dunnettreader + historical_change   43

RJW Mills - Lord Kames's analysis of the natural origins of religion: the 'Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion' (1751) - (2016) - Historical Research - Wiley Online Library
This article investigates the discussion of the origins and development of religious belief within the Scottish jurist and philosopher Henry Home, Lord Kames's Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion (1751). Kames's work is argued to be a significant yet understudied contribution to the Scottish Enlightenment's examination of religion as a human phenomenon. The Principles contained one of the lengthiest analyses on the topic published by a Scottish literatus. In particular, Kames placed into a historical trajectory the internal sense theory's account of the non-rational origins of religious belief. In doing so, he provided an apologetic account of the progress from polytheism to monotheism resulting from the emergence of civil society, which set the tone for later Scottish discussions of religion.
article  paywall  Wiley  18thC  philosophical_anthropology  historiography-18thC  historical_change  stadial_theories  Kames  religious_history  sociology_of_religion  polytheism  monotheism  Bolingbroke  Hume  natural_religion  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  moral_sentiments  civil_society  Scottish_Enlightenment  Kirk 
november 2016 by dunnettreader
André Lang - La part maudite du politique chez Machiavel, ou le retour aux origines (2005) - Cairn.info
I - L’anacyclosis révisée
II - Les constitutions à l’épreuve de l’histoire
III - Le retour au principe
IV - Le moment Romuléen et le moment Numéen
V - Le principe comme puissance de régénération
VI - Les exécutions ou l’équivoque politique du retour à l’origine
VII - Brutus ou la part souveraine de la violence des principes
De l’exécution à l’exécutif : conclusion et perspectives
Pour citer cet article

Lang André, « La part maudite du politique chez Machiavel, ou le retour aux origines. », Le Philosophoire 2/2005 (n° 25) , p. 213-230
URL : www.cairn.info/revue-le-philosophoire-2005-2-page-213.htm.
DOI : 10.3917/phoir.025.0213.
Aristotle  class_conflict  political_participation  Pocock  Polybius  corruption  state_of_exception  republicanism  violence  article  norms  dialectic-historical  common_good  political_philosophy  Machiavelli  interest_groups  civic_virtue  downloaded  politics-and-history  mixed_government  historical_change  history_as_examples  cyclical_history  rule_of_law  cycles  republics-Ancient_v_Modern 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Josine H. Blok - Quests for a Scientific Mythology: F. Creuzer and K. O. Müller on History and Myth | JSTOR - History and Theory ( Dec 1994)
History and Theory, Vol. 33, No. 4, Theme Issue 33: Proof and Persuasion in History (Dec., 1994), pp. 26-52 -- Classical scholarship played a vital role in the intellectual concerns of early 19thC Germany. ... Greek mythology in particular was expected to shed light on the origins of civilization. In the search for the true nature of myth, the hermeneutic problems involved in historical understanding were intensified. As myth was held to be of a different nature than rationality, to read the sources was to look for a completely different referent of the texts than was the case in historical reconstruction. In the quests for a scientific mythology, K. O. Müller (1797-1840) was often regarded as an opponent of F. Creuzer (1771-1858). Yet an analysis of their published work and of their private documents shows that they had much in common -- deeply Romantic views on the religious origin of culture, in Müller's case inspired by Pietism, in Creuzer's by neo-Platonism. -- Müller differed from Creuzer in his views on the relationship of myth to history. Myth was not the reflection of a universal religion, sustained by a priestly class (as Creuzer had claimed), but the outcome of the encounter between the mental endowment of a people and local, historical circumstances. In the case of the Amazons, however, Müller assessed the connection of myth to history in defiance of his own theory, guided by his views on gender difference and on sexual morality. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  epistemology-history  Hellenophiles  German_scholars  German_Idealism  Romanticism  Pietist  Neoplatonism  cultural_history  cultural_authority  cultural_transmission  religious_history  religious_culture  national_origins  historical_change  teleology  Amazons  ancient_history  myth  cultural_influence  cultural_change  positivism  hermeneutics  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Nicola Lacey - Jurisprudence, History, and the Institutional Quality of Law (Symposium - Jurisprudence and (Its) History) | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 919 (2015)
A cri de coeur for putting legal theory and history back together with social theory and empirical social sciences,. -- In the early part of my career, legal history and the history of legal ideas were closed books to me, as I made my way in a field of criminal law scholarship dominated by doctrinal scholarship and by concept-focused philosophical analysis of the foundations of criminal law. These 2 very different paradigms have 1 big thing in common: They tend to proceed as if the main intellectual task is to unearth the deep logic of existing legal doctrines, not infrequently going so far as to read them back onto history, as if things could never have been other than they are. (..)I have increasingly found myself turning to historical resources (1) [to examine] the contingency of particular legal arrangements, and (2) ...to develop causal and other theses about the dynamics which shape them and hence about the role and quality of criminal law as a form of power in modern societies. So, in a sense, I have been using history in support of an analysis driven primarily by the social sciences. (..) it is no accident that all of the great social theorists, from Marx to Foucault via Weber, Durkheim, and Elias, ..have incorporated significant historical elements into their interpretations .... Indeed, without the diachronic perspective provided by history (or the perspective offered by comparative study) we could have no critical purchase on social theory’s characterizations of or causal hypotheses about the dynamics of social systems. Hence, (...) my boundless gratitude to the historians whose meticulous research makes this sort of interpretive social theory possible). -- Lacey is not over-dramatizing -- see the "commentary" from a "legal philosopher" who believes the normative basis of criminal responsibility can be investigated as timeless "moral truths". -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  social_theory  historical_sociology  historical_change  institutions  institutional_change  philosophy_of_law  philosophical_anthropology  philosophy_of_social_science  jurisprudence  legal_theory  analytical_philosophy  concepts  morality-conventional  morality-objective  criminal_justice  responsibility  mind  human_nature  norms  power-asymmetric  power-symbolic  power  Neoplatonism  neo-Kantian  a_priori  historiography  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_culture  moral_philosophy  evidence  mental_health  social_order  epistemology  epistemology-moral  change-social  change-intellectual  comparative_law  comparative_anthropology  civil_liberties  women-rights  women-property  rights-legal  rights-political  access_to_services  discrimination  legal_culture  legal_system  legal_reasoning  Foucault  Marx  Weber  Durkheim  metaethics  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
David Luban - Time-Mindedness and Jurisprudence: A Commentary on Postema's "Jurisprudence, the Sociable Science" | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 903 (2015)
Postema offers two general programmatic suggestions for jurisprudence besides greater historical consciousness: sociability and synechism. Sociability, has two dimensions. First, it means interdisciplinarity—a continual dialogue with the study of legal phenomena by the sciences, humanities, and even theology. Second, it means embedding jurisprudence in general philosophy, ... [Sellars]: “not only ‘cabbages and kings’, but numbers and duties, possibilities and finger snaps, aesthetic experience and death.” Synechism is a less familiar idea, drawn from the philosophy of C.S. Peirce. It is the commitment to seek continuity among phenomena. Peirce was metaphysically committed to the existence of actual continua everywhere in nature, history, and human psychology. So synechism will impose a certain demand on all systematic studies, namely discerning those continua.(..) a certain kind of historiography: The historian’s job is to unearth continuities between past and present rather than studying ruptures. This, it seems to me, is a contestable commitment that rules out a great deal of important historical work. Peirce understood synechism to imply that ideas are intrinsically temporal and historical phenomena. Although Postema does not endorse this general thesis, he does argue for a special case of it, namely that law is “intrinsically temporal.” This conclusion is central to his argument against the possibility of time-slice legal systems. It, too, is contestable; but, I shall suggest, Postema can reach his conclusion on grounds other than synechism, and I agree with him about law’s intrinsic temporality. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_law  pragmatism  historiography  historical_change  jurisprudence  legal_theory  legal_system  analytical_philosophy  legal_history  continuity  change-social  change-intellectual  intellectual_history  Peirce  social_sciences  legal_culture  legal_realism  philosophy_of_history  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Gerald J. Postema - Jurisprudence, the Sociable Science (Symposium - Jurisprudence and (Its) History) | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 869 (2015)
Renaissance jurisprudence strove to be a sociable science. Following Ulpian’s lead, it refused to relegate jurisprudence either to pure speculation or to mere practice. Jurisprudence was a science, a matter of knowledge and of theoretical understanding, not merely an applied art or practice of prudence innocent of theory. It was regarded as the very heart of theoretical studies, drawing to itself all that the traditional sciences of theology, metaphysics, and moral philosophy, as well as the newly emerging humanist sciences of philology and hermeneutics, had to offer. No less resolutely, however, it refused to abandon its foothold in the life of practice. (..) Rather than reject philosophical reflection, (..) Renaissance jurists sought to locate it in concrete human life and experience. (..) Philosophy.., was most true to its vocation, and was most engaged in human life, when its reflections were anchored in the social life acknowledged, comprehended, and informed by and informing law. Jurisprudence, vera philosophia, was ...the point at which the theoretical and the practical intersected (..) at its “sociable” best sought to integrate them. Analytic jurisprudence began as self-consciously, even militantly, “unsociable,” and its matured and much-sophisticated descendant, fin de siècle analytic legal philosophy, remained largely if not exclusively so. (..) It may be time, in this period of self-conscious attention to jurisprudential method, to press beyond the current limits of this debate over method to a reassessment of the ambitions of jurisprudence and of philosophy’s role in it. (..) my aim is not critical but constructive. (..) to recover something of the ideal of jurisprudence as a sociable science, to retrieve as much as our disenchanted age can be challenged to embrace, or at least to entertain, of the ambition of jurisprudence as vera philosophia. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jurisprudence  philosophy_of_law  social_theory  social_sciences  intellectual_history  Renaissance  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  common_law  moral_philosophy  morality-conventional  norms  analytical_philosophy  concepts  concepts-change  change-social  change-intellectual  social_order  legal_history  legal_theory  legal_reasoning  pragmatism  Peirce  continuity  historical_change  methodology-qualitative  downloaded 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Hoffman, P.T.: Why Did Europe Conquer the World? (eBook and Hardcover).
Between 1492 and 1914, Europeans conquered 84% of the globe. But why did Europe rise to the top, when for centuries the Chinese, Japanese, Ottomans, and South Asians were far more advanced? Why didn’t these powers establish global dominance? ...distinguished economic historian Hoffman demonstrates that conventional explanations— eg geography, epidemic disease, and the Industrial Revolution—fail to provide answers. Arguing instead for the pivotal role of economic and political history, Hoffman shows that if variables had been at all different, Europe would not have achieved critical military innovations, and another power could have become master of the world. In vivid detail, he sheds light on the two millennia of economic, political, and historical changes that set European states on a distinctive path of development and military rivalry. Compared to their counterparts in China, Japan, South Asia, and the Middle East, European leaders—whether chiefs, lords, kings, emperors, or prime ministers—had radically different incentives, which drove them to make war. These incentives, which Hoffman explores using an economic model of political costs and financial resources, resulted in astonishingly rapid growth in Europe’s military sector from the Middle Ages on, and produced an insurmountable lead in gunpowder technology. The consequences determined which states established colonial empires or ran the slave trade, and even which economies were the first to industrialize. -- Professor of Business Economics and professor of history at CalTech. His books include Growth in a Traditional Society (PUP), Surviving Large Losses, and Priceless Markets. -- ebook and pbk not yet released --text 200 pgs, data, mideks in appendices ~35 pgs -- downloaded 1st chapter excerpt
books  kindle-available  Great_Divergence  economic_history  political_history  political_culture  military_history  technology  gunpowder  colonialism  imperialism  Europe  Europe-exceptionalism  Europe-Medieval  Europe-Early_Modern  incentives  wars-causes  war  Innovation  technology-adoption  historical_sociology  historical_change  balance_of_power  path-dependency  Tilly  Mann_Michael  state-building  downloaded 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
James Chandler, ed. - The Cambridge History of English Romantic Literature (pbk 2012) | Cambridge University Press
The Romantic period was one of the most creative, intense and turbulent periods of English lit (..) revolution, reaction, and reform in politics, and by the invention of imaginative literature in its distinctively modern form. (..) an engaging account of 6 decades of literary production around the turn of the 19thC. Reflecting the most up-to-date research, (..) both to provide a narrative of Romantic lit and to offer new and stimulating readings of the key texts. (...) the various locations of literary activity - both in England and, as writers developed their interests in travel and foreign cultures, across the world. (..) how texts responded to great historical and social change. (..) a comprehensive bibliography, timeline and index, **--** Choice: 50 years ago, lit studies was awash in big theories of Romanticism, (e.g. M. H. Abrams, Geoffrey Hartman, Harold Bloom); 2 decades later, Marilyn Butler argued that the very label "Romantic" was "historically unsound." This collection suggests that no consensus has yet emerged: instead, the best of the essays suggest continuities with periods before and after. Rather than big theories, (..) kaleidoscopic snapshots of individual genres (the novel, the "new poetry," drama, the ballad, children's literature); larger intellectual currents (Brewer ... on "sentiment and sensibility"); fashionable topics (imperialism, publishing history, disciplinarity); and--most interesting--the varying cultures of discrete localities (London, Ireland, Scotland).(..) an excellent book useful not as a reference resource, (..) but for its summaries of early-21st-century thinking about British lit culture 1770s-1830s. -- downloaded pdfs of front matter and excerpt to Note
books  English_lit  Romanticism  literary_history  literary_language  literary_theory  lit_crit  18thC  19thC  British_history  cultural_history  literature-and-morality  politics-and-literature  French_Revolution-impact  sociology_of_knowledge  Enlightenment  religious_lit  genre  gender_history  historicism  art_history  art_criticism  novels  rhetoric-writing  intellectual_history  morality-conventional  norms  sensibility  social_order  public_sphere  private_life  lower_orders  publishing  publishing-piracy  copyright  British_politics  British_Empire  Scotland  Scottish_Enlightenment  Ireland  Ireland-English_exploitation  landed_interest  landowners-Ireland-Anglo_elite  authors  authors-women  political_culture  elite_culture  aesthetics  subjectivity  self  self-fashioning  print_culture  readership  fashion  credit  poetry  literary_journals  historical_fiction  historical_change  reform-political  reform-social  French_Revolution  anti-Jacobin  Evangelical  literacy  theater  theatre-sentimental  theatre-politics  actors  downloaded 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Tilottama Rajan and Julia M. Wright, eds. - Romanticism, History, and the Possibilities of Genre Re forming Literature 1789–1837 (2006 pbk) | Cambridge University Press
Tilottama Rajan, University of Western Ontario and Julia M. Wright, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia **--** Romanticism has often been associated with lyric poetry, or otherwise confined within mainstream genres. As a result, we have neglected the sheer diversity and generic hybridity of a literature that ranged from the Gothic novel to the national tale, from monthly periodicals to fictionalized autobiography. In this new volume some of the leading scholars of the period explore the relationship between ideology and literary genre from a variety of theoretical perspectives. The introduction offers a fresh examination of how genre was rethought by Romantic criticism. **--** Introduction Tilottama Rajan and Julia M. Wright **--** Part I. Genre, History, and the Public Sphere: 1. Godwin and the genre reformers: on necessity and contingency in romantic narrative theory - Jon Klancher *-* 2. Radical print culture in periodical form - Kevin Gilmartin *-* 3. History, trauma, and the limits of the liberal imagination: William Godwin's historical fiction - Gary Handwerk *-* 4. Writing on the border: the national tale, female writing, and the public sphere - Ina Ferris. **--** Part II. Genre and Society: 5. Genres from life in Wordsworth's art: Lyrical Ballads 1798 - Don Bialostosky *-* 6. 'A voice in the representation': John Thelwall and the enfranchisement of literature - Judith Thompson *-* 7. 'I am ill-fitted': conflicts of genre in Elisa Fenwick's Secresy - Julia M. Wright *-* 8. Frankenstein as neo-Gothic: from the ghost of the couterfeit to the monster of abjection - Jerrold E. Hogle **--** Part III. Genre, Gender, and the Private Sphere: 9. Autonarration and genotext in Mary Hays' Memoirs of Emma Courtney - Tilottama Rajan *-* 10. 'The science of herself': scenes of female enlightenment - Mary Jacobus *-* 11. The failures of romanticism Jerome McGann -- downloaded pdfs of front matter and excerpt to Note
books  English_lit  historiography-18thC  historiography-19thC  philosophy_of_history  British_history  British_politics  genre  1790s  1800s  1810s  1820s  radicals  Radical_Enlightenment  reform-political  reform-social  French_Revolution  anti-Jacobin  literary_journals  literary_history  national_ID  nationalism  national_tale  narrative  narrative-contested  Hunt_Leigh  censorship  Hazlitt_William  Godwin_Wm  historical_fiction  historical_change  necessity  contingency  women-intellectuals  authors-women  social_order  public_sphere  private_life  lower_orders  Shelley_Mary  imagination  magazines  newspapers  gender  gender_history  Wordsworth  poetry  Napoleonic_Wars-impact  Romanticism  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Richard Andrew Berman - The Architects of Eighteenth Century English Freemasonry, 1720 - 1740 (2010 thesis) | University of Exeter
Advisors: Black, Jeremy & Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas -- Date Issued: 2010-09-22 --
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10036/2999 -- Following the appointment of its first aristocratic Grand Masters in the 1720s and in the wake of its connections to the scientific Enlightenment, ‘Free and Accepted’ Masonry rapidly became part of Britain’s national profile and the largest and arguably the most influential of Britain’s extensive clubs and societies. (..) Freemasonry became a vehicle for the expression and transmission of the political and religious views of those at its centre, and for the scientific Enlightenment concepts that they championed. The ‘Craft’ also offered a channel through which many sought to realise personal aspirations: social, intellectual and financial. Through an examination of relevant primary and secondary documentary evidence, this thesis seeks to contribute to a broader understanding of contemporary English political and social culture, and to explore the manner in which Freemasonry became a mechanism that promoted the interests of the Hanoverian establishment and connected and bound a number of élite metropolitan and provincial figures. A range of networks centred on the aristocracy, parliament, the magistracy and the learned and professional societies are studied, and key individuals instrumental in spreading and consolidating the Masonic message identified. The thesis also explores the role of Freemasonry in the development of the scientific Enlightenment. The evidence suggests that Freemasonry should be recognised not only as the most prominent of the many 18thC fraternal organisations, but also as a significant cultural vector and a compelling component of the social, economic, scientific and political transformation then in progress. -- downloaded pdf to Note
thesis  18thC  1720s  1730s  1740s  Walpole  Whigs-oligarchy  British_history  British_politics  Enlightenment  science-public  Scientific_Revolution  science-and-politics  Freemasonry  cultural_history  intellectual_history  networks-social  networks-political  networks-business  sociology_of_science_&_technology  elites  aristocracy  Parliament  MPs  political_nation  economic_sociology  economic_culture  commerce-doux  finance_capital  banking  capital_markets  capital_as_power  history_of_science  historical_sociology  historical_change  center-periphery  provinces  clubs  social_capital  judiciary  professions  professionalization  religious_culture  science-and-religion  latitudinarian  natural_religion  Newtonian  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Gavin Alexander - Fulke Greville and the Afterlife | JSTOR: Huntington Library Quarterly, Vol. 62, No. 3/4 (1999), pp. 203-231
Fascinating re both Grevill's history writing - his discussion of Sir Philip Sidney in publishing his work (Arcadia) not only influenced Sidney reception but framed Queen Elizabeth as a wise ruler in contrast with the Stuarts. Discussion of how, given "nothing new under the sun" and constancy of human nature, poetry, drama and prose could all be read as speaking to current events -- e, g. Robert Devereaux, Earl of Essex rebellion. Greville treatment of Sidney as in retrospect prophetic re foreign relations especially with Dutch, forms of government -- Greville using Aristotle and Polybius re patterns of historical change. Greville in both his history and prose writing and his poetry and plays was always looking to readers after his death. Suggestive re development of an increasingly sophisticated historiography in 17thC that wrestled with tensions in using history as exemplary vs informing practical reason for contingencies of statecraft as well as hermeneutics for readers in the present and future. Provides a publication history of Greville's works during Commonwealth and Restoration, how it was used politically at different moments, including Exclusion_Crisis. Worden has published articles or chapters in collections that look at the generation of Sidney and Greville as some proto classical republican writings. Also may be useful for Bolingbroke's treatment of Elizabeth as model in Remarks and Study and Uses -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  literary_history  historiography-Renaissance  historiography-17thC  16thC  17thC  Elizabeth  James_I  English_Civil_War  Interregnum  Restoration  Exclusion_Crisis  Anglo-Dutch  English_lit  poetry  poetics  rhetoric-writing  rhetoric-political  historians-and-politics  historical_change  politics-and-literature  hermeneutics  reader_response  readership  publishing  scribal_circulation  manuscripts  Remarks_on_History_of_England  Study_and_Uses  political_philosophy  republicanism  Polybius  government-forms  downloaded  EF-add 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Black, review - Philip E. Tetlock; Richard Ned Lebow; Geoffrey Parker, eds. , Unmaking the West: 'What-If?' Scenarios That Rewrite World History | JSTOR: The International History Review, Vol. 29, No. 3 (Sep., 2007), pp. 587-588
Black gives it high marks for (1) the introductory chapters that set up the issues and debates re use of counterfactuals and (2) the diversity of issue areas tackled, such as what if Europe hadn't adopted Christianity. Goldstone has a chapter framing William_III victory in the Glorious Revolution as critical turning point for industrial revolution, European political economy and Great Divergence. Carla Pestana has a brief contrary comment piece. Includes usual suspects like Victor Hanson and Joel Mokyr.
books  reviews  jstor  historiography  historical_sociology  historical_change  counterfactuals  contingency  Great_Divergence  North-Weingast  Industrial_Revolution  British_history  Western_civ  religious_culture  Christendom 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
ERIC COCHRANE, The Transition from Renaissance to Baroque: The Case of Italian Historiography | JSTOR: History and Theory, Vol. 19, No. 1 (Feb., 1980), pp. 21-38
The meaning of the term "baroque" has been the subject of much debate. In the field of historiography, historians have not engaged in a dialogue on the subject and have accepted uncritically the value-judgments of eighteenth-century scholarship. One approach to be used in this author's new book, Historians and Historiography in the Italian Renaissance, compares the work of 782 Italian historians from earliest times through the seventeenth century. The humanist historiography of the Italian Renaissance exhibited the concepts of change, contingency, and epoch in history; relied on ancient forms; used methodological principles of causation; and taught moral and political lessons. Italian Baroque historiography, on the other hand, employed the forms of the new bulletins or avvisi, copied the prose style of its contemporaries, discounted its practical utility, and displayed a separation between history as literature and history as research. -- downloaded to Air
article  jstor  historiography  historicism  Renaissance  humanism  historiography-18thC  14thC  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  historiography-19thC  19thC  intellectual_history  Italy  Guicciardini  historical_change  contingency  Enlightenment  downloaded  EF-add 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Kenan Malik - THE DEATH OF GOD AND THE FALL OF MAN | Pandaemonium July 2014
Transcript of talk for Institute of Ideas -- The moral vision of modernity may have been, in other words, nourished by the crumbling of the God-ordained order. It was – it had to be – however, also rooted in faith, but a faith of a different kind – faith that humans were capable of acting rationally and morally without guidance from beyond. It was through the 19thC that religious faith truly began to crumble. But it was also in the 19thC that faith in the human capacity to act without God began also to erode. The optimism that had once suffused the humanist impulse began to ebb away and there began to develop a much darker view of what it meant to be human. By the late 19thC European societies came to experience both a crisis of faith and a ‘crisis of reason’, the beginnings of a set of trends that were to become highly significant in the 20thC – the erosion of Enlightenment optimism, a disenchantment with ideas of progress, a disbelief in concepts of truth, the growth of a much darker view of human nature. -- The death of God, in other words, went hand in hand with what we might call, if we were to continue to use religious symbolism, the Fall of Man. And the Fall of Man transformed the meaning of the Death of God. God is a metaphor for the desire for an authority beyond ourselves to frame our existence and guide our lives, the death of God for the insistence on acting without guidance from beyond. There are two aspects to the death of God. The decline of religious belief and the growth of a new faith in the capacity of humans to act without guidance from beyond. The first has always been overstated. The second has always been undervalued. - frames talk around Anscombe and MacIntyre
intellectual_history  religious_history  cultural_history  18thC  19thC  20thC  morality-Christian  religious_belief  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  pagans  gods-antiquity  monotheism  teleology  human_nature  morality-conventional  morality-objective  progress  Enlightenment  Fin-de-Siècle  humanism  anti-humanism  Counter-Enlightenment  political_philosophy  reason  Anscombe  MacIntyre  tradition  identity  autonomy  individualism  community  communitarian  social_order  change-social  historical_change  historicism  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Jay M. Smith - Between Discourse and Experience: Agency and Ideas in the French Pre-Revolution | JSTOR: History and Theory, Vol. 40, No. 4 (Dec., 2001), pp. 116-142
C Experience has recently reemerged as an important analytical category for historians of the Old Regime and the French Revolution. Reacting against the perceived excesses of discourse analysis, which made political language independent of any social determinants, certain post-revisionists are now seeking to contextualize political language by relating it to the experience of those who use it. Political agency, in these analyses, is understood to be the effect of particular formative experiences. This article suggests that the search for an experiential antidote to discourse is misconceived because it perpetuates an untenable dichotomy between thought and reality. Access to the phenomenon of historical agency should be pursued not through experience or discourse but through the category of consciousness, since the make-up of the subject's consciousness determines how he/she engages the world and decides to attempt changing it. After a brief discussion of an important study that exemplifies both the allure and the functionality of the notion of experience, Timothy Tackett's Becoming a Revolutionary, the article focuses on the evolving political consciousness of a man who became a revolutionary agitator in 1789, J.-M.-A. Servan. Analysis of his writings between 1770 and 1789 shows that the way in which his perspective was constructed, rather than the lessons of experience per se, determined the shape of his revolutionary intentions in 1789. -- issue devoted to Agency after postmodernism -- big bibliography -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  historiography  postmodern  linguistic_turn  discourse  agency  agency-structure  historical_change  action-theory  revisionism  18thC  French_Revolution  perspectivism  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Beyond the Hart/Dworkin Debate: The Methodology Problem in Jurisprudence (2005) :: SSRN
Heavily cited -- U of Texas Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 34 -- For three decades now, much of the Anglo-American legal philosophy curriculum has been organized around something called the Hart/Dworkin debate, a debate whose starting point is Ronald Dworkin's 1967 critique of the seminal work of Anglophone jurisprudence in the twentieth-century, H.L.A. Hart's 1961 book, The Concept of Law. This essay reviews the Hart/Dworkin debate and argues that it no longer deserves to play the same organizing role in the jurisprudential curriculum of the twenty-first century that it played at the close of the twentieth: on the particulars of the Hart/Dworkin debate, Hart has emerged the clear victor, so much so that even the heuristic value of the Dworkinian criticisms of Hart are now in doubt. (Dworkin's quite recent polemic against legal positivism in the 2002 Harvard Law Review is also addressed briefly.) The significant philosophical challenges that face legal positivists are now different, often in kind, from the ones Dworkin made famous. These, I shall argue, fall into two broad categories: first, the correct account of the content of the rule of recognition and its relationship to the possibility of law's authority (the Hart/Raz debate); and second, the proper methodology of jurisprudence, a debate which aligns defenders of descriptive conceptual jurisprudence (like Hart and Raz) against two sets of opponents: natural lawyers like Finnis, Perry and Stavropoulos who challenge whether jurisprudence can be descriptive; and philosophical naturalists, like the present author, who question whether conceptual analysis is a fruitful philosophical method in jurisprudence (or elsewhere). -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  20thC  21stC  intellectual_history  positivism-legal  legal_realism  naturalism  natural_law  natural_rights  social_theory  social_sciences-post-WWII  Hart  Dworkin  Finnis  Raz  moral_philosophy  concepts  concepts-change  historical_change  analytical_philosophy  sociology_of_law  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - The Hermeneutics of Suspicion: Recovering Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud (2005) :: SSRN
U of Texas Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 72 -- Paul Ricoeur famously dubbed that great triumvirate of late nineteenth - and early twentieth-century thought - Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud - "the school of suspicion," by which he meant those thinkers who taught us to regard with suspicion our conscious understandings and experience, whether the deliverances of ordinary psychological introspection about one's desires.., or the moral categories political leaders and ordinary citizens apply to themselves and the social world they inhabit... "Beneath" or "behind" the surface lay causal forces that explained the conscious phenomena precisely because they laid bare the true meaning of those phenomena -- I shall argue that, in fact, all three of the great practitioners of the hermeneutics of suspicion have suffered at the hands of moralizing interpreters who have resisted the essentially naturalistic thrust of their conception of philosophical practice. As a matter of both textual exegesis and intellectual importance, Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud are best read as primarily naturalistic thinkers, that is thinkers who view philosophical inquiry as continuous with a sound empirical understanding of the natural world and the causal forces operative in it. When one understands conscious life naturalistically, in terms of its real causes, one contributes at the same time to a critique of the contents of consciousness: that, in short, is the essence of a hermeneutics of suspicion. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  social_theory  human_nature  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  19thC  20thC  21stC  hermeneutics_of_suspicion  causation-social  psychology  moral_psychology  historical_change  normativity  morality-Nietzche  Marx  Marxist  Freud  motivation  action-theory  naturalism  empiricism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Marx, Law, Ideology, Legal Positivism (2014) :: SSRN
This essay -- for the UVA conference on "Jurisprudence and History" -- offers an account of Marx’s theory of history and his claim that law (and morality) are "ideological," and then asks what theory of law is adequate to explain the way the Marxist theory understands law in both its ideological and non-ideological senses. In Marx's theory we need to be able to say what law is in three contexts: (1) there are the laws that constitute the relations of production, i.e., the scheme of property rights in the existing forces of production; (2) there are the laws (and associated legal beliefs, e.g., "you are entitled to equal protection of the law") that are superstructural and ideological in the pejorative sense; and (3) there are the laws that are non-ideological and superstructural because they characterize the legal relations of a non-class-based, i.e., a communist, society. I explain these different senses of law in Marx's theory and then argue that legal positivism, unlike other views about the nature of law, gives us a sensible explanation of law for purposes of the Marxist theory of historical change. That fact, in turn, gives us another data point in favor of positivism as the only serious explanation of the concept of law. -- Keywords: Iegal positivism, Marx, Hart, Dworkin Finnis, ideology -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  social_theory  historiography  historical_sociology  historiography-19thC  historiography-Marxist  historical_change  legal_history  legal_system  ideology  property  property_rights  positivism-legal  Marx  Hart  Dworkin  Finnis  natural_law  natural_rights  rights-legal  legal_culture  legal_realism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Liberty Matters Forum: Tocqueville’s New Science of Politics Revisited (May 2014) - Online Library of Liberty
Aurelian Craiutu argues that Tocqueville was not just an observer of democracy in America but also a theorist of democracy who wanted to create “a new science of politics” suitable to the new world which was beginning to take shape at that time. Craiutu points out four dimensions of Tocqueville’s new science of politics that might help us better understand his thinking. The first is that Tocqueville’s new science of politics is fundamentally cross-disciplinary, at the intersection of political science, sociology, anthropology, history, and philosophy. He then goes on to discuss the other dimensions such as its comparative, normative, and political dimensions. He concludes that his works must therefore be seen as belonging to a larger French tradition of political engagement and political rhetoric in which the writer enters into a subtle and complex pedagogical relationship with his audience, seeking to convince and inspire his readers to political action. This thesis is discussed by Daniel J. Mahoney of Assumption College, Filippo Sabetti of McGill University, and Jeremy R. Jennings of King’s College London. -- downloaded ebook to Note
etexts  18thC  19thC  intellectual_history  France  social_theory  social_sciences  political_philosophy  political_culture  liberalism  republicanism  human_nature  political_science  rhetoric-writing  rhetoric-political  audience  comparative_history  historical_sociology  US_society  US_politics  social_order  historical_change  Tocqueville  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Forum - “Deirdre McCloskey and Economists’ Ideas about Ideas” (July, 2014) - Online Library of Liberty
Deirdre McClosky is over the halfway point of her 4 volume work on The Bourgeois Era. Two volumes have already appeared, Bourgeois Virtues (2006) and Bourgeois Dignity (2010), and a third is close to appearing [2015]. This Liberty Matters online discussion will assess her progress to date with a Lead Essay by Don Boudreaux and comments by Joel Mokyr and John Nye, and replies to her critics by Deirdre McCloskey. The key issue is to try to explain why “the Great Enrichment” of the past 150 years occurred in northern and western Europe rather than elsewhere, and why sometime in the middle of the 18th century. Other theories have attributed it to the presence of natural resources, the existence of private property and the rule of law, and the right legal and political institutions. McCloskey’s thesis is that a fundamental change in ideas took place which raised the “dignity” of economic activity in the eyes of people to the point where they felt no inhibition in pursuing these activities which improved the situation of both themselves and the customers who bought their products and services.
intellectual_history  cultural_history  economic_history  economic_growth  Medieval  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  Great_Divergence  British_history  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Industrial_Revolution  bourgeoisie  political_economy  France  Germany  Prussia  China  development  institutional_economics  North-Weingast  legal_history  property  property_rights  commerce  trade  trading_companies  free_trade  improvement  technology  Innovation  agriculture  energy  natural_capital  nature-mastery  transport  capitalism  colonialism  industry  industrialization  social_order  Great_Chain_of_Being  consumers  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  equality  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  liberalism  incentives  microeconomics  historical_sociology  historical_change  social_theory  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
David Zaret - Religion and the Rise of Liberal-Democratic Ideology in 17th-Century England | JSTOR: American Sociological Review, Vol. 54, No. 2 (Apr., 1989), pp. 163-179
In classical and contemporary sociology, key elements of liberal-democratic ideology are seen as secular extensions of Protestant ideas. This case study provides a different analysis that emphasizes the problem of religious conflict and radicalism in early liberal-democratic ideology. Proponents of the new ideology rejected key tenets of their Puritan heritage, adopting deistic beliefs that legitimated pluralism and tolerance and opposed the older Puritan ideal of godly politics. Building on recent work in the sociology of culture, the paper outlines an analytic strategy for explaining change in ideological systems. Ideological change emerges out of the interaction of contextual pressures and intellectual precedents, as a collective response by ideological innovators to problems of authority. The analysis in this study shows how historical events can form an episodic context which structures this problem of authority. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  historical_sociology  historical_change  change-intellectual  political_philosophy  ideology  political_culture  politics-and-religion  17thC  18thC  British_history  British_politics  Puritans  godly_persons  Deism  theocracy  Calvinist  pluralism  tolerance  Socinians  liberalism  democracy  downloaded  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Tom Jones - Pope's "Epistle to Bathurst" and the Meaning of Finance | JSTOR: Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Summer, 2004), pp. 487-504
This article attempts to show that Alexander Pope's argument and poetic technique in the Epistle to Bathurst challenge the idea that words are like money or other economic tokens. Reading against the recent characterization of Pope's work as nostalgic, this piece takes issue with the corollary established by J. G. A. Pocock and others between financial change and linguistic uncertainty in the early eighteenth century. It presents Pope as a skeptical thinker aware of the radical contingency of all human values, more in line with David Hume than earlier writers on money. It suggests that Pope's imitative meter is an investigation of this contingency of value. -- Yeah ! -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  18thC  English_lit  Pope  political_economy  moral_economy  finance_capital  financial_innovation  language  semiotics  values  historical_change  scepticism  contingency  morality-conventional  social_order  Pocock  commerce  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Marilyn Silverman and P. H. Gulliver - 'Common Sense' and 'Governmentality': Local Government in Southeastern Ireland, 1850-1922 | JSTOR: The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, Vol. 12, No. 1 (Mar., 2006), pp. 109-127
Early paradigms in political anthropology identified formal government councils as a subject for cross-cultural comparison (structural functionalism) or as a political resource for goal-orientated actors (transactionalism). Recent concerns with power and regulation can also profit from a focus on local-level government councils by using them to explore the conceptual and empirical linkages between 'common sense' and 'governmentality'. In this article, as a point of entry, we highlight a key moment in the history of Britain's colonial and hegemonic project in Ireland, namely the orderly administrative transition from colony to state which occurred in Ireland after 1919. By constructing a historical narrative of a local government council in the southeast after 1850, and of its material and discursive bases, we show how the actions and ideologies of elite farmers were implicated in this orderly administrative transition and, therefore, how the concepts of governmentality, hegemony, and common sense might be linked. -- interesting discussion of 2nd half of 20thC shift from stucturalist-functionalist to transactionalism to seeing power everywhere but with different focus (Gramsci materialist and production of internally contradictory common sense) and Foucault (more discourse and self formation) with different views of verticality of power. With everything becoming political economic, loss of interest in governmental units that had been central to comparative stucturalist-functionalist system analysis.
article  jstor  social_theory  methodology  lit_survey  structuralist  poststructuralist  historical_change  agency  anthropology  philosophy_of_social_science  levels_of_analyis  Gramsci  Foucault  governmentality  local_government  government_officials  governing_class  political_culture  political_economy  hegemony  Ireland  19thC  20thC  UK_Government  UK_government-colonies  local_politics  bibliography  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Fritz Ringer - Max Weber on Causal Analysis, Interpretation, and Comparison | JSTOR: History and Theory, Vol. 41, No. 2 (May, 2002), pp. 163-178
Max Weber's methodological writings offered a model of singular causal analysis that anticipated key elements of contemporary Anglo-American philosophy of the social and cultural sciences. The model accurately portrayed crucial steps and dimensions of causal reasoning in these disciplines, outlining a dynamic and probabilistic conception of historical processes, counterfactual reasoning, and comparison as a substitute for counterfactual argument. Above all, Weber recognized the interpretation of human actions as a sub-category of causal analysis, in which the agents' visions of desired outcomes, together with their beliefs about how to bring them about, cause them to act as they do. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  social_theory  philosophy_of_social_science  causation-social  counterfactuals  Weber  methodology  historical_change  sociology-process  action-theory  belief  agency  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Mark Bevir - Notes Toward an Analysis of Conceptual Change [eScholarship] (2003)
This is an early or unrevised version, and is not definitive, and therefore should not be cited. The Citation is Social Epistemology, 2003, 17, pp. 55-63. -- Extends insights from philosophy and sociology of science to conceptual changes more generally, often triggered by a dilemma that can't be handled well using concepts within existing background knowledge or web of beliefs. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  eScholarship  philosophy_of_science  concepts  epistemology-social  historical_change  psychology  cognition  rationality  holism  belief  Innovation  Kuhn  Popper  sociology_of_knowledge  downloaded 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Mark Bevir - Philosophy, Rhetoric, and Power: A Response to Critics [eScholarship] | Rethinking History (2000)
This is Bevir's response to the roundtable of articles on his book, The Logic of the History of Ideas -- Additional Info: This is an electronic version of an article published in Rethinking History© 2000 Copyright Taylor & Francis; Rethinking History is available online at http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/13642529.asp -- Keywords:
hermeneutics, intentionality, philosophy, power, rationality, rhetoric
article  eScholarship  intellectual_history  philosophy_of_history  concepts  historical_change  historiography  narrative  White_Hayden  power  Foucault  intentionality  meaning  rhetoric  rhetoric-political  rationality  agency  individualism-methodology  philosophy_of_language  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Georg G. Iggers - Comments on F. R. Ankersmit's Paper, "Historicism: An Attempt at Synthesis" | JSTOR: History and Theory, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Oct., 1995), pp. 162-167
"Forum: The Meaning of Historicism and Its Relevance for Contemporary Theory" -- My differences with F. R. Ankersmit's essay are historiographical and theoretical. On the historiographical plane I disagree with the sharp distinction he draws between the "ontological realism" of Enlightenment historiography and the historical outlook of classical historicism. An examination of Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire shows that Gibbon indeed takes into account internal changes in the Roman Empire. Ranke and Droysen on the other hand assume that the subjects of their study, whether the Papacy or the Prussian state, preserve their identity through time. And in their attempt to "raise history to the rank of a science" (Droysen), historicists in seeking to show wie es eigentlich gewesen (Ranke), go farther in the direction of realism than do Enlightenment historians who are keenly aware of the role of perspective and of the literary and aesthetic aspects of historical writing. On the theoretical plane, although I agree with Ankersmit that metaphor occupies a central role in historical discourse, I disagree when he writes that "coherence has its source either in reality or in the language we use for speaking about it. There is no third possibility." I argue that while reality can be approached only through the mediation of language and metaphor, these presuppose a reality which can be known, no matter how complex and mediated the process of cognitive approximation may be. Rejecting historical realism, Ankersmit nevertheless wants to "encounter the past with the same directness with which anthropologists encounter the alien culture," and thus to escape "all the ideological and emancipatory pretensions of its historiographical predecessor." Yet the very "new cultural history" he takes as an example shows that this cannot be done. -- see both Ankersmit's original article and Ankersmit's response essay downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  historiography  philosophy_of_history  cultural_history  18thC  19thC  Enlightenment  Gibbon  Germany  historicism  historical_change  style-history  metaphor  Ranke  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
F. R. Ankersmit - Historicism: An Attempt at Synthesis | JSTOR: History and Theory, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Oct., 1995), pp. 143-161
Lead article in "Forum: The Meaning of Historicism and Its Relevance for Contemporary Theory" -- According to German theorists historicism was the result of a dynamization of the static world-view of the Enlightenment. According to contemporary Anglo-Saxon theorists historicism resulted from a de-rhetoricization of Enlightenment historical writing. It is argued that, contrary to appearances, these two views do not exclude but support each other. This can be explained if the account of (historical) change implicit in Enlightenment historical writing is compared to that suggested by historicism and, more specifically, by the historicist notion of the "historical idea." Aspects of the contemporary debate about the nature and the task of historical writing can be clarified from the perspective of the differences between Enlightenment and historicist historical writing. -- see response article by Iggers and Ankersmit's response -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  historiography  18thC  19thC  Enlightenment  Germany  historicism  philosophy_of_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  historiography-18thC  historiography-19thC  belles-lettres  rhetoric-writing  historical_change  prose  style-history  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Paul Pierson - Increasing Returns, Path Dependence, and the Study of Politics | JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 94, No. 2 (Jun., 2000), pp. 251-267
It is increasingly common for social scientists to describe political processes as "path dependent." The concept, however, is often employed without careful elaboration. This article conceptualizes path dependence as a social process grounded in a dynamic of "increasing returns." Reviewing recent literature in economics and suggesting extensions to the world of politics, the article demonstrates that increasing returns processes are likely to be prevalent, and that good analytical foundations exist for exploring their, causes and consequences. The investigation of increasing returns can provide a more rigorous framework for developing some of the key claims of recent scholarship in historical institutionalism: Specific patterns of timing and sequence matter; a wide range of social outcomes may be possible; large consequences may result from relatively small or contingent events; particular courses of action, once introduced, can be almost impossible to reverse; and consequently, political development is punctuated by critical moments or junctures that shape the basic contours of social life. -- cited by more than 100 jstor articles! -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  social_theory  methodology  political_change  political_economy  historical_sociology  historical_change  institutions  institutional_economics  contingency  path-dependency  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Ivan Ermakoff - Theory of practice, rational choice, and historical change | JSTOR: Theory and Society, Vol. 39, No. 5 (September 2010), pp. 527-553
If we are to believe the proponents of the Theory of Practice and of Rational Choice, the gap between these two paradigmatic approaches cannot be bridged. They rely on ontological premises, theories of motivations and causal models that stand too far apart. In this article, I argue that this theoretical antinomy loses much of its edge when we take as objects of sociological investigation processes of historical change, that is, when we try to specify in theoretical terms how and in which conditions historical actors enact and endorse shifts in patterns of relations as well as shifts in the symbolic and cognitive categories that make these relations significant. I substantiate this argument in light of the distinction between two temporalities of historical change: first, the long waves of gradual change and, second, the short waves of moments of breaks and ruptures. Along the way, I develop an argument about the conditions of emergence of self-limiting norms and the centrality of epistemic beliefs in situations of high disruption. -- see bibliography on jstor information page -- from keywords looks like it uses marriage patterns e.g. endogamy as illustrations -- didn't download
article  jstor  historical_sociology  historical_change  Bourdieu  rational_choice  social_capital  rationality  bibliography  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Roger Chartier - History, Time, and Space | Republics of Letters - Volume 2, Issue 2 (March 2011)
Downloaded pdf to Note - looks like specifically commissioned historiography reflections after "crisis of history" in 1980s and 1990s - very useful Continental view with helpful ftnts - lead article in issue but doesn't deal with the Forum - read and annotated
article  historiography  cultural_history  microhistory  global_history  periodization  geography  circulation-people  nation-state  narrative  rhetoric  fiction  White_Hayden  Foucault  Annales  Ricoeur  human_nature  comparative_anthropology  comparative_history  historical_sociology  historical_change  evidence  verisimilitude  antiquaries  historiography-18thC  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Peter Bearman, Robert Faris and James Moody - Blocking the Future: New Solutions for Old Problems in Historical Social Science | JSTOR: Social Science History, Vol. 23, No. 4 (Winter, 1999), pp. 501-533
Good bibliography for recent work in history and sociology on networks, events selection for explanation, creation of bounded "cases" within which network analysis applied to events, not just social relations, can produce explanation -- opens with focus on meaning rather than causation, though speculate that historical processes less subject to contingency than most historians believe -- see jstor information page for multiple cites to the article
article  jstor  social_theory  historiography  historical_sociology  historical_change  methodology  event  networks  networks-social  contingency  agency-structure  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Patrice Higonnet, review - Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Saint-Simon ou le système de la Cour | JSTOR: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 72, No. 1 (March 2000), pp. 212-213
Saint-Simon ou le système de la Cour. By Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie with the collaboration of Jean-François Fitou. Paris: Fayard, 1997. Pp. 635. 160 F. -- critical to an understanding of eighteenth-century French history, round out the book: in 1715, at the death of Louis XIV (as Le Roy Ladurie perspicaciously emphasizes), France was at a crossroads. How would it change? -- Baldly stated, the argument is that politics were not just about this or that option. They depended also on the structure of the groups struggling to survive at Versailles. Ideologies drew supporters, but supporters also used ideology as a weapon. -- Hence also the metahistorical conclusion of the book: how should we think of cultural forms? Do they trickle down from above as Norbert Elias suggested (e.g., courtly duplicity as against feudal force)? or work their way up to Versailles from the deep structures of French ways of thinking (a societal suspicion of equality)? -- Le Roy Ladurie argues vigorously for the latter. Le Roy Ladurie takes some pleasure also in tracing Elias's (erroneous) way of seeing to the nineteenth-century German distinction between an (artificial) French Zivilisation that came from above and a deeper, chthonic, teutonic Kultur spawned from primeval depths. Revealingly, one of the books on which Le Roy Ladurie relies most is Daniel Gordon's recent Habermasian work on eighteenth-century France (Citizens without Sovereignty [Princeton, N.J., 1994]) that focuses on the emergence from below of new and antimonarchic, antihierarchic social forms. - didn't download
books  reviews  jstor  amazon.fr  17thC  18thC  France  court_culture  Versailles  Louis_XIV  Maintenant_Mme  Saint_Simon  Boulainvilliers  Regency-France  historical_change  political_culture  Elias_Norbert  hierarchy  nobility  Absolutism  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
James Raven - New Reading Histories, Print Culture and the Identification of Change: The Case of 18thC England | JSTOR: Social History, Vol. 23, No. 3 (Oct., 1998), pp. 268-287
This article considers the consequences of new reading histories that have pursued the question of reading practices -- how people read texts, rather than just who readers were and what it was that they read. New theoretical considerations widen our appreciation of the difficulty in recovering the history of reading, but they must also confront the limitations and peculiarities of the evidence available. Using eighteenth-century England as a case study, the article reviews recent work -- much from diverse research not usually associated with reading history -- and assesses the potential for future study. Important questions about the relationship between literature, belief and action, about the nature of 'popular' and 'elite' culture, about the archaeology of political and social thought, and about the dissemination and control of ideas, cannot be determined without asking what reading meant. Such enquiry is particularly rewarding in writing the history of the transitional and diverse society of eighteenth-century England. It also reinforces concern that pursuit of new reading histories through an exploration of reading practice can marginalise the evaluation of change by concentrating on an examination of the singular and the synchronic. Only by the broadest research strategies, the article suggests, can new reading history most fully contribute to an understanding of eighteenth-century English social history. -- interesting bibliography -- didn't download
article  jstor  social_history  cultural_history  intellectual_history  historiography  historical_change  literacy  reading  reader_response  readership  popular_culture  elite_culture  intelligentsia  public_opinion  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Ian Jackson - Approaches to the History of Readers and Reading in 18thC Britain | JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 47, No. 4 (Dec., 2004), pp. 1041-1054
The history of reading can link intellectual and cultural developments with social or political change in the eighteenth century. Historians of the book increasingly argue that an understanding of historical reading practices is essential if we are to understand the impact of texts on individuals and on society as a whole: textual evidence alone is inadequate. Recent work on eighteenth-century readers has used sources including book trade records, correspondence, and diaries to reconstruct the reading lives of individuals and of groups of readers. Such sources reveal the great variety of reading material many eighteenth-century readers could access, and the diversity and sophistication of reading practices they often employed, in selecting between a range of available reading strategies. Thus, any one theoretical paradigm is unlikely to capture the full range of eighteenth-century reading experience. Instead, we can trace the evolution of particular reading cultures, including popular and literary reading cultures, the existence of cultures based around particular genres of print, such as newspapers, and reading as a part of social and conversational life. There is now a need for a new synthesis that combines the new evidence of reading practice with textual analysis to explain continuity and change across the century. -- didn't download
article  jstor  cultural_history  intellectual_history  social_history  political_history  historical_change  historiography  reading  reader_response  publishing  readership  18thC  British_history  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
David Diehl and Daniel McFarland - Toward a Historical Sociology of Social Situations | American Journal of Sociology JSTOR: American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 115, No. 6 (May 2010), pp. 1713-1752
In recent years there has been a growing call to historicize sociology by paying more attention to the contextual importance of time and place as well as to issues of process and contingency. Meeting this goal requires bringing historical sociology and interactionism into greater conversation via a historical theory of social situations. Toward this end, the authors of this article draw on Erving Goffman's work in Frame Analysis to conceptualize experience in social situations as grounded in multilayered cognitive frames and to demonstrate how such a framework helps illuminate historical changes in situated interaction.
article  jstor  paywall  social_theory  sociology  historical_sociology  historical_change  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Jefferson, Pocock, and the Temporality of Law in a Republic | Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts
Citation: Crow, Matthew. “Jefferson, Pocock, and the Temporality of Law in a Republic.”Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 2, no. 1 (December 15, 2010): http://rofl.stanford.edu/node/79. -- in "Atlantic Republican Tradition Revisited" issue -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Set in the context of multiple traditions of law and political language, as well as uncertainty in the material and conceptual transmission of those traditions, the textual practices of Thomas Jefferson reflect an experience and usage of what I will call “fractured” constitutional time. Jefferson practiced a distinctly radical politics of reading, collecting, and working on authoritative texts of history, recognizing and teasing out discontinuity, rupture, and constituent moments where others sought solidity in the rationalization of authority. His efforts to resist the transformation of the conceptual bases and practices of political life into static traditions or systems of reconstituted authority grew out of a careful, virtuosic approach to reading and assembling histories of legal systems. This radical politics appears most clearly in his commonplace books, early legal arguments and drafts of constitutions, manuscript collections, and in the open, multidirectional, yet conflicted composition of the Notes on the State of Virginia. Contrary to the oft-depicted image of an almost inspirationally naïve political idealist, Jefferson was critically aware of the relationship between the design and practice of political institutions and the modes of historical understanding that underlay their continued authority. Rupture in the order of historical self-understanding informed the articulation of a fragmented, never fully ordered constitutional politics. Jefferson’s engagement with history was jurisprudential rather than strictly legal or political: his various activities pointed at the situated, institutional framework within which everyday adjudicative and political processes took place.
article  intellectual_history  historiography  lessons-of-history  political_philosophy  political_culture  18thC  Jefferson  legal_history  institutions  historical_change  republicanism  American_colonies  American_Revolution  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader

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