dunnettreader + friendship   4

Cornelia Wilde - Seraphic Companions: The Friendship between Elizabeth Gauden and Simon Patrick | Early Modern Literary Studies (2014
Special Issue 22: Communities and Companionship in Early Modern Literature and Culture (2014) -- This essay explores the friendship between Simon Patrick, future bishop of Ely, and Elizabeth Gauden, one of his parishioners, as an example of Neo-Platonic, chaste, yet impassioned friendship, between the sexes: Based on a combination of Neo-Platonic metaphysics of love, Aristotelian notions of philia, and legitimised by the ideal of Christian charity, the friendship’s spiritual aim is the two ‘soul mates’’ mutual intellectual and emotional refinement in order to be united with the heavenly community and the divine. The ideal of their seraphic companionship is to be achieved through the every-day practice of their friendship, that is, in their actual meetings and through their correspondence (Cambridge University Library Add. MS 19). Patrick and Gauden act as friends by discussing questions of theological and philosophical import, by advising each other on matters spiritual and mundane, and by sharing in social and devotional practices. Through Patrick, the two friends are connected to a ‘this-worldly’ intellectual and religious community the philosophical and theological origins of which can be located within the most important school of 17thC Platonic philosophy, Cambridge Platonism. Patrick, too, counts as a Cambridge Platonists, whose theological views and emphasis on matters of practical divinity characterise him as a prominent figure of post-Restoration liberal Anglicanism. Patrick and Gauden are a virtually unknown example of the 17thC trend for intellectual friendships between men and women as Ruth Perry has identified it (1985). The friendship is presented as a form of sociability that offered women a dynamic role within the learned community and furthered their active religious participation. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  religious_culture  17thC  Church_of_England  Restoration  Cambridge_Platonists  Patrick_Simon  correspondence  friendship  women-intellectuals  gender-and-religion  gender_relations  sociability  devotional_practices  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Stephen Guy-Bray - Shakespeare and the Invention of the Heterosexual | Early Modern Literary Studies Special Issue 16 (October, 2007) 16.1-28
[A]lmost everything in The Two Gentlemen of Verona can be substituted for something else; indeed, the narrative could be summarised consisting of a chain of substitutions. One effect of Shakespeare's stress on substitution and interchangeability in this play is to undermine the stable and individual self; as a result, in the play the characters tend to have selves composed of fragments. In the last 20 years, many Renaissance scholars have pointed out that our modern concept of what selfhood is cannot really be applied to the 16thC & 17thC, and from this point of view the characters in The Two Gentlemen of Verona do not seem particularly odd. ...a recent book on the subject by Will Fisher's... points out that from the 17thC on, the individual is "conceptualized as an entity that was quite literally in-dividual (in the sense of indivisible). In other words, it had no prosthetic or detachable parts." In contrast, Fisher argues that in Shakespeare's time the individual was to a great extent formed out of detachable parts. His emphasis is primarily on items that could be part of a stage costume (handkerchiefs, codpieces, beards, and hair), but our idea of prostheses could include other things. Specifically, I am thinking of male relations with women. The Two Gentlemen of Verona presents what we would now call heterosexuality as a prosthesis, as part of the equipment or furniture of a man, but Shakespeare ultimately refuses to subordinate homosociality to marriage. - online journal html
article  16thC  17thC  British_history  English_lit  cultural_history  Shakespeare  sexuality  friendship  self  individualism  homosexuality  marriage  love 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Nancy Kendrick, review - Mary Astell, Jacqueline Broad (ed.), The Christian Religion, as Professed by a Daughter of the Church of England // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // Jan 2014
This first complete modern edition of Mary Astell's "most profound and significant scholarly achievement" is a much needed and welcome addition to Astell studies, and more generally, to the study of early modern philosophy. -- Follows 2nd edition published in 1717 (1st 1705). -- Drawing on her study of Astell in Women Philosophers of the 17thC (Cambridge, 2002), Broad [discusses] the Cartesianism that empowered Astell and other early modern women to assert themselves as intellectuals capable of engaging in philosophical discourse, and she explores the feminist message of Astell's work in 3 ways. First she examines the instructive purposes of The Christian Religion for its female readers with respect to the development of their reason and virtue and the control of their passions. -- Second, Broad emphasizes Astell's rejection of the implicit sexism of the works critiqued in The Christian Religion, including Locke's The Reasonableness of Christianity, which claimed that because women are incapable of grasping difficult concepts, they must be brought to religious understanding through plain and straight-forward commands. Third, Broad shows that some anti-Lockean positions advanced by the High-Church, Tory-sympathizing Astell are consistent with her feminist aims, despite appearances to the contrary. -- Broad does not, however, give much attention to the ... consequences of the maturation of her views to the feminist message of the text. In addition to advice-giving and instructive purposes, The Christian Religion addresses one of her long-standing philosophical preoccupations -- the metaphysical underpinnings of human relations. Astell's metaphysics was driven by her Platonism, which provided the solution to a concern... about the nature and possibility of friendship. In The Christian Religion, her views about friendship are expanded and developed in ways that highlight her interest in female-female, rather than female-male, social bonds. -- The review is a rich discussion of development of Astell's on reconciling friendship, love of God and the universal benevolence demanded by the Gospels.
books  reviews  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  British_politics  Astell  feminism  Cartesian  Neoplatonism  theology  High_Church  Tories  1690s  1700s  1710s  Locke  Locke-religion  sexism  friendship  love  benevolence  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader

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