dunnettreader + leaders   4

"Locating Rousseau's Legislator in Social Contract" by Courtney C. Nussbaumer (2011)
Courtney C. Nussbaumer, Macalester College -- It is challenging to define precisely what role the legislator plays in Rousseau’s Social Contract; however, when viewed in light of the ancient guardians, the role of the legislator becomes less obscure. This paper pursues the similarities between Rousseau’s concept of the legislator and Plato’s concept of the guardian while also exploring the poignant differences between the two. One cannot help but notice their fundamental similarities such as the superior character and intelligence of the legislator and how each communicates with the people. Their ultimate purpose and legitimacy differs, however, in that the legislator plays a more esoteric role in his relation to the people to order to persuade them of his ideas. Conversely, the guardian’s purpose is one of enlightenment through reason; he never has to persuade anyone of anything. -- Nussbaumer, Courtney C. (2011) "Locating Rousseau's Legislator in the Social Contract," The Macalester Review: Vol. 1: Iss. 1, Article 4. Available at: http://digitalcommons.macalester.edu/macreview/vol1/iss1/4 -- downloaded pdf to Note
political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  Plato  Plato-Republic  Rousseau  social_contract  leaders  reason  legitimacy  lawmaker  downloaded 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Ajay Mehra, Andrea L. Dixon, Daniel J. Brass and Bruce Robertson - The Social Network Ties of Group Leaders: Implications for Group Performance and Leader Reputation | JSTOR: Organization Science, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Jan. - Feb., 2006), pp. 64-79
This paper uses data from the sales division of a financial services firm to investigate how a leader's centrality in external and internal social networks is related to the objective performance of the leader's group, and to the leader's personal reputation for leadership among subordinates, peers, and supervisors. External social network ties were based on the friendship ties among all 88 of the division's sales group leaders and the 10 high-ranking supervisors to whom they reported. Internal social network ties consisted of 28 separate networks, each representing the set of friendship relations among all members of a given sales group. Objective group performance data came directly from company records. Data on each group leader's personal reputation for leadership was based on the perceptions of three different constituencies: subordinates, peers, and supervisors. Results revealed that leaders' centrality in external and internal friendship networks was related both to objective measures of group performance and to their reputation for leadership among different organizational constituencies. -- see bibliography on jstor information page -- didn't download
article  jstor  social_theory  social_capital  reputation  leaders  networks-social  networks-business  networks-architecture  bibliography  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Joseph Henrich - A cultural species: How culture drove human evolution | Science Brief - Am Psychological Assoc Nov 2011
Recognizing the centrality of culture in human life leads to a novel evolutionary theory of status and status psychology. Evolutionary researchers have tended to assume that human status is merely an extension of primate dominance hierarchies. However, because humans are so heavily dependent on an information economy for survival, our species has evolved a second avenue to social status that operates alongside dominance and has its own suite of cognitive and affective processes. -- This work connects with the emotion literature where prior empirical studies had indicated the existence of two facets for the emotion pride—labeled authentic and hubristic pride. Our ongoing efforts suggest that hubristic pride is associated with dominance-status and authentic pride with prestige-status. -- Much empirical work treats status as a uni-dimensional construct, and then unknowingly operationalizes it as either prestige or dominance, or some mix of the two. -- The cultural evolution of norms over tens or hundreds of thousands of years, and their shaping by cultural group selection, may have driven genetic evolution to create a suite of cognitive adaptations we call norm psychology. -- This suite facilitates, among other things, our identification and learning of social norms, our expectation of sanctions for norm violations, and our ability to internalize normative behavior as motivations. This approach also predicts that humans ought to be inclined to “over-imitate” for two different evolutionary reasons, one informational and the other normative. The informational view hypothesizes that people over-imitate because of an evolved reliance on cultural learning to adaptively acquire complex and cognitively-opaque skills, techniques and practices that have been honed, often in nuanced and subtle ways, over generations. However, because individuals should also “over-imitate” because human societies have long been full of arbitrary norms (behaviors) for which the “correct” performance is crucial to one’s reputation (e.g., rituals, etiquette), we expect future investigations to reveal two different kinds of over-imitation. -- The selection pressures created by reputational damage and punishment for norm-violation may also favour norm-internalization. Neuroeconomic studies suggest that social norms are in fact internalized as intrinsic motivations in people’s brains.
biocultural_evolution  social_psychology  norms  status  power  leaders  learning  children  innate_ideas  incentives  behavioral_economics  moral_psychology  emotions  morality-conventional  sociology_of_religion  trust  cooperation  Innovation  tools  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader

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