dunnettreader + industry   26

John Quiggin - Peak paper | Crooked Timber Feb 2016
I’ve recently published a piece in Aeon, looking at the peak in global paper use, which occurred a couple of years ago, and arguing that this is an indication…
Instapaper  economic_growth  economy-structure  industry  industrialization  commodities  Information_Economy  productivity  production  natural_resources  energy  energy-markets  environment  climate  consumption  international_political_economy  from instapaper
february 2016 by dunnettreader
CDP - About us
CDP works to transform the way the world does business to prevent dangerous climate change and protect our natural resources. We see a world where capital is efficiently allocated to create long-term prosperity rather than short-term gain at the expense of our environment.

Evidence and insight is vital to driving real change. We use the power of measurement and information disclosure to improve the management of environmental risk. By leveraging market forces including shareholders, customers and governments, CDP has incentivized thousands of companies and cities across the world’s largest economies to measure and disclose their environmental information. We put this information at the heart of business, investment and policy decision making.

We hold the largest collection globally of self reported climate change, water and forest-risk data. Through our global system companies, investors and cities are better able to mitigate risk, capitalize on opportunities and make investment decisions that drive action towards a more sustainable world.
website  Lon  risk_management  risk-systemic  climate  climate-adaptation  institutional_investors  disclosure  water  energy  energy-markets  industry  supply_chains  sustainability  corporate_governance  green_finance  green_economy 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Nitzan, Jonathan - From Olson to Veblen: The Stagflationary Rise of Distributional Coalitions (1992) | bnarchives
Paper read at the annual meeting of the History of Economics Society. Fairfax, Virginia. 1-2 June (1992). pp. 1-75. -- This essay deals with the relationship between stagflation and the process of restructuring. The literature dealing with the interaction of stagnation and inflation is invariably based on some explicit or implicit assumptions about economic structure, but there are very few writings which concentrate specifically on the link between the macroeconomic phenomenon of stagflation and the process of structural change. Of the few who dealt with this issue, we have chosen to focus mainly on two important contributors – Mancur Olson and Thorstein Veblen. The first based his theory on neoclassical principles, attempting to demonstrate their universality across time and place. The second was influenced by the historical school and concentrated specifically on the institutional features of modern capitalism. Despite the fundamental differences in their respective frameworks, both writers arrive at a similar conclusion, namely, that the phenomenon of stagflation is inherent in the dynamic evolution of collective economic action, particularly in the rise and consolidation of 'distributional coalitions.' -- Keywords: absentee ownership, intangible assets, big business, bonds, capital, accumulation, capitalism, collective action, collusion, corporation, credit, degree of monopoly, distributional coalitions, excess capacity, finance, immaterial wealth, income distribution, industry, inflation, institutions, interest, labour, liabilities, machine process, material wealth, neoclassical economics, normal rate of return, power, price, profit, productivity, property, sabotage, scarcity, stagnation, stagflation, stocks, tangible assets, technology, United States, value
paper  US_economy  economic_history  economic_theory  institutional_economics  Veblen  political_economy  Olson_Mancur  public_choice  collective_action  capital  capitalism  power  power-asymmetric  business-and-politics  interest_groups  interest_rates  interest_rate-natural  profit  corporate_ownership  managerialism  industry  production  productivity  productivity-labor_share  sabotage-by_business  distribution-income  distribution-wealth  wealth  asset_prices  financial_system  credit  competition  monopolies  oligopoly  prices  inflation  stagnation  property  technology  capital_markets  antitrust  neoclassical_economics  change-economic  change-social  levels_of_analyis  mesolevel  microfoundations  downloaded  EF-add 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Hyeng-Joon Park - Korea’s Post-1997 Restructuring: An Analysis of Capital as Power | forthcoming in Review of Radical Political Economics (2015) pp. 1-44 | bnarchives
This paper aims to transcend current debates on Korea’s post-1997 restructuring, which rely on a dichotomy between domestic industrial capital and foreign financial capital, by adopting Nitzan and Bichler’s capital-as-power perspective. Based on this approach, the paper analyzes Korea’s recent political economic restructuring as the latest phase in the evolution of capitalist power and its transformative regimes of capital accumulation. -- Keywords: differential accumulation dominant capital chaebols transnationalization strategic sabotage -- Subjects: BN State & Government, BN Institutions, BN Power, BN International & Global, BN Region - Asia, BN Business Enterprise, BN Value & Price, BN Crisis, BN Production, BN Conflict & Violence, BN Money & Finance, BN Distribution, BN Comparative, BN Capital & Accumulation, BN Policy, BN Class, BN Labour, BN Growth -- downloaded from author's blog to Note
article  international_political_economy  capital_as_power  globalization  Korea  East_Asia  20thC  21stC  economic_history  1990s  2000s  2010s  Asian_crisis  Asia_Pacific  international_finance  FDI  finance_capital  financialization  emerging_markets  oligopoly  chaebols  crony_capitalism  industry  production  capitalism  capitalism-systemic_crisis  capitalization  accumulation  distribution-income  distribution-wealth  cross-border  trade  productivity-labor_share  class_conflict  labor_share  Labor_markets  unions  violence  economic_growth  sabotage-by_business  business-and-politics  business-norms  power-asymmetric  public_policy  public_goods  corporate_finance  corporate_ownership  investment  banking  political_culture  economic_culture  economic_reform  economic_policy  democracy  opposition  downloaded  EF-add 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
theAIRnet.org - Home
The Academic-Industry Research Network – theAIRnet – is a private, 501(c)(3) not-for-profit research organization devoted to the proposition that a sound understanding of the dynamics of industrial development requires collaboration between academic scholars and industry experts. We engage in up-to-date, in-depth, and incisive research and commentary on issues related to industrial innovation and economic development. Our goal is to understand the ways in which, through innovation, businesses and governments can contribute to equitable and stable economic growth – or what we call “sustainable prosperity”.
website  economic_growth  industry  technology  Innovation  green_economy  development  business  business-and-politics  capitalism  global_economy  public-private_partnerships  public_policy  public_health  public_goods  urban_development  health_care  IP  Labor_markets  wages  unemployment  education-training  sustainability  financial_system  corporate_citizenship  corporate_governance  corporate_finance  CSR  firms-theory  management  plutocracy  MNCs  international_political_economy  human_capital  OECD_economies  emerging_markets  supply_chains  R&D  common_good  1-percent  inequality  working_class  work-life_balance  workforce  regulation  regulation-harmonization  incentives  stagnation 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Anne Mayhew, review - Laurence Shute, John Maurice Clark: A Social Economics for the Twenty-First Century | EH.Net, H-Net Reviews. November, 1997
[F]rom Clark's earliest work through his post-World War II comments on the formalization of Keynes' work, he sought a "non-euclidean" economics that would be more "scientific" than most economic analysis in fact was. In a 1924, essay on "The Socializing of Theoretical Economics," Clark argued that it was "unscientific" to exclude relevant evidence. He wrote: "... comprehensiveness is scientific, even if it involves some sacrifice of other qualities for which science likes to strive" . In a critique of a 1949 essay by Paul Samuelson, Clark repeats the theme by complaining of ... what happens to the Keynesian theory when it is simplified by isolating the central mathematical formula and its corollaries from the context of factors that do not lend themselves to this treatment, and which Keynes handled in 'literary' fashion ... . -- Clark (and his fellow Institutionalists) made major contributions to what was then the "mainstream" of American economics during a period of lively innovation. During the early 1930s Clark had already developed both multiplier and accelerator concepts and he welcomed Keynes' "income-flow analysis." However, in the early 1940s he was worrying--in print and in exchanges with Keynes--that this analysis would be undiscriminatingly applied, and there were problems with sole reliance on deficit spending for stabilization. Clark's concern was a wider variety of stabilization tools--including attention to the legal arrangement of costs--would be required. In his last major work, Competition as A Dynamic Process (1961), Clark returned to some of the issues with which he began his career. Shute stresses that this work was not the "major general treatise" that Clark had once hoped to write, but rather an attempt to develop a practical notion of "workable competition" appropriate for analysis and policy guidance in a dynamic economy. Clark was realist enough to worry that this work would not be well received [inadequate formalism and assumptions they expected from "theory"]
books  reviews  intellectual_history  20thC  entre_deux_guerres  social_sciences-post-WWII  economic_theory  economic_history  institutional_economics  industry  production  investment  costs  labor  Labor_markets  capital  capitalism  business_cycles  Keynes  Keynesianism  macroeconomics  Great_Depression  competition  prices 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
John P. Diggins - Dos Passos and Veblen's Villains | JSTOR: The Antioch Review, Vol. 23, No. 4 (Winter, 1963-1964), pp. 485-500
Explains apparent shift from radical Left to Goldwater Right as consistent champion of productivist classes - craftsmen, engineers, and labor generally - first against Veblen's villains, the captains of finance capital, the PR men, and the managerialist ethos driven by profit at the expense of productive values of quality, know-how etc -- post WWII, Dos Passos added big government and labor bosses to his villains
article  jstor  19thC  20thC  US_history  US_society  entre_deux_guerres  post-WWII  intellectual_history  political_culture  political_economy  social_order  finance_capital  production  labor  industry  profit  craftsmanship  capitalism  Veblen 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
John Locke, Encouragement of Irish Linen Manufacture (August 1697) - Online Library of Liberty
John Locke, H.B. Fox Bourne, The Life of John Locke. In Two Volumes (London: Henry S. King, 1876). Vol. 2 pp. 363-372. 07/16/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2332> -- Available as Facsimile PDF 352 KB This is a facsimile or image-based PDF made from scans of the original book -- Locke’s detailed proposals to encourage the Irish linen industry which was quoted in full in Fox Bourne’s The Life of John Locke (1876), vol. 2, pp. 363-372.
etexts  17thC  intellectual_history  British_history  British_politics  political_economy  Locke  biography  Ireland  Ireland-English_exploitation  industry  agriculture  protectionism  development  interest_groups  Parliament  Parliamentary_supremacy  Irish_Parliament  1690s  Whig_Junto  Board_of_Trade  UK_government-colonies  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Forum - “Deirdre McCloskey and Economists’ Ideas about Ideas” (July, 2014) - Online Library of Liberty
Deirdre McClosky is over the halfway point of her 4 volume work on The Bourgeois Era. Two volumes have already appeared, Bourgeois Virtues (2006) and Bourgeois Dignity (2010), and a third is close to appearing [2015]. This Liberty Matters online discussion will assess her progress to date with a Lead Essay by Don Boudreaux and comments by Joel Mokyr and John Nye, and replies to her critics by Deirdre McCloskey. The key issue is to try to explain why “the Great Enrichment” of the past 150 years occurred in northern and western Europe rather than elsewhere, and why sometime in the middle of the 18th century. Other theories have attributed it to the presence of natural resources, the existence of private property and the rule of law, and the right legal and political institutions. McCloskey’s thesis is that a fundamental change in ideas took place which raised the “dignity” of economic activity in the eyes of people to the point where they felt no inhibition in pursuing these activities which improved the situation of both themselves and the customers who bought their products and services.
intellectual_history  cultural_history  economic_history  economic_growth  Medieval  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  Great_Divergence  British_history  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Industrial_Revolution  bourgeoisie  political_economy  France  Germany  Prussia  China  development  institutional_economics  North-Weingast  legal_history  property  property_rights  commerce  trade  trading_companies  free_trade  improvement  technology  Innovation  agriculture  energy  natural_capital  nature-mastery  transport  capitalism  colonialism  industry  industrialization  social_order  Great_Chain_of_Being  consumers  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  equality  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  liberalism  incentives  microeconomics  historical_sociology  historical_change  social_theory  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
John Millar, The Origin of the Distinction of Ranks [1771], ed. Aaron Garrett - Online Library of Liberty
John Millar, The Origin of the Distinction of Ranks; or, An Inquiry into the Circumstances which give rise to Influence and Authority in the Different Members of Society, edited and with an Introduction by Aaron Garrett (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2006). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/287> -- The Origin of the Distinction of Ranks is one of the major products of the Scottish Enlightenment and a masterpiece of jurisprudence and social theory. Millar developed a progressive account of the nature of authority in society by analyzing changes in subsistence, agriculture, arts, and manufacture. The book is perhaps the most precise and compact development of the abiding themes of the liberal wing of the Scottish Enlightenment. Drawing on Smith’s four-stages theory of history and the natural law’s traditional division of domestic duties into those toward servants, children, and women, Millar provides a rich historical analysis of the ways in which progressive economic change transforms the nature of authority. In particular, he argues that, with the progress of arts and manufacture, authority tends to become less violent and concentrated, and ranks tend to diversify. Millar’s analysis of this historical progress is nuanced and sophisticated; for example, his discussion of servants is perhaps the best developed of the “economic” arguments against slavery. -- 1st edition 1771 - he published 2 more in his lifetime, the latest edition being more "scientific", e.g. removing some references that were less reliable, more speculative, or not in keeping with a more sober tone -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  stadial_theories  social_order  social_sciences  social_process  change-social  political_economy  art_history  literary_history  civilizing_process  civil_society  family  authority  hierarchy  commerce  industry  trade  progress  slavery  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Determining Materiality | Sustainability Accounting Standards Board
SASB’s Materiality Map™ creates a unique materiality profile for different industries. In order to comply with the SEC’s view of materiality, our approach is designed to provide a view into the information needs of the reasonable investor. The Map relies heavily on evidence of investor interest and evidence of financial impact, and it allows for adjustments based on financial impact and long-term sustainability principles. The quantitative model is designed to prioritize the issues that are most important within an industry, to keep the standards to a minimum set of issues that are likely to be material. Sustainability accounting standards are then developed based on both the quantitative results from the Map and a qualitative research process informed by SASB’s research team. The Map looks at 40+ sustainability issues and analyzes their importance in the context of the 80+ industries in SICS. -- Issues are classified under five categories: Environmental Capital, Social Capital, Human Capital, Business Model & Innovation, and Leadership & Governance. Traditionally, sustainability issues are classified under the common ESG structure; however, SASB uses a finer grained analysis in order to surface potential impacts on the company’s ability to create long-term value.
financial_regulation  accountability  accounting  corporate_governance  corporate_finance  corporate_citizenship  CSR  risk  sustainability  climate  investment  capital_markets  industry 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Vision and Mission | Sustainability Accounting Standards Board
Facts About SASB *--* The Sustainability Accounting Standards Board is an independent 501(c)3 non-profit. *--* Through 2016 SASB is developing sustainability accounting standards for more than 80 industries in 10 sectors. *--* SASB standards are designed for the disclosure of material sustainability issues in mandatory SEC filings, such as the Form 10-K and 20-F. -**- SASB is accredited to establish sustainability accounting standards by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Accreditation by ANSI signifies that SASB’s procedures to develop standards meet ANSI’s requirements for openness, balance, consensus, and due process. *--* SASB is not affiliated with FASB, GASB, IASB or any other accounting standards boards. --- For more information about the principles, processes and definitions relevant to SASB’s standards setting process, please read our Conceptual Framework. (Pdf downloaded to Note)
financial_regulation  accountability  accounting  corporate_governance  corporate_finance  corporate_citizenship  CSR  risk  sustainability  climate  investment  capital_markets  industry  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
An Insider’s Guide to The SASB Experience | Sustainability Accounting Standards Board - May 2014
After a year of research, stakeholder engagement, feedback and refinement, SASB celebrated the reveal of its latest research results with evocative discourse about the Services Industry and its role in non-financial reporting. With over 190 participants representing 120 companies, the May Delta Series, which is the research process capstone, brought together its Industry Working Group participants as well as other integral stakeholders, to discuss the outcomes of their sector-specific research. -- panelists discussed experience getting buy in from different parts of organization and Board -- how using the quarterly 10-K form provided a familiar focus for measurement and reporting -- links to CSR and risk management, not just profitability measures, were especially important for directors
financial_regulation  accountability  accounting  corporate_governance  corporate_finance  corporate_citizenship  CSR  risk  sustainability  climate  investment  capital_markets  industry 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Marx Myths & Legends - website
Series of serious essays, including on relations to other thinkers (e.g. Hegel) and how Marx was contested and distorted by both enemies and friends in 20thC -- We believe that what Marx had to say remains of considerable relevance to an understanding of problems we face today, but that a reading of Marx now must maintain a critical caution which does not merely reproduce received ideas- positive or negative- about Marx’s work. The distortion and questionable interpretation of Marx’s work is in many senses a direct result of his great success. ... Interpretation of Marx has thus been driven by a number of historical factors, and any attempts to gain, for example, a “scholarly” understanding have necessarily been secondary. ... To set against the distortions we cannot raise up a singular, uncontradictory Marx, abstracted from history and ultimately separable from everything that comes within “Marxism”, yet it remains that there is much in that received wisdom about Marx that is refutable, or at least rendered distinctly questionable, with a little attention to the textual and historical evidence.
intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  political_economy  social_theory  Marx  Hegel  Hegelian  Hegelians-French  Marxist  historiography-19thC  capitalism  capital  labor  Industrial_Revolution  industry  technology  ideology  property  legal_system  bourgeoisie  working_class  elites  money  markets  website  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard W. Unger, review - Jan de Vries and Ad van der Woude, The First Modern Economy: Success, Failure, and Perseverance of the Dutch Economy, 1500–1815 | JSTOR: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 72, No. 1 (March 2000), pp. 239-241
Reviewed work(s): The First Modern Economy: Success, Failure, and Perseverance of the Dutch Economy, 1500–1815. By Jan de Vries and Ad van der Woude. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Pp. xx+767. $89.95. -- Richard W. Unger, University of British Columbia -- The final sixty pages do serve to draw together what has gone before and offer not only an overview of economic and social developments but also a tentative theory about patterns of the rise and fall of modern economies. The authors launch a sustained attack on traditional periodization of economic and, indeed, all history. They find in the Netherlands in the seventeenth century many of the features of nineteenth- and twentieth-century economic growth. They see no reason to look on the English Industrial Revolution as a cataclysmic event. -- There seems to be no doubt that the massive debt run up by the Dutch government in fending off the French threat from 1672 to 1713 burdened the economy so much that it could neither recover earlier levels of growth nor engage in restructuring like that which occurred in the years from 1660 to 1700 in the face of falling food prices, rising real incomes of laborers and craftsmen, and declining land values. Too many people in the eighteenth century—such as government officials and bondholders—lived well thanks to the need to service the debt; these people resisted necessary fiscal reform.
books  reviews  jstor  economic_history  political_economy  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  Dutch  development  modernization  urbanization  agriculture  industry  Industrial_Revolution  foreign_policy  sovereign_debt  rentiers  trading_companies  trade  colonialism  shipping  entrepôts  periodization  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Peter Temin - Two Views of the British Industrial Revolution (1997)
JSTOR: The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 57, No. 1 (Mar., 1997), pp. 63-82 -- There are two views of the British Industrial Revolution in the literature today. The more traditional description sees the Industrial Revolution as a broad change in the British economy and society. This broad view of the Industrial Revolution has been challenged by Crafts and Harley who see the Industrial Revolution as the result of technical change in only a few industries. This article presents a test of these views using the Ricardian model of international trade with many goods. British trade data are used to implement the test and discriminate between the two views of the Industrial Revolution.
article  jstor  economic_history  economic_growth  economic_theory  Industrial_Revolution  Great_Divergence  18thC  19thC  British_history  technology  Innovation  industry  industrialization  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Financial Innovation: The Bright and the Dark Sides by Thorsten Beck, Tao Chen, Chen Lin, Frank M. Song :: SSRN October 2012
Beck, Thorsten and Chen, Tao and Lin, Chen and Song, Frank M., Financial Innovation: The Bright and the Dark Sides (January 25, 2012). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1991216 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1991216 -- Date posted: January 25, 2012 ; Last revised: October 7, 2012 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- The financial turmoil from 2007 onwards has spurred renewed debates on the “bright” and “dark” sides of financial innovation. Using bank-, industry- and country-level data for 32, mostly high-income, countries between 1996 and 2006, this paper is the first to explicitly assess the relationship between financial innovation in the banking sector and (i) real sector growth, (ii) real sector volatility, and (iii) bank fragility. We find evidence for both bright and dark sides of financial innovation. On the one hand, we find that a higher level of financial innovation is associated with a stronger relationship between a country’s growth opportunities and capital and GDP per capita growth and with higher growth rates in industries that rely more on external financing and depend more on innovation. On the other hand, we find that financial innovation is associated with higher growth volatility among industries more dependent on external financing and on innovation and with higher idiosyncratic bank fragility, higher bank profit volatility and higher bank losses during the recent crisis.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 69

Keywords: Financial Innovation, Financial R&D Intensity, Bank Risk Taking, Financial Crisis, Industrial Growth, Finance and Growth
paper  SSRN  financial_system  financial_innovation  economic_growth  development  risk  banking  capital_markets  financial_regulation  financial_crisis  financialization  Innovation  industry  corporate_finance  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Jan De Vries: The Industrial Revolution and the Industrious Revolution (1994)
JSTOR: The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 54, No. 2 (Jun., 1994), pp. 249-270 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- De Vries theory basis of his book -- The Industrial Revolution as a historical concept has many shortcomings. A new concept--the "industrious revolution"--is proposed to place the Industrial Revolution in a broader historical setting. The industrious revolution was a process of household-based resource reallocation that increased both the supply of marketed commodities and labor and the demand for market-supplied goods. The industrious revolution was a household-level change with important demand-side features that preceded the Industrial Revolution, a supply-side phenomenon. It has implications for nineteenth- and twentieth-century economic history.
article  jstor  Great_Divergence  Industrial_Revolution  economic_history  economic_growth  social_history  political_economy  Europe-Early_Modern  labor  Labor_markets  consumerism  trade  industry  17thC  18thC  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
E. A. Wrigley: The Divergence of England: The Growth of the English Economy in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: The Prothero Lecture (2000)
JSTOR: Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Sixth Series, Vol. 10 (2000), pp. 117-141 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- though it's part of Great Divergence debates, Wrigley focus on Britain during 17thC and 18thC and his economic_history work is worth special attention
article  jstor  Great_Divergence  economic_history  Britain  Europe-Early_Modern  economic_growth  political_economy  population  agriculture  trade  industry  colonialism  British_Empire  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Joel Mokyr: Why Was the Industrial Revolution a European Phenomenon? (2003)
JSTOR: Supreme Court Economic Review, Vol. 10 (2003), pp. 27-63 -- In this paper, I link the economic growth of the West in the past two centuries with the Industrial Revolution, and search for the underlying causes of technological progress. It is argued that we cannot understand modern economic growth unless we realize that technology is part of "useful knowledge," and that we have to understand the dynamics of useful knowledge and the interaction between different kinds of knowledge if we are to come to grips with the expansion of techniques in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Such a model is sketched and illustrated in some detail. It is further argued that the particular path followed by technology leading to modern industrialized society is typically western, and that a non-European Industrial Revolution could well have taken place but would have led to very different historical outcomes.
article  jstor  Great_Divergence  economic_history  economic_growth  technology  Innovation  Industrial_Revolution  industry  Europe-Early_Modern  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
John V. Pickstone: Working Knowledges Before and After circa 1800: Practices and Disciplines in the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine (2007)
JSTOR: Isis, Vol. 98, No. 3 (September 2007), pp. 489-516 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Historians of science, inasmuch as they are concerned with knowledges and practices rather than institutions, have tended of late to focus on case studies of common processes such as experiment and publication. In so doing, they tend to treat science as a single category, with various local instantiations. Or, alternatively, they relate cases to their specific local contexts. In neither approach do the cases or their contexts build easily into broader histories, reconstructing changing knowledge practices across time and space. This essay argues that by systematically deconstructing the practices of science and technology and medicine (STM) into common, recurrent elements, we can gain usefully “configurational” views, not just of particular cases and contexts but of synchronic variety and diachronic changes, both short term and long. To this end, we can begin with the customary actors’ disciplines of early modern knowledge (natural philosophy, natural history, mixed mathematics, and experimental philosophy), which can be understood as elemental “ways of knowing and working,” variously combined and disputed. I argue that these same working knowledges, together with a later mode—synthetic experimentation and systematic invention—may also serve for the analysis of STM from the late eighteenth century to the present. 
article  jstor  historiography  sociology_of_knowledge  history_of_science  intellectual_history  natural_philosophy  medicine  physiology  technology  industry  Scientific_Revolution  Industrial_Revolution  17thC  18thC  19thC 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
John V. Pickstone: Sketching Together the Modern Histories of Science, Technology, and Medicine (2011)
JSTOR: Isis, Vol. 102, No. 1 (March 2011), pp. 123-133 -- roundup and looking forward article in issue Focus: Between and Beyond “Histories of Science” and “Histories of Medicine” -- downloaded pdf to Note -- This essay explores ways to “write together” the awkwardly jointed histories of “science” and “medicine”—but it also includes other “arts” (in the old sense) and technologies. It draws especially on the historiography of medicine, but I try to use terms that are applicable across all of science, technology, and medicine (STM). I stress the variety of knowledges and practices in play at any time and the ways in which the ensembles change. I focus on the various relations of “science” and “medicine,” as they were understood for a succession of periods—from mainly agricultural societies, through industrial societies, to our biomedical present—trying to sketch a history that encompasses daily practices and understandings as well as major conceptual and technical innovations. The model is meant to facilitate inquiry across topics and across times, including those to come.
article  jstor  historiography  sociology_of_knowledge  history_of_science  medicine  technology  biology  chemistry  physiology  natural_philosophy  mathematics  communication  IT  evolution  university  academies  education  industry  Industrial_Revolution  Renaissance  Enlightenment  Scientific_Revolution  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
 Ann Kussmaul: A General View of the Rural Economy of England, 1538–1840 :: Cambridge University Press 1990
PUBLISHED: June 1990 LENGTH: 230 pages ...... In rural England prior to the Industrial Revolution people generally married when they were not busy with work. Parish registers of marriage therefore form an important and innovative source for the study of economic change in this period. Dr Kussmaul employs marriage dates to identify three main patterns of work and risk (arable, pastoral and rural industrial) and more importantly to show the long-term changes in economic activities across 542 English parishes from the beginning of national marriage registration in 1538. No single historical landscape emerges. Instead A General View of the Rural Economy of England, 1538–1840 maps the changes in economic orientation from arable through regional specialization to rural industrialization and explores how these changes had implications for the extent of population growth in the early modern period. Dr Kussmaul's study presents a view of early modern English economic history from a unique standpoint.
books  British_history  economic_history  social_history  rural  agriculture  industry  marriage  population  Industrial_Revolution  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader

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