dunnettreader + local_government   74

Karaman
Theoretical work on taxation and state-building borrows heavily from early modern European experience. While a number of European states increased centralized tax revenues during this period, for others revenues stagnated or even declined and these variations have motivated alternative arguments for the determinants of fiscal and state capacity. This study reviews the arguments concerning the three determinants that have received most attention, namely warfare, economic structure, and political regime, and tests them by making use of a new and comprehensive tax revenue dataset. Our main finding is that these three determinants worked in interaction with each other. Specifically, when under pressure of war, it was representative regimes in more urbanized-commercial economies and authoritarian regimes in more rural-agrarian economies that tended to better aggregate domestic interests towards state-building. - Downloaded via iphone
tax_collection  taxes  state-building  nation-state  urban_politics  competition-interstate  political_culture  political_participation  agriculture-surplus  Absolutism  government_finance  fiscal-military_state  agriculture  Europe-Early_Modern  economic_history  article  bibliography  political_sociology  central_government  19thC  financial_instiutions  downloaded  18thC  15thC  urban_elites  military_history  political_economy  17thC  governing_class  constitutional_regime  local_government  fiscal_policy  16thC  government-forms  jstor  Crown_finance  financial_system 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
Nina Boberg-Fazlic & Paul Sharp - Welfare Spending Lessons from Pre-Industrial England | LSE blogs - Oct 2016
Cutting welfare spending is unlikely to lead to an increase in private voluntary work and charitable giving, explain Nina Boberg-Fazlic and Paul Sharp. Using historical data from late eighteenth and early nineteenth century England, they illustrate how parts of the country that saw increased levels of spending under the Poor Laws also enjoyed higher levels of charitable income.
local_government  social_democracy  Poor_Laws  Labor_markets  UK_economy  Tories  welfare  Industrial_Revolution  unemployment  UK_politics  philanthropy  demography  British_history  19thC  economic_history  18thC  agriculture-productivity  landowners  population_growth 
october 2016 by dunnettreader
Peter Solar - Poor Relief and English Economic Development before the Industrial Revolution (1995) | Economic History Review on JSTOR
The English system of poor relief helped to shape the country's distinctive pre-industrial economy. English relief, when set against continental experience, stands out as uniform and comprehensive in coverage; as reliant on local property taxation for funding; and as generous and reliable in benefits. The insurance provided by relief underpinned the growth of a mobile wage-labour force and facilitated changes inland tenure and use. The fiscal impact of relief expenditure gave taxpayers incentives to put labourers to work and to keep local demographic and economic development in balance.
agriculture-productivity  Labor_markets  economic_history  welfare  Industrial_Revolution  local_government  downloaded  jstor  agriculture  18thC  British_history  17thC  Poor_Laws  article  Europe-Early_Modern  19thC  demography  unemployment 
october 2016 by dunnettreader
RB Outhwaite - The Rise and Fall of the English Ecclesiastical Courts, 1500–1860 (2007) | Cambridge University Press
The first history of ecclesiastical jurisdiction in England that covers the period up to the removal of principal subjects inherited from the Middle Ages. Probate, marriage and divorce, tithes, defamation, and disciplinary prosecutions involving the laity are all covered. All disappeared from the church's courts during the mid-nineteenth century, and were taken over by the royal courts. The book traces the steps and reasons - large and small - by which this occurred.
Downloaded 1st 10 pgs Ch 1 via Air
1. The ecclesiastical courts: structures and procedures
2. The business of the courts, 1500–1640
3. Tithe causes
4. Wills and testamentary causes
5. Defamation
6. Matrimonial litigation and marriage licenses
7. Office causes
8. The roots of expansion and critical voices
9. Charting decline, 1640–1830
10. Explaining decline
11. The Bills of 1733–1734
12. Snips and repairs: small steps to reform, 1753–1813
13. Royal commissions and early fruits, 1815–1832
14. Reform frustrated
15. Reforms thick and fast, 1854–1860.
books  downloaded  legal_history  church_history  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  British_history  Church_of_England  legal_system  church_courts  religion-established  family  marriage  jurisprudence  jurisdiction  inheritance  property  trusts  dispute_resolution  reform-social  reform-legal  morality-Christian  local_government  local_politics  discipline  punishment  authority  hierarchy  governing_class  governance-church  ecclesiology 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
What It's Worth - Building a Strong Financial Future
Americans everywhere struggle to build strong financial futures for themselves and their families. The new book, What It's Worth, provides a roadmap for what families, communities and our nation can do to move forward on the path to financial well-being.
Collection of essays by people working on financial inclusion, asset-building etc. - downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
gig_economy  education-finance  philanthropy  credit  usury  financial_innovation  US_society  inequality-wealth  local_government  pensions  corporate_citizenship  mobility  banking  wages  health_care  access_to_finance  housing  financial_regulation  report  social_entrepreneurs  poverty  downloaded  welfare  US_economy  US_politics  families  mortgages  segregation  inequality  NBFI  unemployment  US_government 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Erik Loomis, review essay - Our Own Private Disaster | Boston Review
ADVERTISEMENT Terrible Schools Are Great for Business Interior of Israel M. Augustine Middle School showing damage from Hurricane Katrina. Like many of New…
Instapaper  education-privatization  education  education-finance  neoliberalism  local_government  local_politics  from instapaper
november 2015 by dunnettreader
Lu Ming - Myths and Realities of China’s Urbanization | Paulson Institute - August 2015
as a direct result of these deeply held beliefs, Beijing has relied on administrative controls, not market mechanisms, to direct China’s urbanization process (...) has yielded some major deficiencies in China’s overall urbanization policy. (..) Beijing has imposed tight hukou controls on the country’s biggest cities, thus restricting their ability to grow. Second, the Chinese government has relied excessively on administrative power to accelerate urbanization in China’s central and western regions, even though people are, in fact, moving largely to the country’s coastal areas. Third, Beijing has encouraged the development of small and medium sized cities, but these are usually scattered far away from regional economic centers. Lu’s memo proposes several adjustments aimed at mitigating the distorted economic effects of the policies that have flowed from these misunderstandings. Five specific areas of China’s current urbanization policy require changes, says Lu. These are: (1) China’s hukou system; (2) the way that China allocates construction land quotas; (3) China’s fiscal transfer payment system; (4) the use of economic growth and tax revenue targets in the evaluation and promotion system for officials and cadres; and (5) the use of planning tools in metropolitan areas and urban cores. Lu makes a number of policy recommendations in each of these five areas, arguing that only in this way can China effectively respond to the challenges that have bedeviled urbanization in other countries. -- didn't download
paper  China  China-economy  China-governance  urbanization  urban_development  safety_net  land_use_planning  local_government  fiscal_policy  incentives-distortions 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Two Philosophers’ Views on the Point of College | Daily Nous - September 2015
This week, two philosophers—Kwame Anthony Appiah (NYU) in the New York Times Magazine and Gary Gutting (Notre Dame) in The Chronicle of Higher Education—have discussed the point of a college education. - Both distinguish -long between the utilitarian (and subject mastery) function oriented toward what employers are likely to find useful and the intellectual or academic, oriented toward developing mental habits of learning with an open mind as a key part of whole-person development and life-long ability to be part of, at a minimum, middle brow culture. (The latter is more explicit in Gutting. The major difference is that Appiah takes a somewhat defensive faute de mieux approach, given the enormous economic pressures that are producing corporatized institutions that don't understand or appreciate the intellectual excellence tradition. Whereas Gutting (like Appiah) acknowledges the pressures for a "training " track that meets employer and employee expectations, he thinks the job should be shifted from what's effectively remedial classes in the first year or so of college with an effective J-12 education. Including shifting parties of college teachers )along with their budgets) to the K-12 system. He clearly thinks Appiah's defensive approach is going to fail. The demands if both students and employers are legitimate, and in the absence of another set of institutions to meet those legitimate expectations, the corporatism of universities will proceed at wn ever increasing pace.
education-finance  paywall  education-training  education-privatization  public_goods  intelligentsia  US_government  human_capital  university-contemporary  public_education  public_finance  Pocket  local_government  education-K-12  education-higher  US_politics  from pocket
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Elizabeth Popp Berman - Creating the Market University: How Academic Science Became an Economic Engine | Princeton University Press - 2012, ebook 2015
US universities today serve as economic engines, performing the scientific research that will create new industries, drive economic growth, and keep the US globally competitive. But only a few decades ago, these same universities self-consciously held themselves apart from the world of commerce. Drawing on extensive historical research, EPB shows how the government--influenced by the argument that innovation drives the economy--brought about this transformation. Americans have a long tradition of making heroes out of their inventors. But before the 1960s and '70s neither policymakers nor economists paid much attention to the critical economic role played by innovation. However, during the late 1970s, a confluence of events--industry concern with the perceived deterioration of innovation in the US, a growing body of economic research on innovation's importance, and the stagnation of the larger economy--led to a broad political interest in fostering invention. The policy decisions shaped by this change were diverse, influencing arenas from patents and taxes to pensions and science policy, and encouraged practices that would focus specifically on the economic value of academic science. By the early 1980s, universities were nurturing the rapid growth of areas such as biotech entrepreneurship, patenting, and university-industry research centers. -- She is assistant professor of sociology at the SUNY-Albany. -- downloaded excerpt to Note
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  economic_history  20thC  21stC  post-WWII  post-Cold_War  US_politics  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  university  research  research-funding  Innovation  innovation-government_policy  R&D  science-and-politics  urban_development  economic_growth  IP  incentives  incentives-distortions  public-private_partnerships  public_goods  market_fundamentalism  public_policy  -priorities  risk_capital  local_government  state_government  state-and-science  education-finance  academia-governance  managerialism  technology  technology-history  commercialization  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
David Millon - The Ideology of Jury Autonomy in the Early Common Law :: SSRN - Nov 2000
Washington & Lee Public Law Research Paper No. 00-5 -- This article looks closely at the substantial discretion exercised by the premodern English jury. Through the sixteenth century, jurors enjoyed broad autonomy with respect to fact-finding. For much of the medieval period they came to court already knowledgeable about the facts of a case and rendered their verdicts on that basis. Even after they ceased to be self-informed and had to rely instead on evidence presented in court, jurors continued to exercise their fact-finding authority with substantial independence from judicial control and review. The premodern jury also had significant autonomy regarding what we would call questions of law, an aspect of jury discretion that has received little attention from historians. In this article I look closely at the evidence bearing on both facets of jury autonomy, including trial records, accounts of trial proceedings, and legislation relating to the jury. In addition, I attempt to shed some light on the ideological assumptions that justified the early common law's commitment to jury autonomy, a commitment that is hard to understand in light of the modern rule of law idea. -- PDF File: 44. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  legal_history  British_history  medieval_history  16thC  common_law  trials  juries  evidence  epistemology-social  Europe-Early_Modern  legal_culture  legal_validity  legitimacy  civic_virtue  citizenship  local_government  public_goods  commonwealth  governance-participation  status  cities-governance  persona  judgment-independence  autonomy  authority  elites  clientelism  duties  duties-civic  community  rule_of_law  fairness  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Alex Massie - Queen in the North makes her play - Medium - May 2015
Nicola Sturgeon, the Queen in the North, is mistress of all she surveys. She is, everyone agrees, already the biggest winner in this long, otherwise colourless,…
Instapaper  Scotland  UK_politics  Scottish_politics  Tories  Labour  SNP  Parliament  devolution  local_government  local_politics  1707_Union  political_culture  parties  from instapaper
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Grateful in Baltimore | Economic Principals
The news from Baltimore had seemed pretty bleak until Friday, when a 35-year-old city prosecutor brought charges against six police officers involved in the death of Freddie Gray last month. An attorney for the Fraternal Order of Police in Baltimore complained of an “egregious rush to judgment.” Those developments got me thinking about some other measures that have been taken over the years to improve civic life in the United States. Baltimore State’s Attorney Marilyn James Mosby grew up in the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston. He mother, father, aunts, and uncles were Boston police officers. Her grandfather, Prescott Thompson, helped organize the Massachusetts Association of Minority Law Enforcement Officers, in 1968. -- Walsh tracks the steps Mosby took to get her where she now is -- a combination of hard work, talent, and deliberate openings of opportunities that had been foreclosed to women and blacks. He ebds, after a series of stats that show conditions, despite being dreadful in Freddie Gray's neighborhood, have improved significantly due to hard work of reformers over decades and changes in government policies. He ends with a blast at those who would blame the financial crisis on CRA -- instead he thinks that the implementation (albeit too little and too slow) has been one of great policy success stories in halting and beginning to reverse the deliberate, racist obstacles to wealth accumulation of African-Americans. -- saved to Instapaper
US_history  US_economy  US_politics  US_politics-race  urban_politics  War_on_Poverty  affirmative_action  segregation  discrimination  housing  African-Americans  poverty  middle_class  banking  credit  access_to_finance  savings  central_government  local_government  local_politics  Instapaper  from instapaper
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Caroline W. Lee - Do-It-Yourself Democracy: The Rise of the Public Engagement Industry (Jan 2015) - Oxford University Press
Citizen participation has undergone a radical shift since anxieties about "bowling alone" seized the nation in the 1990s. Many pundits and observers have cheered America's twenty-first century civic renaissance-an explosion of participatory innovations in public life. Invitations to "have your say!" and "join the discussion!" have proliferated. But has the widespread enthusiasm for maximizing citizen democracy led to real change? Sociologist Caroline W. Lee examines how participatory innovations have reshaped American civic life over the past two decades. Lee looks at the public engagement industry that emerged to serve government, corporate, and nonprofit clients seeking to gain a handle on the increasingly noisy demands of their constituents and stakeholders. The beneficiaries of new forms of democratic empowerment are not only humble citizens, but also the engagement experts who host the forums. Does it matter if the folks deepening democracy are making money at it? How do they make sense of the contradictions inherent in their roles? In investigating public engagement practitioners' everyday anxieties and larger worldviews, we see reflected the strange meaning of power in contemporary institutions. New technologies and deliberative practices have democratized the ways in which organizations operate, but Lee argues that they have also been marketed and sold as tools to facilitate cost-cutting, profitability, and other management goals - and that public deliberation has burdened everyday people with new responsibilities without delivering on its promises of empowerment.
books  kindle-available  US_society  US_politics  US_government  local_government  local_politics  democracy  democracy_deficit  political_participation  firms-organization  hierarchy  decision_theory  NGOs  deliberation-public  public_policy  public_goods  public-private_partnerships  political_culture 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Steve Cecchetti and Kim Schoenholtz - Residential real estate in China: the delicate balance of supply and demand — Money, Banking and Financial Markets - April 2015
Some observers believe that demand for housing in China is price-insensitive for cultural reasons. Among other things, housing is viewed as a “status good” for those wishing to get married. Another favorable factor is the preparedness of Chinese policymakers to intervene and support housing markets should they soften. Then there is the possibility that central bank policy will be adjusted in a manner designed to further support real estate lending. Yet, there remain grounds for skepticism. The role of big-city home ownership as a status good in Japan did not prevent the massive and destructive land and housing price boom and bust in the 1980s. And, government actions to support China’s housing prices will be fighting an uphill battle if private expectations of capital gains weaken. Not only that, but the day may come when China sees the need to implement a tax on property, if only to provide a better underpinning for municipal finances. This would almost surely drive prices down quickly. Finally, the government’s other objectives of liberalizing the financial system (as a step toward internationalizing the renminbi) and increasing housing supply to meet the needs of a migrating population may prove incompatible with supporting high house price-to-rent ratios. -- really fine update on what's been happening in urbanization, local governments, policies re financial sector liberalization, GNP and personal income growth (and slow down) etc -- copied to Pocket
China  China-economy  financial_system  housing  asset_prices  bubbles  urbanization  economic_growth  financial_regulation  financial_sector_development  financial_stability  banking  NBFI  shadow_banking  regulation-enforcement  tax_reform  taxes  local_government  infrastructure  wages  economic_culture  municipal_finance  Pocket 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Pricing Carbon - Program site | World Bank
Background papers, events, reports etc on carbon pricing methods, markets, integration of markets, internal pricing by businesses etc
website  World_Bank  climate  energy  energy-markets  carbon_pricing  risk_management  local_government  global_governance 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Ma Yuge and Joel Sandhu - Making Sense of China and India’s Low-Carbon Pathways | Global Policy Journal 16th September 2014
China and India’s low-carbon development is crucial for global sustainability and domestic welfare. However, embedded political and economic obstacles have prevented a smooth and effective transition towards a low-carbon future in the two emerging countries. This article analyzes China and India’s energy efficiency policies as a lens into this question. We argue that the existing energy efficiency and broader low-carbon development pathways – India’s market-oriented approach and China’s target-driven paradigm – are not sufficient to address the challenges. Policymakers should reflect on and fix the shortcomings of the current pathways by paying close attention to the various forms of maneuvers of low-carbon policies in the given political and economic environments in China and India. -- part of Global Policy "Juxtaposition" program re comparative work on China and India -- didn't download paper
paper  IR  global_governance  environment  climate  energy  China  India  development  green_economy  local_government  central_government 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Eva Botella-Ordinas & Domingo Centenero de Arce & Antonio Terrasa Lozano, « Une tradition hispanique de démocratie locale. Les cabildos abiertos du XVIe siècle à nos jours » | La Vie des idées - Oct 2011
« Occupe la place ! », scandent les Indignés. Selon trois historiens, ce recours aux assemblées locales s’ancre dans une tradition hispanique puissante et ancienne. Les formes locales de républicanisme participatif auraient persisté depuis le Moyen-âge, malgré les efforts constants pour les réduire. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  political_history  political_culture  Spain  Spanish_Empire  comparative_history  republicanism  democracy  democracy_deficit  political_participation  social_history  social_order  local_government  local_politics  radicals  revolutions  Europe-Early_Modern  Enlightenment  French_Revolution  Europe-19thC  medieval_history  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Florencia Peyrou - La longue histoire de la démocratie espagnole | La Vie des idées - May 2011
Les mobilisations actuelles pour une « vraie démocratie » en Espagne s’ancrent-elles dans une culture démocratique plus ancienne qu’il n’y paraît ? Florencia Peyrou revient sur l’histoire du républicanisme espagnol : elle le compare aux autres mouvements radicaux et républicains européens, et montre à la fois sa radicalité, ses apports et ses contradictions. La Vie des Idées publie également deux témoignages sur le mouvement social actuel, qui font écho aux débats passés entre démocratie directe et démocratie représentative en Espagne : La démocratie directe de la Puerta del Sol, par Eva Botella-Ordinas, article précédé d’une chronique du 15M par Juan Luis Simal. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  political_history  political_culture  Spain  Spanish_Empire  comparative_history  republicanism  democracy  democracy_deficit  political_participation  social_history  social_order  local_government  local_politics  radicals  revolutions  Enlightenment  French_Revolution  Europe-19thC  20thC  21stC  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Gabriel Entin & Jeanne Moisand, « Débats autour du 15M. Républicanisme, démocratie et participation politique », | La Vie des idées, Sept 2011
Links to articles in their Débats" -- Nous accueillons les échanges entre philosophes, historiens et politistes, au sujet de la participation politique et de l’interprétation de la pensée républicaine en Espagne et dans nos démocraties. Ces débats, relativement méconnus en France, sont nés de l’emprunt par José Luis Zapatero de références au républicanisme de Philip Pettit pour légitimer son programme et son action. En 2008, le philosophe a cautionné ces emprunts en publiant un diagnostic positif sur la dimension républicaine du premier gouvernement Zapatero. Se revendiquer du républicanisme conduirait-il dès lors à défendre l’ordre institutionnel et à s’opposer aux «Indignés» de mai 2011 ? Leurs revendications d’une participation politique plus intense et plus démocratique ne seraient-elles pas républicaines ? Grâce aux réactions suscitées par cet article, La Vie des Idées peut aujourd’hui approfondir le débat. Les réponses de Philip Pettit et de ses collaborateurs espagnols sont complétées par les essais d’historiens, d’un politiste et d’un sociologue. Le 15M donne ainsi l’occasion de réfléchir sur le républicanisme et sur la participation démocratique en Espagne, dans le monde hispanique et dans les mouvements sociaux actuels.
article  links  political_philosophy  political_culture  Spain  Latin_America  local_government  local_politics  republicanism  democracy  democracy_deficit  political_participation  Pettit  social_movements  political_history  social_democracy  socialism 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Fiscal federalism network - OECD
The OECD Network on Fiscal Relations across Levels of Government provides analysis and statistical underpinnings on the relationship between central and subcentral government, and its impact on efficiency, equity and macroeconomic stability. -- Main page for reports, white papers, guides, articles, links to OECD databases
OECD  website  OECD_economies  taxes  tax_collection  fiscal_policy  state_government  cities  federalism  sovereign_debt  public_finance  statistics  databases  report  links  accountability  reform-economic  reform-finance  reform-legal  comparative_economics  centralization  central_government  center-periphery  local_government  decentralization 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Clive Holmes, review - (1) Joel Samaha, Law and Order in Historical Perspective: The Case of Elizabethan Essex and (2) A. Hassell Smith, County and Court: Government and Politics in Norfolk, 1558-1603 | JSTOR: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 49, No. 3
Very useful discussion of the very different tales told re administrative efficiency of local government and judiciary in Elizabethan Norfolk and Essex. Particularly noteworthy was the factionalism that emerged after the fall of the Duke of Norfolk when Norfolk gentry fought for the various powers and control of patronage that had been monopolized by the Duke. The disappearance of the top status figure removed a key organizing part of the structure of ranks and status recognition, producing what sounds like a free-for-all vicious competition. Of course factions tried to develop court connections they could exploit. In addition to contributing local conflicts to central court confkicts, the central-local links also worked the other way. The Elizabethan government, frustrated by the variability and often poor quality of implementation by locals of central policies and concerns, including for security and defense, resorted to delegating particular matters to narrower groups than the overall county structures - e,.g. militia commissions and even letters patent. This selectivity would feed local factional competition. But the disputes fed back into conflicts at the central level in the latter part of Elizabeth's reign even Parliamentary constitutional debates challenging the prerogative to circumvent local government structures.
books  reviews  16thC  Elizabethan  British_history  British_politics  local_government  English_constitution  central_government  centralization  prerogative  judiciary  status  patronage  criminal_justice  bureaucracy  rationalization-institutions  state-building  faction  political_culture  elites  EF-add 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Derek Hirst, review - Paul Slack, From Reformation to Improvement: Public Welfare in Early Modern England | JSTOR: The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 31, No. 3 (Winter, 2001), pp. 442-444
The review is a useful summary of Slack's argument re trends and episodic bursts of trying to deal with the poor. Looks at what these episodes show re state capacity, ceter and region relations, movements that cut across other ideological, religious or political alignments, use of appeals to Parliament for lawmaking that were driven by a range of public and private agendas. Download pdf to Note -- see if this is on Questia
books  reviews  jstor  find  social_history  17thC  18thC  British_history  British_politics  local_government  Parliament  executive  Poor_Laws  poor-working  charity  reformation_of_manners  downloaded  EF-add 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Daniel Esty - Bottom-Up Climate Fix - NYTimes.com - September 2014
Smart people in the 20th century thought we could tackle climate change with a treaty in which the world’s nations agreed to “targets and timetables” for reducing emissions. These reductions would be implemented by top-down, national mandates and government support for clean energy technologies. But 22 years after the original climate agreement, emissions continue to rise and threats of significant harm loom larger. As one of those who, as an official at the Environmental Protection Agency, negotiated that first United Nations treaty in 1992, I believe we need to shift gears and try something new. Relying on national governments alone to deliver results is not enough, as the last two decades have shown. The real action on climate change around the world is coming from governors, mayors, corporate chief executives and community leaders. They are the ones best positioned to make change happen on the ground. Accordingly, we need to move from a top-down strategy to a bottom-up approach.
global_governance  climate  energy  local_government  nation-state  collective_action  public-private_partnerships  green_economy  green_finance  Innovation  UN  UNEP  World_Bank  treaties  international_political_economy 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Legislative Tracker | Georgetown Climate Center
The Georgetown Climate Center tracks federal legislation that affects adaptation, energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and transportation policies. The Center also analyzes key legislation and identifies how pending bills could impact existing state policies and programs.
website  US_government  Congress  legislation  climate  climate-adaptation  risk-mitigation  land_use_planning  infrastructure  local_government  ocean  coastal_development  regulation-environment 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Report: Zoning for Sea-Level Rise | Georgetown Climate Center - December 13, 2012
To help local communities address the increased flooding expected from sea-level rise and more frequent extreme weather events, the Georgetown Climate Center designed a model sea-level rise ordinance to provide local governments with a template for tailoring regulations to meet the needs of their community and its particularized vulnerabilities. To effectively balance all the competing interests in coastal resources in the face of climate threats, local governments will need flexible and robust land-use regulations. Zoning is the most powerful tool that local governments have to preemptively mitigate hazards. Through planning and zoning, local governments can determine what is at risk, what is safe to build, and where it is safe to build. By analyzing vulnerabilities and planning for impacts, local governments can shape landowner expectations and build political support for adaptive measures. Through regulations, local governments can ensure that fewer people and structures are in harm’s way when impacts occur, and that developers site and construct new structures to be more resilient to flooding and other impacts. Below is a link to the executive summary describing this work. -- didn't download
local_government  land_use_planning  property  property-confiscations  property_rights  climate  climate-adaptation  political_economy  regulation  regulation-environment  incentives  ocean  water  coastal_development 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Adaptation Clearinghouse | Georgetown Climate Center
Tap into the adaptation expertise of the Georgetown Climate Center and its partners. Find resources using the search, mapping, and browsing tools displayed on this page. **--** Featured Policy Areas -- * Law & Governance. * Sea-Level Rise. * Urban Heat. **--** Sector Materials to Get You Started -- * Coasts. * Public Health. * Transportation. * Water **--** The Adaptation Clearinghouse seeks to assist state policymakers, resource managers, academics, and others who are working to help communities adapt to climate change. The Clearinghouse was developed by the Georgetown Climate Center through the generous support of the Rockefeller Foundation and all of the wonderful funders who make our work possible.
website  technical_assistance  climate  climate-adaptation  local_government  law-and-environment  law-and-economics  coordination-governments  ocean  water  transport  urban_development  public_health 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Georgetown Climate Center Resources to Help Communities Prepare for Climate Changes | Georgetown Climate Center
With the planet warming and extreme weather becoming the new normal, states and communities are seeking out resources to help them anticipate climate impacts and protect residents, homes, businesses, and public infrastructure from rising seas, heat, drought, wildfires, extreme weather, and other climate impacts. The Georgetown Climate Center strives to help communities meet these challenges by addressing the legal barriers that communities face when adapting to rising sea levels, and seeks to help localities prepare for the increased frequency, scope, and severity of heat events and extreme weather. The Center also strives to help communities spend disaster relief funds wisely by preparing for the next big storm – not just rebuilding to meet the status quo. The Georgetown Climate Center provides its clients with broad legal advice and policy options, along with strategies to adapt to each set of challenges. It also provides technical assistance to selected states and localities.
website  climate  climate-adaptation  risk-mitigation  land_use_planning  infrastructure  local_government  ocean  coastal_development  property_rights  law-and-economics  law-and-environment  administrative_law  regulation  cross-border  federalism  public_finance  public_goods  disaster  technical_assistance 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Adaptation Tool Kit: Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Land Use | Georgetown Climate Center
The Adaptation Tool Kit explores 18 different land-use tools that can be used to preemptively respond to the threats posed by sea-level rise to both public and private coastal development and infrastructure, and strives to assist governments in determining which tools to employ to meet their unique socio-economic and political contexts. To this end, the tool kit also provides policymakers with a framework for decision making. Each tool is analyzed by (1) the type of power exercised to implement it (planning, regulatory, spending, or tax and market-based tools); (2) the policy objective that it facilitates (protection, accommodation, planned retreat, or preservation); and (3) the type of existing or potential land uses that the tool can be used to adapt (critical infrastructure, existing development, developable lands, and non-developable lands). A top level analysis of the trade-offs between tools—the economic, environmental, and social costs and benefits, and the legal and administrative feasibility of implementing each tool—is also provided. -- didn't download
local_government  land_use_planning  infrastructure  climate  ocean  coastal_development  regulation-environment  incentives  property_rights  administrative_agencies  administrative_law  law-and-economics  law-and-environment  environment  risk-mitigation  climate-adaptation  technical_assistance  political_economy 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Preparing Our Communities for Climate Impacts: Recommendations for Federal Action | Georgetown Climate Center - September 2014
The Georgetown Climate Center released 100 recommendations today to improve federal programs that could be used to prepare for climate change. The new report will inform the White House State, Local and Tribal Leaders Task Force on Climate Preparedness and Resilience.The report draws from a series of workshops with leading federal, state and local officials and builds upon lessons learned post-disaster in New Orleans (following Hurricane Katrina), New York (Hurricane Sandy) and Vermont (Hurricane Irene). The report identifies more than 30 federal programs, initiatives and laws that can be used to prepare for extreme events such as storms, floods and heat waves as well as rising seas. Although state and local governments will be the primary actors when it comes to preparing for climate change impacts, the federal government can boost – or impede – preparedness. The federal government sends billions of dollars to states and communities every year, some of which could be used more effectively to adapt to climate change. Federal laws and regulations also can be important drivers of state and local action. But, in some cases, federal rules have hindered state and local innovation. The recommendations in the report explore how existing federal dollars, programs, regulations and policies can be retooled, repurposed and deployed to promote and remove barriers to adaptation. -- downloaded pdf to Note
US_government  local_government  state_government  disaster  climate  risk-mitigation  environment  administrative_agencies  ocean  coordination-governments  regulation  cross-border  federalism  public_finance  infrastructure  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Special Series: Contract to Cheat - Misclassification of Labor in the Government Contracts Construction Industry | McClatchy September 2014
Across the country, roughly 10 million construction workers spend each day in a dangerous and fickle industry. They hang drywall, lay carpet, shingle roofs. Yet in the eyes of their bosses, they aren't employees due the benefits the government requires. Employers treat many of these laborers as independent contractors. It's a tactic that costs taxpayers billions of dollars each year. Yet when it comes to public projects, government regulators have done nearly nothing about it, even when the proof is easy to get. The workers don't have protections. The companies don't withhold taxes. The regulators don't seem to care. McClatchy reporters in eight newsrooms spanning seven states spent a year unraveling the scheme, using little-noticed payroll records that show how widespread the practice has become and what it costs us all.
US_economy  US_government  local_government  regulation  regulation-enforcement  labor_law  labor  wages  race-to-the-bottom  Obama_administration 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Michael Sallah, Robert O’Harrow Jr., Steven Rich - 3-part WaPo Investigation: "Stop and Seize on America's highways" | The Washington Post September 2014
Part 1: In recent years, thousands of people have had cash confiscated by police without being charged with crimes. -- Part 2: One training firm started a private intelligence-sharing network and helped shape law enforcement nationwide. -- Part 3: Motorists caught up in the seizures talk about the experience and the legal battles that sometimes took more than a year. **--** After the terror attacks on 9/11, the government called on police to become the eyes and ears of homeland security on America’s highways. Local officers, county deputies and state troopers were encouraged to act more aggressively in searching for suspicious people, drugs and other contraband. Dept Homeland Security and DOJ spent millions on police training. The effort succeeded, but it had an impact that has been largely hidden from public view: the spread of an aggressive brand of policing that has spurred the seizure of $100s millions in cash from motorists and others not charged with crimes. Thousands of people have been forced to fight legal battles to get their money back. Behind the rise in seizures is a cottage industry of private police-training firms that teach the techniques of “highway interdiction” to departments across the country. One firm created a private intelligence network that enabled police nationwide to share detailed reports about motorists — criminals and the innocent alike — including their Social Security numbers, addresses and identifying tattoos, as well as hunches about which drivers to stop. Many of the reports have been funneled to federal agencies and fusion centers as part of the government’s burgeoning law enforcement intelligence systems — despite warnings from state and federal authorities that the information could violate privacy and constitutional protections. A thriving subculture of road officers on the network now competes to see who can seize the most cash and contraband, describing their exploits in the network’s chat rooms and sharing “trophy shots” of money and drugs. Some police advocate highway interdiction as a way of raising revenue for cash-strapped municipalities.
US_society  US_constitution  US_foreign_policy  US_legal_system  US_politics-race  national_security  judiciary  local_government  state_government  government_finance  police  privacy  networks-information  power-asymmetric  abuse_of_power  public-private_partnerships  crime  criminal_justice  civil_liberties  terrorism  due_process  property-confiscations  intelligence_agencies  militarization-society  incentives  civil_society  governmentality  government_officials  authoritarian  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Harold Meyerson - The Revolt of the Cities The American Prospect - August 2014
20 years ago, half of America’s dozen largest cities had Republican mayors. -- of the nation’s 30 largest cities, just 4 (San Diego, Indianapolis, Fort Worth, and Oklahoma City) have Republican mayors, and even they have to swim with the urban tides. -- Demographic recomposition has proved a necessary but insufficient prerequisite for urban political change. The newcomers to America’s cities also have had to come together as an effective political force. With few exceptions, the cities that have elected left-populist governments have first reconfigured their power structures by building coalitions dedicated to greater economic and racial equity. Aided in some instances by liberal foundations, these coalitions consist chiefly of unions, community-based organizations in low-income minority neighborhoods, immigrants’ rights groups, affordable-housing advocates, environmental organizations, and networks of liberal churches, synagogues, and mosques. The unions that have been key to the formation of these new coalitions—it’s labor, after all, that has the capacity to provide the lion’s share of funding for these ventures—generally aren’t the municipal employee locals that have a bargaining relationship with elected officials that can limit their freedom of political action. They tend, rather, to be unions of private-sector workers—janitors, hotel housekeepers, hospital orderlies, supermarket clerks. Their members and potential members are often overwhelmingly minority and substantially immigrant. Indeed, the growing importance of these unions coincides with the growth of immigrants’ rights groups in most major cities. -- What’s happening in cities can be described as Obama’s agenda trickling down to the jurisdictions where it has enough political support to be enacted—but it’s also the incubation of policies and practices that will trickle up. With considerable creativity and limited power, the new urban regimes are seeking to diminish the inequality so apparent in cities and so pervasive nationwide. They are mapping the future of liberalism until the day when the national government can bring it to scale.
US_politics  local_government  local_politics  unions  immigration  wages  green_economy  inequality  housing  education  environment  coalitions-progressive  cities  grassroots  parties  progressivism  Obama_administration  state_government  blue_states  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Reuters - Water's edge: the crisis of rising sea levels - September 2014
Reuters special investigation of totally haphazard, uncoordinated, impossibly expensive problems of dealing with rising oceans and subsiding ground levels (mostly from depleting aquifers) along US shores controlled by state and local governments, driven by a combination of denial and grubbing for federal dollars for piecemeal pet projects. The pace of shore loss (1 beach up to 22 ft a yr) and costs are documented to be accelerating rapidly.
US_government  US_society  climate  ocean  water  Congress  risk  local_government  local_politics  GOP 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Historical Background - Reformation of Manners Campaigns - London Lives
Contents - The First Societies, 1690-1738 *--* 1757-63 Society *--* Opposition to Informers and Reforming Constables. *--* Legal Opposition. *--* The Proclamation Society, 1787. *--* Exemplary Lives. *--* Introductory Reading & Footnotes. -- Largely reliant on private prosecutions, the early modern criminal justice system did not facilitate the prosecution of large numbers of victimless offences such as immorality and irreligion. But despite increasing religious toleration, England in the 18thC remained a strongly Protestant country, and many people were offended by public displays of sin, not least because it was thought that such conduct led sinners down a slippery slope of increasingly criminal conduct which would lead inevitably to the gallows. The 18thC was the first great age of voluntary societies, and concerns about vice led to the formation, over the course of the century, of successive societies which aimed to suppress immorality. While members sought to promote reform through persuasion, in sermons and through the distribution of printed literature, they saw the need for coercion as well. With the Church Courts in decline, the reformers turned to the criminal justice system. Their methods attracted significant opposition, however, and the reformers frequently found themselves at the receiving end of often vexatious litigation aimed at undermining their activities. Ultimately, attempts to use the law to promote a reformation of manners were frustrated by a combination of both legal and popular opposition. The records included in this website provide evidence of both the reformers' activities and the opposition they engender.
website  18thC  British_history  British_politics  reformation_of_manners  1690s  legal_system  judiciary  crime  criminal_justice  gin_craze  Parliament  Church_of_England  church_courts  lower_orders  London  police  parish  litigation  evidence  immorality  prostitution  local_government  religious_lit  social_history  cultural_history  bibliography  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Why it’s hard for the US to learn from other countries on education - Vox - July 2014
Summary of OECD report re US comparative position on different metrics and what lessons might be drawn from the report -- see other bookmark for OECD link (to read online - pdf requires $) -- New data on poverty, inequality and education are likely to reignite the conversation. But it's easier to point to what other countries are doing right than it is to figure out what lessons they can teach the US. That's evident in the latest education report from the OECD, a group of 34 mostly rich countries and economies. The OECD is a big player in the international-comparison game because it tests students around the world in math, reading and other subjects. Those tests are often used as benchmarks to show that the US is falling behind. The OECD, though, also reports on how different nations handle inequity in education. That data, like the test scores, shows the US has a long way to go.
education  inequality  poverty  culture  unions  governmentality  central_government  local_government  OECD_economies  US_government  US_society  university-contemporary  public_policy  public_goods 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Equity, Excellence and Inclusiveness in Education: Policy Lessons from Around the World (July 2014) - OECD iLibrary
Excellence in education without equity risks leading to large economic and social disparities; equity in education at the expense of quality is a meaningless aspiration. The most advanced education systems now set ambitious goals for all students, focusing on both excellence and equity. They also equip their teachers with the pedagogic skills that have been proven effective and with enough autonomy so that teachers can use their own creativity in determining the content and instruction they provide to their individual students. The fourth International Summit on the Teaching Profession brought together education ministers, union leaders and other teacher leaders from high-performing and rapidly improving education systems, as measured by PISA (the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment ). Their aim was to discuss equity, excellence and inclusiveness in education by exploring three questions: • How are high-quality teachers developed, and how do schools with the greatest need attract and retain them? • How can equity be ensured in increasingly devolved education systems? and • What kinds of learning environments address the needs of all students? - To underpin the discussions, this publication identifies some of the steps policy makers can take to build school systems that are both equitable and excellent. The analysis is complemented with examples that illustrate proven or promising practices in specific countries. -- Online access but pdf download requires $
education  inequality  poverty  culture  unions  governmentality  central_government  local_government  OECD_economies  US_government  US_society  university-contemporary  public_policy  public_goods 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
The Works of John Adams, vol. 6 (Defence of the Constitutions Vol. III cont’d, Davila, Essays on the Constitution) - Online Library of Liberty
John Adams, The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States: with a Life of the Author, Notes and Illustrations, by his Grandson Charles Francis Adams (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1856). 10 volumes. Vol. 6. 07/12/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2104> -- A 10 volume collection of Adams’ most important writings, letters, and state papers, edited by his grandson. Vol. 6 contains (Defence of the Constitutions Vol. III cont’d, Davila, Essays on the Constitution. The last continued part of the Defence of the Constitutions deals with Marchmont Nedham and writings on the commonwealth. Davila is the history of the 16thC French Wars_of_Religion. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  American_colonies  American_Revolution  Early_Republic  Adams_John  political_history  political_philosophy  government-forms  mixed_government  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  English_constitution  US_constitution  state_government  federalism  commonwealth  historiography  France  Wars_of_Religion  English_Civil_War  Glorious_Revolution  French_Revolution  Terror  Directoire  Napoleon  Napoleonic_Wars  separation-of-powers  checks-and-balances  centralization  central_government  local_government  parties  partisanship  faction  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Pollock and Maitland - The History of English Law before the Time of Edward I, 2 vols. [1898] (rprnt 2010 of 2nd ed CUP 1968, notes & bibliography S.F. Milson) - Online Library of Liberty
Sir Frederick Pollock, The History of English Law before the Time of Edward I. Reprint of 2nd edition, with a Select Bibliography and Notes by Professor S.F. Milsom. (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2010). 2 vols. 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2312> -- First published in 1895, Sir Frederick Pollock and Frederic William Maitland’s legal classic The History of English Law before the Time of Edward I expanded the work of Sir Edward Coke and William Blackstone by exploring the origins of key aspects of English common law and society and with them the development of individual rights as these were gradually carved out from the authority of the Crown and the Church. Although it has been more than a century since its initial publication, Pollock and Maitland’s work is still considered an accessible and useful foundational reference for scholars of medieval English law
books  etexts  Medieval  British_history  legal_history  legal_system  legal_theory  legal_culture  Anglo-Saxons  Norman_Conquest  common_law  feudalism  ancient_constitution  canon_law  local_government  monarchy  civil_liberties  property_rights  bibliography  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Charles W. Prior, review - Bernard Capp. England's Culture Wars: Puritan Reformation and Its Enemies in the Interregnum, 1649-1660 | H-Net Reviews May 2013
Capp’s new book adds significant depth and nuance to our view of this period, ... Broadly speaking, the reformers were motivated by godly zeal and the desire to establish a civic commonwealth that was animated by humanist values, such as civility and good order. In this sense, the aims of the reformers agreed with the social values of the nobility, magistrates, and city corporations... However, ..a spectrum, along which positions were defined by the relative proportion of godliness to civility. The book is divided into three parts. The first concentrates on the various loci of political power, ...legislative reform carried on by the interregnum parliaments, by the government and the church at the county and local levels, and in an excellent chapter by propaganda and the press. The second part consists of six detailed chapters that take up the puritan “reformation of manners.” The third part of the book looks in some detail at local contexts, illustrating that reform proceeded very much according to the whims and will of local magistrates. Reformers had to contend with a series of structural and practical obstacles. ?..interregnum politics was fragmented. Parliament never really recovered from Pride’s Purge ... In spite of the desire to limit religious expression, a fervent climate of sectarianism remained. The Cromwellian state was obliged to settle for ad hoc compromises on a range of issues. ?...surely all of this detail adds up to something larger. ?...goes some way toward challenging the view that one major effect of the civil war was that the “state” emerged in its modern form. That is, politics transcended confessionalism and embraced legal values, secularism, and the rigid control of religion by the state. By contrast, Capp’s work suggests that religious dispute continued to destabilize politics at all levels, and that the state, if it existed at all, was obliged to defer to local custom.
books  reviews  historiography  17thC  British_history  British_politics  religious_history  Interregnum  Protectorate  Puritans  godly_persons  Parliamentarians  republicanism  Cromwell  sectarianism  state-building  nation-state  local_government  local_politics  reformation_of_manners  authority  authoritarian  church_history  commonwealth  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Tom Leng, review - Brodie Waddell. God, Duty and Community in English Economic Life, 1660-1720 (2012) | H-Net Reviews April 2013
In his first book, Brodie Waddell seeks to bring the realm of culture to bear upon the economic life of late Stuart England. This period has tended to be subsumed within the story of how the “moral economy” was vanquished by the market in the 18thC, to the neglect of what Waddell sees as its distinctive econom -- a larger question for historians interested in reconciling the cultural and the economic: what do we do with the concept of “interest”? ...is there a danger of replacing the “undersocialized” caricature of “homo economicus” with economic actors that sociologists would describe as “oversocialized,” the passive bearers of internalized norms and values? Doubtless “religiously inspired archetypes ... left an indelible impression on the economic lives of ordinary people”, but we should not neglect the role of material self-advancement or preservation (and other forms of “acquisitive” behavior—the acquisition of reputation, for example) as a motive force in economic life. ...we need to find a place for “interest,” which, after all, was a concept with which early modern English people were very familiar. -- But a full picture of economic lives and cultures needs to consider the interaction of potentially rival values and those who bore them. And this links back to the changing economic context of the period. Increasing engagement in long-distance markets could encourage farmers or manufacturers to refashion their communal loyalties in a way that undermined neighborly commitments; participation in the emerging stock market might suggest a different scale of economic values to those recounted in this book. -- the volume of printed attacks on various forms of economic immorality might suggest that the confrontation of divergent moral economies was far from uncommon in the period. In which case, does the clash between the market and other moral economies, if not the moral economy, have some explanatory power still?
books  reviews  historiography  change-social  17thC  18thC  British_history  economic_history  economic_culture  interest_groups  community  patriarchy  religious_culture  religion-established  religious_lit  religious_belief  mercantilism  local_government  local_politics  elites  popular_culture  moral_economy  self-interest  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
John Walter - Popular Iconoclasm and the Politics of the Parish in Eastern England, 1640-1642 | JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 47, No. 2 (Jun., 2004), pp. 261-290
This article explores the extent of popular iconoclasm in England in the period immediately before the start of civil war and for a region - eastern England - thought to lie at the heart of these events. It explores systematically the evidence for the extent of destruction (and the problems in its recording and recovery), the nature of the targets attacked, and the identities of the iconoclasts. The article argues that this first phase of iconoclasm was directed largely against Laudian innovations. Claiming an agency to police sacred space, iconoclasts derived legitimation from the public condemnation of Laudianism in parliament, print, and pulpit. Narrowing the focus, the article moves on to explore the occurrence of iconoclasm through a series of case studies of the complex process of conflict and negotiation within the politics of the parish that preceded, accompanied, and sometimes pre-empted popular destruction. The evidence of iconoclasm is used to show how the implementation of the Laudian programme might politicize local churches as sites of conflict and the potential therefore inherent in its aggressive enforcement for a wider political conflict. -- interesting references -- didn't download
article  jstor  17thC  British_history  British_politics  religious_history  church_history  religion-established  religious_culture  politics-and-religion  Church_of_England  Laudian  Puritans  godly_persons  iconoclasm  parish  Charles_I  High_Church  local_politics  local_government  popular_politics  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
David Cressy - Revolutionary England 1640-1642 | JSTOR: Past & Present, No. 181 (Nov., 2003), pp. 35-71
Both an historiographical review of the revisionism debates on the English Civil War and n elaboration of Cressy views that inform his work on the 17thC -- Sees decline and rise of Charles I position linked to explosion of revolutions in every category of English society - not only political and religious - and Parliamentarians failure to manage or bring under control. Civil War when governing class, long anxious re social change, took different sides in what to be done. The conflict continued to play out the next 2 decades. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  historiography  change-social  social_history  cultural_history  17thC  British_history  British_politics  English_Civil_War  religious_history  religious_culture  church_history  politics-and-religion  monarchy  Absolutism  mixed_government  middle_class  lower_orders  public_sphere  public_opinion  local_government  godly_persons  Laudian  Church_of_England  Puritans  Presbyterians  City_politics  merchants  mercantilism  Protestant_International  anti-Catholic  elite_culture  landed_interest  gentry  court_culture  courtiers  legal_system  legal_culture  common_law  James_I  Charles_I  downloaded  English_constitution 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
John Walter - Confessional Politics in Pre-Civil War Essex: Prayer Books, Profanations, and Petitions | JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Sep., 2001), pp. 677-701
This article contributes to the debate over the value of petitions for the recovery of 'public opinion' in early modern England. It argues for a greater attentiveness to the politics and processes in their production. An analysis of a hitherto unknown draft Essex 'prayer book' petition explores the construction of contrasting royalist and parliamentarian confessional politics. A reading of the content of the petitions offers evidence of the popular response to the Laudian ceremonialism; a reconstruction of the politics of its production provides evidence of the attempt to construct a political alliance in support of the crown around defence of the prayer book; a reconstruction of the occasion for the petition - the capture of the Essex grand jury by the godly and well affected - suggests a very different, and ultimately more successful, confessional parliamentarian politics. In identifying the critical role played by the middling sort - translating their role in the politics of the parish to the politics of the state - the article argues that a marriage of the research strategy of the social historian with the agenda of a 'new political history' will help to establish the enlarged social depth to the public sphere in early modern England. -- huge bibliography -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  social_history  political_history  historiography  17thC  British_history  British_politics  English_Civil_War  religious_history  Laudian  godly_persons  Puritans  political_culture  religious_culture  petitions  Royalists  Parliamentarians  Church_of_England  local_politics  local_government  middle_class  public_sphere  public_opinion  Bolingbroke-family  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Marilyn Silverman and P. H. Gulliver - 'Common Sense' and 'Governmentality': Local Government in Southeastern Ireland, 1850-1922 | JSTOR: The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. 12, No. 1 (Mar., 2006), pp. 109-127
Early paradigms in political anthropology identified formal government councils as a subject for cross-cultural comparison (structural functionalism) or as a political resource for goal-orientated actors (transactionalism). Recent concerns with power and regulation can also profit from a focus on local-level government councils by using them to explore the conceptual and empirical linkages between 'common sense' and 'governmentality'. In this article, as a point of entry, we highlight a key moment in the history of Britain's colonial and hegemonic project in Ireland, namely the orderly administrative transition from colony to state which occurred in Ireland after 1919. By constructing a historical narrative of a local government council in the southeast after 1850, and of its material and discursive bases, we show how the actions and ideologies of elite farmers were implicated in this orderly administrative transition and, therefore, how the concepts of governmentality, hegemony, and common sense might be linked. -- interesting discussion of 2nd half of 20thC shift from stucturalist-functionalist to transactionalism to seeing power everywhere but with different focus (Gramsci materialist and production of internally contradictory common sense) and Foucault (more discourse and self formation) with different views of verticality of power. With everything becoming political economic, loss of interest in governmental units that had been central to comparative stucturalist-functionalist system analysis.
article  jstor  social_theory  methodology  lit_survey  structuralist  poststructuralist  historical_change  agency  anthropology  philosophy_of_social_science  levels_of_analyis  Gramsci  Foucault  governmentality  local_government  government_officials  governing_class  political_culture  political_economy  hegemony  Ireland  19thC  20thC  UK_Government  UK_government-colonies  local_politics  bibliography  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
The 1662 Settlement Act | Victorian Web
Explains Settlement Certificate, how it affected population migration, segregation of labor markets and impact on wages, parish governance - legislative text
17thC  18thC  British_history  British_politics  Parliament  local_government  Poor_Laws  poverty  parish  migration  agriculture  landowners  labor  Labor_markets  wages  legislation  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Issue TOC and Introduction, Nicholas Rogers - Making the English Middle Class, ca. 1700-1850 | JSTOR: Journal of British Studies, Vol. 32, No. 4, Oct., 1993
Introduction (pp. 299-304) Nicholas Rogers [downloaded] *--* (1) "A Just and Profitable Commerce": Moral Economy and the Middle Classes in 18thC London (pp. 305-332) Susan E. Brown [questions "aristocratic century" - independent merchants and bourgeoisie in leading charities, urban politics, polite culture etc. Didn't fit a consistent deference pattern; members of middle class could be on all sides of Poor Laws, so Thompson's bipolar moral economy overstates lack of variation in middle and intermediary functions, especially when drawing on civic traditions that didn't depend on aristocracy leadership] *--* (2) Racism, Imperialism, and the Traveler's Gaze in 18thC England (pp. 333-357) Margaret Hunt [unenlightened middle class elements eg freemasonry could be as xenophobic as cosmopolitan; attention to racial, ethnic difference could also be used to stigmatise the poor and set middle class apart] *--* (3) The Masonic Moment; Or, Ritual, Replica, and Credit: John Wilkes, the Macaroni Parson, and the Making of the Middle-Class Mind (pp. 358-395) John Money. *--* (4) "Middle-Class" Domesticity Goes Public: Gender, Class, and Politics from Queen Caroline to Queen Victoria (pp. 396-432) Dror Wahrman [middle class as defenders of family, domesticity, separate spheres only after won political status in 1832 - nobody adopted Hannah More's vision until decades later - use of the term by others or as self identifier is all over the map, even in the same report or work, stabilizing only c 1830s] -- downloaded Rogers pdf to Note
article  jstor  social_history  cultural_history  political_history  political_economy  political_culture  18thC  19thC  British_history  British_politics  urbanization  urban_politics  urban_elites  middle_class  aristocracy  politeness  consumerism  travel  xenophobia  racism  poverty  Poor_Laws  merchants  mercantilism  commercial_interest  interest_groups  corporatism  free_trade  Freemasonry  gender  family  domesticity  moral_economy  creditors  debtors  dissenters  local_government  political_nation  oligarchy  Parliament  anti-Jacobin  Loyalists  American_Revolution  French_Revolution  imperialism  London  status  rank  nouveaux_riches  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Neal Garnham - Local Elite Creation in Early Hanoverian Ireland: The Case of the County Grand Jury | JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 42, No. 3 (Sep., 1999), pp. 623-642
The years immediately after the Glorious Revolution saw the Irish parliament establish itself as an active legislative body. Local government in the country then received something of a fillip, both through legislative action in Dublin, and by reason of the extended period of social and political stability that followed the end of Queen Anne's reign. This essay seeks to outline the responsibilities and functions of the grand jury in Ireland, and thus to establish its position as perhaps the most important component in the governance of provincial Ireland. Further to this it attempts to analyse the social composition of juries through a study of the methods of selection, and the attendant qualification criteria. The available evidence suggests that despite its extensive power and influence, membership of the grand jury was not completely monopolized by the land-owning Anglican elite. Rather, service on the grand jury reached some way down the social scale, and could be undertaken by men from outside the established church. Over time, however, jurors came to be selected from a diminishing pool of candidates: a practice which led to the creation of a largely homogeneous local administrative elite. -- didn't download
article  jstor  political_history  political_culture  18thC  Ireland  local_government  landowners-Ireland-Anglo_elite  Whigs-oligarchy  governing_class  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Jacqueline Hill - Convergence and Conflict in 18thC Ireland | JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 44, No. 4 (Dec., 2001), pp. 1039-1063
Recent writing shows that eighteenth-century Irish society was both less and more divided than was supposed by Lecky, whose "History of Ireland in the eighteenth century" (now over a century old) dominated so much subsequent historiography. Because Lecky enjoyed access to records that were subsequently destroyed his work will never be entirely redundant, but this article looks at ways in which his views have been and continue to be modified. It surveys the various interpretative models now being used to open up the period, which invite comparisons not merely with England, Scotland, Wales, and colonial America but also with Europe. It also considers how that endlessly fascinating decade, the 1790s, has emerged from the spotlight turned on it by a plethora of bicentenary studies. -- fabulous bibliography of work in last few decades -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  historiography  18thC  Ireland  political_history  political_culture  religious_history  religious_culture  Anglo-Irish_constitution  Catholics-Ireland  Protestants-Ireland  Whigs-oligarchy  local_government  gentry  penal_laws  Catholic_emancipation  Jacobite-Ireland  Anglican  United_Irishmen  Irish_Rebellion  Union_1800  Britain-invasion  British_foreign_policy  British_Empire  republicanism  patriotism  national_ID  Atlantic  Three_Kingdoms  Ancien_régime  French_Revolution  French_Revolutionary_Wars  American_Revolution  governing_class  government_officials  church_history  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Review by: Jim Smyth - Jacqueline Hill, From Patriots to Unionists: Dublin Civil Politics and Irish Protestant Patriotism, 1660-1840 | JSTOR: Albion: A Quarterly Journal Concerned with British Studies, Vol. 31, No. 1 (Spring, 1999), pp. 182-184
Another positive and interesting review -- the guild mentality arises in 1740s with southern Irish freemen becoming economically important, mobilized by Lucas against municipal grandees - the municipality in defense of ancient liberties takes on English parliament and AngloIrish constitutional issues more than Irish parliament. The earlier "defense of liberties" against Queen Anne's Tory ministry was celebrated by Patriots thru the century, but the constellation of interests and issues were actually quite different. -- didn't download
books  reviews  jstor  political_history  political_culture  18thC  Ireland  Dublin  local_government  Anglo-Irish_constitution  Union_1800  guilds  corporatism  Ancien_régime  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Review by: S. J. Connolly - Jacqueline Hill, From Patriots to Unionists: Dublin Civic Politics and Irish Protestant Patriotism 1660-1840 | JSTOR: Eighteenth-Century Ireland / Iris an dá chultúr, Vol. 13 (1998), pp. 178-180
Interesting review that puts the Whig patriot tendency in Dublin local government into perspective of corporatist rather than liberal or republican tradition. Helps explain the battle with the Tories and High Church during last 4 years of Queen Anne. Connolly highlights areas where he thinks corporatism doesn't work or is one thread in a more complex story. -- didn't download
books  reviews  jstor  political_history  political_culture  17thC  18thC  19thC  Ireland  Dublin  local_government  corporatism  Ancien_régime  Bolingbroke  High_Church  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Frank O'Gorman, review essay - Approaches to Hanoverian Society JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 39, No. 2 (Jun., 1996), pp. 521-534
(1) Philanthropy and Police: London Charity in the Eighteenth Century by Donna T. Andrew; *--* (2) The Language of Liberty: Political Discourse and Social Dynamics in the Anglo-American World by J. C. D. Clark; *--* (3) Stilling the Grumbling Hive. The Response to Social and Economic Problems in England, 1689-1750 by L. Davison; *--* (4) Riot, Risings and Revolution. Governance and Violence in Eighteenth- Century England by Ian Gilmour; *--* (5) A Patriot Press. National Politics and the London Press in the 1740s by Robert Harris; *--* (6) Judging New Wealth. Popular Publishing and Responses to Commerce in England, 1750-1850 by James Raven; *--* (7)The Local Origins of Modern Society. Gloucestershire 1500-1800 by David Rollison; *--* (8) An Imperial State at War: Britain from 1689 to 1815 by Lawrence Stone; *--* (9) Protest and Survival: The Historical Experience. Essays for E. P. Thompson by John Rule; Robert Malcolmson -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  bookshelf  article  jstor  political_history  cultural_history  political_culture  social_history  political_economy  17thC18thC  19thC  British_politics  British_Empire  UK_economy  UK_Government  UK_government-colonies  British_foreign_policy  military_history  political_press  class_conflict  local_government  political_philosophy  charity  crime  violence  riots  lower_orders  mercantilism  luxury  status  nouveaux_riches  governing_class  governmentality  fiscal-military_state  popular_culture  popular_politics  populism  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
G. William Domhoff - Power at the Local Level: Growth Coalition Theory | Who Rules America
Theory of local "growth coalitions" and history of urban policy and public administration institutions growing out of Good Government battles against Democratic Party machines and Socialists. Rockefeller Foundation and University of Chicago building nationwide urban policy network of thinktanks through Progressive and New Deal era. Electoral and managerial "reforms" (off yr & nonpartisan elections, citywide councils w/ no or minimal pay), city managers) that defanged threats from immigrant, Negro & Socialist politicians, foreclosed working class participation in governing bodies etc.

The idea that the heart of a local power structure is provided by those businesses concerned with local real estate values explains what had been considered a perplexing issue in what was once called the "community power literature:" the relative absence of industrial executives as top leaders within the city..... manufacturers usually are not concerned with land values unless they are also big landowners as well. Their focus is on making profits through the sale of products in regional, national, and international markets. For an industrialist, any given locality is merely a site for production that can be abandoned with a fair amount of ease if it becomes too costly, .... Their power is not in their involvement in local government but in their ability to move, which ... creates an underlying tension between the two sets of interests.

Since a great many specific government decisions can affect land values and growth potentialities, leaders of the growth coalition are prime participants in local government. Their involvement is even greater than that of corporate capitalists at the national level, where the power elite can rely to some extent on such "signals" as stock prices, interest rates, and the level of new investments to tell government officials what they think of current policies.

Due to the separation of local, state, and national government in the United States, the wily members of the local growth coalition are able to have it both ways. At the state and national levels they support those politicians who oppose, in the name of fiscal and monetary responsibility, the kinds of government policies that might create more jobs, whereas at the local level they talk in terms of their attempts to create more jobs. Their goal is never profits, but only jobs.
19thC  20thC  US_history  urban  urbanization  political_history  political_press  politics-and-money  urban_politics  US_economy  US_politics  political_economy  political_culture  local_government  business  elites  networks  investment  profit  property  Labor_markets  conservatism  lobbying  landowners  economic_growth  off-shoring  urban_development  suburbs  parties  elections  Great_Depression  US_politics-race  EF-add 
november 2013 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Black, reviews - Alliances, Duelling, and Social Policy | Eighteenth-Century Studies (2011)
Project MUSE - Jeremy Black. "Alliances, Duelling, and Social Policy." Eighteenth-Century Studies 45.1 (2011): 140-142 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Works reviewed: --**-- Marco Cesa, Allies yet Rivals: International Politics in 18th Century Europe (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2010). Pp. xi + 294.$55.00. --**-- Stephen Banks, A Polite Exchange of Bullets: The Duel and the English Gentleman 1750–1850 (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2010). Pp. vii + 317. $115.00. --**'- Joanna Innes, Inferior Politics: Social Problems and Social Policies in Eighteenth-Century Britain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009). Pp. xviii + 364. $110.00.
books  reviews  18thC  IR  alliances  balance_of_power  British_history  social_history  crime  local_government  honor  status  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Anthony Molho: Recent Works on the History of Tuscany: Fifteenth to Eighteenth Centuries (1990)
JSTOR: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Mar., 1990), pp. 57-77 -- among other things, model of centralizing Renaissance state being substituted with dualistic (more powerful prince and reinforcement of corporate liberties, especially territorial) - and accommodation between secular leadership and Papacy re governance
article  jstor  lit_survey  historiography  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  Italy  state-building  Papacy  Italian_Wars  local_government  bibliography  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Michael Braddick: State Formation and Social Change in Early Modern England: A Problem Stated and Approaches Suggested (1991)
JSTOR: Social History, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Jan., 1991), pp. 1-17 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- the theoretical background to Braddick work on local government, taxation, authority and challenges in Three Kingdoms etc -- focus on state building process not on state as entity
article  jstor  historiography  historical_sociology  17thC  British_history  UK_Government  British_politics  social_history  local_government  taxes  fiscal-military_state  state-building  nation-state  English_Civil_War  political_culture  Ireland  Scotland 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Review essay: Linda Colley and Mark Goldie - The Principles and Practice of Eighteenth-Century Party (1979)
JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Mar., 1979), pp. 239-246 -- downloaded pdf to Note --Works reviewed: --**-- Parliament, Policy and Politics in the Reign of William III by Henry Horwitz;  --**-- The Growth of Parliamentary Parties 1689-1742 by B. W. Hill; Stability and Strife 1714-1760 by W. A. Speck;  --**-- Revolution Principles: The Politics of Party 1689-1720 by J. P. Kenyon; --**--  Liberty and Property: Political Ideology in Eighteenth Century Britain by H. T. Dickinson
books  bookshelf  reviews  jstor  17thC  18thC  political_history  Britain  British_history  British_politics  parties  Whigs  Whig_Junto  Tories  William_III  Queen_Anne  George_I  George_II  Walpole  Bolingbroke  provinces  local_government  elections  Country_Party  Whigs-opposition  ideology  elites  public_opinion  political_press  political_culture  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Review essay by: Dan Beaver - Religion, Politics, and Society in Early Modern England: A Problem of Classification (1994)
JSTOR: Journal of British Studies, Vol. 33, No. 3 (Jul., 1994), pp. 314-322 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Works reviewed: --**-- The Politics of Religion in Restoration England by Tim Harris; Paul Seaward; Mark Goldie; --**-- The Family in the English Revolution by Christopher Durston;  --**-- Death, Ritual, and Bereavement by Ralph Houlbrooke;  --**-- Sin and Society in the Seventeenth Century by John Addy
books  reviews  historiography  religious_history  political_history  church_history  social_history  political_culture  cultural_history  17thC  Britain  British_politics  Church_of_England  dissenters  English_Civil_War  Restoration  Exclusion_Crisis  Glorious_Revolution  family  population  local_government  provinces  reformation_of_manners  sin  judiciary  Puritans  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Derek Hirst: The Place of Principle [in Early Stuart conflict] (1981) | P&P
JSTOR: Past & Present, No. 92 (Aug., 1981), pp. 79-99 -- with T Rabb on role of Commons responding to Early Stuart revisionists (eg Sharpe, Russell)-- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  historiography  revisionism  17thC  Britain  British_history  British_politics  James_I  Charles_I  English_Civil_War  UK_Government  local_government  aristocracy  political_culture  religious_culture  Puritans  Church_of_England  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Junko Thérèse Takeda: French Absolutism, Marseillais Civic Humanism, and the Languages of Public Good (2006)
JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 49, No. 3 (Sep., 2006), pp. 707-734 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- This article contributes to current historical knowledge on the relationship between Crown and local municipal power in Old Regime France. In particular, it examines the political language of bien public mobilised by Marseillais elites and royal administrators between 1660 and 1700 in the context of French commercial expansion. Traditionally, 'public good' could be understood in two distinct ways. Derived from royal absolutist doctrine, public good was what the king willed to preserve the state, a collection of diverse, corporate bodies held together by royal justice and reason. Derived from civic humanistic, municipal traditions, public good was the united will of the civic community. Investigating three moments where these two definitions of public good converged and collided - during Marseille's urban expansion (1666), in the local justification of modern commerce, and in the deliberations at the Council of Commerce (1700) - this article points to several mutations in the language of public good at the end of the seventeenth century. Pointing to the convergence of civic humanistic and absolutist traditions, this article demonstrates that centralisation under Louis XIV, rather than obscuring local traditions, allowed for the intensification of civic humanistic, republican sensibilities.
article  jstor  political_history  political_culture  17thC  France  Absolutism  local_government  civic_humanism  republicanism  commerce  common_good  Louis_XIV  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Zhang Monan: Chinese Reform Goes Local - Project Syndicate August 2013
Indeed, while China’s overall capital stock is by no means small, capital-structure and maturity mismatches have led to the accumulation of massive volumes of non-performing assets, undermining China’s economic stability and financial efficiency. In order to create the stability needed to reach the next stage of economic development, China must shift its focus from sustaining high GDP growth toward revitalizing its capital stock.

If China’s leaders are genuinely committed to revitalizing the capital stock, they must begin with fiscal and financial decentralization. Such an approach would promote efficiency, stability, innovation, and dynamism at the local level – exactly what China needs to support its progress toward advanced-economy status.
economic_growth  capital  investment  SOEs  banking  China  development  local_government  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader

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