dunnettreader + individualism   61

David James, ed., Hegel's Elements of the Philosophy of Right: A Critical Guide - review by William Desmond | BDPR - Dec 2017
David James (ed.), Hegel's Elements of the Philosophy of Right: A Critical Guide, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2017, 234 pp.,
Reviewed by William Desmond, Villanova University/KU Leuven
Evernote  political_philosophy  19thC  Hegel  intellectual_history  individualism  books  community  social_theory  Marx  German_Idealism  free_will  German_philosophy  reviews  Hegelian  Hegel-philosophy_of_right 
december 2017 by dunnettreader
O. Bradley Bassler, The Pace of Modernity: Reading With Blumenberg (2012) | re-press publishers
Wittgenstein said that philosophers should greet each other, not by saying “hello,” but rather “take your time.”  But what is time?  Time is money, but this points to an even better answer to this basic question for our modern epoch: time is acceleration.  In a cultural system which stresses economic efficiency, the quicker route is always the more prized, if not always the better one.  Wittgenstein’s dictum thus constitutes an act of rebellion against the dominant vector of our culture, but as such it threatens to become (quickly) anti-modern.  We need an approach to “reading” our information-rich culture which is not reactionary but rather meets its accelerated condition.  In this book, O. Bradley Bassler develops a toolkit for acute reading of our modern pace, not through withdrawal but rather through active engagement with a broad range of disciplines.  The main characters in this drama comprise a cast of master readers: Hannah Arendt, Jean Starobinski, Harold Bloom, Angus Fletcher, Hans Blumenberg and John Ashbery, with secondary figures drawn from the readers and critics whom this central group suggests.  We must develop a vocabulary of pacing, reflecting our modern distance from classical sources and the concomitant acceleration of our contemporary condition.  Only in this way can we begin to situate the phenomenon of modernity within the larger scales of human culture and history.

About the Author
O. Bradley Bassler studied in the Committee on Social Thought at the University of Chicago and took a second Ph.D. in Mathematics at Wesleyan University.  He has published in areas ranging from philosophy and history of philosophy to literary studies and the foundations of mathematics, with essays appearing in New German Critique, Heidegger Studies, Review of Metaphysics and other journals.  He is also a published poet.  He currently is Associate Professor of Philosophy at the University of Georgia, Athens, USA.
biocultural_evolution  etexts  change-social  technology  open_access  Arendt  dualism  lit_crit  phenomenology  metaphor  Montaigne  Husserl  individualism  books  poetics  modernity  social_theory  Blumenberg  rhetoric  human_nature  Heidegger  Scribd  philosophical_anthropology 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Lawrence Cahoone - The Modern Intellectual Tradition: From Descartes to Derrida | The Great Courses
Modern Intellectual Tradition: From Descartes to Derrida
Professor of Philosophy at Holy Cross - PhD from SUNY
36 lectures, starting with 17thC scientific revolution
He devotes a lot to the period starting with fin de sciècle (analytic, pragmatism, Whitehead)
- has a whole lecture on Heidegger's rejection of "humanism" after 1 on existentialism and the Frankfurt School
- but entre dieux guerres and post WWII isn't a total downer - an entire lecture on Dewey
- though Derrida sounds like the endpoint, he's more the endpoint of the trend through Heidegger's version of phenomenology
- he then turns to Rorty's "end of philosophy" and says, not so fast
- he works through several themes from earlier that are re-emerging post-postmodern
- he goes back to Cassirer, Whitehead and the pragmatists - different orientations but working within what he terms pragmatic realism - with emergence and complexity part of the realist story
- my main question re that narrative arc is where is Deluze?
- but the whole show gets uniformly rave reviews - except that he works off a teleprompter which some thought was awkward - looks like audio download is the way to go
analytical_philosophy  18thC  Putnam  pragmatism  existentialism  Marxist  Wittgenstein  technology  Quine  mind  Frege  phenomenology  Frankfurt_School  Marx  Habermas  science-and-religion  Romanticism  philosophy_of_history  Spinoza  Husserl  buy  Sartre  epistemology  Hume  Rorty  emergence  neo-Kantian  biocultural_evolution  humanism  intellectual_history  dualism  James_William  Enlightenment_Project  historiography-Marxist  German_Idealism  Enlightenment  17thC  Hegel  Nietzsche  political_philosophy  Logical_Positivism  mind-body  video  Whitehead  individualism  French_Enlightenment  empiricism  modernity  Derrida  ordinary_language_philosophy  anti-foundationalism  20thC  Kierkegaard  philosophy_of_language  Heidegger  human_nature  truth  Descartes  Kant  complexity  philosophy_of_science  Berkeley  postmodern  philosophy_of_religion  21stC  19thC  Cassirer  metaphysics  Dewey  self  audio  anti-humanism  courses  Locke 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Vincent Citot - Le processus historique de la Modernité et la possibilité de la liberté (universalisme et individualisme) (2005) - Cairn.info
I - Considérations introductives sur l’essence de la modernité
- L’esprit de la modernité : la liberté, l’universalisme et l’individualisme
- Réflexivité, autonomie et indépendance
- Conséquences : les idées d’égalité et de progrès
II - Les origines antiques de la modernité
- Universalisme et individualisme en Grèce antique
- Le stoïcisme : entre hellénisme et christianisme
- Universalisme, égalitarisme et individualisme chrétien
- L’individualisme du droit romain
III - L’avènement de la modernité et la périodisation de l’ère moderne
- Le monde Ancien et le monde Moderne
- La périodisation de la modernité:
1 - La première modernité : de la Renaissance aux Lumières
2 - La seconde modernité : de la fin du XVIIIème siècle aux années 1960
3 - La troisième modernité : entre postmodernité et hypermodernité
Citot Vincent, « Le processus historique de la Modernité et la possibilité de la liberté (universalisme et individualisme). », Le Philosophoire 2/2005 (n° 25) , p. 35-76
individualism  moral_philosophy  Counter-Enlightenment  16thC  Romanticism  history_of_science  politico-theology  autonomy  scholastics  Renaissance  change-social  democracy  republicanism  modernity-emergence  political_philosophy  democracy_deficit  Stoicism  Reformation  Early_Christian  French_Enlightenment  18thC  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  French_Revolution  periodization  Europe-Early_Modern  universalism  downloaded  subjectivity  political_culture  religious_history  article  Ancients-and-Moderns  community  self  German_Idealism  Counter-Reformation  authority  Enlightenment  metaphysics  ancient_Rome  17thC  Cartesians  cosmology  Descartes  ancient_Greece  Locke  modernity  liberty  Hobbes  intellectual_history  bibliography 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Dominique Schaffer - Du progrès indéfini de la démocratie ? (2911) - Cairn.info
Les sociétés démocratiques sont aujourd’hui affectées d’un malaise qui suscite bien des interrogations sur leur avenir. Ce malaise est un produit de la logique interne de ce type de régime. La fragilité est inscrite dans les principes mêmes de la démocratie, dans la mesure où elle peut être pensée comme un épuisement progressif de la transcendance politique, une marche vers l’égalité généralisée et un relativisme des valeurs et des opinions. De cette corruption, nous subissons concrètement en Occident les effets délétères dans notre vie quotidienne ; ils touchent la famille, l’éducation et, de proche en proche, toutes les relations sociales. -- downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
civil_liberties  identity  article  individualism  political_participation  governance  democracy  downloaded  common_good  national_ID  norms  republicanism  declinism  political_philosophy  citizenship 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Vincent Citot - Les Cahiers Jules Lequier et la renaissance d'une pensée éternelle (2011) - Cairn.info
The Amis de Jules Lequier have published 2 volumes of his notebooks with lots of related materials on the intellectual mileux that he was responding to and biographical material relevant to his thought -- La deuxième livraison des Cahiers Jules Lequier est surtout biobibliographique. Le dossier central (« Jules Lequier et la Bretagne ») éclaire l’œuvre de l’auteur par sa vie, et sa vie par son enracinement en terre bretonne. Là encore, l’essentiel est à saisir à travers l’accidentel, comme le philosophique à travers le biographique. Outre un entretien avec Jacques Josse, on lira les articles de Jean Grenier, de Yannick Pelletier et de Jean-Marie Turpin. La plus grande partie du numéro est consacrée à la « Bibliographie commentée », établie par D. Wayne Viney et G. Le Brech. Toutes les éditions (posthumes) des œuvres de Lequier sont mentionnées, ainsi que tous les travaux portant explicitement sur le philosophe, ou y faisant référence. Ce recensement exhaustif (qui est aussi un résumé-commentaire de chaque parution) constitue un outil de recherche très précieux
religious_belief  intellectual_history  philosophy_of_religion  19thC  Providence  books  Catholics  Renouvier  free_will  France  reviews  liberty  individualism 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Céline Spector - Charles Taylor, philosophe de la culture (career review) - La Vie des idées - 8 avril 2014
Charles Taylor n’a cessé de critiquer l’individualisme des sociétés modernes. La politique de la reconnaissance qu’il prône entend respecter la singularité de chacun et son inscription dans une communauté morale ou politique – quitte à accorder une importance excessive aux convictions religieuses. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  20thC  21stC  Taylor_Charles  individualism  modernity  secularism  religious_belief  religious_culture  downloaded 
december 2015 by dunnettreader
Samuel Moyn review of Larry Siedentop's Invention of the Individual" - Did Christianity Create Liberalism? | Boston Review
Very interesting re the (19thC) "French" approach to liberalism -- historicist stressing process, contingency. Contrast with Anglo-Saxon social contract that takes the individual as its (unexamined) premiss, as does economic theory based on satisfying individual preferences etc. LS wrote an important article on the French approach. So Moyn sees LS as working to update and revise Guizot. Problem is LS (and all those claiming Christianity the basis of individual "natural rights") can't explain how the next world focus of Jesus and Paul became a this-world focus with the role of the individual as foundational. Moyn critiques the steps LS takes starting with the moral revolution of Augustine and working through the Middle Ages.
theology  natural_law  France  Instapaper  liberty  medieval_history  political_philosophy  Augustine  Guizot  liberalism  social_theory  historiography-19thC  individualism  medieval_philosophy  reviews  EF-add  social_contract  Constant  books  natural_rights  intellectual_history  moral_philosophy  Augustinian  kindle-available  19thC  from instapaper
december 2015 by dunnettreader
Koenraad W. Swart - "Individualism" in the Mid-19thC (1826-1860) | JSTOR - Journal of the History of Ideas (1962)
"Individualism" in the Mid-Nineteenth Century (1826-1860), Koenraad W. Swart, Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Jan. - Mar., 1962), pp. 77-90 -- very useful tracing of how many ways it was used, first to attack and then to celebrate -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  individualism  cultural_history  political_philosophy  political_economy  religious_culture  19thC  British_history  France  liberalism  French_Revolution  counter-revolution  Counter-Enlightenment  Romanticism  laisser-faire  bibliography  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Cédric Rio, review - Pierre Crétois, Le Renversement de l’individualisme possessif: de Hobbes à l’État social Droit de propriété et intérêt collectif - La Vie des idées - 24 août 2015
Recensé : Pierre Crétois, Le Renversement de l’individualisme possessif : de Hobbes à l’État social, Paris, Classiques Garnier, 2014, 356 p.-- Mots-clés : propriété | libéralisme | solidarité | républicanisme -- En France l’idée que la propriété est un droit naturel émerge et triomphe au XVIIIe siècle, sous l’impulsion des physiocrates. C’est une telle conception que le mouvement solidariste critiquera un siècle plus tard afin de promouvoir l’État social. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  French_language  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  18thC  19thC  French_Enlightenment  Physiocrats  Hobbes  Locke-2_Treatises  Rousseau  property  property_rights  individualism  individualism-possessive  republicanism  common_good  solidarity  socialism  socialism-19thC  social_contract  social_movements  political_economy  political_press  economic_theory  liberalism  liberalism-19thC  welfare_state  natural_law  natural_rights  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Special Issue - Michael Oakeshott | Cosmos + Taxis, Vol 1, Issue 3, 2014
Editorial Note - Gene Callahan and Leslie Marsh *-* (1) The Critique of Rationalism and the Defense of Individuality: Oakeshott and Hayek - Chor-Yung Cheung *-* (2) Jane Jacobs’ Critique of Rationalism in Urban Planning - Gene Callahan and Sanford Ikeda *-* (3) Oakeshott on Modernity and the Crisis of Political Legitimacy in Contemporary Western Liberal Democracy - Noël O’sullivan. &-* (4) Oakeshott and the Complex Ecology of the Moral Life - Kevin Williams. *-* (5) Homo Ludens and Civil Association: The Sublime Nature of Michael Oakeshott’s Civil Condition - Thomas J. Cheeseman *-* (6) The Instrumental Idiom in American Politics: The ‘City on the Hill’ as a Spontaneous Order - Corey Abel *-* (7) Dogmatomachy: Ideological Warfare - David D. Corey. *-* Oakeshott on the Rule of Law: A Defense - Stephen Turner -- downloaded pdf to Note
journal  Academia.edu  article  political_philosophy  political_economy  judgment-political  political_culture  legitimacy  democracy  liberalism  Oakeshott  Jacobs_Jane  emergence  social_order  rationalist  modernity  Hayek  rule_of_law  Weber  fact-value  civil_society  associations  individualism  ideology  polarization  downloaded 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Leon Botstein - Are We Still Making Citizens? | Democracy Journal ▪- Spring 2015
Democracy requires a commitment to the public good. But for a long time now, our citizens have been taught to see themselves as only private actors. -- What that experience has taught me is that the purpose, challenge, and substance of education in a democracy are defined by two questions: How ought we to live, side by side, not as lone individuals but as citizens? And how can we, through education, help individuals answer that question? Answering these questions is hard, particularly in the United States, where many seem to view citizenship as a burden and even an unfortunate necessity. The rampant distrust of government and the public sector has become overwhelming. We sidestep the question and defend education in purely economic terms, linking education to work and productivity. Nonetheless, citizenship is more than economic; it is a defining political fact of life, one that even in its neglect can’t be dismissed. And active citizenship, embraced with some measure of critical enthusiasm, may be an indispensable foundation of justice, freedom, and civility. -- Leon Botstein is president of Bard College, music director of the American Symphony Orchestra, and editor of The Musical Quarterly. This essay is adapted from a talk he gave at the Hannah Arendt Center at Bard College in fall 2014. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  political_philosophy  political_culture  democracy  political_participation  education-civic  education-K-12  education-training  education-privatization  Arendt  Dewey  individualism  common_good  US_society  US_politics  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Noah Millman - Was Origen the Caitlyn Jenner of the Transabled? | The American Conservative - June 2015
I’m afraid I’m going to re-enter the fray. Rod Dreher has a piece today wondering whether the next step in our cultural development (or decline) will be the… Another superb piece by Millman illustrating how Dreher's hostility to changing cultural norms gets wrapped in a blanket condemnation of "modernity" (and liberalism, individualism, autonomy, and generally Enlightenment values) yet Dreher is committed to Enlightenment benefits of increased knowledge, and insists on liberalism's commitment to personal religious liberty. So it basically comes down to liberty for me but not for thee, with the Church authority for norm-setting both impervious to scientific and cultural change, and claiming an extension over those who don't recognize the Chyrch's authority. The example of Origen, whose spiritual commitment led to self-castration, and who wasn't condemned by the senior hierarchy (prior to the Church legislating on a range of norms dealing with the body and especially sexuality and gender, which was one reason Origen was never made a saint). Millman also has a lengthy passage from Tolstoy about a priest, sexual tension, spiritual demands and self-mutilation, with Tolstoy's final conclusion that this sort of psychological turmoil wasn’t the praiseworthy attitudes and action of a saint but self-absorbed cintra Christ's teaching. Tl; dr -- Dreher can't have it both ways (or in his case what seems like an ever-growing laundry list of contradictory ways). -- saved to Instapaper
Instapaper  sexuality  gender  gender-and-religion  norms  Early_Christian  theology  declinism  modernity  liberalism  Orthodox_Christianity  authority  individualism  autonomy  culture_wars  culture-American  cultural_change  cultural_authority  psychology  identity  biology  physiology  neuroscience  Tolstoy  religious_experience  religious_culture  religion-established  civil_liberties  bill_of_rights  from instapaper
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Nicolas Duvoux - Interview with Claude S. Fischer - In the Land of Voluntarism | April 2012 - Books & ideas
Tags : individualism | modernity | solidarity | community | United States of America -- In "Made in America", sociologist Claude S. Fischer develops the idea that voluntarism, not individualism, is the key feature to describe social ties in America and that this notion of voluntarism best helps us understand what makes America exceptional among other Western societies. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  US_society  US_history  cultural_history  individualism  voluntarism  solidarity  community  modernity  American_exceptionalism  sociology  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Stob, Review: John McGowan, Pragmatist Politics: Making the Case for Liberal Democracy (2012) | KB Journal - 2013
McGowan, John. Pragmatist Politics: Making the Case for Liberal Democracy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012. -- Paul Stob, Department of Communication Studies, Vanderbilt University -- John McGowan’s Pragmatist Politics draws upon the pragmatist tradition—primarily the work of William James, John Dewey, and Kenneth Burke—to formulate a liberal democratic politics for the twenty-first century. At least that’s the overt aim of the book. But what may stand out most to readers of KB Journal is how McGowan seems intent on crafting an attitude. In formulating a pragmatist politics, McGowan fails to explicate political programs and initiatives, he disregards the nuts and bolts of democratic negotiation, and he provides no real strategies for building grassroots coalitions. What he does—and what he does admirably—is present readers with a pragmatist attitude that will, he hopes, come to permeate public culture. -- Stob describes how McGowan links rhetoric and political philosophy, especially using Burke's "comic" frame as fitting a pragmatist approach to goals and public participation of liberal democracy -- downloaded page as pdf to Note
books  reviews  political_philosophy  liberalism  liberal_democracy  rhetoric-political  conversation  persuasion  Burke_Kenneth  Dewey  James_William  secularism  symbolic_interaction  symbols-political  symbols-religious  communication  community  individualism  civic_virtue  civic_humanism  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Vincent Descombes - Louis Dumont’s Political Thought - Books & ideas - April 2012.
Previously published in French in laviedesidees.fr, 14 February 2011. Translated by John Zvesper with the support of the Florence Gould Foundation. -- Louis Dumont is very well known for his anthropological work on India, but rather less for his political thought. Vincent Descombes emphasizes the substantial originality of that thought, which defined the political on the basis of comparative studies and in that way dispelled some of the equivocations of modern and contemporary philosophy. -- very interesting re anthropologist who developed a comparative method that would allow it to be turned back on Western modernity, and some political implications, including distinguishing French and German versions of individualism -- discussion of Rousseau's "general will" vs "will of all" makes more sense of it within this framing -- also Montesquieu, Tocqueville and especially Hegel moving back and forth, sometimes explicitly as in Montesquieu and less sharply in Hegel, with society as a (political, cultural, self-conscious? ) whole vs the political institutions -- see bibliography including list of Dumont’s works -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  intellectual_history  20thC  social_theory  political_philosophy  anthropology  comparative_anthropology  comparative_history  individualism  Rousseau  Hegel  Hegel-philosophy_of_right  Montesquieu  society  civil_society  nation-state  bibliography  downloaded 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
F.A. Hayek - Individualism and Economic Order - Books | Mises Institute
If you are looking to acquaint yourself with F.A. Hayek's perspective on economic theory — beyond his business cycle and monetary studies of the inter-war years — this is the best source. The collection appeared in 1947, before he moved on toward broader cultural and social investigations. It contains his most profound work on the liberal economic order, and his most penetrating reflections on economic phenomena -- published U of Chicago 1958 -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  intellectual_history  20thC  entre_deux_guerres  Austrian_economics  Hayek  social_theory  economic_theory  liberalism  socialism  communism  fascism  individualism  capitalism  market_fundamentalism  markets  prices  coordination  coordination-governments  political_economy  political_philosophy  downloaded 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
John D. Wilkins, review - Neil Postman, Building a Bridge to the 18th Century (1999) | Technology and Society Book Reviews
In Building a Bridge to the 18th Century, Neil Postman weaves an interesting tale on the development of a new "conversation" that Americans should commence. His book was an enjoyable read, and it re-ignites debate over policy questions and knowledge claims in the process of decision making. However, in formulating his arguments, he ran afoul, as so many do, in misconstruing the meaning of social construction and the manner in which society constructs knowledge. At the same time, Postman correctly articulates 'a crisis in narrative' (p.113). His story is best understood in the context of a manifesto that sees current narratives as inadequate for the future development of a healthy society. He sees a loss of meaning in our stories and reminds us that the 18th century is a social location that provides a foundation from which to launch a new conversation in order to restore a more meaningful social life. His manifesto does not seem to be interested in contemplation or conversation as he implies. Instead, I will argue that Postman is looking for efficiency and efficacy, and advocating his perspective from an ethnocentric foundation. I will attempt to provide the notion that there are multiple stories to be told, and that retelling one can be another form of advocating the status quo. In this review, I will focus on Postman's arguments for healthy skepticism, some of his contradictions, the notion of individualism and egoism, and the misconstruction of postmodern thought. -- downloaded as pdf to Note
books  reviews  kindle-available  cultural_critique  21stC  18thC  Enlightenment  philosophes  social_theory  constructivism  intellectual_history  Tocqueville  narrative  narrative-contested  conservation  postmodern  scepticism  scepticism-Academic  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  science-and-politics  science-public  individualism  self-interest  self-interest-cultural_basis  community  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Silas Peterson - Thomas Pfau and the emergence of the modern individual « The Immanent Frame - Oct 2014
Thomas Pfau’s presentation of modernity in Minding the Modern fails to incorporate both the sociopolitical dimensions of modernity’s emergence and its positive aspects. He sees modernity as the home of the “modern subject” of the Western world, or the “quintessentially modern, solitary individual” in his “palpable melancholy,” both “altogether adrift” and without “interpersonal relations.” (..) a challenge to those whom he sometimes calls the “modern apologists of secular, liberal, Enlightenment society.” -- Pfau draws upon a narrative which might be called the “middle age voluntarism to modern alienation theory.” This has many predecessors in the second half of the 20thC (..). The geopolitical situation in the 1980s and 1990s is one of the important features of the historical context of many of these narratives (..) a variety of intellectual assaults were waged in the Western world against what had become the dominant intellectual paradigm in the West. (..) Over the last 30 years (..) this critical diagnosis of modernity has become more precise; there has been a consolidation of the sources and arguments -- Alasdair MacIntyre, Michael J. Buckley, Charles Taylor, Colin E. Gunton, Stanley Hauerwas, John Milbank, Michael Allen Gillespie, and more recently David B. Hart, Adrian Pabst and Brad S. Gregory. Pfau’s Minding the Modern is a new contribution to this anti-modern diagnosis of contemporary Western culture and the modern individual. (..)some of the arguments can be found in the French Catholic reform theologians of the early 20thC. There were also many German-speaking intellectuals in the 1920s and 1930s who were developing sweeping narratives that cast a dark light on modernity and thus, both implicitly and explicitly, called into question the rationale and legitimacy of the liberal political order. Pfau claims that his book does not provide one of these narratives (..). It does seem to be similar, however, to the classic decline-and-fall narratives. Even the essays at the end of the book about “retrieving the human” are analogous. -- downloaded post as pdf to Note
books  kindle-available  reviews  modernity  modernity-emergence  reform-legal  intellectual_history  medieval_philosophy  theology  Renaissance  humanism  Erasmus  Thomism  Thomism-21stC  voluntarism  Ockham  Luther  liberalism  self  alienation  18thC  Enlightenment  Enlightenment_Project  Counter-Enlightenment  Counter-Reformation  19thC  Coleridge  transcendence  ontology  individualism  17thC  English_Civil_War  religious_wars  religious_culture  Hobbes  20thC  21stC  declinism  MacIntyre  Taylor_Charles  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Talal Asad - Historical notes on the idea of secular criticism « The Immanent Frame - Jan 2008
I have tried to underline the very different understandings people have had of it in Western history, understandings that can’t be reduced to the simple distinction between secular criticism (freedom and reason) and religious criticism (intolerance and obscurantism). The practice of secular criticism is now a sign of the modern, of the modern subject’s relentless pursuit of truth and freedom, of his or her political agency. It has almost become a duty, closely connected to the right to free expression and communication. But every critical discourse has institutional conditions that define what it is, what it recognizes, what it aims at, what it is destroying – and why. Neither philosophical nor literary criticism can successfully claim to be the privileged site of reason. It matters whether the criticism/critique in question is conducted in the form of parody and satire, confession of sins, political auto-critique, professional criticism, or speech under analysis. One might say that if these are all possible instances of critique/criticism, then what we have here is a family concept for which it is not possible to provide a single theory because the practices that constitute them differ radically. And yet there is, perhaps, something distinctive after all about the historical concept of “critique” that Foucault wanted to identify, something other than the varieties of critical practice to which I have pointed: In some areas of our modern life, there is the insistent demand that reasons be given for almost everything. The relation to knowledge, to action, and to other persons, that results when this demand is taken as the foundation of all understanding, is perhaps what Foucault had in mind when he spoke of critique. “The critical attitude” is the essence of secular heroism. -- downloaded page as pdf to Note
critique  intellectual_history  cultural_history  Europe-Early_Modern  science-and-religion  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_method  Popper  Kant  Foucault  secularism  secular_humanism  concepts-change  Koselleck  rhetoric  rhetoric-moral_basis  epistemology-social  scientific_culture  political_culture  authority  genealogy-method  individualism  agency  Enlightenment-ongoing  Bayle  scepticism  Republic_of_Letters  disciplines  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Kenan Malik - THE DEATH OF GOD AND THE FALL OF MAN | Pandaemonium July 2014
Transcript of talk for Institute of Ideas -- The moral vision of modernity may have been, in other words, nourished by the crumbling of the God-ordained order. It was – it had to be – however, also rooted in faith, but a faith of a different kind – faith that humans were capable of acting rationally and morally without guidance from beyond. It was through the 19thC that religious faith truly began to crumble. But it was also in the 19thC that faith in the human capacity to act without God began also to erode. The optimism that had once suffused the humanist impulse began to ebb away and there began to develop a much darker view of what it meant to be human. By the late 19thC European societies came to experience both a crisis of faith and a ‘crisis of reason’, the beginnings of a set of trends that were to become highly significant in the 20thC – the erosion of Enlightenment optimism, a disenchantment with ideas of progress, a disbelief in concepts of truth, the growth of a much darker view of human nature. -- The death of God, in other words, went hand in hand with what we might call, if we were to continue to use religious symbolism, the Fall of Man. And the Fall of Man transformed the meaning of the Death of God. God is a metaphor for the desire for an authority beyond ourselves to frame our existence and guide our lives, the death of God for the insistence on acting without guidance from beyond. There are two aspects to the death of God. The decline of religious belief and the growth of a new faith in the capacity of humans to act without guidance from beyond. The first has always been overstated. The second has always been undervalued. - frames talk around Anscombe and MacIntyre
intellectual_history  religious_history  cultural_history  18thC  19thC  20thC  morality-Christian  religious_belief  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  pagans  gods-antiquity  monotheism  teleology  human_nature  morality-conventional  morality-objective  progress  Enlightenment  Fin-de-Siècle  humanism  anti-humanism  Counter-Enlightenment  political_philosophy  reason  Anscombe  MacIntyre  tradition  identity  autonomy  individualism  community  communitarian  social_order  change-social  historical_change  historicism  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Ford, Jane (2013) Vampiric enterprise: metaphors of economic exploitation in the literature and culture of the fin de siecle. PhD thesis, University of Portsmouth.
This thesis is about the complex network of metaphors that emerged around late 19thC conceptions of economic self-interest — predatory, conflictual and exploitative basis of relations between nations, institutions, sexes and people in an outwardly belligerent fin-de-siècle economy. This thesis is about the vampire, cannibal and related genera of economic metaphor which penetrate many of the major discourses of the period. In chapters that examine socialist fiction and newspapers; the imperial quest romance; inter-personal intimacies in the writing of Henry James and Vernon Lee; and the Catholic novels of Lucas Malet, I assess the breadth and variety of these metaphors, and consider how they filter the concept of the conflictual ‘economic man’ . The thesis builds on Maggie Kilgour’s "From communion to cannibalism: an anatomy of metaphors of incorporation" (1990), which traces the genealogy – in literature from Homer to Melville – of what she terms ‘metaphors of incorporation’. These are metaphors that originate from a inside-outside binary and involve the assimilation or incorporation of an external reality. Kilgour attempts to demonstrate that with the increasing isolation of the modern individual .. acts of ‘incorporation’ previously imagined as symbiotic, were later conceived as cannibalistic. --However, deploying a combination of historicist and, at times, Post-Structuralist approaches, this thesis demonstrates that these metaphors refuse to accommodate themselves to a simple unified vision of the kind advanced by Kilgour. I map the complexities of these metaphors, explaining how they originate from divergent teleological impulses and how they articulate both simple ideological operations, and more complex feelings of ambivalence about economic realities in the cultural moment of the Victorian fin-de-siècle.
thesis  cultural_history  literary_history  social_history  political_history  IR_theory  IR  19thC  Fin-de-Siècle  20thC  political_economy  political_press  fiction  novels  James_Henry  laisser-faire  domination  imperialism  homo_economicus  socialism  class_conflict  individualism  alienation  social_order  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
James Fitzjames Stephen, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, ed. Stuart D. Warner (LF ed. 1993) - Online Library of Liberty
James Fitzjames Stephen, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, ed. Stuart D. Warner (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund 1993). 07/13/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/572> -- The Liberty Fund edition of this work, published 1873. Impugning John Stuart Mill’s famous treatise, On Liberty, Stephen criticized Mill for turning abstract doctrines of the French Revolution into “the creed of a religion.” Only the constraints of morality and law make liberty possible, warned Stephen, and attempts to impose unlimited freedom, material equality, and an indiscriminate love of humanity will lead inevitably to coercion and tyranny. -- he also attacks Mill on subordination of women (he's of course for it as being a natural hierarchy, Virginia must have been proud of her uncle) and Utilitarianism, though Stephen himself was a utilitarian. -- see also short bibliography re Victorian intelligentsia
books  etexts  19thC  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  legal_history  human_nature  Stephen_Leslie  Victorian  Mill  utilitarianism  women-rights  hierarchy  social_order  liberalism  democracy  mass_culture  political_participation  liberty  equality  communitarian  individualism  laisser-faire 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
John Grumley - Theorizing Modernity: Unit of Study Guide 2014 - Sydney, Australia
Lecture notes on each class plus extensive reading lists, - see especially the post on alternative paper questions, each with a reading list -- PHIL 2633 Theorising Modernity -- The popular image of 19th century modernity was of a speeding locomotive clear of form, direction and ultimate destination. In reality, however, and despite unbounded optimism, the great thinkers of the 19th century were at least aware of deep contradictions and these tempered their assessments of modernity. This course will survey the best of these classical theories to discover to what extent they were able to capture the contradictions and problems we know only too well. The work of Hegel, de Tocqueville, Marx and Nietzsche will serve as paradigmatic attempts to discover the essence of modernity. Recurring themes and features will be examined through the prism of these thinkers: these include questions of meaning after the collapse of tradition, and problems arising from capitalism, industrialisation, the nation-state, democracy, bureaucratisation, individualism and the rise of secularism-- their main tendencies, antinomies and problems. The course will demonstrate how much we owe these thinkers for our understanding of modernity, as well as, considering their respective shortcomings from a contemporary perspective.
intellectual_history  19thC  Hegel  Tocqueville  Marx  Nietzsche  modernity  Industrial_Revolution  individualism  secularization  nation-state  nationalism  democracy  mass_culture  elite_culture  class_conflict  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  social_theory  social_process  historicism  bibliography  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Stephen Guy-Bray - Shakespeare and the Invention of the Heterosexual | Early Modern Literary Studies Special Issue 16 (October, 2007) 16.1-28
[A]lmost everything in The Two Gentlemen of Verona can be substituted for something else; indeed, the narrative could be summarised consisting of a chain of substitutions. One effect of Shakespeare's stress on substitution and interchangeability in this play is to undermine the stable and individual self; as a result, in the play the characters tend to have selves composed of fragments. In the last 20 years, many Renaissance scholars have pointed out that our modern concept of what selfhood is cannot really be applied to the 16thC & 17thC, and from this point of view the characters in The Two Gentlemen of Verona do not seem particularly odd. ...a recent book on the subject by Will Fisher's... points out that from the 17thC on, the individual is "conceptualized as an entity that was quite literally in-dividual (in the sense of indivisible). In other words, it had no prosthetic or detachable parts." In contrast, Fisher argues that in Shakespeare's time the individual was to a great extent formed out of detachable parts. His emphasis is primarily on items that could be part of a stage costume (handkerchiefs, codpieces, beards, and hair), but our idea of prostheses could include other things. Specifically, I am thinking of male relations with women. The Two Gentlemen of Verona presents what we would now call heterosexuality as a prosthesis, as part of the equipment or furniture of a man, but Shakespeare ultimately refuses to subordinate homosociality to marriage. - online journal html
article  16thC  17thC  British_history  English_lit  cultural_history  Shakespeare  sexuality  friendship  self  individualism  homosexuality  marriage  love 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Kenan Malik - Review of "Inventing the Individual" by Larry Siedentop - CHRISTIANITY AND LIBERALISM | Pandaemonium Jan 2014
Review of "Inventing the Individual" by Larry Siedentop -- ‘The characteristic of historical writing in recent centuries’, Siedentop observes, ‘is an inclination to minimize the moral and intellectual distance between the modern and the ancient world, while at the same time maximizing the moral and intellectual distance between modern Europe and the middle ages.’ I am not sure that it makes much sense to talk about a ‘characteristic of historical writing’ that stretches over ‘centuries’. This is particularly so given that one the characteristics of recent historiography has been the opposite: the tendency to blur the distinction between the Middle Ages and modernity. Inventing the Individual is very much part of this revisionist trend. The trouble is, in revising the previous approach Siedentop now makes the ancient world too alien and modernity not distinctive enough. -- at least it's a counter to the mournful Thomist condemnation of liberal individualism by MacIntyre, Taylor et al.
books  reviews  intellectual_history  religious_history  religious_culture  political_culture  political_philosophy  Christianity  liberalism  equality  free_will  original_sin  hierarchy  authority  individualism  MacIntyre  Taylor_Charles 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Jacob T. Levy - Not So Novus an Ordo: Constitutions Without Social Contracts | JSTOR: Political Theory, Vol. 37, No. 2 (April 2009), pp. 191-217
Social contract theory imagines political societies as resting on a fundamental agreement, adopted at a discrete moment in hypothetical time, that binds individual persons together into a polity and sets fundamental rules regarding that polity's structure and powers. Written constitutions, adopted at real moments in historical time, dictating governmental structures, bounding governmental powers, and entrenching individual rights, look temptingly like social contracts reified. Yet something essential is lost in this slippage between social contract theory and the practice of constitutionalism. Contractarian blinders lead us to look for greater individualism, social unity, and coherence of principles than should be expected. Real constitutional orders appropriate, incorporate, and channel the histories and divisions of the societies they govern. Treating them as social contracts flattens and distorts them, making those engagements with the past or with social plurality appear anomalous and encouraging their minimization. Accordingly this article redirects attention to non-contractarian strands within constitutionalism's intellectual inheritance and lived practice. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  legal_history  legal_theory  constitutionalism  social_contract  political_philosophy  Bolingbroke  Hume  legitimacy  institutions  political_culture  individualism  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Amy Gutmann, review essay - Communitarian Critics of Liberalism | JSTOR: Philosophy & Public Affairs, Vol. 14, No. 3 (Summer, 1985), pp. 308-322
Reviewed work(s): Liberalism and the Limits of Justice. by Michael Sandel; Morality and the Liberal Ideal. by Michael Sandel; After Virtue. by Alasdair MacIntyre; Is Patriotism a Virtue. by Alasdair MacIntyre; Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age. by Benjamin Barber; Atomism. by Charles Taylor; Powers, Possessions and Freedom: Essays in Honor of C. B. MacPherson. by Akis Kontos; "The Diversity of Goods," in Utilitarianism and Beyond. by Amartya Sen; Bernard Williams; Knowledge and Politics. by Roberto Mangabeira Unger; Spheres of Justice. by Michael Walzer -- heavily cited -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  jstor  articles  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  liberalism  liberalism-republicanism_debates  communitarian  political_participation  democracy  justice  individualism  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard Dagger - The Sandelian Republic and the Encumbered Self | JSTOR: The Review of Politics, Vol. 61, No. 2 (Spring, 1999), pp. 181-208
In "Democracy's Discontent", Michael Sandel argues for a revival of the republican tradition in order to counteract the pernicious effects of contemporary liberalism. As in his earlier work, Sandel charges that liberals who embrace the ideals of political neutrality and the unencumbered self are engaged in a self-subverting enterprise, for no society that lives by these ideals can sustain itself. Sandel is right to endorse the republican emphasis on forming citizens and cultivating civic virtues. By opposing liberalism as vigorously as he does, however, he engages in a self-subverting enterprise of his own. That is, Sandel is in danger of undercutting his position by threatening the liberal principles upon which he implicitly relies. This danger is greatest when he presses his case against the unencumbered self, when he appeals to the obligations of membership, and when he treats republicanism and liberalism as adversaries rather than allies. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  political_philosophy  liberalism  communitarian  individualism  liberalism-republicanism_debates  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Special Issue -Living Alone Together [Introduction and key article by Tzvetan Todorov] | JSTOR: New Literary History, Vol. 27, No. 1, Winter, 1996
Issue Introduction - Living Alone Together (pp. 1-14) Tzvetan Todorov and Marilyn Gaddis Rose. *--*--* Replies to Introduction *--* (1) Community and Individuality (pp. 15-24) Patricia H. Werhane. *--* (2) A Reply to Tzvetan Todorov's "Living Alone Together" (pp. 25-34) Frances Ferguson. *--* (3) "Living Together Alone or Together": Commentary on Tzvetan Todorov's "Living Alone Together" (pp. 35-41) Stephen A. Mitchell. *--* (4) [downloaded] Todorov's Otherness (pp. 43-55) Robert Wokler. *--* (5) Misanthropology (pp. 57-72) Gary Saul Morson. *--* (6) Conflict and Sociability in Hegel, Freud, and Their Followers: Tzvetan Todorov's "Living Alone Together" (pp. 73-82) Daniel Burston. *--* (7) Regarding Others (pp. 83-93) Stewart Justman. *--*--* Response *--* The Gaze and the Fray (pp. 95-106) Tzvetan Todorov and Marilyn Gaddis Rose. *--*--* A. Self and Others in Culture. *--* Keeping the Self Intact during the Culture Wars: A Centennial Essay for Mikhail Bakhtin (pp. 107-126) Caryl Emerson. *--* Cultural Dreaming and Cultural Studies (pp. 127-144) Marianne DeKoven. *--* Orality, Literacy, and Their Discontents (pp. 145-159) Denis Donoghue.
journal  article  jstor  intellectual_history  literary_history  lit_crit  literary_theory  human_nature  social_theory  moral_philosophy  psychology  sociability  self  self-love  self-development  bildung  self-and-other  ancient_philosophy  Plato  Platonism  Socrates  Aristotle  Cicero  community  individualism  authenticity  constructivism  Rousseau  Hegel  Freud  conflict  Bakhtin  conversation  dialogue  literacy  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Patrik Aspers - Nietzsche's Sociology | JSTOR: Sociological Forum, Vol. 22, No. 4 (Dec., 2007), pp. 474-499
Downloaded pdf to Note -- large bibliography looks especially interesting re placing Nietzsche's social constructivism in context of 19thC social sciences and emerging discipline of sociology especially in Germany. -- The aim of this article is to present that part of Friedrich Nietzsche's work that is of special interest to sociologists. To do this, I discuss the relationship between Nietzsche's work and the sociology both of today and of his own time. The most important idea is that he saw reality as a social construction. The idea of social construction is related to the beliefs and values, power and interests of the actors. Nietzsche's discussions of power and of the individual vs. the collective are also analyzed.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  social_theory  social_sciences  19thC  Germany  Nietzsche  sociology  Weber  constructivism  belief  values  power  individualism  subject  civil_society  community  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Dana Villa - Hegel, Tocqueville, and "Individualism" | JSTOR: The Review of Politics, Vol. 67, No. 4 (Autumn, 2005), pp. 659-686
Critics of liberal individualism have pointed out the many failures of "atomism" as a method in social and political philosophy. Their methodological criticisms have a tendency, however, to devolve into repudiations of moral individualism as such. In part, this is due to a misreading of Hegel and Tocqueville, two critics of individualism who nevertheless upheld the importance of individual rights and what Hegel called "freedom of subjectivity." My essay brings these two very different theorists together in order to show how each deliberately dispensed with the ontology inherited from eighteenth-century social contract theory, the better to focus on associational life and public freedom. The end result is not a relapse into the rhetoric of civic republicanism, but a refurbishment of that tradition from the standpoint of modern liberty: the liberty of the individual. This common project links Hegel, the idealist philosopher, and Tocqueville, the liberal-republican, in unexpected but complementary ways. -- over 100 references -- Downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_history  political_philosophy  liberalism  individualism  communitarian  community  liberty  18thC  19thC  Hegel  Tocqueville  civil_liberties  republicanism  neo-republicanism  civic_humanism  civil_society  social_contract  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Allan Megill, review essay - Historicizing Nietzsche? Paradoxes and Lessons of a Hard Case | JSTOR: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 68, No. 1 (Mar., 1996), pp. 114-152
Reviewed works: *--* (1) Nietzsche Contra Rousseau: A Study of Nietzsche's Moral and Politicial Thought by Keith Ansell-Pearson; *--* (2) The Neitzche Legacy in Germany, 1890-1990 by Steven E. Aschheim; *--* (3) Confrontations: Derrida/Heidegger/Nietzsche by Ernst Behler; *--* (4) Neitzsche on Truth and Philosophy by Steven Taubeneck; *--* (5) Nietzsche Contra Nietzsche: Creativity and the Anti-Romantic by Adrian Del Caro; *--* (6) Neitzsche and the Politics of Aristocratic Radicalism by Bruce Detwiler; *--* (7) Nietzsche's New Seas: Explorations in Philosophy, Aesthetics, and Politics by Michael Allen Gillespie; Tracy B. Strong; *--* (8) Nietzsche and the Origin of Virtue by Lester H. Hunt; *--* (9) Zarathustras Geheimnis: Friedrich Nietzsche und seine verschlüsselte Botschaft by Joachim Köhler; *--* (10) Nietzsche as Postmodernist: Essays Pro and Contra; Clayton Koelb; *--* (11) Nietzsche's Case: Philosophy as/and Literature by Bernd Magnus; Stanley Stewart; Jean-Pierre Mileur; *--* (12) Nietzsche's Philosophy of Nature and Cosmology by Alistair Moles; *--* (13) Nietzsche und der Nietzscheanismus by Ernst Nolte; *--* (14) Young Nietzsche: Becoming a Genius by Carl Pletsch; *--* (15) Nietzsche and the Question of Interpretation: Between Hermeneutics and Deconstruction by Alan D. Schrift; *--* (16) Alcyone: Nietzsche on Gifts, Noise, and Women by Gary Shapiro; *-'* (17) Nietzschean Narratives by Gary Shapiro; *--* (18) Thinker on Stage: Nietzsche's Materialism by Peter Sloterdijk; *--* (19) Reading Nietzsche by Robert C. Solomon; Kathleen M. Higgins; *--* (20) Nietzsche's Voice by Henry Staten; *--* (21) Left-Wing Nietzscheanism: The Politics of German Expressionism, 1910-1920 by Seth Taylor; *--* (22) Friedrich Nietzsche and the Politics of the Soul: A Study of Heroic Individualism by Leslie Paul Thiele; *--* (23) Nietzsche and Political Thought by Mark Warren; *--* (24) Within Nietzsche's Labyrinth by Alan White; *--* (25) Nietzsche's Philosophy of Art by Julian Young -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  article  jstor  intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  Nietzsche  Rousseau  Heidegger  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  aesthetics  morality-Nietzche  lit_crit  literary_history  individualism  self  self-development  Weimar  hermeneutics  deconstruction  postmodern  philosophy_of_science  metaphysics  metaethics  style-philosophy  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Bernard Yack: The Art of Theory : the art of theory – a quarterly journal of political philosophy
Includes discussion of his Nationlism and the Moral Psychology of Community (Chicago UP, 2012) -- on kindle. Interesting on Aristotle as realist political philosopher in Bernard Williams sense. Judith Shklar was his dissertation adviser. -- downloaded as pdf to Note
books  kindle  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  community  communitarian  liberalism  individualism  self-interest  altruism  cosmopolitanism  global_governance  nationalism  national_ID  legitimacy  democracy  sovereignty  EF-add  downloaded 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
James Farr - Locke, Natural Law, and New World Slavery | JSTOR: Political Theory, Vol. 36, No. 4 (Aug., 2008), pp. 495-522
This essay systematically reformulates an earlier argument about Locke and new world slavery, adding attention to Indians, natural law, and Locke's reception. Locke followed Grotian natural law in constructing a just-war theory of slavery. Unlike Grotius, though, he severely restricted the theory, making it inapplicable to America. It only fit resistance to "absolute power" in Stuart England. Locke was nonetheless an agent of British colonialism who issued instructions governing slavery. Yet they do not inform his theory--or vice versa. This creates hermeneutical problems and raises charges of racism. If Locke deserves the epithet "racist," it is not for his having a racial doctrine justifying slavery. None of this makes for a flattering portrait. Locke's reputation as the champion of liberty would not survive the contradictions in which new world slavery ensnared him. Evidence for this may be found in Locke's reception, including by Southern apologists for slavery.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  17thC  British_history  colonialism  American_colonies  West_Indies  indigenous_peoples  Native_Americans  Africa  slavery  Locke  Grotius  natural_law  just_war  conquest  liberty  individualism  liberalism  Southern_states  abolition  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
John Tosh - Gentlemanly Politeness and Manly Simplicity in Victorian England | JSTOR: Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Sixth Series, Vol. 12 (2002), pp. 455-472
Between the late eighteenth century and the mid-nineteenth century the notion of the 'polite gentleman' lost its political purchase. 'Manliness' became the identifying code of both the business class and the 'respectable' working class. The virtues of rugged individualism and personal integrity were emphasised at the expense of sociability and ease of manner. In the political sphere debates about who should be included in the franchise were permeated by the language of manliness, and the politicians with the greatest popular following were hailed as 'plain men' possessing a 'simple manliness'. -- lots of good stuff on contrast between 18thC and 19thC that helps explain part of hostility towards Bolingbroke as representing the unmanliness of the polite aristocrat both in his politics (easily accused of hypocrisy, a major Victorian sin), his sociability, (especially his relations with women) to say nothing of his religion, which wasn't serious enough,no struggle with faith or conscience -- just a fribble overall whose charisma counted against him as well as against those who were gulled by him -- Disraeli a throwback -- useful references -- didn't download
article  jstor  cultural_history  social_history  18thC  19thC  British_history  Victorian  political_culture  working_class  bourgeoisie  professions  independence  individualism  competition  masculinity  politeness  manners  Evangelical  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard Boyd - Thomas Hobbes and the Perils of Pluralism | JSTOR: The Journal of Politics, Vol. 63, No. 2 (May, 2001), pp. 392-413
Scholarly opinion has been split uneasily between those who view Thomas Hobbes as a defender of Royalist absolutism and those who see him as the intellectual forefather of liberal individualism. While both these positions are compatible with Hobbes's deep-seated fear of intermediary associations between individual and state, this article will contend that it is his fear of the violent and irrational properties of groups that motivates his well-known individualism and gives a potentially illiberal bent to his political thought. Attending to Hobbes's neglected thoughts on the dangers posed by parties, sects, and other groups between individual and state sheds light on both the historical context and intellectual legacy of his thought. Hobbes's metaphorical complaints about those "lesser Common-wealths" akin to "wormes in the entrayles of a naturall man" also should prompt us to rethink many versions of contemporary pluralism and the vogue of civil society: Much of what today is recommended as "civil society" was considered anything but "civil" in the early modern political imagination.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  17thC  Hobbes  Absolutism  individualism  liberalism  fear  parties  faction  sectarianism  pluralism  civil_society  civil_liberties  tolerance  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Rory J. Conces - Consensual Foundations and Resistance in Locke's 'Second Treatise' | JSTOR: Theoria: A Journal of Social and Political Theory, No. 91 (June 1998), pp. 19-33
Lots of references and useful discussion of tension between consent and individual rights - one of reasons for 18thC rejection of social contract theory that couldn't bridge contact and consent with ongoing legitimacy within political conflict and minorities
article  jstor  intellectual_history  17thC  political_philosophy  social_contract  Locke  individualism  resistance_theory  legitimacy  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Andrew Stark - Corporate Electoral Activity, Constitutional Discourse, and Conceptions of the Individual | JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 86, No. 3 (Sep., 1992), pp. 626-637
Recently, constitutional scholars have begun exploring how far constitutional discourse is governed by competing liberal and republican conceptions of the just or the good society. At the same time, political theorists have placed in doubt how far this debate rests on the metaphysical dichotomy between a radically autonomous and a radically encumbered individual. Scholars, however, have yet to investigate to what extent metaphysical conceptions of the autonomous or the encumbered individual underlie and determine strands of constitutional discourse. I analyze the deep structure of constitutional discourse in one important area--the legitimacy of prohibitions on corporate electoral activity. I show that the constitutional argumentation recurrently mounted against corporate electoral activity rests on a particular version of the radically encumbered individual and that the major constitutional defenses of corporate electoral activity assume a particular version of the radically autonomous individual.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  legal_theory  US_constitution  individualism  liberalism  republicanism  communitarian  civic_virtue  elections  corporations  corporate_governance  campaign_finance  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
William R. Lund - Communitarian Politics and the Problem of Equality | JSTOR: Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 46, No. 3 (Sep., 1993), pp. 577-600
Both liberals and communitarians grant normative weight to equality. To adjudicate their on-going debate, we need to clarify the meanings they attribute to that ambiguous concept. This paper analyzes a communitarian conception of equality, and criticizes its practical implications. At the bottom of this account, we find a virtue-centered ethical theory that assumes citizens are equally interested in true human "flourishing." Communitarians define that flourishing as living virtuously within a community committed to participatory democracy and a substantive conception of the common good. This conception of equality shapes their account of legitimate politics, including the denial of a strong right of privacy. Thus, the communitarians' occasionally troubling policy stands are not simply specific and eliminable errors. They are, instead, deeply rooted in the structure of their theory, and, absent serious modifications, a reconsideration of liberal alternatives is in order. -- good references -- didn't download
article  jstor  social_theory  political_philosophy  communitarian  liberalism  equality  common_good  individualism  privacy  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Amy R. McCready - The Ethical Individual: An Historical Alternative to Contemporary Conceptions of the Self | JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 90, No. 1 (Mar., 1996), pp. 90-102
In this article I offer an historically situated model of the self as an alternative to liberal, communitarian, and Foucauldian conceptions. Through the example of John Milton, I show that the conscience gave rise to a self that was jointly individual and ethical. By participating in public debates at the behest of his conscience, Milton recognized himself as an individual possessor of moral authority. Conscience thus liberated Milton from traditional identifications and beliefs as it bound him to act for his society. The self founded on conscience therefore differs from both communitarian and liberal variants. Moreover, whereas conscience in the Foucauldian account renders the self docile, it empowers the self in my account. I conclude that the self predicated on conscience challenges the divisions between private and public realms, self-regarding and prosocial actions, and self-creating and culturally determined persons. -- lots of interesting references re self Taylor etc, communitarian debates, 17thC notions of conscience -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  political_philosophy  liberalism  communitarian  individualism  pluralism  conscience  moral_philosophy  self-interest  altruism  political_participation  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Jonathan Salem-Wiseman - Heidegger's Dasein and the Liberal Conception of the Self | JSTOR: Political Theory, Vol. 31, No. 4 (Aug., 2003), pp. 533-557
Although Heidegger's philosophical complicity with National Socialism has been the focus of virtually all discussions of his politics, little to no attention has been placed on how the conception of human existence developed in Being and Time might shed light on debates about the self between contemporary liberals and communitarians. By situating Heidegger's early work within these ongoing debates, the author will show how his descriptions of Dasein-especially the descriptions of the relationship between Dasein and its community-are actually more consistent with liberal views of the self than with communitarian interpretations. Heidegger helps to clarify how a thickly constituted, social self may nevertheless stand back from its community in ways that communitarians are hard pressed to explain. In the final section, the author will comment on the compatibility of Heidegger's conception of Dasein with liberalism as a political philosophy, focusing in particular on Heidegger's conception of Mitsein or being-with. -- didn't download
political_philosophy  liberalism  communitarian  individualism  Heidegger 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard Boyd - Reappraising the Scottish Moralists and Civil Society | JSTOR: Polity, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Autumn, 2000), pp. 101-125
Michael Sandel and others have faulted liberal constitutionalism for its "proceduralism," its "bracketing" of divisive moral issues, and its pursuit of the "unencumbered self." As a contemporary diagnosis, there is much to be said on behalf of these criticisms. Yet in recounting the story of liberalism's development as the deliberate and inevitable pursuit of moral individuality, these accounts fail to consider the anticipated benefits-as well as the costs-of modern constitutionalism that were evident to eighteenth-century thinkers like David Hume and Adam Smith. We will see that classical liberals like Hume and Smith did not defend liberal constitutionalism in the name of the "unencumbered self." Instead they saw liberal neutrality, the separation between public and private, and the relegation of religion to a private matter of civil society as the best way to accommodate sectarianism, ethical pluralism and the religious conflicts of the post-Reformation world. Only by challenging contemporary presumptions of liberal teleology and by understanding classical liberalism's development as the product of eighteenth-century encounters with the perils of pluralism can we fully reckon the advantages and disadvantages of liberal constitutionalism. These lessons of classical liberalism suggest both the presumptive virtues of liberalism and the dangers of communitarian efforts to encourage shared purposes and a thicker public life in the modern polity. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  political_philosophy  liberalism  communitarian  pluralism  constitutionalism  18thC  Scottish_Enlightenment  civil_society  public_sphere  individualism  religious_wars  politics-and-religion  political_culture  Hume  Smith  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert E. Brown – How did America’s Political Rhetoric Become so Biblical? | The Marginalia Review of Books Oct 2013
At first glance James Byrd’s Sacred Scripture, Sacred War and Eran Shalev’s American Zion bear little connection to King’s rhetorical strategy, not to mention his pacifism. And yet, they show how early forms of national discourse set the stage for the religiously-inflected political language that has characterized American life for the better part of two centuries. They also illuminate, by way of contrast, the rather dramatic shift away from such rhetoric within the public square in the last half of the twentieth century as religion has become a less plausible means of building consensus for civic causes
books  reviews  US_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  American_colonies  American_Revolution  Early_Republic  political_culture  politics-and-religion  rhetoric  politics-and-history  rhetoric-political  communitarian  individualism  chosen_people  slavery  EF-add 
october 2013 by dunnettreader
Review by: Frank Cunningham: Retrieving Macpherson: Critical Appraisal of a New Study (2003)
JSTOR: Science & Society, Vol. 67, No. 2 (Summer, 2003), pp. 236-244 -- review of C. B. Macpheson and the Problem of Liberal Democracy by Jules Townshend
books  reviews  political_philosophy  liberalism  democracy  17thC  18thC  19thC  Hobbes  Locke  Mill  Bentham  Macpherson  individualism  Marxist  social_sciences-post-WWII  capitalism  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Paul Marshall: John Locke: Between God and Mammon (1979)
JSTOR: Canadian Journal of Political Science / Revue canadienne de science politique, Vol. 12, No. 1 (Mar., 1979), pp. 73-96 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Locke est-il un proto-capitaliste ou est-il un néo-puritain poursuivant sa vocation avec application? Voilà deux interprétations fécondes de l'élément central de sa théorie politique. Ces deux conceptions ont naturellement leurs avantages et leurs limites. D'une part, il n'y a rien dans son oeuvre qui nous indique que Locke croyait à l'accumulation indéterminée ou à une rationalité qui justifie les différences de classes. Ainsi la thèse de l'appropriation individuelle perd de sa valeur. D'autre part, la notion de vocation est complexe, elle a évolué considérablement et elle comporte un certain nombre de points diver Locke s'appuie sur différents aspects de cette notion et il lui apporte ses propres changements. Il conçoit la vocation comme un travail et il attache beaucoup d'importance à ses avantages économiques. Par voie de conséquence, une interprétation de la pensée de Locke qui reposerait en grande partie sur les aspects religieux de sa pensée serait probablement trompeuse. L'individualisme propriétaire chez Locke est tiré de l'individualisation extrême de la responsabilité laquelle se retrouve dans la doctrine de la vocation, mais Locke cherche à joindre cette responsabilité à la notion de l'utilité du travail et aux exigences de l'efficacité économique. Il recherchait à la fois des << espoirs réconfortants >> de bonheur dans un monde futur et une traversée de ce monde calme et prospère. Locke voulait servir deux maîtres et on ne peut comprendre sa théorie politique si l'on ne tient compte que de l'un d'eux.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  theology  17thC  Britain  political_economy  religious_culture  property  Labor_markets  poverty  individualism  liberalism  Locke  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Hugh Breakey: Parsing Macpherson: The Last Rites of Locke the Possessive Individualist (2013) - Theoria | Wiley Online Library
Breakey, H. (2013), Parsing Macpherson: The Last Rites of Locke the Possessive Individualist. Theoria. doi: 10.1111/theo.12022 -- C.B. Macpherson's “Possessive Individualist” reading of Locke is one of the most radical and influential interpretations in the history of exegesis. Despite a substantial critical response over the past five decades, Macpherson's reading remains orthodox in various circles in the humanities generally, particularly in legal studies, and his interpretation of several crucial passages has unwittingly been followed even by his sharpest critics within Lockean scholarship. In order to present the definitive rebuttal to this interpretation, and so finally to lay it to rest, I argue that every one of Macpherson's key pieces of textual evidence can be rejected entirely on its own terms; that is, by reference to no more than its immediate context. In this way I contend that fault of the Possessive Individualist reading lies far deeper than mere cherry-picking of the Lockean corpus, but centrally involves misreading, misplacing and misrepresenting the very parts of Locke's work Macpherson cites as evidence for his reading.
article  Wiley  intellectual_history  political_economy  political_philosophy  17thC  18thC  Locke  individualism  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Arthur Edward Jr Kolzow: Equality and Liberty in the Materialist Moral Philosophy of the French Enlightenment - thesis 2011 - Udini
Equality and liberty have come, over the past two and half centuries, to find themselves among the primary political and social values of the West. This study on both the philosophical and historical development of equality and liberty during the Enlightenment clarifies their purposes and justifications. It also elucidates the occasional conflicts between equality and liberty, that is, where it becomes necessary to choose one over the other. The works of three of the major materialist philosophers of the French Enlightenment, Julien Offray de La Mettrie (1709-1751), Paul-Henri d'Holbach (1723-1789), and Denis Diderot (1713-1784), are ideal for such analysis because each of them has a different perspective on equality and liberty and the relationship of these two ideas to the individual and society. La Mettrie, d'Holbach, and Diderot seek to justify their conceptions of equality and liberty through nature, in particular through the human attraction to pleasure and aversion to pain. From this perspective, they are also able to criticize the corruption and hypocrisy of the social institutions, especially the Catholic Church. The primary aim of their conceptions of equality and liberty is to create a balance between the needs and desires of the individual and those of society. Each believes that the individual can be expected to support society and, simultaneously, that society can be expected to support the individual. Equality spares the individual from neglect by social institutions by insisting that society avoid special treatment of some individuals over others, and liberty guarantees the individual's well-being by asserting the value of individual action over other concerns. However, this social balance, the balance between the interests of society and those of the individual, is not the same for each of the three materialists.
thesis  18thC  Enlightenment  France  intellectual_history  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  social_theory  human_nature  individualism  civil_society  equality  liberty  virtue  happiness  pleasure  d'Holbach  Diderot  materialism  paywall  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Family Feud: Mark Weiner, The Rule of the Clan by Jeanne L. Schroeder :: SSRN
Downloaded pdf to Note

Weiner examination of traditional societies throughout the world and across history show that they share a single broad organizational structure that belies their facial diversity: the clan. Within the clan, man, and even more strikingly, woman, is neither free nor an individual. She is subordinate to her function within the group – in the case of woman, reproduction. In the clan, there are no individual rights protected by law, only the honor of the extended family to be avenged by feud. Adopting the terminology of “founding father of legal history and legal anthropology, Henry Sumner Maine”, Weiner argues that individual rights only come into being with the development of the state when Status relations are superceded by Contract.

Surprisingly, in his defense of the classical liberal ideal of individual rights and equality, Weiner implicitly rejects one of liberalism’s founding propositions: a vision of the free individual in the state of nature. Weiner’s thesis is more consistent with the speculative tradition of Continental theory than with American liberalism.
books  reviews  social_theory  liberalism  nation-state  individualism  legal_system  legal_history  social_contract  political_philosophy  political_culture  anthropology  civil_liberties  civil_society  human_rights  Hegel  Kant-ethics  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2013 by dunnettreader

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