dunnettreader + mind   107

Rationally Speaking | 166 - Eric Schwitzgebel on "Why you should expect the truth to be crazy"
Some theories violate common sense so wildly that you want to just reject them out of hand. For example, "The United States is conscious," or "The most moral act would be to replace all living beings with an orgasmic blob." On the other hand, many theories in physics that sounded similarly crazy turned out to be very well-supported (think of quantum theory, or relativity). So what role should "common sense" play in evaluating new theories? This episode features a discussion with philosopher Eric Schwitzgebel on his theory of "Crazyism," that we should expect the truth to be at least a little bit crazy.

Eric's Blog: The Splintered Mind

Eric's Paper: "The Crazyist Metaphysics of Mind"

Gustaf Arrhenius's Paper: "An impossibility theorem for welfarist axiologies"

Eric's Pick: "Labyrinths" by Jorge Luis Borges
audio  interview  metaphysics  mind  consciousness  epistemology  materialism  naturalism  folk_psychology  idealism  dualism 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Eric Schwitzgebel - Crazyist Metaphysics of Mind (2014) Australasian Journal of Philosophy: Vol 92, No 4
Crazyism about X is the view that something it would be crazy to believe must be among the core truths about X. In this essay, I argue that crazyism is true of the metaphysics of mind. A position is ‘crazy’ in the intended sense if it is contrary to common sense and we are not epistemically compelled to believe it. Crazyism can be treated as the conjunction of two sub-theses: (1) that something contrary to common sense must be true and (2) that whatever that true thing is, we are not epistemically compelled to believe it. I defend the first thesis on grounds of the probable incoherence of folk metaphysics, from which it follows that any fully fleshed-out metaphysics will inevitably conflict with some piece of that incoherent story. I defend the second thesis on three grounds: peer disagreement, lack of a compelling method for resolving metaphysical disputes about the mind, and the dubiousness of the general cosmological claims with which metaphysical claims about the mind are entangled. -- Keywords: common sense, consciousness, dualism, idealism, materialism, metaphilosophy, metaphysics, -- downloaded to Tab S2
article  metaphysics  mind  epistemology  folk_psychology  cosmology  dualism  idealism  materialism  consciousness  reductionism  naturalism  downloaded 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Ricardo Salles, ed - Metaphysics, Soul, and Ethics in Ancient Thought (2005) - Oxford University Press
Richard Sorabji Bibliography
1. Intellectual autobiography, Richard Sorabji
2. Intrinsic and relational properties of Atoms in the Democritean ontology, Alexander P. D. Mourelatos
3. Necessitation and Explanation in Philoponus' Aristotelain Physics, Sylvia Berryman
4. A Contemporary Look at Aristotle's Changing Now, Sarah Broadie
5. On the individuation of times and events in orthodox Stoicism, Ricardo Salles
6. Stoic metaphysics at Rome, David Sedley
7. Platonism in the Bible: Numenius of Apamea on Exodus and eternity, Myles Burnyeat
The Senses and the Nature of the Soul
8. Platonic Souls as Persons, A. A. Long
9. Aristotle versus Descartes on the concept of the mental, Charles H. Kahn
10. Perception Naturalized in Aristotle's de Anima, Robert Bolton
11. The Spirit and the letter: Aristotle on perception, V. Caston
12. The discriminating capacity of the soul in Aristotle's theory of learning, Frans A. J. de Haas
13. Alexander of Aphrodisias on the nature and location of vision, Bob Sharples
14. Plato's Stoic View of Motivation, Gabriela Roxana Carone
15. The Presence of Socrates and Aristotle in the Stoic Account of Akrasia, Marcelo D. Boeri
16. Extend or identify: Two Stoic Accounts of Altruism, Mary Margaret McCabe
17. Competing Readings of Stoic Emotions, Christopher Gill
18. Were Zeno and Chysippus at odds in analysing emotion?, A. W. Price
19. Seneca on Freedom and Autonomy, Brad Inwood
books  ancient_philosophy  Plato  Aristotle  Stoicism  soul  moral_philosophy  metaphysics  Seneca  Democritus  ancient_Greece  ancient_Rome  Hellenism  mind  Descartes  emotions 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Embodied Cognition (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
1. Embodied vs Traditional Cognitive Science
2. Some Historical Anchors for Embodied Cognitive Science
2.1 Metaphor and Cognition
2.2 Enactive Cognition.
2.3 Rethinking Robotics.
2.4 Ecological Perception.
2.5 Dynamicism and Development
2.6 Phenomenology
3. What Embodied Cognition Is
4. Embodiment vs Tradition on Three Issues
4.1 Modularity
4.2 Mental Representation.
4.3 Nativism
5. Empirical Domains for Embodied Cognition
5.1 Visual Consciousness
5.2 Concepts
5.3 Memory.
5.4 Other Minds.
5.5 Moral Cognition.
6. Sharper Divides Over Embodied Cognition
6.1 Payoffs for empirical research.
6.2 Accommodation by traditional cognitive science
6.3 Embodied cognition and the extended mind thesis.
6.4 Agency, the self, and subjectivity.
bibliography  philosophy_of_mind  mind-body  mind  embodied_cognition  neuroscience  phenomenology  innatism  innate_ideas  theory_of_mind  perception  memory  cognition  emotions  representation-metaphysics  child_development  language  moral_psychology 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Edward Slingerland - What Science Offers the Humanities: Integrating Body and Culture | Cambridge University Press (2008)
What Science Offers the Humanities examines some of the deep problems facing current approaches to the study of culture. It focuses especially on the excesses of postmodernism, but also acknowledges serious problems with postmodernism's harshest critics. In short, Edward Slingerland argues that in order for the humanities to progress, its scholars need to take seriously contributions from the natural sciences—and particular research on human cognition—which demonstrate that any separation of the mind and the body is entirely untenable. The author provides suggestions for how humanists might begin to utilize these scientific discoveries without conceding that science has the last word on morality, religion, art, and literature. Calling into question such deeply entrenched dogmas as the "blank slate" theory of nature, strong social constructivism, and the ideal of disembodied reason, Slingerland replaces the human-sciences divide with a more integrated approach to the study of culture. --
Part I. Exorcising the Ghost in the Machine:
1. The disembodied mind
2. They live among us
3. Pulling the plug
Part II. Embodying Culture:
4. Embodying culture
Part III. Defending Vertical Integration:
5. Defending the empirical
6. Who's afraid of reductionism?
Edward Slingerland, University of British Columbia, Vancouver - taught in the School of Religion and Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures at USC.... currently Associate Professor of Asian Studies at the University of British Columbia and is Canada Research Chair in Chinese Thought and Embodied Cognition. His previous books include The Annalects of Confucius and Effortless Action: Wu-wei as Conceptual Metaphor and Spiritual Ideal in Early China, which won the American Academy of Religion's 2003 Best First Book in the History of Religions Award. -- downloaded Intro
books  kindle-available  downloaded  humanities  philosophy_of_social_science  cognition  mind  philosophy_of_religion  human_nature  Chinese_thought  embodied_cognition  naturalism  reductionism  postmodern  two_cultures  constructivism  cultural_history  religious_history  social_theory  sociology_of_knowledge 
june 2016 by dunnettreader
Consciousness (pages 11-18) | Symposion. Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences - Jan 2015
Nicholas Rescher

ABSTRACT: Consciousness is sometimes viewed as a particular parametric factor in the analogy of blood pressure or electric charge. The paper argues that this is an erroneous conception becomes consciousness involves a varied assortment of different phenomena that have no single unified commonality. And so even as ‘abnormal psychology’ has to be a disjointed assembly of diverse specialties so will ‘consciousness studies’ have to be.
neuroscience  article  mind-body  philosophy_of_science  reductionism  human_nature  psychology  downloaded  consciousness  mind 
may 2016 by dunnettreader
Ruairidh James Macleod - The Concept of Temporality in John Dewey's Early Works (2015 thesis) - Academic Commons
Ruairidh James Macleod, 2015, The Concept of Temporality in John Dewey's Early Works, Columbia University Academic Commons, http://dx.doi.org/10.7916/D8M044XW : -- It is well understood that a concept of temporality is central to Dewey’s later work, finding its culmination in his essay “Time and Individuality” (1938). What has not been either acknowledged or established is the fact that a detailed and sophisticated concept of temporality, one which is fully in accord with his later work, was already present in Dewey’s early work, particularly in his essay “The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology” (1896). This thesis therefore seeks to demonstrate not only that such a concept of temporality exists in Dewey’s early work, but also the nuanced nature of that concept of temporality, particularly in its function as a central, grounding component of the preconditions required for Dewey’s concept of experience. (..) this thesis argues that it in fact constitutes a key contribution to a tradition of philosophy of temporality which starts with the work of Henri Bergson, continues with the philosophy of Martin Heidegger (most saliently with Being and Time), and finds its full contemporary statement in Gilles Deleuze’s work on time, based on his concept of ‘the virtual.’ The fact that Dewey’s concept of temporality, as with that of Deleuze, is based on a sophisticated understanding of contemporary scientific findings is also explored, with the argument made that possessing such a foundation in scientific thought allows Dewey’s concept of temporality to become fully compatible to current research in psychology, particularly as it concerns educational psychology. -- downloaded pdf to Note
thesis  downloaded  intellectual_history  18thC  20thC  philosophical_anthropology  mind  consciousness  time  time-perception  subjectivity  Dewey  pragmatism  psychology  physiology  neuroscience  Bergson  Heidegger  Deleuze  education  learning 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Lawrence Cahoone - The Modern Intellectual Tradition: From Descartes to Derrida | The Great Courses
Modern Intellectual Tradition: From Descartes to Derrida
Professor of Philosophy at Holy Cross - PhD from SUNY
36 lectures, starting with 17thC scientific revolution
He devotes a lot to the period starting with fin de sciècle (analytic, pragmatism, Whitehead)
- has a whole lecture on Heidegger's rejection of "humanism" after 1 on existentialism and the Frankfurt School
- but entre dieux guerres and post WWII isn't a total downer - an entire lecture on Dewey
- though Derrida sounds like the endpoint, he's more the endpoint of the trend through Heidegger's version of phenomenology
- he then turns to Rorty's "end of philosophy" and says, not so fast
- he works through several themes from earlier that are re-emerging post-postmodern
- he goes back to Cassirer, Whitehead and the pragmatists - different orientations but working within what he terms pragmatic realism - with emergence and complexity part of the realist story
- my main question re that narrative arc is where is Deluze?
- but the whole show gets uniformly rave reviews - except that he works off a teleprompter which some thought was awkward - looks like audio download is the way to go
analytical_philosophy  18thC  Putnam  pragmatism  existentialism  Marxist  Wittgenstein  technology  Quine  mind  Frege  phenomenology  Frankfurt_School  Marx  Habermas  science-and-religion  Romanticism  philosophy_of_history  Spinoza  Husserl  buy  Sartre  epistemology  Hume  Rorty  emergence  neo-Kantian  biocultural_evolution  humanism  intellectual_history  dualism  James_William  Enlightenment_Project  historiography-Marxist  German_Idealism  Enlightenment  17thC  Hegel  Nietzsche  political_philosophy  Logical_Positivism  mind-body  video  Whitehead  individualism  French_Enlightenment  empiricism  modernity  Derrida  ordinary_language_philosophy  anti-foundationalism  20thC  Kierkegaard  philosophy_of_language  Heidegger  human_nature  truth  Descartes  Kant  complexity  philosophy_of_science  Berkeley  postmodern  philosophy_of_religion  21stC  19thC  Cassirer  metaphysics  Dewey  self  audio  anti-humanism  courses  Locke 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Mahrad Almotahari interview with Richard Marshall - Not and Other Metalinguistic Stuff - 3AM
Interview by Richard Marshall. Mahrad Almotahari is an Assistant Professor and a member of UIC’s Laboratory of Integrative Neuroscience. He earned his PhD from…
Instapaper  interview  philosophy_of_science  neuroscience  cognition  mind  mind-body  linguistics  logic  from instapaper
march 2016 by dunnettreader
Vincent Descombes - Louis Dumont : comment penser le politique ? (2012) - La Vie des idées
Louis Dumont : comment penser le politique ?
par Vincent Descombes , le 14 février 2012
De Louis Dumont, on connaît les travaux d’anthropologie sur l’Inde, mais sans doute moins la pensée politique. Vincent Descombes en souligne la grande originalité : définir le politique à partir d’un travail comparatif et dissiper ainsi certaines des équivocités de la philosophie moderne et contemporaine.
Downloaded French version - English translation on Books
mind  structuralist  methodological_individualism  20thC  social_theory  downloaded  French_intellectuals  philosophy_of_language  article  poststructuralist  comparative_anthropology  constructivism 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Fouré Lionel, « Le complément de sujet, de Vincent Descombes. », Le Philosophoire 1/2005
Fouré Lionel, « Le complément de sujet, de Vincent Descombes. », Le Philosophoire 1/2005 (n° 24) , p. 132-135
URL : www.cairn.info/revue-le-philosophoire-2005-1-page-132.htm.
DOI : 10.3917/phoir.024.0132.
Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
downloaded  phenomenology  deconstruction  existentialism  structuralist  self  French_intellectuals  philosophy_of_language  subjectivity  consciousness  philosophy_of_social_science  reviews  mind  Wittgenstein  books  Peirce  postmodern  poststructuralist 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Lionel Fouré - Entretien avec Vincent Descombes (2005) - Cairn.info
Fouré Lionel, « Entretien avec Vincent Descombes. », Le Philosophoire 2/2005 (n° 25) , p. 7-20
URL : www.cairn.info/revue-le-philosophoire-2005-2-page-7.htm.
DOI : 10.3917/phoir.025.0007.
elite_culture  human_nature  comparative_anthropology  modernity  mind  downloaded  epistemology  social_theory  French_intellectuals  philosophy_of_social_science  modernity-emergence  subjectivity  mass_culture  interview  identity  postmodern  neuroscience  nature-nurture 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Desmond M. Clarke - French Philosophy, 1572-1675 (June 2016) | Oxford University Press - History of Philosophy Series
Desmond M. Clarke presents a thematic history of French philosophy from the middle of the 16thC to the beginning of Louis XIV's reign. While the traditional philosophy of the schools was taught throughout this period by authors who have faded into permanent obscurity, a whole generation of writers who were not professional philosophers--some of whom never even attended a school or college--addressed issues that were prominent in French public life. Clarke explores such topics as the novel political theory espoused by monarchomachs, such as Beze and Hotman, against Bodin's account of absolute sovereignty; the scepticism of Montaigne, Charron, and Sanches; the ethical discussions of Du Vair, Gassendi, and Pascal; innovations in natural philosophy that were inspired by Mersenne and Descartes and implemened by members of the Academie royale des sciences; theories of the human mind from Jean de Silhon to Cureau de la Chambre and Descartes; and the novel arguments in support of women's education and equality that were launched by De Gournay, Du Bosc, Van Schurman and Poulain de la Barre. The writers involved were lawyers, political leaders, theologians, and independent scholars and they acknowledged, almost unanimously, the authority of the Bible as a source of knowledge that was claimed to be more reliable than the fragile powers of human understanding. Since they could not agree, however, on which books of the Bible were canonical or how that should be understood, their discussions raised questions about faith and reason that mirrored those involved in the infamous Galileo affair.
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  16thC  17thC  France  political_philosophy  sovereignty  Bodin  Montaigne  scepticism  academies  Gassendi  Pascal  Descartes  mind  mind-body  theology  natural_philosophy  Biblical_authority  women-education  women-intellectuals 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Todd K Shackelford and James R Liddle - An overview of evolutionary psychology, Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Cognitive science (2014) | via Researchgate
Understanding the mind from an evolutionary perspective: An overview of evolutionary psychology, Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Cognitive science, 05/2014; 5(3). DOI: 10.1002/wcs.1281 (Impact Factor: 0.79). -- ABSTRACT --
The theory of evolution by natural selection provides the only scientific explanation for the existence of complex adaptations. The design features of the brain, like any organ, are the result of selection pressures operating over deep time. Evolutionary psychology posits that the human brain comprises a multitude of evolved psychological mechanisms, adaptations to specific and recurrent problems of survival and reproduction faced over human evolutionary history. Although some mistakenly view evolutionary psychology as promoting genetic determinism, evolutionary psychologists appreciate and emphasize the interactions between genes and environments. This approach to psychology has led to a richer understanding of a variety of psychological phenomena, and has provided a powerful foundation for generating novel hypotheses. Critics argue that evolutionary psychologists resort to storytelling, but as with any branch of science, empirical testing is a vital component of the field, with hypotheses standing or falling with the weight of the evidence. Evolutionary psychology is uniquely suited to provide a unifying theoretical framework for the disparate subdisciplines of psychology. An evolutionary perspective has provided insights into several subdisciplines of psychology, while simultaneously demonstrating the arbitrary nature of dividing psychological science into such subdisciplines. Evolutionary psychologists have amassed a substantial empirical and theoretical literature, but as a relatively new approach to psychology, many questions remain, with several promising directions for future research. For further resources related to this article, see the WIREs website. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  Wiley  evolutionary_biology  biocultural_evolution  evo_psych  psychology  mind  neuroscience  natural_selection  bibliography  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Damien Couet, review - Michael Slote, A Sentimentalist Theory of the Mind - La Vie des idées - 30 décembre 2015
Recensé : Michael Slote, A Sentimentalist Theory of the Mind, Oxford University Press, 2014, 272 p. -- L’éthique du care entend réhabiliter le rôle des émotions occulté par la pensée morale occidentale. Mais elle a besoin pour cela d’une conception sentimentaliste de l’esprit, dont M. Slote souhaite jeter les fondements. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  kindle-available  reviews  moral_philosophy  moral_sentiments  moral_psychology  ethics  ethic_of_care  sympathy  empathy  epistemology  reason-passions  reasons-internalism  reasons-externalism  feminism  mind  rationality  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
John Sellars - Pomponazzi contra Averroes on the Intellect | Academia.edu
British Journal for the History of Philosophy (in press) -- This paper examines Pomponazzi’s arguments against Averroes in his De Immortalitate Animae, focusing on the question whether thought is possible without a body. The first part of the paper will sketch the history of the problem, namely the interpretation of Aristotle’s remarks about the intellect in De Anima 3.4-5, touching on Alexander, Themistius, and Averroes. The second part will focus on Pomponazzi’s response to Averroes, including his use of arguments by Aquinas. It will conclude by suggesting that Pomponazzi’s discussion stands as the first properly modern account of Aristotle’s psychology. -- Keywords: Renaissance Philosophy, Renaissance Aristotelianism, Averroes, and Pietro Pomponazzi -- looks like very helpful overview of interpretations of de Anima from Theophrastus onwards through Renaissance and comparing with some recent readings -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  Academia.edu  intellectual_history  soul  immortality  mind  Aristotle  Aristotelian  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  Hellenism  late_antiquity  medieval_philosophy  Renaissance  Italian_Renaissance  commentaries  Islam-Greek_philosophy  Averroes  Pomponazzi  Ficino  rationalist  empiricism  fideism  bibliography  Peripatetics  De_Anima  downloaded 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
Dale Jacquette, review - Ted Honderich, Actual Consciousness (OUP 2014) // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews - August 2015
Ted Honderich’s new book takes the exploration of the mysteries of consciousness in an interesting direction. He develops a certain-to-be-controversial…
subjectivity  books  emotions  consciousness  cognition  analytical_philosophy  self  reviews  mind  qualia  perception  phenomenology  from instapaper
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Nadeem J. Z. Hussain and Lydia Patton - Friedrich Albert Lange | Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy August 2012 revision of original May 2095
Friedrich Albert Lange (b. 1828, d. 1875) was a German philosopher, pedagogue, political activist, and journalist. He was one of the originators of neo-Kantianism and an important figure in the founding of the Marburg school of neo-Kantianism. He also played a significant role in the German labour movement and in the development of social democratic thought. His book, The History of Materialism, was a standard introduction to materialism and the history of philosophy well into the twentieth century. -- 1. Life and Intellectual Career -- 2. Pedagogy -- 3. The Labor Question -- 4. Neo-Kantianism ** 4.1 The Ethical Standpoint of the Ideal ** 4.2 Logic and Scientific Methodology -- downloaded as pdf to Note
intellectual_history  19thC  Germany  German_scholars  Lange_FA  neo-Kantian  Hegelian  German_Idealism  materialism-19thC  materialism  historiography-19thC  philosophy_of_science  epistemology  epistemology-moral  epistemology-naturalism  ancient_philosophy  atomism  logic  scientific_method  socialism  labor  capitalism  Industrial_Revolution  social_democracy  physiology  mind  perception  sensation  Kant-ethics  bibliography 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Guyer and Rolf-Peter Horstmann - Idealism | Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - 1st published August 2015
This entry discusses philosophical idealism as a movement chiefly in the 18thC and 19thC, although anticipated by certain aspects of 17thC philosophy. It examines the relationship between epistemological idealism (the view that the contents of human knowledge are ineluctably determined by the structure of human thought) and ontological idealism (the view that epistemological idealism delivers truth because reality itself is a form of thought and human thought participates in it). After discussing precursors, the entry focuses on the eighteenth-century versions of idealism due to Berkeley, Hume, and Kant, the nineteenth-century movements of German idealism and subsequently British and American idealism, and then concludes with an examination of the attack upon idealism by Moore and Russell. -- 1. Introduction -- 2. Idealism in early modern Rationalism -- 3. Idealism in early modern British philosophy -- 4. Kant -- 5. German Idealism -- 6. Schopenhauer -- 7. Nietzsche -- 8. British and American Idealism -- 9. The Fate of Idealism in the Twentieth Century -- downloaded as pdf to Note (62 pgs!)
intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  idealism  idealism-transcendental  German_Idealism  epistemology  ontology  Berkeley  Kant  Hegel  Hegelian  Schopenhauer  Nietzsche  neo-Kantian  Absolute_Idealism  British_Idealism  Royce  Bradley  Moore_GE  Russell_Bertrand  analytical_philosophy  Logical_Positivism  Pittsburgh_Hegelians  philosophy_of_science  mind  bibliography  downloaded 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Daniel Dennett - Information, Evolution, and intelligent Design - Video | 3quarksdaily - August 2015
2 YouTube videos, 1st (1 hour+) of Dennett's presentation and then the Q&A -- looks like it was at RI Institute. He's NOT dealing with Intelligent Design initial caps.
speech  video  Dennett  human_nature  epistemology-social  evolution-as-model  evolution-social  mind  cognition  information  information_theory  information-intermediaries  design  social_process  decision_theory 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Timothy Michael - British Romanticism and the Critique of Political Reason (Dec 2015) | JHU Press
What role should reason play in the creation of a free and just society? Can we claim to know anything in a field as complex as politics? And how can the cause of political rationalism be advanced when it is seen as having blood on its hands? These are the questions that occupied a group of British poets, philosophers, and polemicists in the years following the French Revolution. (..) argues that much literature of the period is a trial, or a critique, of reason in its political capacities and a test of the kinds of knowledge available to it. For Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, Burke, Wollstonecraft, and Godwin, the historical sequence of revolution, counter-revolution, and terror in France—and radicalism and repression in Britain—occasioned a dramatic reassessment of how best to advance the project of enlightenment. The political thought of these figures must be understood, Michael contends, in the context of their philosophical thought. Major poems of the period, including The Prelude, The Excursion, and Prometheus Unbound, are in this reading an adjudication of competing political and epistemological claims. This book bridges for the first time two traditional pillars of Romantic studies: the period’s politics and its theories of the mind and knowledge. Combining literary and intellectual history, it provides an account of British Romanticism in which high rhetoric, political prose, poetry, and poetics converge in a discourse of enlightenment and emancipation.
books  18thC  19thC  intellectual_history  literary_history  British_history  English_lit  political_philosophy  political_culture  Enlightenment  epistemology  moral_philosophy  mind  Romanticism  poetry  French_Enlightenment  French_Revolution  French_Revolution-impact  French_Revolutionary_Wars  Wordsworth  Coleridge  Shelley  Burke  Wollstonecraft  Godwin_Wm  reason  rationality  perception  judgment-political  judgment-independence  Counter-Enlightenment  counter-revolution  political_discourse  poetics  rhetoric-political  freedom  civil_liberties  civil_society  liberty-positive  scepticism 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Roundtable - Romanticism, Enlightenment, and Counter-Enlightenment | Philoctetes Center - April 17, 2010
, 2:30 PM
Romanticism, Enlightenment, and Counter-Enlightenment

Participants: Akeel Bilgrami, Taylor Carman, Garrett Deckel, Colin Jager, Joel Whitebook Isaiah Berlin introduced the work of a range of philosophers in the German romantic and German idealist tradition to the English-speaking world. His fascination with some of their ideas was accompanied by a concomitant anxiety about them. The anxiety issued from his staunch liberal commitment to the orthodox Enlightenment. Yet, the fascination was an implicit acknowledgement on his part of some of the limitations of the Enlightenment's liberal ideas. This roundtable will look at this underlying tension in Berlin, which many liberals feel to this day. Panelists will probe the role of reason, perception, and emotion in our individual and political psychology, and ask the question of whether or not there is something for liberalism to learn from what Berlin—rightly or wrongly—called the "Counter-Enlightenment." -- see YouTube bookmark for direct link -- video also embedded in program page
video  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  Enlightenment  Counter-Enlightenment  Romanticism  Enlightenment_Project  Enlightenment-ongoing  German_Idealism  liberalism  Berlin_Isaiah  reason  rationality  perception  emotions  reason-passions  political_philosophy  political_culture  social_psychology  moral_psychology  nature  nature-mastery  cognition  prejudice  cognitive_bias  mind  mind-body  philosophical_anthropology 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Emmanuel Bezy, review - Pascale Gillot, L’esprit, figures classiques et contemporaines - Histoire du mind-body problem - La Vie des idées - 10 janvier 2008
Pascale Gillot, L’esprit, figures classiques et contemporaines, Paris, CNRS Editions, 2007, 315 p., 30 euros. -- Si l’esprit et le corps sont des substances séparées et distinctes, comment peuvent-ils agir l’un sur l’autre ? P. Gillot montre dans son ouvrage les différentes réponses que la philosophie de l’esprit a apportées au problème ainsi formulé par Descartes. Mais ces réponses parviennent difficilement, selon elle, à s’affranchir totalement du cartésianisme. -- L’ouvrage de Pascale Gillot peut se lire de deux manières, qui ne sont pas exclusives l’une de l’autre : il constitue à la fois une introduction à la philosophie de l’esprit et une mise en perspective de la philosophie de l’esprit contemporaine, telle qu’elle s’est développée aux Etats-Unis depuis le tournant cognitiviste. Pascale Gillot expose la construction du problème du corps et de l’esprit, puis elle met en évidence les rémanences de cette problématique de William James à Jaegwon Kim. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  French_language  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  20thC  21stC  mind  mind-body  cogito  Cartesian  Descartes  James_William  dualism  cognition  neuroscience  psychology  metaphysics  essence  substance  human_nature  analytical_philosophy  naturalism  reductionism  thinking_matter  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Emmanuel Bezy, review - Jean-Marie Schaeffer, La fin de l’exception humaine (2007) -- Pour une histoire naturelle de l’homme - La Vie des idées - 21 janvier 2008
Gallimard, 2007, 446 p., 21,50 euros. -- Dans son dernier essai, Jean-Marie Schaeffer s’éloigne de ses thèmes habituels de recherche (le langage, la littérature, la fiction, l’esthétique) et propose une réflexion générale sur l’humanité. Il s’agit de dessiner une perspective qui inscrirait cette dernière en continuité avec le vivant. Il présente ce travail comme l’explicitation de l’arrière-plan de ces précédents travaux. L’ambition est de prendre le contre-pied de ce que l’auteur appelle la « Thèse » selon laquelle l’humanité constituerait une exception parmi les vivants. (...) qu’il pense a conduit à une survalorisation des savoirs spéculatifs au détriment des savoirs empiriques. C’est à critiquer cette vision du monde, véritable obstacle au progrès scientifique, et à redonner toute sa légitimité au naturalisme que son ouvrage est consacré. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  French_intellectuals  French_language  philosophy  human_nature  metaphysics  imago_dei  animals  reason  speculative_philosoohy  philosophical_anthropology  philosophy_of_language  epistemology-naturalism  lit_crit  aesthetics  philosophy_of_science  mind  cogito  natural_kinds  essence  naturalism  empiricism  biology  evolution  evolutionary_biology  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Nicola Lacey - Jurisprudence, History, and the Institutional Quality of Law (Symposium - Jurisprudence and (Its) History) | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 919 (2015)
A cri de coeur for putting legal theory and history back together with social theory and empirical social sciences,. -- In the early part of my career, legal history and the history of legal ideas were closed books to me, as I made my way in a field of criminal law scholarship dominated by doctrinal scholarship and by concept-focused philosophical analysis of the foundations of criminal law. These 2 very different paradigms have 1 big thing in common: They tend to proceed as if the main intellectual task is to unearth the deep logic of existing legal doctrines, not infrequently going so far as to read them back onto history, as if things could never have been other than they are. (..)I have increasingly found myself turning to historical resources (1) [to examine] the contingency of particular legal arrangements, and (2) ...to develop causal and other theses about the dynamics which shape them and hence about the role and quality of criminal law as a form of power in modern societies. So, in a sense, I have been using history in support of an analysis driven primarily by the social sciences. (..) it is no accident that all of the great social theorists, from Marx to Foucault via Weber, Durkheim, and Elias, ..have incorporated significant historical elements into their interpretations .... Indeed, without the diachronic perspective provided by history (or the perspective offered by comparative study) we could have no critical purchase on social theory’s characterizations of or causal hypotheses about the dynamics of social systems. Hence, (...) my boundless gratitude to the historians whose meticulous research makes this sort of interpretive social theory possible). -- Lacey is not over-dramatizing -- see the "commentary" from a "legal philosopher" who believes the normative basis of criminal responsibility can be investigated as timeless "moral truths". -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  social_theory  historical_sociology  historical_change  institutions  institutional_change  philosophy_of_law  philosophical_anthropology  philosophy_of_social_science  jurisprudence  legal_theory  analytical_philosophy  concepts  morality-conventional  morality-objective  criminal_justice  responsibility  mind  human_nature  norms  power-asymmetric  power-symbolic  power  Neoplatonism  neo-Kantian  a_priori  historiography  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_culture  moral_philosophy  evidence  mental_health  social_order  epistemology  epistemology-moral  change-social  change-intellectual  comparative_law  comparative_anthropology  civil_liberties  women-rights  women-property  rights-legal  rights-political  access_to_services  discrimination  legal_culture  legal_system  legal_reasoning  Foucault  Marx  Weber  Durkheim  metaethics  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Caroline Jacot Grapa - Dans le vif du sujet - Diderot, corps et âme ( 2009) | Classiques Garnier - collection L'Europe des Lumières
Ce livre est un essai sur le style du matérialisme de Diderot, sa psychologie, sa métaphysique et sur les figures de l'intériorité des Lumières. La langue de l'intériorité, apanage de la spiritualité, se retrempe au contact sensible des métaphores de l'époque. Elles donnent accès à un savoir nouveau de la vie corporelle. L'actualité de cet essai tient au dialogue qu'il engage avec la phénoménologie et les neurosciences. -- This work is an essay on the style of Diderot's materialism, his psychology and his metaphysics. Its modern pertinence stems from the dialogue established with phenomenology and neurosciences. -- ISBN 978-2-8124-0046-9 -- 504 pages -- looks extremely interesting -- tracking reception of British empiricism, debates over various Cartesian proposals for dealing with animals, and the new directions taken both in life sciences and psychology and the metaphysics of materialism -- downloaded TOC as pdf to Note
books  find  amazon.fr  libraries  intellectual_history  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  natural_philosophy  18thC  France  Diderot  d'Alembert  d'Holbach  Cartesian  Locke  Newton  Newtonian  Encyclopédie  Republic_of_Letters  philosophes  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Vitalism  psychology  thinking_matter  anatomy  physiology  scientific_method  organism  subject  subjectivity  phenomenology  neuroscience  materialism  metaphysics  mind  mind-body  soul  human_nature  metaphor  French_language  French_lit  downloaded 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul A. Lewis, review essay - Varieties of Emergence: Minds, Markets and Novelty (STUDIES IN EMERGENT ORDER, VOL 4 (2011): 170-192) :: SSRN
King's College London - Department of Political Economy -- This paper is an essay review of Richard Wagner's book, 'Mind, Society and Human Action'. It focuses on the ontological presuppositions of Wagner's account of of the social world (that is, on what Wanger's account presupposes about the nature of social reality). Issue discussed include the following: the nature of emergence and emergent properties; spontaneous order, and the shortcomings of Walrasian general equilibrium theory in modelling it; the significance of the impact of social interaction on peolpe's preferences and dispositions; and the role of novelty and innovation in Wagner's account of the market process. -- Number of Pages in PDF File: 23 -- Keywords: Emergence, complexity, Austrian Economics, ontology, spontaneous order, novelty -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  review  SSRN  philosophy_of_social_science  social_theory  ontology-social  mind  social_order  social_process  preferences  emergence  equilibrium  heterodox_economics  Innovation  complexity  economic_models  utility  behavioral_economics  markets-psychology  markets  methodology  methodology-qualitative  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul A. Lewis - The Emergence of 'Emergence' in the Work of F.A. Hayek: An Historical Analysis (revised Jan 2015) :: SSRN
King's College London - Department of Political Economy -- presented at Cambridge Realist Workshop -- This paper addresses a puzzle in the history of economic thought. The puzzle is simply stated: Hayek’s analysis of the mind arguably relies heavily on the philosophical notions of emergence and emergent properties. However, Hayek invokes the philosophical notion of emergence explicitly only once, and then relatively late in his career (in his 1964 paper on ‘The Theory of Complex Phenomena’.) The question arises, therefore, of where lie the origins of Hayek’s use of the notions of emergence and emergent properties. This paper attempts to solve this puzzle by examining the history of Hayek’s use of the concept of emergence, implicit or otherwise, and attempting to identify the sources through which notions of ‘emergence’ and ‘emergent properties’ entered his thought in general and, in particular, his theoretical psychology. -- Number of Pages in PDF File: 46 -- Keywords: Hayek, emergence, emergent properties, theoretical psychology -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  intellectual_history  20thC  Hayek  Austrian_economics  economic_theory  social_theory  ontology-social  equilibrium  social_order  social_process  emergence  complex_adaptive_systems  coordination  markets-psychology  mind  psychology  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Pei Wang - A General Theory of Intelligence [an e-book under development] | Home
This eBook is an attempt to establish a theory that identifies the commonality within various forms intelligence, including human intelligence, computer intelligence, animal intelligence, alien intelligence, group intelligence, etc. -- NARS (Non-Axiomatic Reasoning System) - Most of the existing AI inference works with semi-axiomatic systems, which attempt to make partial extension or revision of mathematical logic, while keeping the other parts. What AI really needs are non-axiomatic systems, which do not assume the sufficiency of knowledge and resources in any aspect of the system. NARS is a concrete example of non-axiomatic system which uses a formal language "Narsese" to represent goals, actions, and beliefs.The basic unit of the language is term, which can be thought of as the name or label of a concept in the system. (..) The meaning of a term is determined by its extension and intension, which are the collection of the inheritance relations between this term and other terms, obtained from the experience of the system. NARS includes three variants of the inheritance relation: similarity (symmetric inheritance), implication (derivability), and equivalence (symmetric implication). (..)The meaning of a compound term is partially determined by its logical relations with its components, and partially by the system's experience on the compound term as a whole. Event is a special type of statement that have a time-dependent truth-value. Operation is a special type of event that can occur by the system's decision. Goal is a special type of event, that the system is attempting to realize, by carrying out certain operations. Beside goals to be achieved, NARS can accept tasks that are knowledge to be absorbed and questions to be answered. (..)If a event is judged to imply the achieving of a goal, then the desirability of the event is increased, and the system will also evaluate its plausibility(..). When an event is both desirable and plausible, the system will make the decision to turn the event into a goal to be actually pursued. The basic function of inference rules in NARS is to derive new beliefs from current beliefs.
etexts  books  intelligence  artificial_intelligence  mind  systems-complex_adaptive  systems-reflexive  systems_theory  epistemology-social  cognition  cognition-social  agent-based_models  logic  inference  decision_theory  rationality  rationality-bounded  learning  website  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
UMA RAMAMURTHY, STAN FRANKLIN, and PULIN AGRAWAL - SELF-SYSTEM IN A MODEL OF COGNITION | International Journal of Machine Consciousness: Vol. 04, No. 02 December 2012 (World Scientific)
Philosophers, psychologists and neuroscientists have proposed various forms of a "self" in humans and animals. All of these selves seem to have a basis in some form of consciousness. The Global Workspace Theory (GWT) [Baars, 1988, 2003] suggests a mostly unconscious, many-layered self-system. In this paper, we consider several issues that arise from attempts to include a self-system in a software agent/cognitive robot. We explore these issues in the context of the LIDA model [Baars and Franklin, 2009; Ramamurthy et al., 2006] which implements the Global Workspace Theory.
Keywords: Consciousness; self-system; Global Workspace Theory; LIDA model
article  consciousness  self  mind  unconscious  neuroscience  artificial_intelligence  agent-based_models  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Melanie Boly et al - Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: recent advances and future directions (2013) | Frontiers of Psychology - Consciousness Research
Review ARTICLE - Frontiers of Psychology, 31 October 2013 | doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00625 -- Melanie Boly1,2,3*, Anil K. Seth4,5, Melanie Wilke6,7, Paul Ingmundson8, Bernard Baars9, Steven Laureys3, David B. Edelman10 and Naotsugu Tsuchiya11,12 -- This joint article reflects the authors' personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last 10 years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. It is based on a small conference in July of 2012, organized by the Mind Science Foundation of San Antonio,. We summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical, and conceptual insights. These include the evidence for the importance of fronto-parietal connectivity and of “top-down” processes, both of which enable information to travel across distant cortical areas effectively, as well as numerous dissociations between consciousness and cognitive functions, such as attention, in humans. In addition, we describe the development of mental imagery paradigms, which made it possible to identify covert awareness in non-responsive subjects. Non-human animal consciousness research has also witnessed substantial advances on the specific role of cortical areas and higher order thalamus for consciousness, thanks to important technological enhancements. In addition, much progress has been made in the understanding of non-vertebrate cognition relevant to possible conscious states. Finally, major advances have been made in theories of consciousness, and also in their comparison with the available evidence. Along with reviewing these findings, each author suggests future avenues for research in their field of investigation.
Keywords: consciousness, animals, human cognition, theoretical neuroscience, biotechnology, neuroimaging

Citation: Boly M, Seth AK, Wilke M, Ingmundson P, Baars B, Laureys S, Edelman DB and Tsuchiya N (2013) Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: recent advances and future directions. Front. Psychol. 4:625. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00625
article  neuroscience  consciousness  cognition  brain  animals  physiology  mind  mind-body  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Kieran Fox et al - Is thinking really aversive? Commentary on Wilson et al.’s “Just think: The challenges of the disengaged mind” | Frontiers of Psychology - Cognition
Shoots down silly but highly publicized claim that people would rather undergo electric shocks than sit by themselves and "just think" for 15 minutes. They go through the experiment setups and data sets and show that the experiments demonstrated nothing like the dramatic claims but rather were consistent with prior research. Opinion ARTICLE -- Frontiers of Psychology | doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01427 -- Kieran C. Fox1, Evan Thompson2, Jessica R. Andrews-Hanna4 and Kalina Christoff1, 3* -- Spontaneous thought, often colloquially referred to as ‘daydreaming’ or ‘mind-wandering,’ is increasingly being investigated by scientists (for recent reviews, see Andrews-Hanna et al., 2014; Christoff, 2012; Smallwood and Schooler, 2014). In a recent article published in Science, Wilson et al. (2014) argue in support of the view (e.g., Killingsworth & Gilbert, 2010) that such thinking is predominantly unpleasant, and even emotionally aversive. While we were impressed with the enormous wealth of data collected by Wilson et al. and by the number of experimental manipulations carried out, we found their interpretations surprising in light of prior research. We applaud Wilson et al.’s detailed effort to investigate the content and affective qualities of ‘just thinking’ – but upon examining their dataset, we find little support for their claims. -- didn't download
article  neuroscience  psychology  behavior  mind  bad_journalism  science-public  bad_science  emotions 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeroen J. A. van Boxtel, Naotsugu Tsuchiya and Christof Koch - Consciousness and Attention: On Sufficiency and Necessity | Consciousness Research
Review ARTICLE - Frontiers of Psychology, 20 December 2010 | doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00217 - authors from or affiliated with CalTech (biology and humanities) and Tsuchiya is connected with both CalTech and brain institutes at Tamagawa University, Tokyo, Japan and Korea University, Seoul, Korea -- Recent research has slowly corroded a belief that selective attention and consciousness are so tightly entangled that they cannot be individually examined. In this review, we summarize psychophysical and neurophysiological evidence for a dissociation between top-down attention and consciousness. The evidence includes recent findings that show subjects can attend to perceptually invisible objects. More contentious is the finding that subjects can become conscious of an isolated object, or the gist of the scene in the near absence of top-down attention; we critically re-examine the possibility of “complete” absence of top-down attention. We also cover the recent flurry of studies that utilized independent manipulation of attention and consciousness. These studies have shown paradoxical effects of attention, including examples where top-down attention and consciousness have opposing effects, leading us to strengthen and revise our previous views. Neuroimaging studies with EEG, MEG, and fMRI are uncovering the distinct neuronal correlates of selective attention and consciousness in dissociative paradigms. These findings point to a functional dissociation: attention as analyzer and consciousness as synthesizer. Separating the effects of selective visual attention from those of visual consciousness is of paramount importance to untangle the neural substrates of consciousness from those for attention. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  neuroscience  psychology  mind  perception  consciousness  attention  unconscious  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Denis Larrivee and Adriana Gini - Neuroplasticity and the Reemergence of Virtue | Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 2014
Opinion ARTICLE - Front. Hum. Neurosci., 18 September 2014 | doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00731 -- Is the philosophical construct of “habitus operativus bonus” compatible with the modern neuroscience concept of human flourishing through neuroplasticity? A consideration of prudence as a multidimensional regulator of virtue - Denis Larrivee1* and Adriana Gini2 - 1Educational Outreach Office, Catholic Diocese of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA - 2Neuroradiology Division, Neuroscience Department, San Camillo-Forlanini Medical Center, Rome, Italy Unlike ancient Greece where personal virtue was the route to fulfillment, modern man typically seeks to improve human well-being by external means, in a process known as the medicalization of society. The apparent novelty of recent proposals in psychological theory to develop character strength, therefore, lies in their reemphasis on a personal implementation of positive values. Among the factors contributing to a new look at self-determination has been the capacity for the neural substrate to selectively alter itself via neuroplasticity. Indeed, the confluence of past and contemporary thinking may presage a consideration of neurobiological instantiation within which virtuous behavior may be enhanced in accord with principles governing neuroplastic change. But what are virtues and positive traits? And to what extent can these conceptions inform our growing understanding of the neural contribution to human behavior? -- full title is enormous, referring to Aquinas formula and written by at least one author committed to Catholic Thomism - discussion of Aristotle also -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy  ancient_philosophy  Aristotle  Aquinas  Thomism-21stC  moral_philosophy  mind  habit  neuroscience  cognition  plasticity  prudence  practical_reason  character  virtue  psychology  brain  brain-development  self-development  self-regulation  phronesis  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Hegel's Theory of Mental Activity by Willem A. deVries (pdfs of Cornell University Press 1988)
Hegel's Theory of Mental Activity - Originally copyright Cornell University Press, 1988; Cornell kindly gave me back the copyright when the book went out of print, which change has been duly registered with the Copyright Office. So it is now copyright Willem A. deVries. The files contained here are graphical reproductions of the original text with an invisible text overlay, so they reproduce the look and pagination of the original, but can also be searched using Acrobat's find function. My grateful thanks to Stephen Butterfill for scanning the book and putting it into PDF format.
books  etexts  downloaded  intellectual_history  philosophes  German_Idealism  Hegel  17thC  18thC  19thC  Plato  Aristotle  Kant  empiricism  rationalist  mind  logic  logic-Hegelian  perception  rationality  phenomenology  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Sanford C. Goldberg -“Analytic Social Epistemology” and the Epistemic Significance of Other Minds « Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective, 2 (8): 26-48 (2013)
Sanford C. Goldberg, Northwestern University -- Special Issue 2: On the Future Direction of Social Epistemology. -- In this paper I develop a rationale for pursuing a distinctly “social” epistemology, according to which social epistemology is the systematic study of the epistemic significance of other minds. After articulating what I have in mind with this expression, I argue that the resulting rationale informs work presently being done in the emerging tradition of “Analytic Social Epistemology” (ASE). I go on to diagnose Steve Fuller’s (2012) dismissal of ASE (as “retrograde”) as reflecting a rather deep — and, to date, deeply uncharitable — misunderstanding of the aims and rationale of this emerging tradition. Far from being retrograde, the best of the work in the emerging ASE tradition provides a nice compliment to the best of the social epistemology work in the social science tradition. The key to seeing this point is twofold: we need to recognize the normative orientation of (much of) the work in ASE; and, perhaps more importantly, we need to appreciate the difference between how Fuller (2012) understands the normativity of social epistemology, and how this is understood by theorists within the ASE tradition. I conclude with what I hope will be some constructive suggestions on this score. -- downloaded pdf to Note
analytical_philosophy  social_theory  epistemology  epistemology-social  philosophy_of_language  mind  mind-theory_of  normativity  hygiene-mental  sociology_of_knowledge  social_sciences  philosophy_of_science  social_psychology  social_process  power-knowledge  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Orestis Palermos and Duncan Pritchard - Extended Knowledge and Social Epistemology, Orestis Palermos and Duncan Pritchard « Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective, 2 (8): 105-120 (2013).
University of Edinburgh -- Special Issue 2: On the Future Direction of Social Epistemology -- The place of social epistemology within contemporary philosophy, as well as its relation to other academic disciplines, is the topic of an ongoing debate. One camp within that debate holds that social epistemology should be pursued strictly from within the perspective of individualistic analytic epistemology. In contrast, a second camp holds that social epistemology is an interdisciplinary field that should be given priority over traditional analytic epistemology, with the specific aim of radically transforming the latter to fit the results and methodology of the former. We are rather suspicious of this apparent tension, which we believe can be significantly mitigated by paying attention to certain recent advances within philosophy of mind and cognitive science. Accordingly, we attempt to explain how extended knowledge, the result of combining active externalism from contemporary philosophy of mind with contemporary epistemology, can offer an alternative conception of the future of social epistemology.
analytical_philosophy  social_theory  epistemology  epistemology-social  philosophy_of_language  mind  mind-body  cognition  cognition-social  neuroscience  mind-external  bibliography  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  philosophy_of_science  psychology  social_psychology  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Randal Samstag - Sorabji’s Self | Notes from my library
These days we tend to think that Descartes invented the mind/body “problem”, but actually, the notion that the mind, self or soul exists and is an independent entity from the body goes back at least to Augustine, who first maintained that this independent soul couldn’t possibly be mistaken about the existence of itself. In his book, Self, Richard Sorabji maintains that the argument probably goes back further, to Plotinus. Sorabji mostly traces the roots of this argument in Western thinking back to the pre-classical through Hellenistic period of Greek philosophy: (..) But he doesn’t stop there. There is good discussion of Parfit’s Reasons and Persons. He even gives a brief survey of Indian philosophy (..)for a continuation of this story one really needs to follow the path of Sorabji’s University of London and Oxford student Jonardon Garneri in his books The Concealed Art of the Soul and the more recent book of the same name as Sorabji’s, Self. Of which more later. Sorabji’s answer to the question of the self? He is no Cartesian. But he resists the formidable attacks of the Materialists. He is an embodied self man: “By a ‘person’ I mean someone who has psychological states and does things, by a ‘thinker’ someone who has thoughts. This having and doing can be summed up by saying that a person owns psychological states and actions. He or she also owns a body and bodily characteristics. A person is not just a stream of experiences and actions, but the owner of experiences and actions . . .” I find his argument generally convincing, but the finer details of the story are better developed (I think) in his student’s book of the same name.
books  reviews  kindle  intellectual_history  self  soul  mind  mind-body  ancient_philosophy  Hellenism  Neoplatonism  Augustine  Cartesian  Hobbes 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Dunham, review - W. J. Mander (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // September 22, 2014
This volume is a hugely important contribution to scholarship on 19thC philosophy. ...for many important aspects of British philosophy in the 19thC the scholarship is almost non-existent. As Mander notes in the introduction, when we hear "19thC philosophy", we are more likely to think of 'the great systems of continental thought'. This volume shows that the British tradition boasts a remarkably rich and varied range of philosophical resources, and that it deserves the level of scholarship that the British traditions of the 17thC and 18thC are beginning to enjoy. In a review of another recent volume on 19thC philosophy Frederick Beiser argued that 'No period ... stands in more need of an original historian than 19thC philosophy. The standard tropes and figures do no justice to its depths, riches, and powers'. One of this present volume's greatest virtues is that it answers Beiser's plea as well as offering an impressive number of very original contributions.... It does an outstanding job of introducing a wide range of philosophical figures and ideas that will be unknown... It also includes excellent contributions on well-known philosophers and orientates the reader to the secondary literature.... The... volume provides a clear and comprehensive picture of how 19thC philosophy was practised and understood during the period. -- The Handbook has 6 parts: (1) Logic and Scientific Method; (2) Metaphysics; (3) Science and Philosophy; (4) Ethical, Social, and Political Thought; (5) Religious Philosophy; and, (6) The Practice of Philosophy. As Mander states, these classifications come from our contemporary perspective, and we should not expect the work of 19thC philosophers to neatly fit within them. Nonetheless, the individual authors [present] the aspects of a philosopher or school.. that fits within these categories while ... making clear how these aspects fit within a larger philosophical perspective ....
books  reviews  amazon.com  find  intellectual_history  19thC  British_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  Common_Sense  German_Idealism  British_Idealism  Kant  Hegelian  Mill  Sidgwick  Marx  Newman_JH  metaphysics  epistemology  empiricism  mind  perception  ideas-theories  idealism-transcendental  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  social_theory  Coleridge  philosophy_of_religion  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_social_science  science-and-religion  scientific_method  Darwinism  evolution  evolution-as-model  evolutionary_biology  evolution-social  Spencer_Herbert  political_philosophy  intelligentsia  elite_culture  professionalization  university  Evernote 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Jason M. Wirth, Seattle University, review - Dalia Nassar (ed.), The Relevance of Romanticism: Essays on German Romantic Philosophy (OUP 2014) // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // September 23, 2014
Dalia Nassar's assemblage of engaging and significant essays on some of the resurgent philosophers of early German romanticism emphasizes their contemporary philosophical relevance. "For it is a specifically philosophical revival, motivated by philosophical questions". Nassar demarcates this relevance into four general kinds. In the first part of the book, consisting of a fascinating debate between two of the heaviest hitters in this revival, Manfred Frank and Frederick Beiser, the question revolves around the very identity of early German philosophical romanticism. What counts as a work of this kind? What makes these works significantly different from works by practitioners of German idealism? Or can the two areas be so clearly distinguished? The next three sections are less global in their ambitions, but all of them touch on important facets of this period's enduring philosophical provocation. The second section features essays on the question of culture, language, sociability, and education, while the third turns to matters aesthetic, and the fourth and concluding section takes up the question of science.
books  reviews  find  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  German_Idealism  Romanticism  Kant  Hegel  Schelling  Schleiermacher  Fichte  Novalis  Hölderin  metaphysics  epistemology  mind  nature  aesthetics  culture  cultural_history  subjectivity  Absolute  philosophy_of_language  philosophy_of_science  hermeneutics  history_of_science  sociability  education  bildung  Evernote 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
George F.R. Ellis | Personal Page
Links to extensive number of books he has authored or co-authored and to speeches and papers -- Teaching and research interests: *-* General Relativity theory and its application to the study of the large-scale structure of the universe (cosmology). *-* The history and philosophy of cosmology. *-* Complex systems and emergence of complexity. *- * The human brain and behaviour. *-* Science policy, developmental issues. *-* Science and mathematics education. *-* The relation of science to religion.
philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_religion  cosmology  physics  neuroscience  mind  mind-body  reductionism  causation  emergence  complexity  systems_theory  systems-complex_adaptive  science-and-religion  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Reviewed by Tom Donaldson - David J. Chalmers, Constructing the World (OUP 2014) // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // August 2014
Stanford University -- This is a monumental book, in several respects. Most obviously, it’s very long: longer, by my estimate, than the Critique of Pure Reason b y a margin of about three and a half Tractatus. It is also vast in scope: Chalmers discusses a huge range of topics in formal and informal epistemology, metaphysics, the philosophy of language, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of science. There is even some history: Carnap is the ‘hero’ of Constructing the World (p. xvii), and one of Chalmers’ goals is to reassess Carnap’s work — especially the Aufbau. Paper copies of the book contain eight chapters and seventeen short supplemental ‘excursuses’. Chalmers has also made one extra chapter and four additional excursuses available online. The book is based on Chalmers’ 2010 John Locke lectures, which the Oxford University philosophy department has to its great credit put online in mp3 format. Chalmers has made no major changes to his position or terminology between delivering the lectures and completing the book, so those who like to take their philosophy aurally can start with the online lectures before turning to the written text for more detail. -- In section one I discuss Chalmers’ use of the vexed term ‘a priori’. In section two I discuss Chalmers’ defence of the claim that there are a priori truths (including synthetic a priori truths) from empiricist doubters. In section three I explain how Chalmers defends his ‘scrutability theses’. In section four I outline the Fregean theory of sense.
books  reviews  kindle-available  logic  Carnap  Frege  Quine  metaphysics  epistemology  philosophy_of_language  mind  consciousness  subjectivity  apriori  philosophy_of_science 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Reviewed by Jocelyn Benoist - Vincent Descombes, The Institutions of Meaning: A Defense of Anthropological Holism // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // August 2014
Reviewed by Jocelyn Benoist, University Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne This is the English translation by Stephen Adam Schwartz of Vincent Descombes’ Les Institutions du Sens (Paris, Editions de Minuit, 1996). It is the sequel to The Mind’s Provisions: A Critique of Cognitivism, also translated into English by Schwartz (Princeton University Press, 2001; French original version: La Denrée Mentale, Paris, Editions de Minuit, 1995). The two books should be considered together as a whole, to which the author himself gave the title of The Disputes of Mind. -- This impressive work is indeed a major contribution to the philosophy of mind. Perhaps the cognitivist wave is not as powerful today as it was twenty years ago, which may render the ‘dispute’ less intense nowadays, but the concept of mind provided by the author is no less topical. --. It is clear that this book is a milestone in the contemporary philosophy of mind and should absolutely be read by every philosopher or scientist interested in the nature of the mind today. It pursues an intense debate with contemporary cognitivism and with Continental theories and ‘deconstruction’ of mind, and develops a totally unique perspective at the crossroads of the Analytic and French traditions. Maybe, like every polemical work, it depends a bit too much on what it criticizes. However, beyond the polemic, it seems to me that this book does indeed promise a new philosophy of mind that defines the mind by itself and no longer by any transcendent principle — either ‘the Subject’ or ‘Society’ — that in a sense would not already be mindful. Thus, it seems to me that we should read this book as a plea for the non-metaphysical irreducibility of the mind. And what do we need more today than a non-metaphysical (I have not said: anti-metaphysical) anti-reductionism?
books  reviews  philosophy_of_language  mind  sociability  structuralist  poststructuralist  continental_philosophy  analytical_philosophy  phenomenology  hermeneutics  subjectivity  deconstruction  Peirce  logic  society  constructivism 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Jonathan Gorman - Hayden White as analytical philosopher of mind | Rethinking History Vol. 17, Iss. 4, 2013 - Special Issue : Hayden White’s " Metahistory " 40 Years On - Taylor & Francis Online
Philosophers and historians in Cambridge did not recognise either the relevance or the importance of Metahistory when it was published in 1973. The reasons are here explained in terms of the nature of the analytical tradition: the principled distinctiveness of analytical philosophy from (1) history, (2) speculative metaphysics, and (3) political morality. Following an analysis of ‘analysis’, Metahistory is argued to be an exercise in the recovery of paradigm cases in Strawsonian descriptive metaphysics that offers the outlines of an advanced philosophy of mind and philosophy of time. -- Jonathan Gorman is Emeritus Professor of Moral Philosophy at the Queen's University of Belfast. His books in philosophy of history are The Expression of Historical Knowledge (Edinburgh 1982), Understanding History (Ottawa 1992) and Historical Judgement (Stocksfield 2007), and he has many articles and reviews in theory of history journals and collections. He continues to apply analytic pragmatic philosophy to historical thought, and writes also in other branches of philosophy and in legal theory.
article  paywall  find  intellectual_history  20thC  post-WWII  historiography  narrative  analytical_philosophy  ordinary_language_philosophy  speech-act  philosophy_of_history  mind  time  metaphysics  Strawson_PF  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Gary Lachman on Iain McGilchrist, The Master and His Emissary - Oppositional Thinking | The Los Angeles Review of Books 2013
Gary Lachman on Iain McGilchrist, The Master and His Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World -- But even if you don't accept McGilchrist's thesis, the book is a fascinating treasure trove of insights into language, music, society, love, and other fundamental human concerns. One of his most important suggestions is that the view of human life as ruthlessly driven by "selfish genes" and other "competitor" metaphors may be only a ploy of left brain propaganda, and through a right brain appreciation of the big picture, we may escape the remorseless push and shove of "necessity." I leave it to the reader to discover just how important this insight is. Perhaps if enough do, we may not have to settle for what's left when there's no right.
books  reviews  kindle-available  history_of_science  neuroscience  psychology  phenomenology  mind  mind-body  creativity  imagination  mechanism  holism  cultural_history  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  technology 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Jack Miles - Tilting Against Naïve Materialism: On Thomas Nagel's "Mind and Cosmos" | The Los Angeles Review of Books - Feb 2013
Nagel is a professed scientific realist. He does not put scientific knowledge in scare quotes. He believes that reason is reliable and that science does engage reality. But when an account of the origin of reason that links it entirely to reproductive success has this self-subversive corollary, he chooses to trust reason and question the account rather than trust the account and question reason.Here, for this reviewer, is the core challenge, the core disturbance, of this challenging and intentionally disruptive work. Mind and Cosmos, which has been taken as an oblique defense of creationism, is actually a defense of reason. Yet it is also a fabulous effort of the imagination. The place of imagination, of fantasy, even of dream-life in the history of human thought is a large one. Nagel admits that he is not a scientist, but it would call for imagination and not just analysis for a scientist in any given field to begin thinking past contemporary science as a whole toward the contours of what might someday succeed it. Unless one is a scientific Whig, one must strongly suspect that something someday will indeed succeed it. Nagel’s Mind and Cosmos does not build a road to that destination, but it is much to have gestured toward a gap in the hills through which a road might someday run. -- Swift would agree
books  reviews  kindle-available  philosophy_of_science  evolutionary_biology  evolution  Darwinism  Nagel  reason  epistemology  teleology  monism  panpsychic_monism  materialism  reductionism  truth  Swift  historiography-Whig  history_of_science  consciousness  mind  cosmology  imagination  creativity  human_nature  evo_psych  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Philosophy at 3:AM: Questions and Answers with 25 Top Philosophers : Richard Marshall : 9780199969531
Contents -- i. Introduction. ; Chapter 1. Brian Leiter: 'Leiter Reports' ; Chapter 2. Jason Stanley : 'Philosophy As The Great Naivete' ; Chapter 3. Eric Schwitzgebel: 'The Splintered Skeptic' ; Chapter 4. Mark Rowlands: 'Hour Of The Wolf' ; Chapter 5. Eric T Olson: 'The Philosopher With No Hands' ; Chapter 6. Craig Callender: ' Time Lord' ; Chapter 7. Kieran Setiya: ' What Anscombe Intended and Other Puzzles' ; Chapter 8. Kit Fine: 'Metaphysical Kit' ; Chapter 9. Patricia Churchland: 'Causal Machines' ; Chapter 10. Valerie Tiberius: 'Mostly Elephant, ErgoEL' ; Chapter 11. Peter Carruthers: 'Mind Reader' ; Chapter 12. Josh Knobe: 'Indie Rock Virtues' ; Chapter 13. Al Mele: 'The Four Million Dollar Philosopher ; Chapter 14.Graham Priest: 'Logically Speaking' ; Chapter 15. Ursula Renz: 'After Spinoza: Wiser, Freer, Happier' ; Chapter 16. Cecile Fabre: ' On The Intrinsic Value Of Each Of Us' ; Chapter 17. Hilde Linderman: ' No Ethics Without Feminism' ; Chapter 18. Elizabeth S. Anderson: 'The New Leveller' ; Chapter 19. Christine Korsgaard: 'Treating People As End In Themselves' ; Chapter 20. Michael Lynch: 'Truth, Reason and Democracy' ; Chapter 21. Timothy Williamson : 'Classical Investigations' ; Chapter 22. Ernie Lapore: 'Meaning, Truth, Language, Reality' ; Chapter 23. Jerry Fodor: 'Meaningful Words Without Sense, And Other Revolutions.' ; Chapter 24. Huw Price: 'Without Mirrors' ; Chapter 25. Gary Gutting: 'What Philosophers Know'
books  buy  philosophy  intellectual_history  metaphysics  metaethics  ontology  scepticism  analytical_philosophy  political_philosophy  epistemology  feminism  philosophy_of_language  mind  mind-body  consciousness  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_law  pragmatism  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Anthony Chemero and Michael Silberstein - After the Philosophy of Mind: Replacing Scholasticism with Science | JSTOR: Philosophy of Science, Vol. 75, No. 1 (January 2008), pp. 1-27
We provide a taxonomy of the two most important debates in the philosophy of the cognitive and neural sciences. The first debate is over methodological individualism: is the object of the cognitive and neural sciences the brain, the whole animal, or the animal—environment system? The second is over explanatory style: should explanation in cognitive and neural science be reductionist‐mechanistic, interlevel mechanistic, or dynamical? After setting out the debates, we discuss the ways in which they are interconnected. Finally, we make some recommendations that we hope will help philosophers interested in the cognitive and neural sciences to avoid dead ends. -- partially a lit survey so good bibliography -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  philosophy_of_science  metaphysics  mind  mind-body  neuroscience  reductionism  mechanism  cognition  ontology  methodology  levels_of_analyis  critical_realism  emergence  individualism-methodology  unit_of_analysis  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Review by: Jose Luis Bermudez - Jonathan Lowe, Subjects of Experience | JSTOR: The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 49, No. 195 (Apr., 1999), pp. 272-275
Lowe develops his anti-physicalist approach to self, mind-body etc - Cartesian that self is substantial, Locke that it's primarily psychological, Aristotle that it's not immaterial -- implications for other areas beyond philosophy of mind, such as language -- an earlier version of his publications in the 2000s before his death? -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  jstor  metaphysics  ontology  philosophy_of_language  mind  mind-body  Descartes  Locke  physicalism  dualism  nominalism  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Walter Ott - LOCKE'S EXCLUSION ARGUMENT | JSTOR: History of Philosophy Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 2 (APRIL 2010), pp. 181-196
A different take on Locke's superaddition argument re thinking matter that would align him with materialism that treats mental events as mere epiphenomenal, neither identity with physical, nor supervenience -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  17thC  20thC  21stC  mind  mind-body  consciousness  soul  materialism  determinism  Locke  thinking_matter  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Devin Henry - Berkeley's Passive Mind | Minerva Vol 4, 2000
The question this paper is intended to answer is, ‘Can the existence of ideas of sense be reconciled with the nature of God within the context of Berkeley’s philosophy?’ The way Berkeley characterises the immediate perception of ideas of sense (how we first come to be furnished with ideas) entails that the mind is passive: ideas of sense are those which are "actually imprinted on the senses" (PR 1). Thus, the question we need to address is, ‘In what sense is the mind passive?’ The main thesis of this paper holds that the existence of ideas of sense is incompatible with God’s nature within Berkeley’s philosophy, and it is based on the assumption that for Berkeley, perception is the passive reception of ideas of sense. However, because there are obvious textual discrepancies between the notebooks on the one hand, and the Principles and Dialogues on the other, we must allow for two possible interpretations of "passive": passive qua inactive and passive qua receptive. Pursuing the consequences of both these interpretations will take up the majority of this paper. However, I will begin by taking a brief look at an historical example of the ‘directional error’ before turning to Berkeley’s own theory of perception. -- Online journal, no pdf for download
intellectual_history  18thC  Berkeley  epistemology  mind  perception  ideas-theories  God-attributes  imagination  empiricism  realism  idealism  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Lennon, Thomas M., Stainton, Robert J. (Eds.) 2008 The Achilles of Rationalist Psychology
Downloaded Introduction pdf to Note -- Series: Studies in the History of Philosophy of Mind, Vol. 7 -- newly written papers addressing each of the main contributors to the discussion of the Achilles. Despite the historical importance and intrinsic interest of the argument, very little has been written about it. *--* Contents. *--* Did Plato Articulate the Achilles Argument?. *-- Aristotle on the Unity of Consciousness. *-- The Neoplatonic Achilles. *-- The Unity of the Soul and Contrary Appetites in Medieval Philosophy. *-- Hume, Spinoza and the Achilles Inference. *-- Locke and the Achilles Argument. *-- The Reverse Achilles in Locke. *-- Cudworth and Bayle: An Odd Couple?. *-- The Achilles Argument and the Nature of Matter in the Clarke Collins Correspondence. *-- Leibniz’s ‘Achilles’. *-- Hume’s Reply to the Achilles Argument. *-- Kant and Mendelssohn on the Implications of the ‘I Think’. *-- Kant on the Achilles Argument. *-- William James and the Achilles Argument. *-- The Binding Problem: Achilles in the 21st Century.
books  intellectual_history  mind  mind-body  consciousness  perception  thinking_matter  materialism  soul  immortality  substance  Plato  Neoplatonism  Aristotle  Aquinas  Duns_Scotus  Ockham  Augustine  Descartes  Spinoza  Malebranche  Cartesian  Bayle  Locke  Clarke  Collins_Anthony  Leibniz  Hume  Kant  Mendelssohn  Fichte  cognition  neuroscience  psychology  natural_philosophy  metaphysics  rationalist  James_William  history_of_science  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Naturalizing Jurisprudence: Three Approaches [chapter] :: SSRN in THE FUTURE OF NATURALISM, J. Shook & P. Kurtz, eds., Prometheus Books, Amherst, NY, 2009
U of Chicago, Public Law Working Paper No. 246 -- General jurisprudence - that branch of legal philosophy concerned with the nature of law and adjudication - has been relatively unaffected by the "naturalistic" strains so evident, for example, in the epistemology, philosophy of mind and moral philosophy of the past forty years. This paper sketches three ways in which naturalism might affect jurisprudential inquiry. The paper serves as a kind of precis of the main themes in my book NATURALIZING JURISPRUDENCE: ESSAYS ON AMERICAN LEGAL REALISM AND NATURALISM IN LEGAL PHILOSOPHY (Oxford University Press, 2007). -- Number of Pages in PDF File: 16 -- Keywords: jurisprudence, naturalism, legal realism, quine, epistemology
article  books  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  analytical_philosophy  naturalism  epistemology  metaphysics  mind  mind-body  consciousness  Quine  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  epistemology-moral  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Nietzsche's Philosophy of Action (2009) :: SSRN - in Blackwell Companion to Philosophy of Action, 2010
U of Chicago, Public Law Working Paper No. 270 -- Nietzsche holds that people lack freedom of the will in any sense that would be sufficient for ascriptions of moral responsibility; that the conscious experience we have of willing is actually epiphenomenal with respect to the actions that follow that experience; and that our actions largely arise through non-conscious processes (psychological and physiological) of which we are only dimly aware, and over which we exercise little or no conscious control. At the same time, Nietzsche, always a master of rhetoric, engages in a “persuasive definition” (Stevenson 1938) of the language of “freedom” and “free will,” to associate the positive valence of these terms with a certain Nietzschean ideal of the person unrelated to traditional notions of free will. -- No of Pages: 18 -- Keywords: Nietzsche, free will, moral responsibility, freedom, philosophy of action, epiphenomenalism -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  books  SSRN  intellectual_history  19thC  Germany  action-theory  Nietzsche  free_will  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  mind  consciousness  physiology  psychology  naturalism  responsibility  guilt  freedom  epiphenomenal  aesthetics  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Nietzsche [chapter] (last revised 2013) :: SSRN for Oxford Handbook of 19thC Philosophy, M. Forster & K. Gjesdal, eds. (2014)
This essay offers a philosophical overview of the central themes of Nietzsche's philosophy, addressing (1) the primary intellectual influences on his work (esp. the PreSocratics, Schopenhauer, and Lange); (2) the style in which he writes and his philosophical reasons for it; (3) his philosophical naturalism and its role in his conception of the mind and agency; (4) his critique of morality and its connection with the idea that there can be an "aethestic" justification for existence, notwithstanding the terrible truths about human existence (such as suffering and death); and (5) competing interpretations of his views on truth and knowledge. Certain well-known Nietzschean ideas -- like "will to power," "eternal recurrence," and perspectivism -- are also located and explained within this philosophical framework. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  SSRN  books  intellectual_history  19thC  Germany  Nietzsche  pre-Socratics  Schopenhauer  Lange  naturalism  moral_psychology  epistemology  mind  agency  aesthetics  human_nature  perspectivism  relativism  will_to_power  elite_culture  mass_culture  German_Idealism  human_condition  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Selections from the Scottish Philosophy of Common Sense, edited, with an introduction by G.A. Johnston [1910] - Online Library of Liberty
Thomas Reid, Selections from the Scottish Philosophy of Common Sense, edited, with an introduction by G.A. Johnston (Chicago: Open Court, 1915). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2044> The selections in this volume are reprinted from the following editions:— Reid’s Works, edited by Sir William Hamilton, sixth edition, 1863. Beattie’s Essay on the Nature and Immutability of Truth, seventh edition, 1807. Ferguson’s Principles of Moral and Political Science, 1792. Stewart’s Collected Works, edited by Sir William Hamilton, 1854-1858.
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  Common_Sense  Locke  Hume  Kant  Reid  Stewart_Dugald  Ferguson  metaphysics  epistemology  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  mind  mind-body  soul  dualism  ideas-theories  psychology  perception  scepticism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
George Turnbull, Observations upon Liberal Education, in All its Branches [1742], ed. Terrence O. Moore, Jr. - Online Library of Liberty
George Turnbull, Observations upon Liberal Education, in All its Branches, ed. Terrence O. Moore, Jr. (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2003). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/892> -- Turnbull was the first member of the Scottish Enlightenment to provide a formal treatise on the theory and practice of education. He applied his ideas on the moral sense to the education of youth. Turnbull showed how a liberal education enables youth to realize a true “inward liberty” and moral strength and thus prepares them to live responsibly and happily in a free society.
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Turnbull_George  Hutcheson  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  moral_sentiments  education  education-higher  education-civic  mind  habit  Common_Sense  humanities  natural_philosophy  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
George Turnbull, The Principles of Moral and Christian Philosophy. Vol. 1: The Principles of Moral Philosophy, ed. Alexander Broadie - Online Library of Liberty
George Turnbull, The Principles of Moral and Christian Philosophy. Vol. 1: The Principles of Moral Philosophy, ed. and with an Introduction by Alexander Broadie (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1342> The Principles of Moral and Christian Philosophy presents the first masterpiece of Scottish Common Sense philosophy. This two-volume treatise is important for its wide range of insights about the nature of the human mind, the foundations of morals, and the relationship between morality and religion. In order to understand the Enlightenment in Scotland, Turnbull’s work must be put next to that of Francis Hutcheson. In the first volume, The Principles of Moral Philosophy, Turnbull presents a detailed study of the faculties of the human mind and their interrelations. He contends that moral philosophy should be treated as one part, the highest part, of natural philosophy, and not as a field requiring its own distinctive methodology.
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Turnbull_George  Hutcheson  Shaftesbury  Berkeley  Butler  moral_philosophy  Common_Sense  human_nature  moral_psychology  moral_sentiments  mind  psychology  natural_philosophy  ideas-theories  empiricism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
George Turnbull, The Principles of Moral and Christian Philosophy, 2 vols. [1740], ed. Alexander Broadie - Online Library of Liberty
George Turnbull, The Principles of Moral and Christian Philosophy, ed. and with an Introduction by Alexander Broadie (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005). 2 vols. 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1821> -- The Principles of Moral and Christian Philosophy presents the first masterpiece of Scottish Common Sense philosophy. This two-volume treatise is important for its wide range of insights about the nature of the human mind, the foundations of morals, and the relationship between morality and religion. In order to understand the Enlightenment in Scotland, Turnbull’s work must be put next to that of Francis Hutcheson. In the first volume, The Principles of Moral Philosophy, Turnbull presents a detailed study of the faculties of the human mind and their interrelations. He contends that moral philosophy should be treated as one part, the highest part, of natural philosophy, and not as a field requiring its own distinctive methodology. - Vol 1 downloaded to Note
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Turnbull_George  Hutcheson  Shaftesbury  Berkeley  Butler  moral_philosophy  Common_Sense  human_nature  moral_psychology  moral_sentiments  mind  psychology  natural_philosophy  ideas-theories  empiricism  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Raphael Van Riel, review essay - David Woodruff Smith et Amy L. Thomasson (dir.), Phenomenology and Philosophy of Mind (OUP 2005) - Philosophiques v36 n1 2009, p. 257-259 | Érudit 
Raphael Van Riel - Universität bochum -- La phénoménologie traverse présentement une renaissance dans le domaine de la philosophie de l’esprit. Des philosophes comme Alva Noë, Shaun Gallagher et Dan Zahavi interprètent les résultats neuroscientifiques en ayant recours aux concepts et méthodes de la tradition phénoménologique. Toutefois, l’adaptation de la méthode phénoménologique en philosophie de l’esprit consiste souvent simplement à copier la façon de parler phénoménologique, ce qui ne contribue pas nécessairement à l’éclaircissement de l’objet d’étude. Les textes réunis dans le présent volume... sont libérés de tendances semblables -- la première partie, la relation entre la tradition phénoménologique et la philosophie de l’esprit à tendance « analytique » — Paul Livingston (historical overview) («Functionalism and logical analysis »), Galen Strawson sur la structure conceptuelle de la philosophie de l’esprit (« Intentionality and Experience : Terminological Preliminaries ») et une critique d’inspiration merleau-pontyienne à la théorie de la conscience de Dennett par Carmen Taylor (« On the Incapability of Phenomenology ») -- les quatre autres sections abordent différents complexes thématiques de la phénoménologie : la conscience et la connaissance de soi (2e partie), l’intentionnalité (3e partie), l’unité de la conscience (4e partie) et finalement la perception, la sensation et l’action (5e partie). -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  phenomenology  mind  mind-body  consciousness  self  perception  action-theory  neuroscience  cognition  analytical_philosophy  Dennett  downloaded  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Daniel D. Hutto - Consciousness Demystified: A Wittgensteinian Critique of Dennett’s Project | 1995. The Monist. 78:4. 464–478. - Academia.edu
I challenge the idea that the 'reductive character' of Dennett's project is in any way Wittgensteinian in spirit. I suggest that at a crucial point in their philosophy their views diverge significantly. That is to say, although they are good travelling companions up to an important cross-roads, in the end, their incompatible concerns take them in different directions. Furthermore, by reviewing Dennett's project of 'explaining' consciousness, we might begin to see some good reasons for preferring Wittgenstein's 'road less travelled'. Thus, although Dennett's account of consciousness is often given a centre stage in what follows, my ultimate aim is to throw light on the nature Wittgenstein's philosophical psychology by using Dennett as a foil. This should help us to see precisely how the former's approach differs importantly from those advanced by many of today's philosophers and cognitive scientists. -- downloaded pdf to Note
mind  reductionism  Dennett  Wittgenstein  consciousness  cognition  neuroscience  psychology  downloaded  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard Joyce - Is Moral Projectivism Empirically Tractable? | JSTOR: Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, Vol. 12, No. 1 (Feb., 2009), pp. 53-75
Vol. 12, No. 1, Empirically Informed Moral Theory -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Different versions of moral projectivism are delineated: minimal, metaphysical, nihilistic, and noncognitivist. Minimal projectivism (the focus of this paper) is the conjunction of two subtheses: (1) that we experience morality as an objective aspect of the world and (2) that this experience has its origin in an affective attitude (e.g., an emotion) rather than in perceptual faculties. Both are empirical claims and must be tested as such. This paper does not offer ideas on any specific test procedures, but rather undertakes the important preliminary task of clarifying the content of these subtheses (e.g., what is meant by "objective"? what is meant by "experience"?). Finally, attention is given to the relation between (a) acknowledging that the projectivist account might be true of a token moral judgment and (b) maintaining moral projectivism to be true as a general thesis. -- starts with 17thC and 18thC philosophy, especially Hume
article  jstor  intellectual_history  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  morality-objective  morality-conventional  moral_sentiments  consciousness  mind  cognition  17thC  18thC  Hume  empiricism  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
RS Bakker - The Missing Half of the Global Neuronal Workspace: A Commentary on Stanislaus Dehaene’s Consciousness and the Brain | Three Pound Brain
Stanislaus Dehaene, to my mind at least, is the premier consciousness researcher on the planet, one of those rare scientists who seems equally at home in the theoretical aether (like we are here) and in the laboratory (where he is there). His latest book, Consciousness and the Brain provides an excellent, and at times brilliant, overview of the state of contemporary consciousness research. Consciousness has come a long way in the past two decades, and Dehaene deserves credit for much of the yardage gained. ... Dehaene’s review of Cristopher Koch’s Consciousness: Confessions of a Romantic Reductionist, where he concludes with a confession of his own: “Can neuroscience be reconciled with living a happy, meaningful, moral, and yet nondelusional life? I will confess that this question also occasionally keeps me lying awake at night.” Since the implications of the neuroscientific revolution, the prospects of having a technically actionable blueprint of the human soul, often keep my mind churning into the wee hours, I was hoping that I might see a more measured, less sanguine Dehaene in this book, one less inclined to soft-sell the troubling implications of neuroscientific research. And in that one regard, I was disappointed. ?...Dehaene, I think, caters far too much to the very preconceptions his science is in the process of dismantling. As a result, the book, for all its organizational finesse, all its elegant formulations, and economical summaries of various angles of research, finds itself haunted by a jagged shadow, the intimation that things simply are not as they seem.
books  reviews  mind  consciousness  neuroscience  cognition  EF-add 
april 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert Brandom: A Spirit of Trust: A Semantic Reading of Hegel's Phenomenology [ASoT] 2014 draft
As of February of 2014, the 2014 draft is just like the 2013 draft, except that it has a new version of Part Two, i.e. of Chapter Four and Five. -**- Table of Contents (MSword) *--* Notes on 2013 draft of ASoT (docx) -**- Downloaded 5 parts to Note *--* Part One: Knowing and Representing (MSword) *--* Part Two: Mediating the Immediate (MSword) *--* Part Three: Self-Consciousness (MSword) *--* Part Four: Hegel's Expressive Metaphysics of Agency (MSword) *--* Part Five: From Irony to Trust (MSword)
books  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  German_Idealism  Hegel  epistemology  metaphysics  agency  freedom  mind  self  consciousness  EF-add 
april 2014 by dunnettreader
[1401.1219] Consciousness as a State of Matter - Max Tegmark (MIT)
We examine the hypothesis that consciousness can be understood as a state of matter, "perceptronium", with distinctive information processing abilities. We explore five basic principles that may distinguish conscious matter from other physical systems such as solids, liquids and gases: the information, integration, independence, dynamics and utility principles. If such principles can identify conscious entities, then they can help solve the quantum factorization problem: why do conscious observers like us perceive the particular Hilbert space factorization corresponding to classical space (rather than Fourier space, say), and more generally, why do we perceive the world around us as a dynamic hierarchy of objects that are strongly integrated and relatively independent? Tensor factorization of matrices is found to play a central role, and our technical results include a theorem about Hamiltonian separability (defined using Hilbert-Schmidt superoperators) being maximized in the energy eigenbasis. Our approach generalizes Giulio Tononi's integrated information framework for neural-network-based consciousness to arbitrary quantum systems, and we find interesting links to error-correcting codes, condensed matter criticality, and the Quantum Darwinism program, as well as an interesting connection between the emergence of consciousness and the emergence of time
paper  mind  neuroscience  physics 
april 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard Marshall interview - Peter Godfrey-Smith - philosophy of biology » 3:AM Magazine April 2014
Peter Godfrey-Smith is the go-to guy in the philosophy of biology. He is forever evolving his thoughts on externalism, complexity and why we shouldn’t expect a settled outcome, the contribution of pragmatists to philosophy of biology, why Fodor gets it wrong, on how best to understand what science is, on Darwinian theory, Darwinian populations, on why Richard Dawkins and David Hull are wrong and on the contribution of philosophy to biology. Like Cool Hand Luke, this one bites like a ‘gator!
philosophy_of_science  biology  evolution  evolutionary_biology  pragmatism  mind  mind-body  language  Darwinism  behavioralism  EF-add 
april 2014 by dunnettreader
Amazon.com: Herbert Gintis' review of Michael Tomasello, A Natural History of Human Thinking - Feb 2014
Great review on 3 types of cognition, of which only 1(me-thinking) shared with great apes. Gintis recasts Searle's collective intentionality, which deals with collaboration, using Timasello's version of social epistemology, ability to deal with other minds in a social network of shared representation.
books  reviews  kindle-available  amazon.com  biology  cognition  cognition-social  epistemology-social  mind  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert C. Bishop, review - Peter Ulric Tse, Neural Basis of Free Will: Criterial Causation // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // Jan 2014
Critical re reductionism or eliminativism underneath the Tse "persons choosing" lingo - one where equivocation on key notions such as willing, choosing, planning, valuing, information, assessment, and so forth, mask the replacements of what persons do when they engage in decisions by mechanized response to inputs. The richness of our human experience and practices of free will and action disappear. Equivocating on key terms such as 'assessing', 'deciding' and 'willing' likely would go unnoticed if you are presupposing a strictly instrumental view of action, where all cause-effect chains are modeled on efficient causation, and the main idea is to discern the most efficient or effective means for achieving a pre-set goal. -- On the instrumental view Tse offers, human actions are the effects of efficient causal chains no different in kind from a thermostat triggering the A/C to come on when a preset threshold is met (except that somehow the thermostat has an unidentified power to change the threshold once the threshold has been met). Tse likely does not realize that his being enmeshed in an instrumental view of action leads him to personify neurons and thereby mechanize assessing, deciding and willing, among other activities, at all levels of his account. -- Moreover, Tse likely does not realize how deeply the instrumental view of action is shaped by Western cultural ideals (Bishop 2013). -- In conclusion, Tse tells us that he is going to give us a neuroscientific account of free will and consciousness, but his metaphysics of realization, the personification equivocation and the commitment to an instrumental picture of action amounts to a philosophical account with philosophical assumptions... -- interesting on Causal Closure Principle of physics
books  reviews  philosophy_of_science  mind  neuroscience  free_will  determinism  reductionism  physicalism  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Dermot Moran, review - Steven Crowell, Normativity and Phenomenology in Husserl and Heidegger // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // Feb 2014
C Normativity and Phenomenology in Husserl and Heidegger, Cambridge University Press, 2013, 321pp., $29.99 (pbk), ISBN 9781107682559.

Reviewed by University College Dublin

Steven Crowell's latest monograph is a careful and nuanced thematic and historically grounded defense of the philosophical importance of what is now frequently called "classical" phenomenology (specifically Husserl and Heidegger) in addressing the issues of meaning, normativity, agency and first-person knowledge, topics central to contemporary analytic philosophy of mind and action. This well argued book situates Husserl and Heidegger not just at the center of contemporary debates in the philosophy of mind and action, but also as interlocutors in current disputes over normativity and practical knowledge (as found in the neo-pragmatism of John McDowell and Robert Brandom, among others), as well as the current discussions concerning first-person authority and mental content.

Crowell is not just conversant with the intricacy of the texts of Husserl and Heidegger (whom he reads with detailed documentation as in substantial agreement with one another), but also with a wide range of figures in contemporary philosophy of mind, moral psychology, and neo-pragmatism, including John Searle, Hubert Dreyfus, Alva Noë, Richard Moran (no relation), and Christine Korsgaard). In the course of his interpretations of Husserl and Heidegger, moreover, Crowell has a lot of instructive (and corrective) things to say about such issues as mental content, internalism and externalism, causation, the relation between perception and conception, the connection between self-consciousness and normativity, the transparency and immediacy of self-knowledge (in an interesting engagement with Moran) and the meaning of agency (including moral agency) in relation to Heidegger's notion of authenticity. This is a very rich, often dense but never less than lucid book that offers a systematic defense of phenomenology in the language of contemporary philosophy and thereby achieves a double objective, namely to set a new agenda for phenomenological discussion in the twenty-first century and to show why analytic philosophers would be wrong to neglect the phenomenological heritage.
books  reviews  kindle-available  philosophy  phenomenology  Husserl  Heidegger  idealism-transcendental  mind  action-theory  normativity  consciousness  responsibility  conscience  perception  causation  mind-body  agency  moral_psychology  Kant  analytical_philosophy  meaning  concepts  pragmatism  authenticity  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Ian Ravenscroft, review - Alvin I. Goldman, Joint Ventures: Mindreading, Mirroring, and Embodied Cognition // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // March 2014
The title Joint Ventures alludes to Goldman's view that understanding cognition requires both scientific and philosophical expertise. "It would be", he notes, "intellectually irresponsible to ignore the huge swaths of evidence and theory that science has generated" (p. 3). Nevertheless, there is "ample place for philosophers to make theoretical contributions, to argue for this or that theoretical interpretation as the best explanation of the data" (p. 3). Cognitive science is thus a joint venture between philosophy and the behavioral sciences (p. 2). The rich and fascinating essays in this collection are testimony to Goldman's vision. The volume focuses on four themes to which he has made important contributions: simulation theory, empathy, embodied cognition, and the metaphysics of action. I will focus on the first three themes because they are striking examples of the "joint ventures" program.
books  reviews  epistemology  cognition  cognition-social  mind  mind-body  neuroscience  action-theory  empathy  philosophy_of_science  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Val Dusek - Bruno Latour, An Inquiry into Modes of Existence: An Anthropology of the Moderns // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // March 2014
The strongest chapter is the one concerning technology. This is an area Latour worked on extensively much earlier. Actor network theory started with technology. Latourcriticizes the identification of technological objects with beings of reproduction (natural objects). He makes use of the need for technological artifacts to be continually maintained and improved. "Sociotechnical systems" designates the heterogeneity of technology, but there is no realm of technology as such. Technology becomes invisible as soon as it is functioning successfully. He plays on Heraclitus with "Technology likes to hide." The language of form fitted to function is, according to Latour, as misleading as the correspondence between thought and things in reference. During a breakdown the extreme heterogeneity is most manifest. Latour identifies technology not with the artifacts but with the activity of technologizing. Technology is properly referred to not with a noun, but with an adjective or an adverb, and less commonly a verb. Technology is not an object, but the gaps of alterity in the network of tinkering. -- A problem for philosophies that make massive claims that our ordinary views are illusory is the explanation of why the illusion exists and persists. Latour as an anthropologist claims that moderns are no more different from non-moderns than any other group or culture is from another. However, it seems that neither Trobriand Islanders nor any other non-modern group have such illusory values and ideals impossible to live by as do the moderns. It would seem moderns really are different from peoples of other cultures for Latour, but not in the way in which moderns represent their own special nature in terms of the triumph of science and reason. Why the moderns are in this supposedly deplorable situation is never really explained.
books  reviews  kindle-available  21stC  modernity  anthropology  metaphysics  ontology  ontology-social  epistemology  mind  mind-body  perception  James_William  Whitehead  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology-process  sociology_of_religion  Cartesian  technology  science-and-religion  scientific_culture  Latour 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Kevin Mitchell - Wiring the Brain: The genetics of emergent phenotypes - March 2013
Nifty discussion of emergence in dynamic systems - he claims the higher level phenomena are reducible to lower level factors (post hoc explanation) but not deducible from the lower level. However the dynamic elements that change relations at or among higher level elements (which will change relations at lower levels) seem to be doing most of the explanatory work -- Why are some brain disorders so common? Schizophrenia, autism and epilepsy each affect about 1% of the world’s population, over their lifetimes. Why are the specific phenotypes associated with those conditions so frequent? More generally, why do particular phenotypes exist at all? What constrains or determines the types of phenotypes we observe, out of all the variations we could conceive of? Why does a system like the brain fail in particular ways when the genetic program is messed with? Here, I consider how the difference between “concrete” and “emergent” properties of the brain may provide an explanation, or at least a useful conceptual framework. --
genetics  medicine  psychology  physiology  neuroscience  mind  materialism  emergence  systems-complex_adaptive  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Daniel Stoljar interviewed by Richard Marshall - epistemic consciousness » 3:AM Magazine March 2014
Daniel Stoljar thinks all the time about what we can and can’t learn from introspection, about ignorance and the imagination, the epistemic view of consciousness, the ignorance hypothesis, slugs and tiles, distinctions between empirical and philosophical questions, physicalism as weltanschauung, whether materialism is part of a scientific world view, on materialism and physics and on whether metaphysics harmonising with science is any different from tourism doing so also. This one keeps hooking to the body. Brawlin’.
metaphysics  mind  mind-body  physicalism  materialism  epistemology  empiricism  phenomenology  consciousness  analytical_philosophy  books  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Amazon.com: Herbert Gintis' review of Michael Tomasello, Natural History of Human Thinking
Herb is very enthusiastic re the key theoretical innovations, a lot less re the attempts to use game theory to describe the innovation
books  reviews  kindle-available  human_nature  evo_psych  evolution-social  sociability  cooperation  mind  philosophy_of_language  metaethics  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Manuel García-Carpintero - Qualia That It Is Right to Quine | JSTOR: Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 67, No. 2 (Sep., 2003), pp. 357-377
Dennett (1988) provides a much discussed argument for the nonexistence of qualia, as conceived by philosophers like Block, Chalmers, Loar and Searle. My goal in this paper is to vindicate Dennett's argument, construed in a certain way. The argument supports the claim that qualia are constitutively representational. Against Block and Chalmers, the argument rejects the detachment of phenomenal from information-processing consciousness; and against Loar and Searle, it defends the claim that qualia are constitutively representational in an externalist understanding of this. The core of the argument is contained in section 3. In the first part, I contrast a minimal conception of qualia, relative to which their existence is not under dispute, with the sort of view to which I will object. In the second part I set the stage by presenting the facts about (minimal) qualia on which a Dennett-like argument can be based. -- lit survey of debate -- didn't download
article  jstor  20thC  21stC  analytical_philosophy  ontology  mind  mind-body  consciousness  qualia  representation-metaphysics  Quine  Dennett  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
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