dunnettreader + history_of_science   153

John Cramer - The Copernican System: A Detailed Synopsis (2015) - Medievalists.net
Oglethorpe Journal of Undergraduate Research, Vol. 5:1 (2015) via blurb omn Medievalists.net - downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
downloaded  intellectual_history  16thC  cosmology  astronomy  paper  history_of_science  solar_system  Copernicus 
october 2016 by dunnettreader
Roger Chartier's emeritus pages - Écrit et cultures dans l'Europe moderne (2006-2016) - Collège de France
Écrit et cultures dans l'Europe moderne (2006-2016) - links to his courses and seminars while he held the chair, and location for subsequent work especially the Débats d'histoire discussions - once a month starting in December 2015 - during the school year (i.e. through May) with announced intention to restart this school year. Joined for several by Patrick Boucheron who arrived (Dec 2015) as Chartier's regular appointment came to an end.
cultural_authority  Roman_Catholicism  Counter-Reformation  lit_crit  French_Enlightenment  religious_history  Europe-Early_Modern  podcast  intellectual_history  postmodern  cultural_capital  critical_theory  history_of_science  cultural_change  connected_history  historiography  theater  circulation-ideas  history_of_book  translation  microhistory  authority  interview  courses  classicism  Renaissance  website  literary_history  global_history  cultural_history  audio  Foucault  video  lecture 
october 2016 by dunnettreader
Spinoza Research Network - Home
The Spinoza Research Network was set up in 2008 and funded by an AHRC Networks Grant between 2008 and 2010 at the University of Dundee. The funded project focused on contemporary interdisciplinary connections to seventeenth-century philosopher Baruch Spinoza and built up a membership of over 200 members in Philosophy, Politics, Law, Literature, Music, Psychology, History, Medicine, Gender Studies, Education, and many other academic and non-academic disciplines.

The grant has now expired, but the Network continues as an interdisciplinary group of academics, students, and others interested in Spinoza around the world. Working together, sharing research and developing new projects, we investigate how Spinoza is used both within philosophy and beyond it, both inside and outside of academia.

As of 2013 the Network is based at the University of Aberdeen.
moral_philosophy  politics-and-religion  Hobbes  website  philosophy_of_religion  monism  immanence  logic  Spinoza  religious_belief  epistemology  metaphysics  bibliography  political_philosophy  Judaism  Descartes  17thC  religion-established  tolerance  history_of_science  Biblical_exegesis  Biblical_authority  scepticism  transcendence  intellectual_history 
october 2016 by dunnettreader
Philip Ball - Worlds Without End | Public Domain Review - Dec 2015
At the end of the 19th century, inspired by radical advances in technology, physicists asserted the reality of invisible worlds — an idea through which they…
Instapaper  history_of_science  19thC  Fin-de-Siècle  cultural_history  physics  quantum_physics  epistemology-naturalism  epistemology  scientific_method  sociology_of_knowledge  spiritualism  paranormal  occult  from instapaper
may 2016 by dunnettreader
Vincent Citot - Le processus historique de la Modernité et la possibilité de la liberté (universalisme et individualisme) (2005) - Cairn.info
I - Considérations introductives sur l’essence de la modernité
- L’esprit de la modernité : la liberté, l’universalisme et l’individualisme
- Réflexivité, autonomie et indépendance
- Conséquences : les idées d’égalité et de progrès
II - Les origines antiques de la modernité
- Universalisme et individualisme en Grèce antique
- Le stoïcisme : entre hellénisme et christianisme
- Universalisme, égalitarisme et individualisme chrétien
- L’individualisme du droit romain
III - L’avènement de la modernité et la périodisation de l’ère moderne
- Le monde Ancien et le monde Moderne
- La périodisation de la modernité:
1 - La première modernité : de la Renaissance aux Lumières
2 - La seconde modernité : de la fin du XVIIIème siècle aux années 1960
3 - La troisième modernité : entre postmodernité et hypermodernité
Citot Vincent, « Le processus historique de la Modernité et la possibilité de la liberté (universalisme et individualisme). », Le Philosophoire 2/2005 (n° 25) , p. 35-76
individualism  moral_philosophy  Counter-Enlightenment  16thC  Romanticism  history_of_science  politico-theology  autonomy  scholastics  Renaissance  change-social  democracy  republicanism  modernity-emergence  political_philosophy  democracy_deficit  Stoicism  Reformation  Early_Christian  French_Enlightenment  18thC  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  French_Revolution  periodization  Europe-Early_Modern  universalism  downloaded  subjectivity  political_culture  religious_history  article  Ancients-and-Moderns  community  self  German_Idealism  Counter-Reformation  authority  Enlightenment  metaphysics  ancient_Rome  17thC  Cartesians  cosmology  Descartes  ancient_Greece  Locke  modernity  liberty  Hobbes  intellectual_history  bibliography 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Martin Meisel, “On the Age of the Universe” | BRANCH
The Charles Darwin-inspired debate over the Age of the Earth that pitted contemporary Physics against the theory and practice of contemporary Geology was intimately tied to recent unsettling projections on the thermodynamic fate of the universe. The leading voices in the debate were William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin, and Thomas Henry Huxley, Darwin’s most able champion. The argument—resolved only in the next century—has exemplary value as an intractable dissonance between two vigorous and well established, but not entirely secure scientific disciplines. And its content laid some of the groundwork for the pessimism that qualified the cult of progress and the whiggish habits of cultural and material complacency towards the end of the century. - reviews 18thC theories as well -- download pdf to iPhone-DBox
universe-age  Shelley_Mary  Shelley  Cuvier  Buffon  cosmology  age_of_the_earth  Darwin  Darwinism  entropy  Byron  time  intellectual_history  evolution  physics  astronomy  geology  18thC  Kelvin  downloaded  Franklin_Ben  chronology  19thC  history_of_science  law_of_conservation 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Home BRANCH: Britain, Representation, and Nineteenth-Century History
This site, which is intertwined with Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net, provides users with a free, expansive, searchable, reliable, peer-reviewed, copy-edited, easy-to-use overview of the
novels  history_of_science  open_access  lit_crit  2-nations  Romanticism  aesthetics  art_history  intellectual_history  British_Empire  religious_history  website  representation  English_lit  Industrial_Revolution  19thC  digital_humanities  cultural_history  historiography-19thC  literary_history  Victorian  painting  imperialism  orientalism 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
M. Ali Khan, The Irony in/of Economic Theory | JSTOR - MLN Vol. 108, No. 4 (Sep., 1993)
MLN, Vol. 108, No. 4, French Issue (Sep., 1993), pp. 759-803 -- DOI: 10.2307/2904961 -- via Eric Schliesser, attack on lack of reflexive thought by economists about the nature of their own enterprise and the assumptions undergirding their work -- starts with Samuelson's justification of the language of mathematics, and includes discussion of Kenneth Boulding's attack on his own profession for its failure to engage in philosophy of science, referring back positively to Veblen's critique -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_social_science  economic_theory  economic_models  history_of_science  history-and-social_sciences  economic_history  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science  mathematization  Methodenstreit  Samuelson  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Arnaud Esquerre, review - Lorraine Daston et Peter Galison, Objectivité (Fr trans 2012) - La Vie des idées
Recensé : Lorraine Daston et Peter Galison, Objectivité. Préface de Bruno Latour, traduction de Sophie Renaut et Hélène Quiniou. Paris, Les Presses du Réel, 2012, 582 p., 28 €. -- La manière dont nous concevons ce qui est ou non objectif a plusieurs fois changé depuis le XVIIe siècle. Pour explorer ces variations, Lorraine Daston et Peter Galison étudient les « atlas » que formeraient les usages scientifiques de l’image. Ces illustrations de plantes, de planètes, de méduses ou de flocons de neige en disent long, en effet, sur les régimes de l’objectivité – avec à l’horizon du XXIe siècle, la possible disparition des représentations dans les pratiques scientifiques. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  French_language  bookshelf  intellectual_history  history_of_science  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  objectivity  representation-epistemology  scientific_method  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  instruments  images  images-scientific  downloaded 
december 2015 by dunnettreader
THE WARBURG INSTITUTE: Translation
Translation and the Circulation of Knowledge in Early Modern Science

Friday 28 June 2013
Programme - Poster

In recent decades, scholars have offered myriad new insights into the exchange and propagation of scientific ideas in the early modern Republic of Letters. Within this vibrant field, however, the part played by translation and translators remains little studied. This colloquium will explore the role of translation in early modern science, providing a forum for discussion about translations as well as the translators, mediators, agents, and interpreters whose role in the intellectual history of the period remains ill defined and deserves greater attention.

Organized by: Sietske Fransen (Warburg Institute) and Niall Hodson (Durham University)

Keynote speaker: Sven Dupré (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science and Freie Universität Berlin)

Speakers: Felicity Henderson (Royal Society), Charles van den Heuvel (Huygens ING), Niall Hodson (Durham University), Ana Carolina Hosne (Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg), Jan van de Kamp (Independent), Clare Griffin (UCL), Margaret O. Meredith (Maastricht University), José Maria Pérez Fernandez (Universidad de Granada), Iolanda Plescia (Sapienza – Università di Roma), Fabien Simon (Université Paris Diderot – Paris 7)
history_of_science  conference  sociology_of_knowledge  video  YouTube  networks-information  translation  Republic_of_Letters  17thC  intellectual_history  natural_philosophy 
december 2015 by dunnettreader
Lumière, lumières - Collège de France - 15 octobre 2015 09:30
Depuis la nuit des temps, la lumière a fasciné et inquiété les humains. Dans l’Antiquité, les cultes solaires étaient importants, et les historiens des religions du XIXe siècle leur ont donné une plus grande importance encore, au point de vouloir comprendre toutes les divinités antiques comme des métaphores du soleil. Très rapidement aussi, les humains ont tenté d’expliquer les manifestations de la lumière, révélées en particulier par la pratique de l’astronomie, en proposant des théories diverses qui ont abouti non seulement à des cosmologies, mais aussi à la physique et aux innombrables applications qui en sont nées. Ainsi, on peut dire que la lumière artificiellement produite ou contrôlée, qu’elle soit visible ou qu'elle soit un rayonnement électromagnétique invisible, est l’une des composantes essentielles d’un grand nombre des technologies d’aujourd’hui. À côté de ces développements scientifiques, les penseurs européens du XVIIIe siècle ont recouru à la métaphore de la lumière pour définir une démarche intellectuelle ayant pour fin d’éclairer les esprits (Lumières, Enlightenment, Aufklärung), alors que la création artistique n’a cessé de mettre en oeuvre la lumière ou l’obscurité dans la représentation ou la transfiguration de la réalité. -- program pdf to Dropbox
astronomy  intellectual_history  video  biology  Collège_deFrance  nanotechnology  history_of_science  lecture  cosmology  Enlightenment  physics  energy  French_Enlightenment  vision 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
Robert Goulding - Histories of Science in Early Modern Europe: Introduction to special issue (2006) | JSTOR - Journal of the History of Ideas
Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 67, No. 1 (Jan., 2006), pp. 33-40 **--** Articles in the issue *--* James Steven Byrne, Humanist History of Mathematics? Regiomontanus's Padua Oration in Context (pp. 41-61) *--* Robert Goulding, Method and Mathematics: Peter Ramus's Histories of the Sciences (pp. 63-85) *--* Nicholas Popper, "Abraham, Planter of Mathematics": Histories of Mathematics and Astrology in Early Modern Europe (pp. 87-106) *--* Lauren Kassell, "All Was This Land Full Fill'd of Faerie," or Magic and the past in Early Modern England (pp. 107-122) -- helpful on recent historiography on humanists, science and history writing -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  14thC  15thC  16thC  17thC  history_of_science  mathematics  historiography-Renaissance  historiography-17thC  humanism  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  astrology  magic  education-higher  natural_philosophy  reading  rhetoric-moral_basis  rhetoric-writing  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Lauren Kassell - "All Was This Land Full Fill'd of Faerie," or Magic and the past in Early Modern England (2006) | JSTOR - Journal of the History of Ideas
Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 67, No. 1 (Jan., 2006), pp. 107-122 - in issue devoted to histories of science -- looking at how histories of magic were framed with respect to work in mathematics, medicine and natural philosophy, especially to carve out legitimate intellectual inquiry from derogatory attacks linked to supposed magic -- tracks especially from mid 17thC how the discourses that involved magic were shifting -- probably puts Keith Thomas in more recent historiography on "religion and the decline of magic" -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  16thC  17thC  religious_history  history_of_science  historiography  magic  medicine  natural_philosophy  alchemy  religious_culture  religious_belief  historiography-17thC  evidence  experimental_philosophy  publishing  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
CONFÉRENCES MARC BLOCH -- EHESS - Annual lecture series | Canal-U
CONFÉRENCES MARC BLOCH -- Chaque année depuis 1979, l’EHESS invite au mois de juin une personnalité étrangère ou française à prononcer une conférence qui rassemble, dans le grand amphithéâtre de la Sorbonne, les personnels de l’École et leurs invités. Ce cycle de conférences rend hommage à Marc Bloch, fondateur en 1929, avec Lucien Febvre, des Annales d’histoire économique et sociale – la revue autour de laquelle s’est noué le réseau d’historiens à l’origine de la VIe Section de l’École pratique des hautes études, devenue en 1975 l’EHESS.
video  lecture  French_language  social_theory  social_sciences  social_sciences-post-WWII  Annales  history_of_science  history_of_book  sociology_of_knowledge  historiography 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Newall (2005) - History and Philosophy of Science - Recommended Reading - Recommended Reading - Resources - Resources - The Galilean Library
There are plenty of works in the history and philosophy of science worth studying, but perhaps too many to know where to start. This introduction gives an historical overview, explaining the relevance of some of the better-known tomes. -- A bit dated, and nothing from Shapin et al, though he defends Feyerband, but nice thumbnail on why each on his list was or is important, or accessible -- downloaded page as pdf to Note
books  bibliography  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  epistemology  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  Kuhn  Popper  scientific_method  Scientific_Revolution  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Newall interview with John Wilkins: Biology and Philosophy (2008) - The Galilean Library
John S. Wilkins is a sessional lecturer at the University of Queensland in philosophy. He runs a philosophy of biology blog, Evolving Thoughts, which is part of the Seed Magazine stable of science blogs. John worked in publishing and printing for 25 years while he eventually finished his philosophy studies with a PhD from the University of Melbourne. He used to boast that he had never learned anything of direct practical use, which is a bit of a stretch as he also has a computing diploma. -- author of my Kindle book, Species. -- converted page for downloaded pdf to Note
interview  history_of_science  intellectual_history  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  biology  evolutionary_biology  species  metaphysics  epistemology  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
The Evolution of Phylogenetic Systematics - Edited by Andrew Hamilton - E-Book - University of California Press
.. aims to make sense of the rise of phylogenetic systematics—its methods, its objects of study, and its theoretical foundations—with contributions from historians, philosophers, and biologists. (...) an intellectual agenda for the study of systematics and taxonomy in a way that connects classification with larger historical themes in the biological sciences, including morphology, experimental and observational approaches, evolution, biogeography, debates over form and function, character transformation, development, and biodiversity. It aims to provide frameworks for answering the question: how did systematics become phylogenetic? -- the 1st Chapter excerpt is a fabulous history of "waves" of new species identification of primarily mammals tied to intellectual, social, economic, cultural and geopolitical history -- his case study is the shift to N American museums organizing large numbers of surveys collecting many samples that gave data on varieties within same species, varying ecologies, etc in the "inner frontiers" in the late19thC and early 20thC -- possible due to "the logic of capital" (railroads penetrating regions to foreclose competition, land speculators), curators leaving the city to obtain materials for the fashion in diaoramas, patronage newly attracted, white collar middle class embracing self-improvement via nature study on holiday, new conservationist attitudes toward Nature etc.
books  kindle-available  biology  taxonomies  species  natural_history  evolutionary_biology  phylogenetics  history_of_science  18thC  19thC  20thC  public_sphere  science-public  cultural_history  cultural_change  material_culture  frontier  leisure  exploration  colonialism  imperialism  museums  collections  virtuosos  scientific_culture  nature  nature-mastery  conservation  self-development 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Paul Newall interview of Stephen D. Snobelen: Newton Reconsidered - Theology and Alchemy | The Galilean Library
Stephen David Snobelen is Assistant Professor in the History of Science and Technology at University of King's College, Halifax, Nova Scotia. He is a founder member of the Newton project and author of many fascinating papers on Newton's alchemy and religious thinking. I was privileged to be able to ask him some questions about his work on Newton. -- helpful re the process by which Newton's papers were hidden, then sold at auction in 1936 and beginning in 1991 being made available for researchers as the dispersed manuscripts have been re-collected - who is working on what issues, as of 2005 -- Snobelen got his degrees in History of Philosophy of Science at Cambridge with Schaffer -- converted page and downloaded pdf to Note
interview  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  religious_history  religious_belief  17thC  18thC  Newton  Socinians  Arian  anti-Trinitarian  Biblical_exegesis  Biblical_authority  Bible-as-history  Neoplatonism  immortality  soul  metaphysics  essence  substance  theology  Early_Christian  alchemy  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Book Announcement: From Aristotle’s teleology to Darwin’s genealogy
see kindle sample - covers why scientific revolution didn't have the sort of impact that mathematization had in physical sciences - claims that yhe cornerstones of thinkijg re human sciences remained essentialist and fixistmore due to late scholastic snd Rensissance incorporation of Aristotelian principles than religiously driven creationusm - they fid converge and, especially in Anglo countries, reinflorced by 18thC "natural theology" - Darwin uses the anomalies that have no adaptationist utility, like sightless moles, to blow up the functionalist teleological foundation of yhe Aristotelian approach to species
Pocket  17thc  18thc  19thc  Darwin  ancient_greece  aristotle  bible-as-history  biology  books  creationist  deism  early_modern  evolution  geology  history_of_science  intellectual_history  kindle-available  medieval  natural_theology  physiology  renaissance  scholasticism  scientific_revolution 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Alan Jacobs - the three big stories of modernity | TextPatterns July 2015
So far there have been three widely influential stories about the rise of modernity: the Emancipatory, the Protestant, and the Neo-Thomist. (..) all these narrators of modernity see our own age as one in which the consequences of 500-year-old debates conducted by philosophers and theologians are still being played out. I think all of these narratives are wrong. They are wrong because they are the product of scholars in universities who overrate the historical importance and influence of other scholars in universities, and because they neglect ideas that connect more directly with the material world. All of these grands recits should be set aside, and they should not immediately be replaced with others, but with more particular, less sweeping, and more technologically-oriented stories. The technologies that Marshall McLuhan called "the extensions of Man" are infinitely more important for Man's story, for good and for ill, than the debates of the schoolmen and interpreters of the Bible. Instead of grand narratives of the emergence of The Modern we need something far more plural: technological histories of modernity.
Instapaper  cultural_history  cultural_capital  modernity  technology  Tech/Culture  social_theory  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  religious_history  Thomism-21stC  Reformation  Renaissance  Enlightenment  Enlightenment_Project  Enlightenment-ongoing  modernity-emergence  material_culture  economic_history  Great_Divergence  Industrial_Revolution  colonialism  Military_Revolution  Scientific_Revolution  consumer_revolution  technology-history  historiography  medicine  public_health  public_sphere  public_goods  media  print_culture  history_of_science  history_of_book  history-and-social_sciences  narrative  narrative-contested  from instapaper
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Mark Buchanan - Paul Romer mis-handles atomic physics | Medium - June 2015
He thinks that some of the core mathematical models of modern economics are every bit as sound and scientific as Niels Bohr’s 1913 model of the atom. It’s not… The tale of Bohr's work within a community of theorists and experimental scientists trying to come up with an explanation for confounding experimental results of electron behavior is the exact opposite of the development of the Arrow-Debreu theorem, and the opposite of how the "midel" was subsequently used by theorists in the given domain. A perfect indictment of how "mathiness" has contaminated the entire field of macroeconomic theory.
Instapaper  scientific_method  physics  history_of_science  sociology_of_science_&_technology  sociology_of_knowledge  macroeconomics  economic_theory  economic_models  from instapaper
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Justin E.H. Smith - Nature, Human Nature, and Human Difference: Race in Early Modern Philosophy (2015) | Princeton University Press
People have always been xenophobic, but an explicit philosophical and scientific view of human racial difference only began to emerge during the modern period. Why and how did this happen? Surveying a range of philosophical and natural-scientific texts, dating from the Spanish Renaissance to the German Enlightenment, (Smith) charts the evolution of the modern concept of race and shows that natural philosophy, particularly efforts to taxonomize and to order nature, played a crucial role. Smith demonstrates how the denial of moral equality between Europeans and non-Europeans resulted from converging philosophical and scientific developments, including a declining belief in human nature’s universality and the rise of biological classification. The racial typing of human beings grew from the need to understand humanity within an all-encompassing system of nature, alongside plants, minerals, primates, and other animals. While racial difference as seen through science did not arise in order to justify the enslavement of people, it became a rationalization and buttress for the practices of trans-Atlantic slavery. From the work of François Bernier to Leibniz, Kant, and others, Smith delves into philosophy’s part in the legacy and damages of modern racism. -- Smith is university professor of the history and philosophy of science at the Université Paris Diderot—Paris VII. ...author of Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life (PUP), coeditor and cotranslator of The Leibniz-Stahl Controversy -- downloaded introduction to Note -- only hdbk, will be in ebook
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  cultural_history  racism  racialism  16thC  17thC  18thC  Europe-Early_Modern  exploration  Spanish_Empire  Spain  Renaissance  natural_philosophy  biology  taxonomies  Latin_America  West_Indies  North_America  Native_Americans  indigenous_peoples  slavery  West_Africa  Africa  African_trade  life_sciences  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  French_Enlightenment  Leibniz  Kant  anatomy  Adam  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_culture  science-and-religion  science-public  science_of_man 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Luc Peterschmitt - Berkeley et la chimie. Une philosophie pour la chimie au XVIIIe siècle (2011) | Classiques Garnier, coll. Histoire et philosophie des sciences
La Siris de Berkeley est peu lue et souvent jugée inutilement obscure et érudite. La replacer dans le contexte de la chimie du XVIIIe siècle permet d'en montrer l'intérêt. Berkeley y propose d'accorder à la chimie une place de plein droit au sein de la philosophie naturelle. À partir de là, il développe une théologie naturelle originale. Mais il n'est pas question de fonder en métaphysique la chimie ni de développer une métaphysique à partir de la chimie. -- Berkeley's Siris is rarely read and often judged as unnecessarily vague and academic. Setting it firmly into the context of 18th century chemistry enables us to understand its contribution. -- ISBN 978-2-8124-0266-1 -- 303 pages
books  intellectual_history  history_of_science  18thC  Berkeley  philosophy_of_science  chemistry  natural_religion 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
L'Europe des Lumières - Classiques Garnier - collection directors Michel Delon, Jacques Berchtold et Christophe Martin
De ce qu'on appelle la crise de la conscience européenne à la Révolution française, la littérature et la pensée ont pour espace une Europe, souvent francophone, éprise d'idées nouvelles et d'expérimentations formelles. La collection rend compte de recherches qui sollicitent des disciplines et des méthodes diverses pour mieux connaître et comprendre la vie intellectuelle, scientifique, artistique et littéraire du XVIIIe siècle, ainsi que l'histoire des idées et des représentations. -- From what has been designated as a "crisis of conscience" to the Revolution, literature and thought play in a European space, often French-speaking, entranced by new ideas and formal experiments. The collection covers research which calls on a variety of disciplines and methods in order to better know and understand the intellectual, scientific, artistic and literary life of the 18th century, as well as the history of ideas and representations.
books  18thC  Europe-Early_Modern  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  intellectual_history  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  natural_philosophy  art_history  literary_history  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_culture  philosophes  Republic_of_Letters  public_sphere  publishing 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Caroline Jacot Grapa - Dans le vif du sujet - Diderot, corps et âme ( 2009) | Classiques Garnier - collection L'Europe des Lumières
Ce livre est un essai sur le style du matérialisme de Diderot, sa psychologie, sa métaphysique et sur les figures de l'intériorité des Lumières. La langue de l'intériorité, apanage de la spiritualité, se retrempe au contact sensible des métaphores de l'époque. Elles donnent accès à un savoir nouveau de la vie corporelle. L'actualité de cet essai tient au dialogue qu'il engage avec la phénoménologie et les neurosciences. -- This work is an essay on the style of Diderot's materialism, his psychology and his metaphysics. Its modern pertinence stems from the dialogue established with phenomenology and neurosciences. -- ISBN 978-2-8124-0046-9 -- 504 pages -- looks extremely interesting -- tracking reception of British empiricism, debates over various Cartesian proposals for dealing with animals, and the new directions taken both in life sciences and psychology and the metaphysics of materialism -- downloaded TOC as pdf to Note
books  find  amazon.fr  libraries  intellectual_history  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  natural_philosophy  18thC  France  Diderot  d'Alembert  d'Holbach  Cartesian  Locke  Newton  Newtonian  Encyclopédie  Republic_of_Letters  philosophes  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Vitalism  psychology  thinking_matter  anatomy  physiology  scientific_method  organism  subject  subjectivity  phenomenology  neuroscience  materialism  metaphysics  mind  mind-body  soul  human_nature  metaphor  French_language  French_lit  downloaded 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
François Duchesneau - La Physiologie des Lumières - Empirisme, modèles et théories (2012) | Classiques Garnier, coll. Histoire et philosophie des sciences
Cet ouvrage décrit et analyse les modèles de l'être vivant qui, dans le cadre de la révolution scientifique des Temps modernes, ont dessiné un parcours intellectuel menant à l'invention de la biologie comme science. Tout au long du xviiie siècle, la physiologie définit ses méthodes et ses concepts fondamentaux. Mobilisant les savoirs empiriques disponibles, elle en extrait les principes d'une véritable science des corps organisés. -- ISBN 978-2-8124-0783-3 -- 739 pages -- mostly Germans and French, including Leibniz and Wolff and Maupertuis and Buffon as significant stages in the debates
books  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  natural_philosophy  biology  anatomy  physiology  scientific_method  17thC  18thC  life_sciences  empiricism  Leibniz  Wolff_Christian  Maupertuis  Buffon 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Anne-Lise Rey, ed. - Méthode et histoire - Quelle histoire font les historiens des sciences et des techniques? (2014) | Classiques Garnier, coll.Histoire et philosophie des sciences
Les méthodes utilisées pour analyser la science d'hier et d'aujourd'hui peuvent-elles s'enrichir du débat, puis du dialogue des unes avec les autres? C'est le pari de cet ouvrage qui présente la pluralité des approches méthodologiques en histoire des sciences et des techniques et interroge son épistémologie. -- Can the methods used to analyse the science of yesterday and today be mutually enriched through debate and dialogue with each other? That is the wager of this book which presents the plurality of methodological approaches within the history of science and technology, and interrogates its epistemology. -- ISBN 978-2-8124-1419-0 -- 513 pages -- from TOC looks like several very interesting papers
books  history_of_science  historiography  sociology_of_knowledge  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_social_science  epistemology-history  epistemology 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Frédérique Aït-Touati, Stephen Gaukroger, Le monde en images. Voir, représenter, savoir, de Descartes à Leibniz (2015) | Classiques Garnier, coll. « Histoire et philosophie des sciences »
Frédérique Aït-Touati, Stephen Gaukroger, Le monde en images. Voir, représenter, savoir, de Descartes à Leibniz, Paris, Classiques Garnier, coll. « Histoire et philosophie des sciences », 2015, 128 p., ISBN : 978-2-8124-2589-9. -- Dans les débats classiques des 17thC-18thC, la représentation est considérée avant tout comme une question rhétorique et psychologique, mais à la fin du 18thC, elle devient une question épistémologique. Cet ouvrage explore le contexte de cette transformation et ses sources. l’émergence du problème de la représentation -- not edited collection, but co-authored study of a bit over 100 pages -- Chapters in TOC -- 1. Rhétorique et théorie de l’image vive 2. la révolution cartésienne  3. représenter l’invisible - Philosophie naturelle et visualisation chez Robert Hooke   4. les limites de la visualisation - Le débat entre Newton et Leibniz sur l’algèbre (a) La géométrie contre l’analyse  (b) L’analyse infnitésimale et la question de la preuve directe (c) La géométrie contre le calcul diférentiel  (d) Visualisation et capacités cognitives humaines  (e) Visualisation -- online pruce 19€
books  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  natural_philosophy  astronomy  ontology  epistemology  17thC  18thC  Descartes  representation-metaphysics  ideas-theories  Hooke  Leibniz  Newton  scientific_method  scientific_culture  instruments  microscope  telescope  unobservables  mathematics  geometry  calculus  cognition  analysis-logic  images  rhetoric  rhetoric-visual 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Andrew Zangwill - The education of Walter Kohn and the creation of density functional theory | arxiv.org [1403.5164] (Submitted on 20 Mar 2014)
The theoretical solid-state physicist Walter Kohn was awarded one-half of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his mid-1960's creation of an approach to the many-particle problem in quantum mechanics called density functional theory (DFT). In its exact form, DFT establishes that the total charge density of any system of electrons and nuclei provides all the information needed for a complete description of that system. This was a breakthrough for the study of atoms, molecules, gases, liquids, and solids. Before DFT, it was thought that only the vastly more complicated many-electron wave function was needed for a complete description of such systems. Today, fifty years after its introduction, DFT (in one of its approximate forms) is the method of choice used by most scientists to calculate the physical properties of materials of all kinds. In this paper, I present a biographical essay of Kohn's educational experiences and professional career up to and including the creation of DFT. -- via Philip Ball who notes Zangwill doesn't see DFT as something in the air, part of the Zeitgeist, and Kohn was operating in a scientific culture where discipline walls hadn't yet become so impermeable -- Kohn got his Nobel in Chemistry though he's a physicist -- which raises questions re whether sciences as now organized would be unlikely to produce the sort of individual curiosity and multidisciplinary creativity to produce this sort of transformative thinking, testing erc -- didn't download
paper  intellectual_history  20thC  physics  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  Innovation  technology  innovation-government_policy  sociology_of_science_&_technology 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Peter K. J. Park - Africa, Asia, and the History of Philosophy: Racism in the Formation of the Philosophical Canon 1780-1830 | SUNY Pess 2013
... a penetrating account of a crucial period in the development of philosophy as an academic discipline. (..) a number of European philosophers influenced by Kant began to formulate the history of philosophy as a march of progress from the Greeks to Kant—(..) supplanted existing accounts beginning in Egypt or W. Asia at a time when European interest in Sanskrit and Persian lit was flourishing. Not without debate, these traditions were ultimately deemed outside the scope of philosophy and relegated to the study of religion. Park uncovers this debate and recounts the development of an exclusionary canon of philosophy in the decades of the late 18thC and early 19thC. To what extent was this exclusion of Africa and Asia a result of the scientization of philosophy? To what extent was it a result of racism? (..)the most extensive description available of Gérando’s Histoire comparée des systèmes de philosophie, F. Schlegel’s lectures on the history of philosophy, Ast’s and Rixner’s systematic integration of Africa and Asia into the history of philosophy, and the controversy between Hegel and the theologian Tholuck over “pantheism.” 1. The Kantian School and the Consolidation of Modern Historiography of Philosophy -- 2. The Birth of Comparative History of Philosophy: Joseph-Marie de Gérando’s Histoire comparée des systèmes de philosophie -- 3. India in Friedrich Schlegel’s Comparative History of Philosophy -- 4. The Exclusion of Africa and Asia from the History of Philosophy: The Formation of the Kantian Position -- 5. Systematic Inclusion of Africa and Asia under Absolute Idealism: Friedrich Ast’s and Thaddä Anselm Rixner’s Histories of Philosophy -- 6. Absolute Idealism Reverts to the Kantian Position: Hegel’s Exclusion of Africa and Asia -- 7. The Comparative History of Philosophy in August Tholuck’s Polemic against Hegel -- downloaded excerpt
books  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  18thC  19thC  philosophy  ancient_Greece  ancient_India  Sanskrit  Persia  religious_history  historiography-18thC  historiography-19thC  Kant  Schlegel  German_Idealism  Hegel  German_scholarship  philohellenism  ancient_history  ancient_religions  history_of_science  biology  racism  Africa  Asia  Enlightenment  comparative_religion  pantheism  philology  teleology  cosmopolitanism  colonialism  comparative_history  comparative_anthropology  philosophical_anthropology  human_nature  downloaded 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Stéphane Van Damme - Laborieuse Nature: Penser le travail des sciences exactes avec Simon Schaffer | May 2014 - La Vie des idées
English translation March 2015 -- Comment naissent les découvertes et les progrès scientifiques ? Contre une vision idéaliste et triomphaliste de l’histoire des sciences, toute l’œuvre de Simon Schaffer a consisté à observer la science en train de se faire, au plus près des pratiques et des acteurs. Loin de diminuer son prestige, cette approche lui restitue la place centrale qu’elle occupait dans les sociétés d’Ancien Régime. -- downloaded pdf to Note
history_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  16thC  17thC  18thC  historiography  Innovation  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Niccolò Tempini -- Book Review: “Raw Data” is an Oxymoron, edited by Lisa Gitelman | LSE Review of Books
“Raw Data” is an Oxymoron. Lisa Gitelman (ed.). MIT Press. March 2013. -- We live in the era of Big Data, with storage and transmission capacity measured not just in terabytes but in petabytes. Data collection is constant and even insidious, with every click and every “like” stored somewhere for something. This edited collection seeks to remind us that data is anything but “raw”, that we shouldn’t think of data as a natural resource but as a cultural one that needs to be generated, protected, and interpreted. Niccolò Tempini finds that all of the matters discussed in this book are as inherently political as they are urgent. -- the book review is excellent -- helpful sketch of each contribution, many very interesting -- starting with etymology of "data", which seems initially used in rhetoric, as the "given" supplied by the orator from which persuasive argument would be built -- review copied to Pocket
books  kindle-available  reviews  epistemology-social  statistics  data  databases  sociology_of_knowledge  intellectual_history  constructivism  digital_humanities  history_of_science  economic_history  evidence  media  cultural_history  print_culture  texts  rhetoric  technology  Pocket 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Steve Shapin - The Virtue of Scientific Thinking | Boston Review - Jan 2015
scientific reeearch may not make you more vitruous, or scientists as a group better people, but the disenchantment (severing assumed link between divine design of the cosmos and our ability to learn more and better understand how man fits in) described hy Weber in Vocation priduces a few worrisome trends. One is the hubris of "playing God" scientism, The Sam Harris and Steve Pinker types that think science can explain enough about hiw humans got to whete we are and how we function in modernity to be philosopher-kings on defining moral values and how our political and social structures should operate for what ends. The other disturbing consequence of cutting the link is the loss of discipline via internalized norms of the religious and miral worth of disinyetested inquiry. As profit and funding increasingly drive all levels of scientific research, and the rnds are increasingly narrowed to technology that can be exploited for profit or power (or both in the military-industrial-( academia) complex, what's to distinguish scientists from bankers. The foundation of trust in scientific results is at extreme risk. The only positive, which ashapin doesn't drvelop, is scepticism re the trustworthiness of the scientific enterprise may threaten the future of the planet via climate change, but few will be eager to put their trust in tge claims of the candidates nominating themselves as philosopher-kings.
Social_Darwinism  Pocket  cosmology  18thC  morality  virtue  scientism  post-WWII  moral_philosophy  17thC  21stC  19thC  history_of_science  mioitary-industrial_complex  20thC  cultural_history  Cold_War  morality-objective  curiosity  is-ought  natural_theology  norms  Reformation  intellectual_history  sociology_of_knowledge  morality-conventional 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Stephanie Snow, review - Michael Brown, Performing Medicine: Medical Culture and Identity in Provincial England, c.1760-1850 (Manchester University Press, 2011) | Reviews in History
Dr Stephanie Snow, Centre for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine, University of Manchester -- Brown takes a cultural historical approach (..) the ways in which medical identity and culture were transformed over the period from the late 18thC importance of liberal learning and the values of gentility and politeness to the early 19thC focus on vocationally specific forms of knowledge and association. (..) Through a case study of the social and intellectual activities of medical practitioners in the city of York, (..) crucial shifts in the culture of medicine between the 1760s and the 1850s. York (..) a geographical midway point between two key medical metropolises – London and Edinburgh; it did not experience the transformations associated with the processes of industrialization; yet it was shaped by many of the specific characteristics of the period such as political factionalism, the urban renaissance movement and ideologies of socio-scientific progressivism. (..) the ways through which medical practitioners fashioned their identities through public displays of knowledges such as botany, natural history, poetry and literature. Improvements in the health of the population (..) were principally due to the civic improvements in York such as paving and new drains as well as inoculation and other medical advances. [In the later 1830s] successive enactments of medical identity and authority set the stage for a new compact between medicine and society in which medical practitioners were nationally cast as experts in medical science with a collective desire and duty to alleviate disease and suffering. The transformations (..) are underlined by the public’s acceptance of the Medical School’s authority, under the provisions of the Anatomy Act, to dissect the body of a local man who had drowned in the river Ouse in 1835. Only 3 years earlier, (..) popular resistance to such activities during the cholera epidemic was high indeed. (..)case for the relevance of this history to the present dilemmas and controversies over professionalism and medicine and rightly stresses the social and political contingency of medical ideas and values. -- downloaded as pdf to Note
books  reviews  18thC  19thC  British_history  cultural_history  history_of_science  medicine  professionalization  scientific_culture  public_health  politeness  gentility  networks-social  networks-information  authority  improvement  urbanization  education-training  education-professional  public_policy  public_opinion  status  self-fashioning  identity  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
David Gentilcore, Review Article: Health in Europe 1500-1800 [ Peter Elmer, ed. of Open University essay collection and companion source book] | Reviews in History - Nov 2004
Dr David Gentilcore, University of Leicester -- (..) a chapter in the first volume on, say, the care and cure of mental illness provides us with a general introduction to and historical survey of the theme, as well as several case studies. (..) The documents alone are worth the price of the 2 books. Not only do they represent the first such collection of sources on early modern medicine, but their coverage is very broad indeed: from early-15thC Italian letters of medical advice to 18thC Parisian surgical instruction; from the published writings of a French midwife to the rules of an English voluntary hospital; from a treatise on the duties of the Christian physician during time of plague to a newspaper account of smallpox inoculation. Hitherto sources of this type have been available in a very few journals, (..) It is the first volume(..) which merits our attention, marking as it does the coming of age of the social and cultural history of medicine. It is the culmination of some 30 years of research that has transformed writing and teaching in the history of medicine. This has meant a shift away from the ‘great men’ focus towards attention to marginalised or neglected groups in society; away from an exclusive interest in medical practitioners towards the experiences of sufferers and patients; away from the allure of retro-diagnosis (that is, applying modern biomedical knowledge to the illnesses of the ‘rich and famous’ of the past) and towards how contemporaries understood disease in their own time; and away from a university- and hospital-centred account of medical knowledge and practice towards one influenced by notions of medical pluralism (the co-existence of alternative or complementary therapies and systems of belief). The essays in this book succeed in providing a cross-section of this research, addressing recent issues and debates in a thematic way. (..) without jettisoning the achievements of previous generations of scholarship. Thus the ‘ideas’ focus of the great men tradition, all too often seen as a worthy end in itself, is not abandoned here (as if the ideas themselves no longer mattered to our understanding of the past), but is re-configured as an exploration of how these ideas were transmitted and put into practice at different levels of society. -- downloaded as pdf to Note
books  reviews  16thC  17thC  18thC  Europe-Early_Modern  medicine  cultural_history  social_history  intellectual_history  sources  disease  mental_health  professions  history_of_science  historiography  Innovation  religious_culture  science-and-religion  alchemy  anatomy  natural_history  biology  hospitals  public_health  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
JMK-67-PP-60: Correspondence, notes and marked up catalogues and articles concerning Newton's life and writings
This is a page from typed draft of an essay in Newton, reflecting what Keynes discovered in the box of manuscripts - here Keynes terms Newton the last Magi rather than the 1st of Age of Reason
Newton  Keynes  occult  esoteric  alchemy  heterodoxy  history_of_science  17thC  20thC  intellectual  history  website  digital_humanities 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Sarah Dry - True or false? Ten myths about Isaac Newton | OUPblog July 2014
She's the author of The Newton Papers which tells the story of the trove of manuscripts Newton left that erten't made part if what he chisr as his official papers for posterity - The mythical Newton abounds in contradictions; he is a semi-divine genius and a mad alchemist, a somber and solitary thinker and a passionate religious heretic. Myths usually have an element of truth to them but how many Newtonian varieties are true? Here are ten of the most common, debunked or confirmed by the evidence of his own private papers, kept hidden for centuries and now freely available online.
books  kindle-available  17thC  18thC  British_history  Newton  Socinian  Bible-as-history  Scientific_Revolution  physics  history_of_science  19thC  20thC  sociology_of_knowledge  fiscal-military_state  intellectual_history 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Richard Andrew Berman - The Architects of Eighteenth Century English Freemasonry, 1720 - 1740 (2010 thesis) | University of Exeter
Advisors: Black, Jeremy & Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas -- Date Issued: 2010-09-22 --
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10036/2999 -- Following the appointment of its first aristocratic Grand Masters in the 1720s and in the wake of its connections to the scientific Enlightenment, ‘Free and Accepted’ Masonry rapidly became part of Britain’s national profile and the largest and arguably the most influential of Britain’s extensive clubs and societies. (..) Freemasonry became a vehicle for the expression and transmission of the political and religious views of those at its centre, and for the scientific Enlightenment concepts that they championed. The ‘Craft’ also offered a channel through which many sought to realise personal aspirations: social, intellectual and financial. Through an examination of relevant primary and secondary documentary evidence, this thesis seeks to contribute to a broader understanding of contemporary English political and social culture, and to explore the manner in which Freemasonry became a mechanism that promoted the interests of the Hanoverian establishment and connected and bound a number of élite metropolitan and provincial figures. A range of networks centred on the aristocracy, parliament, the magistracy and the learned and professional societies are studied, and key individuals instrumental in spreading and consolidating the Masonic message identified. The thesis also explores the role of Freemasonry in the development of the scientific Enlightenment. The evidence suggests that Freemasonry should be recognised not only as the most prominent of the many 18thC fraternal organisations, but also as a significant cultural vector and a compelling component of the social, economic, scientific and political transformation then in progress. -- downloaded pdf to Note
thesis  18thC  1720s  1730s  1740s  Walpole  Whigs-oligarchy  British_history  British_politics  Enlightenment  science-public  Scientific_Revolution  science-and-politics  Freemasonry  cultural_history  intellectual_history  networks-social  networks-political  networks-business  sociology_of_science_&_technology  elites  aristocracy  Parliament  MPs  political_nation  economic_sociology  economic_culture  commerce-doux  finance_capital  banking  capital_markets  capital_as_power  history_of_science  historical_sociology  historical_change  center-periphery  provinces  clubs  social_capital  judiciary  professions  professionalization  religious_culture  science-and-religion  latitudinarian  natural_religion  Newtonian  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Collin Finn - Two Kinds of Social Epistemology « Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 2 (8): 79-104. (2013)
Steve Fuller’s programme of Social Epistemology was initiated some 25 years ago with the launching of a journal and the publication of a monograph with those very words as their title. Since then, the programme has evolved in a constant critical dialogue with other players in the fields of epistemology and science studies. Fuller’s main confrontation has been with analytic epistemology which, in its classical form, adopts a contrary position on most key issues. However, analytic epistemologists have gradually moved in the direction of Fuller’s views and even adopted the term “social epistemology” for their emerging position. Still, substantial disagreement remains between the two identically named programmes with regard to the proper philosophical approach to knowledge as a social phenomenon; in this article, I try to pinpoint the locus of this disagreement. However, Fuller has also been engaged in minor skirmishes with his Science Studies fellows; I also examine these clashes. Finally, I express my wishes concerning the future direction of social epistemology. -- downloaded pdf to Note
epistemology  epistemology-social  analytical_philosophy  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_&_technology  history_of_science  scientific_method  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_language  social_theory  downloaded  EF-add  cognition  cognition-social  institutions  power  power-knowledge  knowledge  knowledge_economy  power-asymmetric  Rawls  democracy  expertise  epistemology-naturalism  human_nature  posthumanism  post-truth  Latour  humanities  humanism  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  political_culture  cultural_capital  social_capital  neoliberalism  instrumentalist 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
ECONOMICS AS SOCIAL THEORY - Routledge Series edited by Tony Lawson - Titles List
Social theory is experiencing something of a revival within economics. Critical analyses of the particular nature of the subject matter of social studies and of the types of method, categories and modes of explanation that can legitimately be endorsed for the scientific study of social objects, are re-emerging. Economists are again addressing such issues as the relationship between agency and structure, between the economy and the rest of society, and between inquirer and the object of inquiry. There is renewed interest in elaborating basic categories such as causation, competition, culture, discrimination,evolution, money, need, order, organisation, power, probability, process, rationality, technology, time, truth, uncertainty and value, etc. The objective for this series is to facilitate this revival further. In contemporary economics the label `theory' has been appropriated by a group that confines itself to largely a-social, a-historical, mathematical `modelling'. Economics as Social Theory thus reclaims the `theory' label, offering a platform for alternative, rigorous, but broader and more critical conceptions of theorising.
books  social_theory  economic_theory  social_sciences  intellectual_history  political_economy  causation-social  economic_sociology  economic_culture  rationality-economics  rational_choice  rationality-bounded  rational_expectations  critical_realism  evolution-social  history_of_science  historical_sociology  agency-structure  power  power-asymmetric  business-and-politics  capitalism  capital_as_power  Marxist  Post-Keynesian  epistemology  epistemology-social  conventions  social_order  civil_society  public_policy  public_goods  anarchism  competition  financialization  development  economic_growth 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Jason M. Wirth, Seattle University, review - Dalia Nassar (ed.), The Relevance of Romanticism: Essays on German Romantic Philosophy (OUP 2014) // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // September 23, 2014
Dalia Nassar's assemblage of engaging and significant essays on some of the resurgent philosophers of early German romanticism emphasizes their contemporary philosophical relevance. "For it is a specifically philosophical revival, motivated by philosophical questions". Nassar demarcates this relevance into four general kinds. In the first part of the book, consisting of a fascinating debate between two of the heaviest hitters in this revival, Manfred Frank and Frederick Beiser, the question revolves around the very identity of early German philosophical romanticism. What counts as a work of this kind? What makes these works significantly different from works by practitioners of German idealism? Or can the two areas be so clearly distinguished? The next three sections are less global in their ambitions, but all of them touch on important facets of this period's enduring philosophical provocation. The second section features essays on the question of culture, language, sociability, and education, while the third turns to matters aesthetic, and the fourth and concluding section takes up the question of science.
books  reviews  find  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  German_Idealism  Romanticism  Kant  Hegel  Schelling  Schleiermacher  Fichte  Novalis  Hölderin  metaphysics  epistemology  mind  nature  aesthetics  culture  cultural_history  subjectivity  Absolute  philosophy_of_language  philosophy_of_science  hermeneutics  history_of_science  sociability  education  bildung  Evernote 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeffrey K. McDonough, review - Justin E. H. Smith, Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // April 17, 2012
Justin E. H. Smith, Divine Machines: Leibniz and the Sciences of Life, Princeton University Press, 2011, 392pp., $45.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780691141787.
Reviewed by Jeffrey K. McDonough, Harvard University -- It is widely recognized that Leibniz's philosophical thought is deeply influenced by the mathematics, physics and philosophical theology of his era. Justin E. H. Smith's Divine Machines argues that many of Leibniz's most central philosophical doctrines are similarly bound up with the life sciences of his time, where the "life sciences" are understood very broadly to include fields as diverse as alchemy, medicine, taxonomy, and paleontology. Smith's groundbreaking exploration represents an important contribution to our understanding of both Leibniz's philosophy and the study of life in the early modern era. It is to be recommended to historians, philosophers, and historians of philosophy alike. Below I highlight four central topics in Smith's book, raising some reservations along the way.
books  reviews  kindle-available  intellectual_history  17thC  Leibniz  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  metaphysics  monads  causation  species  teleology  anatomy  biology  medicine  microscope  fossils  reproduction  theodicy  creation  mechanism  organism 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeff McDonough's CV - Harvard University - Philosophy Department
Areas of Specialization: Early Modern Philosophy, History and Philosophy of Science. -- Areas of Competence:Medieval Philosophy, Metaphysics, Philosophy of Religion -- papers, conference presentations focus on Leibniz with some Berkeley, Hume
academia  intellectual_history  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  metaphysics  philosophy_of_religion  17thC  18thC  Leibniz  Berkeley  causation  teleology  theodicy  Descartes  Spinoza  Hume  Malebranche  bibliography 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard Marshall interview - Jeffrey K. McDonough -Leibniz, Berkeley, Kant, Frege; bees, toasters and Julius Caesar » 3:AM Magazine - September 2014
Good overview of different approaches to Leibniz. Causation and relation of divine and creaturely activity - Scholastics, Berkeley, Malebranche, Leibniz. Difference between Malebranche and Berkeley’s idealism. Kant on refutation of idealism re Cartesian scepticism of external world.
intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  Leibniz  Berkeley  Malebranche  Kant  substance  metaphysics  causation  teleology  theodicy  creation  mind-body  volition  mechanism  physics  philosophy_of_science  history_of_science  optics  idealism  scepticism  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Tim Radford, review - The Copernicus Complex by Caleb Scharf – a cosmic quest | Books | The Guardian September 2014
Tim Radford's The Address Book: Our Place in the Scheme of Things is published by 4th Estate. -- With optical super-telescopes we might soon see not just distant, Earthlike planets but even the signature of life in their atmospheres. At any moment, a radiotelescope might start to pick up a message from a civilisation far away and long ago in the galaxy. In either case, humans would no longer be alone, and the Earth not such a special place. In either case, there would still be questions about the conditions that make life possible. To resolve some of these questions, Scharf, an astrophysicist and astrobiologist, proposes a new "cosmo-chaotic" principle that might explain here and now, and us and the "them" that we think must exist, somewhere. Life, he argues, may perhaps only be possible at the borders of calm and chaos, where the accidents of matter and motion dictate change and variation without overwhelming the emerging entities, and this in turn might make sentient life a natural but very rare event. Scharf does not have the answers. His book is an intoxicating collection of questions answered with other questions, and startling discoveries that make creation even more mysterious. A couple of decades ago, physicists spoke confidently of a "theory of everything" and one or two even proposed an "end to science". All has now changed. The mysteries have multiplied. Forget the tricksy parenthesis in the subtitle. Skip past an early tendency to label scientists as budding, and science as cutting-edge. This book expands, like spacetime itself, from a very small point. It begins with the microscope pioneer Antony van Leeuwenhoek's famous discovery in Delft in 1674 of a microcosm in a drop of lake water, and it ends with speculation about a lonely civilisation, 100bn years on, in a freezing vacuum that no longer contains information about anything. Books such as these remind us that we are lucky to be here at all, and even luckier to be here now.
books  reviews  kindle-available  cosmology  big_bang  biology  chaos_theory  time  history_of_science 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Oren Harman review - Sean B. Carroll, Brave Genius : A Scientist, a Philosopher, and Their Daring Adventures from the French Resistance to the Nobel Prize - "Chance and Necessity" Revisited | The Los Angeles Review of Books - July 2014
IN THE FALL of 1970, Éditions du Seuil published Le hasard et la nécessité, a monograph by the French molecular biologist Jacques Monod,. Chance and Necessity was a slim book laden with technical details of oligomeric proteins, teleonomic structures, and microscopic perturbations. Despite the technical jargon, the book sold over 200,000 copies in its first year and became a best seller in Germany and Japan. It was bested in France only by Erich Segal’s Love Story. What explains its popularity? Monod was an eminent scientist, to be sure: he’d received the 1965 Nobel Prize with André Lwoff and François Jacob for “discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis.” But the resonance of Chance and Necessity is best explained by two epigraphs that adorned its opening page, stoic reminders that this was an affair well beyond the confines of mere science. The first is a dramatic statement by the Greek philosopher Democritus: “Everything existing in the Universe is the fruit of chance and necessity.” The second epigram, more than anything, best explains the book’s salience: a lengthy quotation from Albert Camus’s essay The Myth of Sisyphus. “The struggle itself towards the heights is enough to fill a man’s heart”; it ends, “One must imagine Sisyphus happy.” Sean B. Carroll, the American developmental molecular geneticist, reveals the deep friendship between Camus and Monod in Brave Genius. Their relationship, Carroll finds, not only illuminates the work of both men, but also unlocks the political and philosophical contingencies of a key moment in 20th-century thought.
books  reviews  intellectual_history  political_history  history_of_science  existentialism  20thC  France  WWII  French_Resistance  biography  Camus  evolutionary_biology  genetics  biology  cosmology  nihilism  chance  determinism  necessity 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Steven Shapin on E.C. Spary, Eating the Enlightenment : Food and the Sciences in Paris, 1670-1760 | The Los Angeles Review of Books - March 2013
Delightful review noting that the traditional humoural medicine, including diet, was based on a close link between body and mind, but as humours were abandoned great confusion about just what the links were and how they worked. Also covers the commercial distribution of new (to Europeans) beverages (coffee, tea, chocolate etc) and invention of others (e.g. various spirits like eaux de vie) and flavors. Got wrapped up in morality debates re taste vs gluttony, luxury, consumer fashion, and naturalism, reflected in the Encyclopédie and Rousseau. Shapin extends his discussion beyond the book's time frame to 19thC.
books  reviews  cultural_history  17thC  18thC  French_Enlightenment  luxury  consumerism  fashion  naturalism  noble_savage  virtue  vice  medicine  food  taste  Encyclopédie  Voltaire  Rousseau  Bouffon  humours  history_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Ian Hacking - Paradigms Regained - Thomas Kuhn's "Structure of Scientific Revolutions" 50 years later | The Los Angeles Review of Books
Excerpts from Hacking's introduction to the 50th anniversary reissue by the University of Chicago Press -- interesting comments re Kuhn's distaste for how some postmodernists and sociologists used his work, claimed him as an ally etc
books  bookshelf  intellectual_history  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  20thC  post-WWII  Kuhn  epistemology  anti-foundationalism  truth  Scientific_Revolution  scientific_method  scientific_culture  historiography-Whig  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Gary Lachman on Iain McGilchrist, The Master and His Emissary - Oppositional Thinking | The Los Angeles Review of Books 2013
Gary Lachman on Iain McGilchrist, The Master and His Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World -- But even if you don't accept McGilchrist's thesis, the book is a fascinating treasure trove of insights into language, music, society, love, and other fundamental human concerns. One of his most important suggestions is that the view of human life as ruthlessly driven by "selfish genes" and other "competitor" metaphors may be only a ploy of left brain propaganda, and through a right brain appreciation of the big picture, we may escape the remorseless push and shove of "necessity." I leave it to the reader to discover just how important this insight is. Perhaps if enough do, we may not have to settle for what's left when there's no right.
books  reviews  kindle-available  history_of_science  neuroscience  psychology  phenomenology  mind  mind-body  creativity  imagination  mechanism  holism  cultural_history  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  technology 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Jack Miles - Tilting Against Naïve Materialism: On Thomas Nagel's "Mind and Cosmos" | The Los Angeles Review of Books - Feb 2013
Nagel is a professed scientific realist. He does not put scientific knowledge in scare quotes. He believes that reason is reliable and that science does engage reality. But when an account of the origin of reason that links it entirely to reproductive success has this self-subversive corollary, he chooses to trust reason and question the account rather than trust the account and question reason.Here, for this reviewer, is the core challenge, the core disturbance, of this challenging and intentionally disruptive work. Mind and Cosmos, which has been taken as an oblique defense of creationism, is actually a defense of reason. Yet it is also a fabulous effort of the imagination. The place of imagination, of fantasy, even of dream-life in the history of human thought is a large one. Nagel admits that he is not a scientist, but it would call for imagination and not just analysis for a scientist in any given field to begin thinking past contemporary science as a whole toward the contours of what might someday succeed it. Unless one is a scientific Whig, one must strongly suspect that something someday will indeed succeed it. Nagel’s Mind and Cosmos does not build a road to that destination, but it is much to have gestured toward a gap in the hills through which a road might someday run. -- Swift would agree
books  reviews  kindle-available  philosophy_of_science  evolutionary_biology  evolution  Darwinism  Nagel  reason  epistemology  teleology  monism  panpsychic_monism  materialism  reductionism  truth  Swift  historiography-Whig  history_of_science  consciousness  mind  cosmology  imagination  creativity  human_nature  evo_psych  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Colin Dickey, review - One Book Opens Another: On Lawrence Principe, “The Secrets of Alchemy” | The Los Angeles Review of Books - Nov 2012
Great review! -- more central: any study of alchemy reveals the stubborn fact that early modern thought was far more universalizing in its scope than our own age’s tendency to compartmentalize fields of knowledge, and approaching alchemy on its own terms means rethinking our own relationship to the intellectual past. Whereas we regard art, chemistry, religion, and philosophy as separate, discrete areas of study, the early moderns didn’t think like this. Alchemy blends together a variety of disciplines, methods, and philosophies, and any attempt to isolate its chemistry or its symbolism out from the rest is a willful misreading. As Principe stresses repeatedly, “premoderns tended to conceive of and visualize the world in multivalent terms, where each individual thing was connected to many others by webs of analogy and metaphor. This view stands in contrast to the modern tendency to compartmentalize and isolate things and ideas into separate disciplines.” The lasting value of a book like this one is its reminder that we misunderstand the past because we constantly look for ourselves in it.
books  reviews  kindle-available  intellectual_history  historiography  history_of_science  sociology_of_knowledge  religious_history  natural_philosophy  alchemy  ancient_history  medieval_history  Islamic_civilization  Europe-Early_Modern  16thC  17thC  19thC  20thC  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Stuart Glennan - Aspects of Human Historiographic Explanation: A View from the Philosophy of Science (2014)
While some philosophers of history have argued that explanations in human history are of a fundamentally different kind than explanations in the natural sciences, I shall argue that this is not the case. Human beings are part of nature, human history is part of natural history, and human historical explanation is a species of natural historical explanation. In this paper I shall use a case study from the history of the American Civil War to show the variety of close parallels between natural and human historical explanation. In both instances, I shall argue that these explanations involve narrative descriptions of causal mechanisms. I shall show how adopting a mechanistic approach to explanation can provide resources to address some important aspects of human historiographic explanation, including problems concerning event individuation, historical meaning, agency, the role of laws, and the nature of contingency. -- This is a preprint version of this chapter. The final publication is available to purchase at Springer. -- Glennan, Stuart. "Aspects of Human Historiographic Explanation: A View from the Philosophy of Science." Explanation in the Special Sciences: The Case of Biology and History. Eds. Marie I. Kaiser, Oliver R. Scholz, Daniel Plenge, and Andreas Hüttemann. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014. 273-291. -- downloaded pdf to Note
historiography  history_of_science  causation  causation-social  mechanisms-social_theory  natural_history  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Devin Henry - "Embryological Models in Ancient Philosophy" by | Phronesis 50.1 (2005): 1-42.
Devin Henry, The University of Western Ontario -- Historically embryogenesis has been among the most philosophically intriguing phenomena. In this paper I focus on one aspect of biological development that was particularly perplexing to the ancients: self-organisation. For many ancients, the fact that an organism determines the important features of its own development required a special model for understanding how this was possible. This was especially true for Aristotle, Alexander, and Simplicius who all looked to contemporary technology to supply that model. However, they did not all agree on what kind of device should be used. In this paper I explore the way these ancients made use of technology as a model for the developing embryo. However, my purpose here is more than just the historical interest of knowing which devices were used by whom and how each of them worked; I shall largely ignore the details of how the various devices actually worked. Instead I shall look at the use of technology from a philosophical perspective. As we shall see, the different choices of device reveal fundamental differences in the way each thinker understood the nature of biological development itself. Thus, the central aim of this paper is to examine, not who used what devices and how they worked, but why they used those particular devices and what they thought their functioning could tell us about the nature of embryological phenomena. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  ancient_philosophy  Aristotle  natural_philosophy  history_of_science  ancient_Greece  biology  generation  inheritance  development-biological  embryology  scientific_culture  scientific_method  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Devin Henry. "Organismal Natures" | Apeiron: a journal for ancient philosophy and science (2008): 47-74.
Aristotle agrees with the negative conclusion of Galen that the growth and development of living things cannot be due to material forces operating according to chance. For Aristotle, the process of development is structured according to the form of the organism being generated by it. Development ‘follows upon’ the organism’s substantial being and exists for the sake of it rather than vice versa. This confers a certain order and direction on the process that cannot be accounted for in terms of the random motions of atoms or the undirected actions of Love and Strife (Empedocles). He accepts that natural generation involves material-level forces of the sort Democritus proposed; however, he insists that when operating by themselves these undirected causes would only produce a living thing by chance. And generation is far too regular for that. But Aristotle rejects the further inference — endorsed by Galen — that the teleological structure imposed on a developing organism must be traced to an intelligent agent that puts the organism together according to its end like some kind of internalized Demiurge. Nature, Aristotle says, does not deliberate. -- By invoking ‘natures’ as the cause of development, Galen says, Aristotle offers an account which is entirely vacuous. On the other hand, Denis Walsh has recently argued that the concept of Aristotelian natures plays the same role in development as the modern concept of phenotypic plasticity and that in this sense Aristotelian natures have an indispensable role to play contemporary evolutionary biology. -- My aim in this paper is not to defend an Aristotelian approach to modern biology but rather to explore the concept of organismal natures in the context of Aristotle’s teleology. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  ancient_philosophy  Aristotle  natural_philosophy  history_of_science  biology  generation  inheritance  development-biological  teleology  design-nature  materialism  Democritus  Empedocles  Galen  forms  evolutionary_biology  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Devin Henry - "Aristotle's Pluralistic Realism" | The Monist 94.2 (2011): 198-222
The University of Western Ontario -- In this paper I explore Aristotle’s views on natural kinds and the compatibility of pluralism and realism, a topic that has generated considerable interest among contemporary philosophers. I argue that, when it came to zoology, Aristotle denied that there is only one way of organizing the diversity of the living world into natural kinds that will yield a single, unified system of classification. Instead, living things can be grouped and regrouped into various cross-cutting kinds on the basis of objective similarities and differences in ways that subserve the explanatory context. Since the explanatory aims of zoology are diverse and variegated, the kinds it recognizes must be equally diverse and variegated. At the same time, there are certain constraints on which kinds can be selected. And those constraints derive more from the causal structure of the world than from the proclivities of the classifier (hence the realism). This distinguishes Aristotle’s version of pluralistic realism from those contemporary versions (like Dupré’s “promiscuous realism”) that treat all or most classifications of a given domain as equally legitimate and not just a sub-set of kinds recognized by the science that studies it. By contrast, Aristotle privileges scientifically important kinds on the basis of their role in causal investigations. On this picture natural kinds are those kinds with the sort of causal structure that allows them to enter into scientific explanations. In the final section I argue that Aristotle’s zoology should remain of interest to philosophers and biologists alike insofar as it combines a pluralistic form of realism with a rank-free approach to classification. - didn't download
article  intellectual_history  Aristotle  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  ancient_philosophy  analytical_philosophy  natural_kinds  classification  species  explanation  causation  biology  animals  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Lennon, Thomas M., Stainton, Robert J. (Eds.) 2008 The Achilles of Rationalist Psychology
Downloaded Introduction pdf to Note -- Series: Studies in the History of Philosophy of Mind, Vol. 7 -- newly written papers addressing each of the main contributors to the discussion of the Achilles. Despite the historical importance and intrinsic interest of the argument, very little has been written about it. *--* Contents. *--* Did Plato Articulate the Achilles Argument?. *-- Aristotle on the Unity of Consciousness. *-- The Neoplatonic Achilles. *-- The Unity of the Soul and Contrary Appetites in Medieval Philosophy. *-- Hume, Spinoza and the Achilles Inference. *-- Locke and the Achilles Argument. *-- The Reverse Achilles in Locke. *-- Cudworth and Bayle: An Odd Couple?. *-- The Achilles Argument and the Nature of Matter in the Clarke Collins Correspondence. *-- Leibniz’s ‘Achilles’. *-- Hume’s Reply to the Achilles Argument. *-- Kant and Mendelssohn on the Implications of the ‘I Think’. *-- Kant on the Achilles Argument. *-- William James and the Achilles Argument. *-- The Binding Problem: Achilles in the 21st Century.
books  intellectual_history  mind  mind-body  consciousness  perception  thinking_matter  materialism  soul  immortality  substance  Plato  Neoplatonism  Aristotle  Aquinas  Duns_Scotus  Ockham  Augustine  Descartes  Spinoza  Malebranche  Cartesian  Bayle  Locke  Clarke  Collins_Anthony  Leibniz  Hume  Kant  Mendelssohn  Fichte  cognition  neuroscience  psychology  natural_philosophy  metaphysics  rationalist  James_William  history_of_science  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Devin Henry - "The Failure of Evolution in Antiquity" in Blackwell Companion to Ancient Science, Medicine and Technology (2014)
Devin Henry, The University of Western Ontario -- This paper traces the emergence and rejection of evolutionary thinking in antiquity. It examines Empedocles' original theory of evolution and why his ideas failed to gain traction among his predecessors. -- Devin Henry. "The Failure of Evolution in Antiquity" Blackwell Companion to Ancient Science, Medicine and Technology. Ed. Georgia Irby. Blackwell-Wiley, 2014. -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  history_of_science  philosophy_of_science  natural_philosophy  biology  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  evolutionary_biology  evolution  time  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Michael Heyd - From a Rationalist Theology to Cartesian Voluntarism: David Derodon and Jean-Robert Chouet | JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 40, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1979), pp. 527-542
Shift from proto Leibniz determinism to extreme Voluntarism - 1660 and later in Geneva - Chouet introduced Cartesian mechanism to French Reformed - a perspective on the relationship between theology and 17thC mechanical philosophy -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  history_of_science  religious_history  science-and-religion  17thC  Geneva  Calvinist  rational_religion  God-attributes  determinism  voluntarism  laws_of_nature  Descartes  Cartesian  mechanism  natural_philosophy  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
J. V. Golinski - A Noble Spectacle: Phosphorus and the Public Cultures of Science in the Early Royal Society | JSTOR: Isis, Vol. 80, No. 1 (Mar., 1989), pp. 11-39
Huge bibliography of both primary and secondary literature -- chemistry and link to medicine were important for experimental_philosophy, but the flashiness of experiments for the public could both attract public interest and provide ammunition for enemies -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  history_of_science  17thC  British_history  Royal_Society  sociology_of_knowledge  experimental_philosophy  natural_philosophy  medicine  chemistry  magic  alchemy  Boyle  Hooke  Harvey  science-public  scientific_culture  Scientific_Revolution  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Benjamin Milner - Francis Bacon: The Theological Foundations of Valerius Terminus | JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 58, No. 2 (Apr., 1997), pp. 245-264
Why Bacon thought he needed theological foundations to his advancement of learning and natural philosophy program & why he never finished or published that work. Bibliography has a lot of antiquity and 17thC scepticism or atheism as well as Calvinist and Puritan stuff -- didn't download
article  jstor  intellectual_history  science-and-religion  history_of_science  17thC  Bacon  atheism_panic  scepticism  Calvinist  Puritans  curiosity  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Geraldine Barnes - Curiosity, Wonder, and William Dampier's Painted Prince | JSTOR: Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1 (Spring - Summer, 2006), pp. 31-50
Dampier was a "buccaneer", sometime Admiralty sponsored explorer, and his "painted prince" a tatooed native brought back from a voyage, who died in 1692. Most of the publicity involving Dampier (recounting his travels, a medallion by Evelyn) in the 1690s. The article deals with growing cultural practices associated with exploration, from the voyages themselves and publishing and images associated with them to growth in consumer interest and the virtuoso and collector crazes. -- references to Swift and Gulliver -- also probably relevant to Three Hours after Marriage
article  jstor  cultural_history  history_of_science  exploration  17thC  18thC  natural_history  comparative_anthropology  curiosity  virtuosos  collections  consumerism  Swift  Gulliver  Arbuthnot  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Peter Harrison - Descartes on Animals | JSTOR: The Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 42, No. 167 (Apr., 1992), pp. 219-227
Some support for Cottingham thesis that Descartes wasn't the monster toward animals that Cartesians like Malebranche were. Further bibliography -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  history_of_science  theology  moral_philosophy  natural_philosophy  17thC  Descartes  Cartesian  Malebranche  animals  reason  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
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