. (..) she looks to recent work in empirical moral psychology to support her vindicating story. Rather than dismiss people's experience of moral failure as irrational or misguided, Tessman claims that our intuitive moral judgments are largely arational. This chapter contains an overview of the "dual process" model of moral judgment and meticulously annotated discussions of the work of Daniel Kahneman, Joshua Greene, Jonathan Haidt, Jesse Prinz, Tamar Gendler, Philip Tetlock, and many others. Readers unfamiliar with this literature will find it a helpful introduction; readers familiar with and interested in these debates will probably find it overly ambitious. Suppose that we accepted every piece of Tessman's carefully assembled empirical story: that the dual process and social intuitionist models are roughly correct; that experiences of impossible demands are a moral case of Gendler's "alief"; that they involve Greene's "alarm bell" emotions; that moral judgments are what Prinz calls "prescriptive sentiments" or "oughtitudes"; that non-negotiable requirements trade on what Tetlock and colleagues call "sacred values"; etc. (..) It felt in the end like we simply had a lot more cool vocabulary for describing the purported data -- that people have experiences of impossible requirements and moral failure -- but no more reason to think that these experiences ought to be trusted as guides to what the demands of morality really are. -- interesting re overview of work in empirical moral psychology
books  reviews  epistemology-moral  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  ought-can  obligation  moral_sentiments  deontology  consequentialism  responsibility  intuitions  intuitionism  bibliography 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Herbert Gintis - Gene–culture coevolution and the nature of human sociality | Royal Society - Issue Theme "Human Niche Construction" - Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 27 March 2011, vol. 366, no. 1566, 878-888
Human characteristics are the product of gene–culture coevolution, which is an evolutionary dynamic involving the interaction of genes and culture over long time periods. Gene–culture coevolution is a special case of niche construction. Gene–culture coevolution is responsible for human other-regarding preferences, a taste for fairness, the capacity to empathize and salience of morality and character virtues. -- Keywords: gene–culture coevolution, sociobiology, epistatic information transfer -- Published 14 February 2011 doi: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0310 -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  gene-culture_coevolution  sociobiology  social_theory  genetics  cultural_change  social_process  niche_construction  evolution  evolution-social  evolutionary_biology  human_nature  character  preferences  altruism  fairness  empathy  moral_sentiments  moral_psychology  morality-innate  morality-conventional  virtue  tradition  cultural_transmission  evolution-group_selection  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Iakovos Vasiliou interview with Richard Marshall - Plato aims at virtue » 3:AM Magazine
Blurb of his book, Aiming at Virtue in Plato -- This study of Plato's ethics focuses on the concept of virtue. Based on detailed readings of the most prominent Platonic dialogues on virtue, it argues that there is a central yet previously unnoticed conceptual distinction in Plato between the idea of virtue as the supreme aim of one's actions and the determination of which action-tokens or -types are virtuous. Appreciating the 'aiming/determining distinction' provides detailed and mutually consistent readings of the most well-known Platonic dialogues on virtue as well as original interpretations of central Platonic questions. Unlike most examinations of Plato's ethics, this study does not take as its centrepiece the 'eudaimonist framework', which focuses on the relationship between virtue and happiness. Instead, it argues that the dialogues themselves begin with the idea of the supremacy of virtue, examine how that claim can be defended, and address how to determine what constitutes the virtuous action. -- professor at CUNY
books  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  ancient_philosophy  Plato  Aristotle  eudaimonia  virtue  virtue_ethics  deontology  Williams_Bernard 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Dunham, review - W. J. Mander (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // September 22, 2014
This volume is a hugely important contribution to scholarship on 19thC philosophy. ...for many important aspects of British philosophy in the 19thC the scholarship is almost non-existent. As Mander notes in the introduction, when we hear "19thC philosophy", we are more likely to think of 'the great systems of continental thought'. This volume shows that the British tradition boasts a remarkably rich and varied range of philosophical resources, and that it deserves the level of scholarship that the British traditions of the 17thC and 18thC are beginning to enjoy. In a review of another recent volume on 19thC philosophy Frederick Beiser argued that 'No period ... stands in more need of an original historian than 19thC philosophy. The standard tropes and figures do no justice to its depths, riches, and powers'. One of this present volume's greatest virtues is that it answers Beiser's plea as well as offering an impressive number of very original contributions.... It does an outstanding job of introducing a wide range of philosophical figures and ideas that will be unknown... It also includes excellent contributions on well-known philosophers and orientates the reader to the secondary literature.... The... volume provides a clear and comprehensive picture of how 19thC philosophy was practised and understood during the period. -- The Handbook has 6 parts: (1) Logic and Scientific Method; (2) Metaphysics; (3) Science and Philosophy; (4) Ethical, Social, and Political Thought; (5) Religious Philosophy; and, (6) The Practice of Philosophy. As Mander states, these classifications come from our contemporary perspective, and we should not expect the work of 19thC philosophers to neatly fit within them. Nonetheless, the individual authors [present] the aspects of a philosopher or school.. that fits within these categories while ... making clear how these aspects fit within a larger philosophical perspective ....
books  reviews  amazon.com  find  intellectual_history  19thC  British_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  Common_Sense  German_Idealism  British_Idealism  Kant  Hegelian  Mill  Sidgwick  Marx  Newman_JH  metaphysics  epistemology  empiricism  mind  perception  ideas-theories  idealism-transcendental  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  social_theory  Coleridge  philosophy_of_religion  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_social_science  science-and-religion  scientific_method  Darwinism  evolution  evolution-as-model  evolutionary_biology  evolution-social  Spencer_Herbert  political_philosophy  intelligentsia  elite_culture  professionalization  university  Evernote 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Derek Hirst, review - Victoria Kahn. Wayward Contracts: The Crisis of Political Obligation in England, 1640–1674 (2004) | JSTOR: The American Historical Review, Vol. 111, No. 4 (October 2006), p. 1247
Derek Hirst, Washington University in St. Louis -- Reviewed work(s): Victoria Kahn. Wayward Contracts: The Crisis of Political Obligation in England, 1640–1674. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 2004. Pp. xii, 370. $49.50. -- mixed review. -- he thinks she's on to a major way of looking how various metaphors were deployed and evolved in 17, with her readings of Hobbes and Milton 1st rate. She gets some facts and cites wrong when she strays out of her lane (cavalier not in the 17thC sense). But more damning is her lack of sufficient familiarity with Elizabethan and French discourses of romance, passions and bodies politic. Short -- didn't download
books  bookshelf  reviews  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  literary_history  17thC  Hobbes  Milton  British_history  British_politics  English_lit  English_Civil_War  Interregnum  Restoration  English_constitution  republicanism  social_contract  emotions  passions  human_nature  moral_psychology  obligation  reciprocity  trust  interest-discourse 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
David Shoemaker, Tulane University, review - Derk Pereboom, Free Will, Agency, and Meaning in Life // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // September 14, 2014
This is basically a new and improved version of Derk Pereboom's important Living Without Free Will (2001). In the thirteen-year interval, his skepticism about free will has been the subject of lots of critical scrutiny (with over 600 citations). Pereboom has taken this scrutiny seriously, and in this book he lays out a refined version of his view designed to beat his critics back and expand the view in several ways. Pereboom's version of skepticism is called hard incompatibilism, according to which the type of free will necessary for moral responsibility of the basic desert-entailing kind is incompatible with determinism, and we lack any good reason to believe that its indeterministic conditions obtain. Consequently, many of our responsibility responses... are unjustified, and so ought rationally to be altered. Nevertheless, ... there are other attitudes and practices compatible with his skeptical conclusions that may take their place, and substituting them will contribute to our living in a better world and finding meaning in life. -- Pereboom is advocating a massive rewriting of human sensibility based on theoretical arguments that are, as he allows, not decisive. Now when it comes to harsh treatment of others, he may be right that the strength of his metaphysical arguments "provide[s] a sound moral reason to treat wrongdoers as if the skeptical position were true". But a "better safe than sorry" argument like this feels less gripping when applied to the sorts of positive treatment -- often flowing from loving relationships -- that are also ruled out to the extent they presuppose basic desert. Indeed, now it looks as if the argument may have more power in the other direction: to the extent these relationships are exceedingly valuable, render us vulnerable to a wide range of attitudes, and would take significant work to revise, "better safe than sorry" may counsel revisiting and rewriting the skeptical theoretical arguments, or at least their practical implications. There may thus be an asymmetrical payoff to revisionary metaphysics like Pereboom's, giving us reason to revise our practices only in the negative cases.
books  reviews  metaphysics  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  action-theory  free_will  accountability 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Thomas Hunkeler - Les « déviations » de l’esprit. Lire Délie de Maurice Scève à la lumière du Dolce Stil Nuovo | Italique, V, 2002, p. 53-75.
Italique [En ligne], V | 2002, mis en ligne le 06 octobre 2009, DOI : 10.4000/italique.146 **--** Aimer l’esprit, madame, c’est aimer la sottise. C’est par ce vers provocant que Ronsard ouvre en 1578, dans la première édition de ses sonnets pour hélène, le procès d’un platonisme qui s’est affadi, du moins de son avis, en un phénomène de cour et en une phraséologie largement dépourvue de portée philosophique. Au moment où Ronsard passe ainsi à l’attaque, le platonisme connaît en effet en France une seconde vague après celle des années 1530-40... Mais si, depuis Ronsard, le platonisme et a fortiori la notion d’amour platonique semblent figurer parmi les ingrédients aussi insipides qu’hypocrites de la littérature sentimentale, ce jugement ne trahit pas seulement un changement de goût ou de mœurs. Il résulte aussi d’une réception partielle, timorée et édulcorée, de la pensée ficinienne, qui a banalisé une pensée bien plus riche et bien plus ambivalente que ne le laisse croire la caricature de Ronsard. Une notion semble résumer à elle seule les enjeux, mais aussi les ambivalences de la pensée ficinienne : l’esprit. En effet, c’est dans la mesure où la notion d’esprit ou de spiritus a été banalisée lors de son importation en France, où on en a évacué tous les aspects qui n’entraient pas dans la tendance à la moralisation et à la spiritualisation qui marquait la réception de Ficin en France, qu’une réaction de rejet comme celle de Ronsard peut se comprendre. C’est dans une telle perspective que j’aimerais analyser, après avoir fait le point sur la notion de spiritus chez Ficin, le rôle que joue la notion d’“esprit” dans la réception de la pensée de Ficin en France entre 1500 et 1550, avant d’aborder plus en détail le cas de Maurice Scève. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  revues.org  intellectual_history  15thC  16thC  Italy  France  Renaissance  Ficino  Neoplatonism  humanism  moral_psychology  moral_philosophy  sentimentalism  reception  court_culture  elite_culture  Pléiade  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - The Truth is Terrible - in Daniel Came (ed.), Nietzsche on Morality and the Affirmation of Life (Oxford University Press, Forthcoming Feb 2014) :: SSRN
When Nietzsche says, as he frequently does, that "the truth is terrible" he has in mind three kinds of terrible truths: (1) the terrible "existential" truths about the human situation (the inevitability of death and suffering); (2) the terrible "moral" truth that "life is essentially something amoral"; and (3) the terrible "epistemic" truth that most of what we think we know about the world around us is illusory. These terrible truths raise Schopenhauer's question: why continue living at all? Nietzsche's answer, from early in his career to the very end, is that only viewed in terms of aesthetic values can life itself be "justified" (where "justification" really means restoring an affective attachment to life). Something can have aesthetic value even if it has no epistemic value -- indeed, Nietzsche takes it to be a hallmark of art that "the lie hallows itself" and "the willl to deception has good conscience on its side." Similarly, something can have aesthetic value even when it lacks moral value, something well-exemplified, he thinks, by the Homeric sagas. But how could the fact that life exemplifies aesthetic value restore our attachment to life in the face of the terrible existential truths about our situation? I suggest that there are two keys to understanding Nietzsche's answer: first, his assimilation of aesthetic pleasure to a kind of sublimated sexual pleasure; and second, his psychological thesis, central to the Genealogy, that powerful affects neutralize pain, and thus can "seduce" the sufferer back to life. Finally, life can only supply the requisite kind of aesthetic pleasure if it features what I call the "spectacle of genius," the spectacle represented by the likes of Beethoven, Goethe, and Napoleon. Since such geniuses are not possible in a culture dominated by "morality" (in Nietzsche's pejorative sense), the critique of morality is essential to the restoration of an affective attachment to life, since only by defeating morality will the spectacle of genius continue to be possible. - Keywords: Nietzsche, Schopenhauer, life, morality, art, aesthetic value - didn't download
paper  SSRN  intellectual_history  19thC  Germany  Nietzsche  morality-Nietzche  values  moral_psychology  genius  aesthetics  Schopenhauer  Dionysian 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, by Simon Blackburn | Answers.com
The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, by Simon Blackburn, Oxford University Press
This dictionary covers every aspect of philosophy from Aristotle to Zen. Entries include biographies of famous and influential philosophers, in-depth analysis of philosophical terms and concepts, a chronology of philosophical events from antiquity to the present day, and coverage of themes from Chinese, Indian, Islamic and Jewish philosophy.
books  etexts  reference  intellectual_history  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_language  philosophy_of_history  philosophy_of_social_science  philosophy_of_religion  metaphysics  metaethics  epistemology  ontology  logic  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  political_philosophy 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
David Auerbach - Georg Simmel's Philosophy of Money - Waggish - August 2014
Rather than focusing on how people argue over the allocations of values, he looks at how the prior requirement, the nature of valuation itself, influences those discussions. The main themes, as I read them, are the following: 1. Money as a structural metaphor for human existence (almost every aspect of it) 2. The dual nature of the word “value,” moral and monetary 3.The physicalization, universalization, and commodification of value (through money or otherwise) 4. The effects of valuation and commensurability on human relations. The final theme ultimately becomes most important, but Simmel spends time laying the groundwork for it by examining the nature of value and how it is assigned and fixed, before he then moves on to how value is standardized and made portable and universal by money. Simmel’s treatment of “value” is heavily influenced by Kant’s first and third critique, which isn’t too surprising given that Simmel came out of the 19th century neo-Kantian movement which wanted to reclaim Kant’s worth after Hegelianism had petered out. Value, being something not assigned by nature but by creatures, becomes a crucial cognitive category in life, despite being something that each of us has comparatively little control over. (Language is also a category of this sort, though at least in 1900 “value”‘s constructed nature was a bit more clear than that of language.) Simmel makes clear just how philosophical it is by declaring in the introduction that money has attracted his attention because it is the purest and most ubiquitous manifestation of the perennial problem that has vexed philosophers, the relation between the universal and the particular.
intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  social_theory  neo-Kantian  Simmel  moral_psychology  moral_philosophy  values  money  Cassirer  Germany  constructivism  commodification  universals  particulars  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Review by: Timothy Chappell - John Cottingham, Philosophy and the Good Life: Reason and the Passions in Greek, Cartesian and Psychoanalytic Ethics | JSTOR: The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 49, No. 197 (Oct., 1999), pp. 560-562
Cottingham doesn't think much of current moral_philosophy that treats "beliefs" and "desires" as transparent entities that can be manipulated in theory -- they have abandoned not only Freudian insights but even the purported ultra rationalist Descartes who was clued in to the physiology of emotions, and that reason is embodied -- Chappell highly recommends -- didn't download
books  find  reviews  jstor  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  psychoanalysis  mind-body  passions  reason-passions  emotions  Aristotle  Descartes 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert N. Johnson - Internal Reasons: Reply to Brady, Van Roojen and Gert | JSTOR: The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 53, No. 213 (Oct., 2003), pp. 573-580
Scholasticism at its finest - Johnson goes through his objections to theories that try to link rational deliberation and desires for both explaining motivations of moral action and ability to justify action choices -- the gaps, especially conditionals positing best deliberative rationality, are all over the place -- it's a short piece that updates the discussions since Williams identified a split in external and internal reasons and the desiderata of each approach, way back in Moral Luck -- may be useful when reviewing the collections on Williams (2 on kindle) -- didn't download
article  jstor  metaethics  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  reasons-internalism  reasons-externalism  Williams_Bernard  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Frans Svensson - THE ROLE OF VIRTUE IN DESCARTES' ETHICAL THEORY, OR: WAS DESCARTES A VIRTUE ETHICIST? | JSTOR: History of Philosophy Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 3 (JULY 2010), pp. 215-236
Looks useful 1st by trying to set criteria to distinguish virtue ethics from concern with virtue in other metaethics (deontology, consequentialism, eudaimonia) - he then looks at Descartes's letters to Queen Christina , supplemented with some remarks on moral psychology in Passions of the Soul. Contra Lisa Shapiro in a recent Blackwell Companion, his verdict is No. -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  17thC  metaethics  virtue_ethics  virtue  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  good  reason  reason-passions  free_will  Descartes  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Mark Collier - HUME'S THEORY OF MORAL IMAGINATION | JSTOR: History of Philosophy Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 3 (JULY 2010), pp. 255-273
See re neuroscience research re mirroring processes and different types of empathy that suggest something similar to Hume's explanation of two different processes for near and dear vs strangers. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  neuroscience  18thC  Hume-ethics  human_nature  empathy  mirroring  moral_sentiments  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Michael LeBuffe - SPINOZISTIC PERFECTIONISM | JSTOR: History of Philosophy Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 4 (OCTOBER 2010), pp. 317-333
Perfectionism seems to imply simply capable of improvement -- explains Spinoza's Ethics as differing from the virtue ethics sort as not based on something like the essence of humans -- the article gives an outline of what he thinks are the attractive features of Spinoza's moral_philosophy disentangled from some of the more obscure or less plausible parts of Spinoza's system, while recognizing that since Spinoza is a super systematic philosopher, some of his metaphysical concepts are key to his moral_philosophy, which LeBuffe attempts to spell out -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  17thC  20thC  21stC  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  virtue_ethics  virtue  good  hedonistic  happiness  improvement  perfectibility  Spinoza  morality-conventional  morality-objective  perspectivism  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Lawrence A. Vogel - "The Responsibility of Thinking in Dark Times: Hannah Arendt versus Hans Jonas" | New School - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal, 2008
C Lawrence A. Vogel, Connecticut College -- Initially published in Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal, 2008, p.253-293. © 2008 The Graduate Faculty Journal of the New School for Social Research -- http://www.newschool.edu/nssr/GFPJ/GFPJ/hmimg.html -- Vogel, Lawrence. "The Responsibility Of Thinking In Dark Times: Hannah Arendt Versus Hans Jonas." Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 29.1 (2008): 253-293. Web -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  20thC  post-WWII  Germany  Holocaust  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  Arendt  Jonas_Hans  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
"Toward a Radical Integral Humanism: MacIntyre’s Continuing Marxism" by Jeffery L. Nicholas
Jeffery L. Nicholas, Providence College -- I argue that we must read Alasdair MacIntyre’s mature work through a Marxist lens. I begin by discussing his argument that we must choose which God to worship on principles of justice, which, it turns out, are ones given to us by God. I contend that this argument entails that we must see MacIntyre’s early Marxist commitments as given to him by God, and, therefore, that he has never abandoned them in his turn to Thomistic-Aristotelianism. I examine his reading of Marx, with its emphasis on the concept of alienation as a Christian concept, and explain how this reading differs from the dominant scientific-determinist reading of Marx. This examination then leads to a discussion of why MacIntyre abandoned both Marxism and Christianity in 1968. Finally, I turn to his more recent writing on Marx. I contend that if we view them through his argument about the principles of justice and which God to worship, we see MacIntyre’s mature philosophy as more Marxist than most people, perhaps even MacIntyre himself, would allow. -- Jeffery L. Nicholas. "Toward a Radical Integral Humanism: MacIntyre’s Continuing Marxism" Studia Philosophica Wratislaviensia (2014): 223-241. -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  20thC  21stC  post-WWII  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  modernity  cultural_critique  humanism  Marxist  MacIntyre  human_nature  Thomism  Aristotelian  virtue_ethics  justice  natural_law  divine_command  human_rights  self-interest-cultural_basis  self  alienation  moral_psychology  social_theory  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - Isaiah Berlin's Neglect of Enlightenment Constitutionalism (2014) :: SSRN
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 14-12 -- One of the most important achievements of the Enlightenment is what I shall call Enlightenment constitutionalism. It transformed our political thinking out of all recognition; it left, as its legacy, not just the repudiation of monarchy and nobility in France in the 1790s but the unprecedented achievement of the framing, ratification, and establishment of the Constitution of the United States. It comprised the work of Diderot, Kant, Locke, Madison, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Sieyes, and Voltaire. It established the idea of a constitution as an intricate mechanism designed to house the untidiness and pluralism of human politics. Yet Isaiah Berlin, supposedly one of our greatest interpreters of the Enlightenment, said almost nothing about it. The paper develops this claim and it speculates as to why this might be so. Certainly one result of Berlin's sidelining of Enlightenment constitutionalism is to lend spurious credibility to his well-known claim that Enlightenment social design was perfectionist, monastic, and potentially totalitarian. By ignoring Enlightenment constitutionalism, Berlin implicitly directed us away from precisely the body of work that might have refuted this view of Enlightenment social design. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  intellectual_history  18thC  political_philosophy  political_culture  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  British_history  British_politics  English_constitution  French_Enlightenment  American_colonies  American_Revolution  French_Revolution  Enlightenment_Project  Berlin_Isaiah  rationalist  perfectibility  progress  Montesquieu  Founders  Madison  US_constitution  bill_of_rights  Glorious_Revolution  constitutionalism  government-forms  Sieyes  separation-of-powers  checks-and-balances  Absolutism  institutions  institutional_change  representative_institutions  tyranny  limited_monarchy  limited_government  rule_of_law  Diderot  Voltaire  Locke-2_Treatises  Kant  historical_sociology  social_sciences  social_process  pluralism  conflict  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Scott J. Shapiro - What is the Internal Point of View? (2006 working paper) :: SSRN
In "The Concept of Law," Hart showed that sanction-centered accounts of every stripe ignored an essential feature of law. This feature he termed the internal point of view. Seen from the internal point of view, the law is not simply sanction-threatening, directing, or predicting, but rather obligation-imposing. Though the internal point of view is perhaps Hart's greatest contribution to jurisprudential theory, this concept is also often and easily misunderstood. This is unfortunate, not only because these misreadings distort Hart's theory, but, more importantly, because they prevent us from appreciating the true infirmities of sanction-centered theories and the compelling reasons why they ought to be rejected. -- The internal point of view is the practical attitude of rule-acceptance - it does not imply that people who accept the rules accept their moral legitimacy, only that they are disposed to guide and evaluate conduct in accordance with the rules. The internal point of view plays four roles in Hart's theory: (1) it specifies a particular type of motivation that someone may take towards to the law; (2) it constitutes one of the main existence conditions for social and legal rules; (3) it accounts for the intelligibility of legal practice and discourse; (4) it provides a naturalistically acceptable semantics for legal statements. Finally, sanction-centered theories are unacceptable for three reasons: (1) they are myopic in that they ignore one of the motivations that people might have for obeying the law; (2) they are unable to account for the existence of legal systems; (3) they cannot account for the intelligibility of legal practice and discourse. --
paper  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  social_theory  intellectual_history-distorted  20thC  21stC  Hart  positivism-legal  sociology_of_law  legal_system  norms  normativity  obligation  moral_psychology  morality-conventional  moral_sentiments  punishment  reasons-internalism  reasons-externalism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - The Demarcation Problem in Jurisprudence: A New Case for Skepticism :: SSRN - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. 32, No. 1, Spring 2012
Legal philosophers have been preoccupied with specifying the differences between two systems of normative guidance - law and morality. Positivists such as Kelsen, Hart, and Raz propose a solution to this “Demarcation Problem” according to which the legal validity of a norm can not depend on its being morally valid, either in all or at least some possible legal systems. The proposed analysis purports to specify the essential and necessary features of law.... Yet the concept of law is an “artifact concept,” that is, a concept that picks out a phenomenon that owes its existence to human activities. Artifact concepts, even simple ones like “chair,” are notoriously resistant to analyses in terms of their essential attributes, precisely because they are hostage to human ends and purposes, and also can not be individuated by their natural properties. 20th-century philosophy of science dealt with a kindred Demarcation Problem: ...how to demarcate science from pseudo-science or nonsense. -- they sought to identify the essential properties of a human artifact (namely, science). They failed, and spectacularly so, which led some philosopher to wonder, “Why does solving the Demarcation Problem matter?” This essay develops the lessons for legal philosophy -- lest we want to become embroiled in pointless Fullerian speculations about the effects of jurisprudential doctrines on behavior, it is time to abandon the Demarcation Problem in jurisprudence. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  20thC  21stC  Logical_Positivism  linguistic_turn  concepts  analytical_philosophy  essentialism  natural_kinds  modal_logic  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  legal_system  positivism-legal  psychologism  natural_law  epistemology-social  epistemology-moral  Carnap  Hempel  Popper  Fuller  Hart  Kelsen  Raz  Finnis  normativity  moral_sentiments  reason-passions  reasons-internalism  reasons-externalism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Naturalizing Jurisprudence: Three Approaches [chapter] :: SSRN in THE FUTURE OF NATURALISM, J. Shook & P. Kurtz, eds., Prometheus Books, Amherst, NY, 2009
U of Chicago, Public Law Working Paper No. 246 -- General jurisprudence - that branch of legal philosophy concerned with the nature of law and adjudication - has been relatively unaffected by the "naturalistic" strains so evident, for example, in the epistemology, philosophy of mind and moral philosophy of the past forty years. This paper sketches three ways in which naturalism might affect jurisprudential inquiry. The paper serves as a kind of precis of the main themes in my book NATURALIZING JURISPRUDENCE: ESSAYS ON AMERICAN LEGAL REALISM AND NATURALISM IN LEGAL PHILOSOPHY (Oxford University Press, 2007). -- Number of Pages in PDF File: 16 -- Keywords: jurisprudence, naturalism, legal realism, quine, epistemology
article  books  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  analytical_philosophy  naturalism  epistemology  metaphysics  mind  mind-body  consciousness  Quine  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  epistemology-moral  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Holmes, Nietzsche & Classical Realism (2000) :: SSRN
U Texas School of Law Pub. Law Working Paper No. 003 -- The point of departure is Richard Posner's striking suggestion that Holmes is "the American Nietzsche." -- The Essay argues that the real thematic (and tempermental) affinity between Holmes and Nietzsche lies in the fact that both are proponents of a general, but neglected, perspective on questions of moral, political, and legal theory that I will call "Classical Realism." Importantly, the Classical Realism of Holmes and Nietzsche places them in a long tradition of theories of morals, politics, and society that we find in writers like Thucydides, Machiavelli, Freud and (to some extent) Marx, among others. This tradition, however, has almost vanished from the modern academy. It is the most general aim of this paper to revive the doctrine of Classical Realism as a serious--albeit debunking--position in normative theory. -- a meaning both older than and different from that current in academic debates, especially in philosophy, where it names certain doctrines in semantics and metaphysics. Classical Realism...entails no particular semantic and metaphysical doctrines at all. [It] denotes a certain hard-headed, unromantic, uncompromising attitude towards the world, which manifests itself in a brutal honesty and candor in the assessment of human motives and the portrayal of human affairs. The Essay explores this doctrine in some detail in a variety of thinkers, including Holmes, Posner, Nietzsche, Marx, and the American Legal Realists. The Appendix to the Essay offers a critical discussion of Posner's and David Luban's treatment of the Holmes-Nietzsche relation. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  intellectual_history  social_theory  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  philosophy_of_law  realism  legal_realism  Thucydides  Machiavelli  Marx  Nietzsche  Freud  Holmes  human_nature  motivation  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Nietzsche's Philosophy of Action (2009) :: SSRN - in Blackwell Companion to Philosophy of Action, 2010
U of Chicago, Public Law Working Paper No. 270 -- Nietzsche holds that people lack freedom of the will in any sense that would be sufficient for ascriptions of moral responsibility; that the conscious experience we have of willing is actually epiphenomenal with respect to the actions that follow that experience; and that our actions largely arise through non-conscious processes (psychological and physiological) of which we are only dimly aware, and over which we exercise little or no conscious control. At the same time, Nietzsche, always a master of rhetoric, engages in a “persuasive definition” (Stevenson 1938) of the language of “freedom” and “free will,” to associate the positive valence of these terms with a certain Nietzschean ideal of the person unrelated to traditional notions of free will. -- No of Pages: 18 -- Keywords: Nietzsche, free will, moral responsibility, freedom, philosophy of action, epiphenomenalism -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  books  SSRN  intellectual_history  19thC  Germany  action-theory  Nietzsche  free_will  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  mind  consciousness  physiology  psychology  naturalism  responsibility  guilt  freedom  epiphenomenal  aesthetics  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Nietzsche Against the Philosophical Canon (2013) :: SSRN
U of Chicago, Public Law Working Paper No. 438 -- Nietzsche views the Western philosophical tradition as organized around a conception of philosophy deriving from Socrates. According to this (loosely) Socratic philosophical canon: (1) Philosophy, as the “love of wisdom,” aims for knowledge of timeless and non-empirical truths, including truths about the good and the right; (2) Knowledge of the truth is the overriding value in philosophy and is also essential for living well; and (3) Philosophical knowledge is acquired through the exercise of reason, understood as a faculty that can operate independently, in whole or in part, of a posteriori evidence. This paper explores Nietzsche's reasons for rejecting this conception of philosophy on each count, especially as developed in his book, Twilight of the Idols. Nietzsche's replacement of metaphysical speculation with psychological diagnosis is compared to Carnap's own critique of metaphysics, and helps explain Carnap's high appraisal of Nietzsche compared to other major figures in post-Kantian German philosophy. Nietzsche's rejection of the traditional philosophical canon is contrasted with that of other critics of the tradition, including Marx, Quine, Heidegger, and Wittgenstein. The reaction against naturalism in recent Anglophone philosophy is offered, finally, as a case study in support of Nietzsche's skepticism about the philosophical canon. --Keywords: Nietzsche, Socrates, Quine, Marx, Heidegger, Wittgenstein, Carnap, meta-philosophy, ethics -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  21stC  ancient_philosophy  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  metaphysics  metaethics  epistemology  truth  good  flourishing  Socrates  post-truth  German_Idealism  Marx  Carnap  Quine  Heidegger  Wittgenstein  canon  ethics  reason  apriori  empiricism  naturalism  scepticism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Morality Critics [chapter] :: SSRN - in THE OXFORD HANDBOOK OF CONTINENTAL PHILOSOPHY, B. Leiter & M. Rosen, eds., Oxford University Press, 2007
U of Texas Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 114 -- One striking feature of post-Kantian philosophy in Europe has been the emergence of morality critics, philosophers who, contra the popular consensus, dispute the value of morality and the moral life. Their views find a faint echo in the work of some Anglophone moral philosophers (Philippa Foot and Bernard Williams are the main exemplars), but, as we will see, the "Continental" criticisms of morality generally cut far deeper and more radically. -- These Continental morality critics object that morality in practice is an obstacle to human flourishing itself. So understood, this attack on morality raises two immediate questions. First, the Continental morality critics are plainly not without ethical views of their own - ..broadly, about the good life for (some or all) human beings - since it is on the basis of these views that they criticize "morality." -- we can usefully divide Continental critics of morality into two camps: .... In the first camp ... see the individual's acceptance of morality as such as an obstacle to the individual's flourishing; in different ways, Nietzsche and Freud .... In the second camp ... see morality as among the "ideological" instruments that sustain socio-economic relations that are obstacles to individual flourishing. On this second account - ..Marx and perhaps some of ..the Frankfurt School - it is not allegiance to morality per se that thwarts individual flourishing, but rather the role such allegiance plays in sustaining certain socio-economic relations.. We will call the former "Direct Morality Critics" and the latter "Indirect Morality Critics." (Foucault straddles both approaches, and so we will discuss him in a transitional section.) -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  books  SSRN  intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  social_theory  metaethics  continental_philosophy  cultural_critique  Germany  France  Marx  Nietzsche  Freud  Frankfurt_School  Foucault  morality-Nietzche  morality-conventional  normativity  human_nature  social_order  ideology  bourgeoisie  power  morality-critics  Williams_Bernard  values  ethics  human_condition  flourishing  Aristotelian  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - The Hermeneutics of Suspicion: Recovering Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud (2005) :: SSRN
U of Texas Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 72 -- Paul Ricoeur famously dubbed that great triumvirate of late nineteenth - and early twentieth-century thought - Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud - "the school of suspicion," by which he meant those thinkers who taught us to regard with suspicion our conscious understandings and experience, whether the deliverances of ordinary psychological introspection about one's desires.., or the moral categories political leaders and ordinary citizens apply to themselves and the social world they inhabit... "Beneath" or "behind" the surface lay causal forces that explained the conscious phenomena precisely because they laid bare the true meaning of those phenomena -- I shall argue that, in fact, all three of the great practitioners of the hermeneutics of suspicion have suffered at the hands of moralizing interpreters who have resisted the essentially naturalistic thrust of their conception of philosophical practice. As a matter of both textual exegesis and intellectual importance, Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud are best read as primarily naturalistic thinkers, that is thinkers who view philosophical inquiry as continuous with a sound empirical understanding of the natural world and the causal forces operative in it. When one understands conscious life naturalistically, in terms of its real causes, one contributes at the same time to a critique of the contents of consciousness: that, in short, is the essence of a hermeneutics of suspicion. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  social_theory  human_nature  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  19thC  20thC  21stC  hermeneutics_of_suspicion  causation-social  psychology  moral_psychology  historical_change  normativity  morality-Nietzche  Marx  Marxist  Freud  motivation  action-theory  naturalism  empiricism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Nietzsche [chapter] (last revised 2013) :: SSRN for Oxford Handbook of 19thC Philosophy, M. Forster & K. Gjesdal, eds. (2014)
This essay offers a philosophical overview of the central themes of Nietzsche's philosophy, addressing (1) the primary intellectual influences on his work (esp. the PreSocratics, Schopenhauer, and Lange); (2) the style in which he writes and his philosophical reasons for it; (3) his philosophical naturalism and its role in his conception of the mind and agency; (4) his critique of morality and its connection with the idea that there can be an "aethestic" justification for existence, notwithstanding the terrible truths about human existence (such as suffering and death); and (5) competing interpretations of his views on truth and knowledge. Certain well-known Nietzschean ideas -- like "will to power," "eternal recurrence," and perspectivism -- are also located and explained within this philosophical framework. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  SSRN  books  intellectual_history  19thC  Germany  Nietzsche  pre-Socratics  Schopenhauer  Lange  naturalism  moral_psychology  epistemology  mind  agency  aesthetics  human_nature  perspectivism  relativism  will_to_power  elite_culture  mass_culture  German_Idealism  human_condition  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
David Womersley, ed. - Liberty and American Experience in the Eighteenth Century (2006) - Online Library of Liberty
David Womersely, Liberty and American Experience in the Eighteenth Century, edited and with an Introduction by David Womersley (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2006). 07/13/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1727> -- This volume is a collection of essays which examines some of the central themes and ideologies central to the formation of the United States including Edmund Burke’s theories on property rights and government, the influence of Jamaica on the American colonies, the relations between religious and legal understandings of the concept of liberty, the economic understanding of the Founders, the conflicting viewpoints between moral sense theory and the idea of natural rights in the founding period, the divisions in thought among the revolutionaries regarding the nature of liberty and the manner in which liberty was to be preserved, and the disparity in Madison’s political thought from the 1780s to the 1790s. -- authors include Jack Greene, David Wootton, Gordon Wood. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  British_history  British_politics  Atlantic  American_colonies  West_Indies  British_Empire-constitutional_structure  colonialism  British_Empire  Anglo-American  political_philosophy  English_constitution  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  limited_monarchy  property  property_rights  liberty  liberalism-republicanism_debates  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  moral_sentiments  natural_law  human_nature  Founders  Parliamentary_supremacy  Patriot_King  Burke  Madison  Hume  Scottish_Enlightenment  commerce  luxury  commerce-doux  corruption  tyranny  Absolutism  US_constitution  American_Revolution  UK_government-colonies  partisanship  common_good  common_law  Whigs  democracy  political_participation  checks-and-balances  separation-of-powers  government-forms  mixed_government  social_order  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Laurence L. Bongie, David Hume: Prophet of the Counter-revolution (2nd ed., 2000), Foreword by Donald W. Livingston - Online Library of Liberty
Laurence L. Bongie, David Hume: Prophet of the Counter-revolution (2nd ed.), Foreword by Donald W. Livingston (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2000). 07/13/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/673> -- Though usually Edmund Burke is identified as the first to articulate the principles of a modern conservative political tradition, arguably he was preceded by a Scotsman who is better known for espousing a brilliant concept of skepticism. As Laurence Bongie notes, “David Hume was undoubtedly the eighteenth-century British writer whose works were most widely known and acclaimed on the Continent during the later Enlightenment period. Hume’s impact [in France] was of undeniable importance, greater even for a time than the related influence of Burke, although it represents a contribution to French counter-revolutionary thought which, unlike that of Burke, has been almost totally ignored by historians to this day.” The bulk of Bongie’s work consists of the writings of French readers of Hume who were confronted, first, by the ideology of human perfection and, finally, by the actual terrors of the French Revolution. Offered in French in the original edition of David Hume published by Oxford University Press in 1965, these vitally important writings have been translated by the author into English for the Liberty Fund second edition. In his foreword, Donald Livingston observes that “If conservatism is taken to be an intellectual critique of the first attempt at modern total revolution, then the first such event was not the French but the Puritan revolution, and the first systematic critique of this sort of act was given by Hume.” -- original on bookshelf - downloaded for Livingston foreword and translations
books  bookshelf  etexts  17thC  18thC  19thC  Hume-historian  Hume-politics  Hume-ethics  history_of_England  intellectual_history  political_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  moral_sentiments  progress  perfectibility  human_nature  historians-and-politics  historiography-18thC  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  English_Civil_War  Puritans  Levellers  Interregnum  Protectorate  Charles_I  Cromwell  Parliament  Parliamentarians  Ancien_régime  French_Revolution  Terror  counter-revolution  Counter-Enlightenment  conservatism  Whigs-Radicals  Radical_Enlightenment  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
John Passmore, The Perfectibility of Man ( 3rd edition 2000) - Online Library of Liberty
John Passmore, The Perfectibility of Man (3rd ed.) (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2000). 07/13/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/670> -- A reviewer of the original edition in 1970 of The Perfectibility of Man well summarizes the scope and significance of this renowned work by one of the leading philosophers of the twentieth century: “Beginning with an analytic discussion of the various ways in which perfectibility has been interpreted, Professor Passmore traces its long history from the Greeks to the present day, by way of Christianity, orthodox and heterodox, the Renaissance, the Enlightenment, anarchism, utopias, communism, psychoanalysis, and evolutionary theories of man and society. Both in its broad sweep and in countless supporting reflections, it is a journey through spiritual scenery of the most majestic and exhilarating kind.” Thoroughly and elegantly, Passmore explores the history of the idea of perfectibility – manifest in the ideology of perfectibilism – and its consequences, which have invariably been catastrophic for individual liberty and responsibility in private, social, economic, and political life. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  intellectual_history  metaphysics  theology  ancient_philosophy  medieval_philosophy  Early_Christian  Renaissance  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  German_Idealism  Romanticism  political_economy  psychoanalysis  utopian  anarchical_society  communism  Enlightenment_Project  evolution-social  evolution-as-model  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  progress  perfectibility  human_nature  moral_psychology  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
William Paley, The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy, ed. D.L. Le Mahieu - Online Library of Liberty
William Paley, The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy, Foreword by D.L. Le Mahieu (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2002). 07/12/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/703> -- This classic work by William Paley was one of the most popular books in England and America in the early nineteenth century. Its significance lies in the fact that it marks an important point at which eighteenth century “whiggism” began to be transformed into nineteenth century “liberalism.”
books  etexts  18thC  19thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  British_history  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  political_philosophy  political_culture  Whigs  liberalism  Paley  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Selections from the Scottish Philosophy of Common Sense, edited, with an introduction by G.A. Johnston [1910] - Online Library of Liberty
Thomas Reid, Selections from the Scottish Philosophy of Common Sense, edited, with an introduction by G.A. Johnston (Chicago: Open Court, 1915). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2044> The selections in this volume are reprinted from the following editions:— Reid’s Works, edited by Sir William Hamilton, sixth edition, 1863. Beattie’s Essay on the Nature and Immutability of Truth, seventh edition, 1807. Ferguson’s Principles of Moral and Political Science, 1792. Stewart’s Collected Works, edited by Sir William Hamilton, 1854-1858.
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  Common_Sense  Locke  Hume  Kant  Reid  Stewart_Dugald  Ferguson  metaphysics  epistemology  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  mind  mind-body  soul  dualism  ideas-theories  psychology  perception  scepticism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Lord Kames, Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion [1779], ed. Mary Catherine Moran - Online Library of Liberty
Henry Home, Lord Kames, Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion, Corrected and Improved, in a Third Edition. Several Essays Added Concerning the Proof of a Deity, Edited and with an Introduction by Mary Catherine Moran (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1352> -- The Essays is commonly considered Kames’s most important philosophical work. In the first part, he sets forth the principles and foundations of morality and justice, attacking Hume’s moral skepticism and addressing the controversial issue of the freedom of human will. In the second part, Kames focuses on questions of metaphysics and epistemology to offer a natural theology in which the authority of the external senses is an important basis for belief in the Deity. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Kames  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  free_will  metaphysics  epistemology  epistemology-moral  scepticism  justice  virtue  Hume-ethics  natural_religion  empiricism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Lord Kames, Elements of Criticism, 2 vols. [1762], ed. Peter Jones - Online Library of Liberty
Henry Home, Lord Kames, Elements of Criticism, Edited and with an Introduction by Peter Jones (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005). 2 vols. 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1860> -- A two volume work on the “science of criticism” by one of the leading figures of the Scottish Enlightenment. Kames argues that criticism of art and literature is a rational science as well as a matter of taste. In volume 1 he explores the nature and causes of the emotions and passions. In volume 2 he explores the principles of rhetoric and literary appreciation, and discusses the formation of our standards of taste.
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Kames  aesthetics  lit_crit  literary_history  art_history  art_criticism  human_nature  emotions  passions  psychology  moral_psychology  rhetoric  rhetoric-writing  taste  high_culture  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
David Fordyce The Elements of Moral Philosophy [1754], ed. Thomas Kennedy - Online Library of Liberty
David Fordyce, The Elements of Moral Philosophy, in Three Books with a Brief Account of the Nature, Progress, and Origin of Philosophy, ed. Thomas Kennedy (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2003). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/886>
Available in the following formats: -- Fordyce’s Elements of Moral Philosophy was a notable contribution to the curriculum in moral philosophy and was one of the most widely circulated texts in moral philosophy in the second half of the eighteenth century. -- Doddsley published it posthumously (d. 1751) - the basis had served as the Moral Philosophy article in Doddsley's popular "The Preceptor" 1748. Also used for the Moral Philosophy entry in the Encyclopedia Britannica into the 19thC
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  moral_psychology  moral_philosophy  ancient_philosophy  textbooks  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Nathaniel Culverwell, An Elegant and Learned Discourse of the Light of Nature [1646], ed. Robert A. Greene and Hugh MacCallum - Online Library of Liberty
Nathaniel Culverwell, An Elegant and Learned Discourse of the Light of Nature, ed. Robert A. Greene and Hugh MacCallum, foreword by Robert A. Greene (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2001). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/900> -- An Elegant and Learned Discourse of the Light of Nature is a concerted effort to find a middle way between the two extremes that dominated the religious dispute of the English civil war in the seventeenth century. At one extreme end of the spectrum was the antinomian assertion that the elect were redeemed by God’s free grace and thereby free from ordinary moral obligations. At the other end of the spectrum was the Arminian rejection of predestination and assertion that Christ died for all, not just for the elect. Faced with the violence of these disputes, Nathaniel Culverwell attempted a moderate defense of reason and natural law, arguing, in the words of Robert Greene, that “reason and faith are distinct lights, yet they are not opposed; they are complementary and harmonious. Reason is the image of God in man, and to deny right reason is to deny our relation to God.” -- Culverwell clearly intended to respond to Francis Bacon’s call for “a temperate and careful treatise … which as a kind of divine logic, should lay down proper precepts touching the use of human reason in theology.” -- Although, unlike the Cambridge Platonists, he quotes or refers to Bacon’s writings frequently enough to indicate considerable knowledge and approval of the Baconian gospel, the spirit of the Discourse is basically at odds with Bacon’s plan for man’s intellectual progress. In his emphasis upon scholastic psychology and his indebtedness to Aristotle, Aquinas, and Suarez, as well as in his flourishing rhetoric and richly metaphorical style, Culverwell does not forward the Great Instauration.
books  etexts  17thC  intellectual_history  theology  natural_law  English_Civil_War  Cambridge_Platonists  Calvinist  antinomian  Presbyterians  Arminian  reason  revelation  faith  religious_belief  Aristotelian  Aquinas  Suarez  Bacon  moral_psychology  obligation  religious_culture  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
George Turnbull, Observations upon Liberal Education, in All its Branches [1742], ed. Terrence O. Moore, Jr. - Online Library of Liberty
George Turnbull, Observations upon Liberal Education, in All its Branches, ed. Terrence O. Moore, Jr. (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2003). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/892> -- Turnbull was the first member of the Scottish Enlightenment to provide a formal treatise on the theory and practice of education. He applied his ideas on the moral sense to the education of youth. Turnbull showed how a liberal education enables youth to realize a true “inward liberty” and moral strength and thus prepares them to live responsibly and happily in a free society.
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Turnbull_George  Hutcheson  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  moral_sentiments  education  education-higher  education-civic  mind  habit  Common_Sense  humanities  natural_philosophy  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
George Turnbull, The Principles of Moral and Christian Philosophy. Vol. 1: The Principles of Moral Philosophy, ed. Alexander Broadie - Online Library of Liberty
George Turnbull, The Principles of Moral and Christian Philosophy. Vol. 1: The Principles of Moral Philosophy, ed. and with an Introduction by Alexander Broadie (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1342> The Principles of Moral and Christian Philosophy presents the first masterpiece of Scottish Common Sense philosophy. This two-volume treatise is important for its wide range of insights about the nature of the human mind, the foundations of morals, and the relationship between morality and religion. In order to understand the Enlightenment in Scotland, Turnbull’s work must be put next to that of Francis Hutcheson. In the first volume, The Principles of Moral Philosophy, Turnbull presents a detailed study of the faculties of the human mind and their interrelations. He contends that moral philosophy should be treated as one part, the highest part, of natural philosophy, and not as a field requiring its own distinctive methodology.
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Turnbull_George  Hutcheson  Shaftesbury  Berkeley  Butler  moral_philosophy  Common_Sense  human_nature  moral_psychology  moral_sentiments  mind  psychology  natural_philosophy  ideas-theories  empiricism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
George Turnbull, The Principles of Moral and Christian Philosophy, 2 vols. [1740], ed. Alexander Broadie - Online Library of Liberty
George Turnbull, The Principles of Moral and Christian Philosophy, ed. and with an Introduction by Alexander Broadie (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005). 2 vols. 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1821> -- The Principles of Moral and Christian Philosophy presents the first masterpiece of Scottish Common Sense philosophy. This two-volume treatise is important for its wide range of insights about the nature of the human mind, the foundations of morals, and the relationship between morality and religion. In order to understand the Enlightenment in Scotland, Turnbull’s work must be put next to that of Francis Hutcheson. In the first volume, The Principles of Moral Philosophy, Turnbull presents a detailed study of the faculties of the human mind and their interrelations. He contends that moral philosophy should be treated as one part, the highest part, of natural philosophy, and not as a field requiring its own distinctive methodology. - Vol 1 downloaded to Note
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Turnbull_George  Hutcheson  Shaftesbury  Berkeley  Butler  moral_philosophy  Common_Sense  human_nature  moral_psychology  moral_sentiments  mind  psychology  natural_philosophy  ideas-theories  empiricism  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui, The Principles of Natural and Politic Law [c 1750, tran 1763], trans. Thomas Nugent, ed. Peter Korkman - Online Library of Liberty
Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui, The Principles of Natural and Politic Law, trans. Thomas Nugent, ed. and with an Introduction by Peter Korkman (Indianpolis: Liberty Fund, 2006). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1717> -- The basis of this version of The Principles of Natural and Politic Law is Thomas Nugent’s 1763 English translation, which became a standard textbook at Cambridge and at many premier American colleges, including Princeton, Harvard, and the University of Pennsylvania. The first scholarly work on Burlamaqui was written by an American, M. Ray Forrest Harvey, who in 1937 argued that Burlamaqui was well known among America’s Founding Fathers and that his writings exerted considerable influence on the American constitutional system. In his introduction, Nugent said of Burlamaqui: “His singular beauty consists in the alliance he so carefully points out between ethics and jurisprudence, religion and politics, after the example of Plato and Tully, and the other illustrious masters of antiquity.”
books  etexts  17thC  18thC  Enlightenment  intellectual_history  natural_law  political_philosophy  human_nature  moral_psychology  obligation  sovereignty  Geneva  Calvinist  natural_rights  mixed_government  aristocracy-natural  elites  bourgeoisie  democracy  authority  legitimacy  civil_liberties  civil_religion  happiness  rationalist  Grotius  Pufendorf  Barbeyrac  Leibniz  Rousseau  governing_class  government-forms  governance  state-building  state-of-nature  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Christopher Cowley - A New Defence of Williams's Reasons-Internalism (2005) | Philosophical Investigations - Wiley Online Library
Williams's classic 1980 article ‘Internal and External Reasons’ has attracted much criticism, but, in my view, has never been properly refuted. I wish to describe and defend Williams's account against three powerful criticisms by Michael Smith, John McDowell and Tim Scanlon. In addition, I draw certain implications from Williams's account – implications with which Williams would not necessarily agree – about the nature and the role of the personal in ethics. Williams's insight, that a reason (including a moral reason) must find purchase in an agent's ‘subjective motivational set’ if it is to function as a reason at all, undermines a central assumption of many moral philosophers, realists and non-cognitivists alike: that there exists a singular objective realm of moral facts and moral reasons supervening on the situation before the agent. According to this assumption, if two people facing that situation disagree about whether one of them has reason to Φ, then at least one of them must be mistaken. I reject this assumption and defend Williams's account, while pointing at ways in which the account might be developed. While the internalism-externalism debate itself is well-worn, there is still something new and important that can be gleaned from it. -- added to Wiley
article  paywall  Wiley  moral_philosophy  reasons-internalism  reasons-externalism  reasons  morality-objective  motivation  moral_psychology  moral_sentiments  Williams_Bernard 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Susan Royal, review - Matthew Milner. The Senses and the English Reformation | H-Net Reviews
Milner points outthat the scholarship on this topic has inherited “protestant” views of late medieval sensuality... the first half of the book is devoted to a deep analysis of the senses and sensual experiences of worship prior to the Reformation. Chapter 1 lays out late medieval theories of sensing, explaining the usurpation of Augustinian principles by the revival of Aristotelian thought (chiefly Thomist). Milner explains the way sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch affected the components of tripartite anthropology, the body, spirit, and soul. -- ... the Renaissance rationalization of sense experiences, detailing the critique of medieval epistemological hierarchies and ...a shift from the tripartite anthropology of body, spirit, and soul to a dualist model of body and mind. Milner demonstrates the persistence of Aristotelian sensory theories in Tudor thought, -- Chapter 6 focuses mainly on the 1530s and 1540s, ...how reformers grappled with their position on sensual affectivity: while it was easy to reject aspects of traditional piety, it was much harder to describe how English churchgoers were supposed to connect sensibly with newly reformed practices. ...the senses into early doctrinal debates over justification and sanctification that would not be resolved until late in Elizabeth’s reign. ... -- the transition from recognizing abuse and misuse of traditional religion to its complete rejection with iconoclasm as the antidote. ...how parishioners were taught to replace traditional Eucharistic piety with spiritual communion, arguing that this in fact offered an even more sensuous experience of the sacred. -- the complex debates among conformists and nonconformists about sensing during worship in Elizabethan England. Milner argues that divisions ...concerning extemporaneous prayer, set readings, and even preaching were firmly rooted in concerns about hearing practices, and that the vestment controversy and arguments over the sign of the cross at baptism were connected to tensions about sight. Sitting somewhat awkwardly among all of these debates were those evangelicals receptive to the notion of adiaphora,..another source of conflict between conformists and nonconformists.
books  reviews  religious_history  church_history  intellectual_history  15thC  16thC  British_history  Church_of_England  religious_culture  liturgy  Puritans  perception  psychology  moral_psychology  soul  mind-body  Augustinian  Aristotelian  Thomism  Renaissance  salvation  piety  sacraments  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Branko Milanovic - globalinequality: Limits of neoclassical economics - June 2014
Great summary of the obvious that unfortunately needs to be said -- When people criticize Piketty for elevating a mere economic identity... to a Fundamental Law of Capitalism they show their inability to go back to economics as a social science [and] transcend neoclassical economics. The share of capital income in total income is not only a reflection of the fact that people with a factor of production B have so much, and people with the factor of production A have the rest.. We are basically saying: 20% of people ..claim 1/2 of national output and they do so without having to work. If it were a question of changing the distribution in favor of factor A (donuts) and against factor B (pecan pies), there would be no reason to be concerned. But here you change the distribution in favor of those who do not need to work, and against those that do. You thereby affect the entire social structure of society. This is where social science comes in, and neoclassical economics goes away. The entire 100 years of neoclassical economics [has made us] us forget this key distinction: between having or not having to work for a living. Hence neoclassicists like to treat capital (and labor) as basically the same thing: factors of production: a donut and a pecan pie...Thence also the attempt to treat labor as human capital. We are all capitalists now: a guy who works at Walmart for less than the minimum wage is a capitalist since he is using his human capital; a broker who makes a million in a day is also a capitalist, he just works with a different type of capital.The true social reality was thus entirely hidden. [Picketty returns us to] social science and you ask yourself questions like, would a society where 20% of non-workers earn 70% of total income be okay? What are the values that such a society would promote? (..more political, moral philosophy Qs)
Piketty  19thC  20thC  21stC  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  social_theory  social_sciences  political_economy  social_order  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  economic_history  economic_theory  macroeconomics  neoclassical_economics  classical_economics  Marx  inequality  distribution-income  capitalism  capital  labor  human_capital  markets_in_everything  class_conflict  economic_culture  political_culture  economic_sociology  bad_economics  memory-group 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
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