dunnettreader + language   32

Embodied Cognition (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
1. Embodied vs Traditional Cognitive Science
2. Some Historical Anchors for Embodied Cognitive Science
2.1 Metaphor and Cognition
2.2 Enactive Cognition.
2.3 Rethinking Robotics.
2.4 Ecological Perception.
2.5 Dynamicism and Development
2.6 Phenomenology
3. What Embodied Cognition Is
4. Embodiment vs Tradition on Three Issues
4.1 Modularity
4.2 Mental Representation.
4.3 Nativism
5. Empirical Domains for Embodied Cognition
5.1 Visual Consciousness
5.2 Concepts
5.3 Memory.
5.4 Other Minds.
5.5 Moral Cognition.
6. Sharper Divides Over Embodied Cognition
6.1 Payoffs for empirical research.
6.2 Accommodation by traditional cognitive science
6.3 Embodied cognition and the extended mind thesis.
6.4 Agency, the self, and subjectivity.
bibliography  philosophy_of_mind  mind-body  mind  embodied_cognition  neuroscience  phenomenology  innatism  innate_ideas  theory_of_mind  perception  memory  cognition  emotions  representation-metaphysics  child_development  language  moral_psychology 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Rebecca Walkowitz — Translating the Untranslatable: An Interview with Barbara Cassin | Public Books July 2014
The US version was published earlier this year ... Edited by Emily Apter, Jacques Lezra, and Michael Wood, the 1,300-page Dictionary retains the original introduction, most of the entries, and an orientation toward Europe, but it has also been adjusted and supplemented for US audiences. Apter’s robust preface documents the enormous complexity and scale involved in translating intraduisibles. One of the most provocative and important contributions of the Vocabulaire is its insistence that philosophical concepts, often assumed to be transhistorical and universal, in fact have a history in languages. The editions, adaptations, and translations of the project are important too, however, because they show that philosophical concepts have a history in books as well. The Vocabulaire may be a multilingual project, whose entries collate and compare terms in more than a dozen languages, but the editions are not all multilingual in the same way and for the same reasons. Whereas the Ukrainian editors sought to expand the vocabulary and prestige of their language, their US counterparts were more concerned to acknowledge and mitigate Anglophone dominance. The books are different structurally and economically as well as linguistically. The Ukrainian and Arabic editions have appeared only in parts, while the US edition appears as a whole. In tongues with fewer readers and fewer resources, publishing one part helps to fund a subsequent part. That kind of funding is not necessary for most books published in English. -- Pocket
interview  books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  cultural_history  language-history  language  translation  philosophy  antiquity  publishing  language-national  concepts-change  Pocket 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Gloria Balderas, Opinion Article - Habits as learning enhancers (2014) | Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Opinion ARTICLE -- Frontiers of Human Neuroscience., 14 November 2014 | doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00918- Departamento de Filosofía, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain -- Introduction - Habits are usually associated with both a positive and a negative consequence. The positive consequence is that habits liberate attentional resources and mechanisms, thus enabling organisms to perform simultaneous or more complex actions. The negative consequence is that habits become rigid behaviors which persist despite producing harmful outcomes, as in addictions and some neurological disorders. This article proposes that habits also function as learning enhancers. The plausibility of this statement is supported by results from research on word-trained dogs. (..) Evidence has been found that dogs are able to fast map. In studies of language acquisition, the ability to make accurate assumptions about the referent of an unfamiliar word is called fast mapping, a phenomenon that has been observed especially in toddlers. This article argues that the training in words forms habits that predispose dogs to establish a new word-object association. The definition of learning as ontogenetic adaptation and the hierarchical view of habit are expounded in Section Learning and Habits. Taking into account these notions, the results of experiments on fast mapping in dogs are presented in Section Fast Mapping in Dogs and Learned Habits, to show that habits work as learning enhancers. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  neuroscience  learning  habit  fast_mapping  language  development  development-biological  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Tom Jones - Pope's "Epistle to Bathurst" and the Meaning of Finance | JSTOR: Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Summer, 2004), pp. 487-504
This article attempts to show that Alexander Pope's argument and poetic technique in the Epistle to Bathurst challenge the idea that words are like money or other economic tokens. Reading against the recent characterization of Pope's work as nostalgic, this piece takes issue with the corollary established by J. G. A. Pocock and others between financial change and linguistic uncertainty in the early eighteenth century. It presents Pope as a skeptical thinker aware of the radical contingency of all human values, more in line with David Hume than earlier writers on money. It suggests that Pope's imitative meter is an investigation of this contingency of value. -- Yeah ! -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  18thC  English_lit  Pope  political_economy  moral_economy  finance_capital  financial_innovation  language  semiotics  values  historical_change  scepticism  contingency  morality-conventional  social_order  Pocock  commerce  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
The High Style (general note). - Harvard Chaucer site
Chaucer's contemporaries and successors regarded works in that style as his finest accomplishment. His younger contemporary, John Lydgate, hailed Chaucer as the first to "distill and rain the golden dew-drops of eloquence" into the English tongue. -- The style was partly a matter of diction, with a heavy use of Latin and French borrowings and partly a matter of versification, including the elegant rime royal stanza, which became the standard for elegant verse in the centuries that followed. But even more important was the skilled use of the arts of a matter of "rhetoric," which was understood to be not the art of persuasion as we usually define it today, but the art of producing elegantly-adorned verse. Thus Petrarch, the Italian poet, is regarded as a "rhetor," and rhetoric is regarded as the art of great poetry:
Chaucer  English_lit  poetry  Medieval  language  style  rhetoric  topos 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
The Loss of Final -e - Harvard Chaucer site
It is worth noting that this aspect of Chaucer's verse was unknown for centuries. By Shakespeare's time the final -e had been lost. That is why, though Shakespeare's pronunciation differed from our own, it is possible to read his works in a modern pronunciation: the rhythm of his lines remains the same, no matter how the vowels are pronounced, because except for a few exceptions ("Out damnéd spot!"), Shakespeare treated what had become in his time the "silent e" in the same way we do. Consequently, when Shakespeare read Chaucer he omitted the final -e, treating it as silent. The meter was ruined; though Shakespeare greatly admired Chaucer, he and his contemporaries thought that Chaucer was an archaic poet who could not write a smooth and pleasing meter in those distant early times. So too did John Dryden, who idolized Chaucer but thought he wrote in "the infancy of our Poetry". Not until the the late eighteenth century did scholars discover and demonstrate the importance of the final -e for Chaucer's versification.
Chaucer  English_lit  poetry  language  meter  Shakespeare  Dryden  14thC  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
The Great Vowel Shift
Site dedicated to the Great Vowel Shift with audio samples - plug ins don't work on Chrome
English_lit  language  Medieval  Latin_lit  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
The Authority of Obscurity: Fludd, Hamann, Heidegger, Kripke - Waggish 2012
Re Kripke's revival of obscurantist essentialist metaphysics based on "intuitions" -- The shorter version of this, again, is: saying makes it so. The way in which we use language somehow makes it possible to generate claims about metaphysical necessity. Can we rigidly refer to Nixon? That seems to be the shaky ground on which cart and horse must ride.

For someone like myself who thinks that simply naming something isn’t even sufficient to be certain it exists, Kripke is far off the mark, but again, that is beside the point here. My consideration here is with the rhetorical tactics involved and how they echo past thinkers who presume a familiarity with the inner nature of reality and use a certain sort of authoritative language to proclaim it.
intellectual_history  metaphysics  theology  language  philosophy_of_language  esotericism  alchemy  macro-microcosm  symbol  analogy  16thC  18thC  20thC  Counter-Enlightenment  Germany  Heidegger  analytical_philosophy  Quine  essence  essentialism  EF-add 
april 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard Marshall interview - Peter Godfrey-Smith - philosophy of biology » 3:AM Magazine April 2014
Peter Godfrey-Smith is the go-to guy in the philosophy of biology. He is forever evolving his thoughts on externalism, complexity and why we shouldn’t expect a settled outcome, the contribution of pragmatists to philosophy of biology, why Fodor gets it wrong, on how best to understand what science is, on Darwinian theory, Darwinian populations, on why Richard Dawkins and David Hull are wrong and on the contribution of philosophy to biology. Like Cool Hand Luke, this one bites like a ‘gator!
philosophy_of_science  biology  evolution  evolutionary_biology  pragmatism  mind  mind-body  language  Darwinism  behavioralism  EF-add 
april 2014 by dunnettreader
Corey W. Dyck, review - Avi Lifschitz, Language and Enlightenment: The Berlin Debates of the Eighteenth Century // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // Dec 2013
For its competition of 1771, the Berlin Academy of Sciences asked: "Supposing men abandoned to their natural faculties, are they in a position to invent language? And by what means will they arrive at this invention?" The winning essay was Herder's "On the Origin of Language." This was actually the Academy's 2nd on language. In 1759 they asked: "What is the reciprocal influence of the opinions of people on language, and of language on opinions?" The winner was the orientalist Johann David Michaelis. Lifschitz's lucid and engaging book is about the 1759 contest, as he considers the historical, philosophical, and political circumstances that led to its proposal and the broader scholarly views of Michaelis. -- While one might quibble with Lifschitz's attempt to find deep roots in the Leibnizian-Wolffian philosophy for the 1759 Academy question, there is no doubting that in Berlin of the 1750s a number of thinkers took an active interest in language, its role in framing social institutions, and its relation to the mind, primarily under the influence of the work of Condillac and Rousseau. These include the president of the Academy, Maupertuis, and Moses Mendelssohn There was also lively discussion among Academy members regarding the (synchronic) connection between language and opinions, esp French as the language of the Academy. -- Already in the 1750s ...mainstream Enlightenment figures recognized the "linguistic rootedness of all human forms of life" and the importance of language as a "tool of cognition". Lifschitz rightly contends [this counters the story that such a view ], with its focus on the historical and non-rational aspects of human nature, [came from counter-Enlightenment figures] such as Herder and Hamann. [This directly] challenge[s] the characterization ... in Isaiah Berlin's seminal studies [as well as more recent studies] such as Michael Forster's work on Herder's philosophy of language. ...Herder's claim, as characterized by Forster, that "thought is essentially dependent upon and bounded by language" and that "one cannot think unless one has a language and one can only think what one can express linguistically" must be taken in the broader context of these earlier philosophical (and political) debates.
books  reviews  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  1750s  1760s  1770s  Enlightenment  Germany  French_Enlightenment  philosophy_of_language  human_nature  language-national  language  language-history  Biblical_criticism  perception  cognition  historicism  Hobbes  Locke  Condillac  Rousseau  Leibniz  Wolff  Mendelssohn  Herder  Hamann  academies  social_theory  Counter-Enlightenment  Berlin_Isaiah  Frederick_the_Great  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Donald W. Hanson - Reconsidering Hobbes's Conventionalism | JSTOR: The Review of Politics, Vol. 53, No. 4 (Autumn, 1991), pp. 627-651
Hobbes's linguistic conventionalism is one of the most obvious themes of his work. But it has not been considered as closely as it should be, given its prominence. I argue that Hobbes reworked quite traditional materials in such a way as to produce a novel doctrine, but that this novelty did not involve him in the implausible claim that issues of scientific truth and proof could be settled simply on the basis of linguistic agreement. Rather, he grounded his conventionalism in the prelinguistic, naturally given experience he called "mental discourse," and then linked it to the effort to outflank contemporary skepticism. For these reasons, Hobbes's specific form of conventionalism can then be seen to be central both to the limits of his claims and to what he thought could be established with a certainty robust enough to withstand skeptical challenge. -- bibliography -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  philosophy_of_language  philosophy_of_science  epistemology  17thC  Hobbes  conventionalism-linguistic  scepticism  language  experimental_philosophy  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Numen - The Latin Lexicon - An Online Latin Dictionary - A Dictionary of the Latin Language
The Latin Lexicon (nicknamed Numen) is an online Latin dictionary (a dictionary of the Latin Language) and Latin grammar tool based on multiple sources, including both An Elementary Latin Dictionary (by Charlton T. Lewis) and A Latin Dictionary (by Lewis & Short). This online dictionary is different from any other you've ever used. It has been built from the ground up using AJAX technology to allow the fastest, most efficient and most useful user interface. Oh, and it includes macrons!
dictionary  language  Latin_lit 
october 2013 by dunnettreader
John Dewey: How We Think (1910) | George Herbert Mead Project
John Dewey. How we think. Lexington, Mass: D.C. Heath, (1910)

Part One: The Problem of Training Thought

Chapter One: What is Thought?

Chapter Two: The Need for Training Thought

Chapter Three: Natural Resources in the Training of Thought

Chapter Four: School Conditions and the Training of Thought

Chapter Five: The Means and End of Mental Training: The Psychological and The Logical

Part Two: Logical Considerations

Chapter Six: The Analysis of a Complete Act of Thought

Chapter Seven: Systematic Inference: Induction and Deduction

Chapter Eight: Judgment: the Interpretation of Facts

Chapter Nine: Meaning: or Conceptions and Understanding

Chapter Ten: Concrete and Abstract Thinking

Chapter Eleven: Empirical and Scientific Thinking

Part Three: The Training of Thought

Chapter Twelve: Activity and the Training of Thought

Chapter Thirteen: Language and the Training of Thought

Chapter Fourteen: Observation and Information in the Training of Mind

Chapter Fifteen: The Recitation and the Training of Thought

Chapter Sixteen: Some General Conclusions

Notes
books  online_texts  Dewey  intellectual_history  20thC  US_history  mind  psychology  thought  logic  language  education  meaning  concepts  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Adam R. Beach: The Creation of a Classical Language in the Eighteenth Century: Standardizing English, Cultural Imperialism, and the Future of the Literary Canon (2001)
JSTOR: Texas Studies in Literature and Language, Vol. 43, No. 2 (SUMMER 2001), pp. 117-141 -- good bibliography both primary sources and recent work especially on Scottish Enlightenment like Mondobo and Kames with linguistic theories linked to theories of stadial history of civilizing process - fears native languages and dialects of periphery of Three Kingdoms made Britain "barbariand" -- ambitions for English to become 3rd classical language with analogies to Rome
article  jstor  literary_history  intellectual_history  language  imperialism  18thC  19thC  Britain  Scottish_Enlightenment  English_lit  canon  historiography-18thC  British_Empire  Three_Kingdoms  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Review essay by: John E. Toews - Intellectual History after the Linguistic Turn: The Autonomy of Meaning and the Irreducibility of Experience (1987)
Heavily cited, see jstor info page - downloaded pdf to Note -- JSTOR: The American Historical Review, Vol. 92, No. 4 (Oct., 1987), pp. 879-907 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Works reviewed: --**-- Worlds Apart: The Market and the Theater in Anglo-American Thought, 1550-1750 by Jean-Christophe Agnew; --**-- In the American Province: Studies in the History and Historiography of Ideas by David A. Hollinger;  --**-- Marxism and Totality: The Adventures of a Concept from Lukacs to Habermas by Martin Jay;  --**-- Munich and Theatrical Modernism: Politics, Playwriting and Performance, 1890-1914 by Peter Jelavich;  --**-- Modern European Intellectual History: Reappraisals and New Perspectives by Dominick LaCapra; --**-- Steven L. Kaplan;  --**-- Rethinking Intellectual History: Texts, Contexts, Language by Dominick LaCapra;  --**-- History and Criticism by Dominick LaCapra; --**-- Prophets of Extremity: Nietzsche, Heidegger, Foucault, Derrida by Allan Megill;  --**-- Virtue, Commerce and History: Essays on Political Thought and History, Chiefly in the Eighteenth Century by J. G. A. Pocock;  --**-- Foucault, Marxismm and History: Mode of Production versus Mode of Information by Mark Poster;  --**-- Philosophy in History by Richard Rorty; J. B. Schneewind; Quentin Skinner;  --**-- The Return of Grand Theory in the Human Sciences by Quentin Skinner
books  bookshelf  historiography  intellectual_history  cultural_history  anthropology  language  social_sciences-post-WWII  Cambridge_School  Pocock  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Gad Prudovsky: Can we Ascribe to Past Thinkers Concepts They had no Linguistic Means to Express? (1997)
JSTOR: History and Theory, Vol. 36, No. 1 (Feb., 1997), pp. 15-31 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- This article takes a clear-cut case in which a historian (Alexander Koyré) ascribes to a writer (Galileo) a concept ("inertial mass") which neither the writer nor his contemporaries had the linguistic means to express. On the face of it the case may seem a violation of a basic methodological maxim in historiography: "avoid anachronistic ascriptions!" The aim of the article is to show that Koyré's ascription, and others of its kind, are legitimate; and that the methodological maxim should not be given the strict reading which some writers recommend. More specifically, the conceptual repertoire of historical figures need not be reconstructed solely in terms of the social and linguistic conventions of their time and place.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  historiography  methodology  language  concepts  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  Cambridge_School  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Kristoffer Neville: Gothicism and Early Modern Historical Ethnography (2009)
JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 70, No. 2 (Apr., 2009), pp. 213-234 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- lots of useful references to the historical claims to Biblical origins of different cultural or ethnic groups from 15thC through 17thC - often on basis of resemblance between contemporary place names and ancient references to barbarian groups
article  jstor  historiography  Bible-as-history  ethnography  language  etymology  15thC  16thC  17thC  Sweden  Germany  Holy_Roman_Empire  Habsburgs  genealogy  Netherlands  antiquity  Tacitus  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Avi Lifschitz, Language and Enlightenment: The Berlin Debates of the Eighteenth Century (2012) - Oxford University Press
What is the role of language in human cognition? Could we attain self-consciousness and construct our civilisation without language? Such were the questions at the basis of eighteenth-century debates on the joint evolution of language, mind, and culture. Language and Enlightenment highlights the importance of language in the social theory, epistemology, and aesthetics of the Enlightenment. While focusing on the Berlin Academy under Frederick the Great, Avi Lifschitz situates the Berlin debates within a larger temporal and geographical framework. He argues that awareness of the historicity and linguistic rootedness of all forms of life was a mainstream Enlightenment notion rather than a feature of the so-called 'Counter-Enlightenment'. Enlightenment authors of different persuasions investigated whether speechless human beings could have developed their language and society on their own. Such inquiries usually pondered the difficult shift from natural signs like cries and gestures to the artificial, articulate words of human language. This transition from nature to artifice was mirrored in other domains of inquiry, such as the origins of social relations, inequality, the arts and the sciences. By examining a wide variety of authors - Leibniz, Wolff, Condillac, Rousseau, Michaelis, and Herder, among others - Language and Enlightenment emphasises the open and malleable character of the eighteenth-century Republic of Letters. The language debates demonstrate that German theories of culture and language were not merely a rejection of French ideas. New notions of the genius of language and its role in cognition were constructed through a complex interaction with cross-European currents, especially via the prize contests at the Berlin Academy.
books  18thC  Enlightenment  Republic_of_Letters  Germany  France  Frederick_the_Great  language  cognition  human_nature  Leibniz  Condillac  Rousseau  social_theory  epistemology  Counter-Enlightenment  academies  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Jeffrey Flynn review: Matthias Vogel, Media of Reason: A Theory of Rationality // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // August 2013
This is an ambitious book. One of its central claims is that artistic action and aesthetic experience are essential dimensions of rationality and must be incorporated into a comprehensive theory of rationality...... Chapter 1 begins by situating the aims of the book in relation to debates over the legacy of the Enlightenment project, focusing mainly on postmodern critics like Lyotard and defenders like Habermas, with some discussion of Rorty. Vogel maintains that a comprehensive theory of rationality that includes nonlinguistic modes of understanding would be less vulnerable to radical critiques of reason. He defines the "process of enlightenment" minimally as "the social process in which we develop and learn to understand our ability to understand" (15), insisting that this must include all possible modes of understanding. Vogel then surveys various theories of rationality, providing an excellent introduction to debates in Germany over the last few decades..... Vogel takes much of his theoretical inspiration from work by Habermas, Davidson, and Dewey. In his approach to rationality, Vogel follows Habermas and Davidson in arguing that a theory of rationality should be based on analyzing competencies that are central to our capacity for understanding, but aims to go beyond their focus mainly on linguistic understanding. In his analysis of artistic activity and aesthetic experience, Vogel takes his main cue from Dewey, who actually used the concept of media in his account of the communicative aspects of aesthetic experience.The book appeared in German in 2001.
books  reviews  kindle-available  20thC  intellectual_history  postmodern  Frankfurt_School  Habermas  Dewey  reason  language  aesthetics  mind  Enlightenment_Project  constructivism  continental_philosophy  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Harold Mah: The Epistemology of the Sentence: Language, Civility, and Identity in France and Germany, Diderot to Nietzsche (1994)
JSTOR: Representations, No. 47 (Summer, 1994), pp. 64-84 From special issue on national culture before nationalism

Downloaded pdf to Note

Considerable discussion of French attempts to link epistemology (17thC rationalists and 18thC sensualist) with language structure - especially Condillac and Diderot. Voltaire and Frederick the Great prejudices pro French and anti German and Latin.

Aporia of civility - honnête homme was initially supposed to be transparent re virtue - by mid 18thC and Rousseau the aporia has become a total inversion- sociability as source of vice by encouraging misleading, self promotion etc

Further discusses French attempts to stabilize civility virtue by relegating politesse to the skeevy domain

Follows Herder, Fichte, Hegel who turn German syntax into virtue as closer to sensual experience, which they assert gives Germans access to supersensual and true inner sense of morality that French lack - according to Fichte they're trapped in nihilistic artificiality

Nietzsche shreds the German valorisation of supposed inner depths which aren't connected with transparent form
jstor  article  17thC  18thC  19thC  cultural_history  France  Germany  nationalism  language  epistemology  Diderot  Condillac  Nietzsche  Hegel  Voltaire  Frederick_the_Great  social_theory  politeness  elites  middle_class  salons  Rousseau  social_psychology  virtue_ethics  German_Idealism  society  alienation  moral_philosophy  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
The evolution of language and society | OUPblog June 2013
Avi Lifschitz is Lecturer in Early Modern European History at University College London (UCL); in 2012/13 he is Research Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study (Wissenschaftskolleg) in Berlin. He is the author of Language and Enlightenment: The Berlin Debates of the Eighteenth Century, available in print from Oxford University Press and online from Oxford Scholarship Online, and co-editor of Epicurus in the Enlightenment (2009)

From Riga to Glasgow and from Berlin down to Naples, Enlightenment authors asked themselves how language could have evolved among initially animal-like human beings. Some of them suggested some continuities between bestial and human communication, though most thinkers pointed to a strict barrier separating human language from vocal and gestural exchange among animals. In broad lines, this period witnessed a transition from an earlier theory of language, which saw our words as mirroring self-standing ideas, to the modern notion that signs are precisely what enables us to form our ideas in the first place. Such signs had, however, to be artificially crafted by human beings themselves; after all, natural sounds and gestures are also used by animals.

The open and malleable character of the eighteenth-century Republic of Letters is found in a wide variety of authors: Leibniz, Wolff, Condillac, Rousseau, Michaelis, and Herder, among others. The language debates demonstrate that German theories of culture and language were not merely a rejection of French ideas. New notions of the genius of language and its role in cognition were constructed through a complex interaction with cross-European currents, especially via the prize contests at the Berlin Academy.

Introduction
1. The mutual emergence of language, mind, and society: an Enlightenment debate
2. Symbolic cognition from Leibniz to the 1760s: theology, aesthetics, and history
3. The evolution and genius of language: debates in the Berlin Academy
4. J. D. Michaelis on language and vowel points: from confessional controversy to naturalism
5. A point of convergence and new departures: the 1759 contest on language and opinions
6. Language and cultural identity: the controversy over Premontval's Preservatif
7. Tackling the naturalistic conundrum: instincts and conjectural history to 1771
8. Conclusion and a glimpse into the future
books  18thC  Enlightenment  language  Leibniz  Condillac  Rousseau  Herder  France  Germany  Republic_of_Letters  human_nature  anthropology  academies  ideas-theories  EF-add 
june 2013 by dunnettreader

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