dunnettreader + fiscal-military_state   43

Karaman
Theoretical work on taxation and state-building borrows heavily from early modern European experience. While a number of European states increased centralized tax revenues during this period, for others revenues stagnated or even declined and these variations have motivated alternative arguments for the determinants of fiscal and state capacity. This study reviews the arguments concerning the three determinants that have received most attention, namely warfare, economic structure, and political regime, and tests them by making use of a new and comprehensive tax revenue dataset. Our main finding is that these three determinants worked in interaction with each other. Specifically, when under pressure of war, it was representative regimes in more urbanized-commercial economies and authoritarian regimes in more rural-agrarian economies that tended to better aggregate domestic interests towards state-building. - Downloaded via iphone
tax_collection  taxes  state-building  nation-state  urban_politics  competition-interstate  political_culture  political_participation  agriculture-surplus  Absolutism  government_finance  fiscal-military_state  agriculture  Europe-Early_Modern  economic_history  article  bibliography  political_sociology  central_government  19thC  financial_instiutions  downloaded  18thC  15thC  urban_elites  military_history  political_economy  17thC  governing_class  constitutional_regime  local_government  fiscal_policy  16thC  government-forms  jstor  Crown_finance  financial_system 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
Flores-Maciss
What determines when states adopt war taxes to finance the cost of conflict? We address this question with a study of war taxes in the United States between 1789 and 2010. Using logit estimation of the determinants of war taxes, an analysis of roll-call votes on war tax legislation, and a historical case study of the Civil War, we provide evidence that partisan fiscal differences account whether the United States finances its conflicts through war taxes or opts for alternatives such as borrowing or expanding the money supply. Because the fiscal policies implemented to raise the revenues for war have considerable and often enduring redistributive impacts, war finance—in particular, war taxation—becomes a high-stakes political opportunity to advance the fiscal interests of core constituencies. Insofar as the alternatives to taxation shroud the actual costs of war, the findings have important implications for democratic accountability and the conduct of conflict. - Downloaded via iphone
US_history  downloaded  politics-and-money  US_military  deficit_finance  sovereign_debt  business_cycles  international_finance  fiscal_policy  Congress  US_foreign_policy  capital_markets  fiscal-military_state  political_history  article  political_economy  monetary_policy  taxes  US_politics  accountability  financial_system  redistribution  business-and-politics 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
Elena Seghezza - Fiscal capacity and the risk of sovereign debt after the Glorious Revolution: A reinterpretation of the North–Weingast hypothesis (2015) — ScienceDirect
European Journal of Political Economy, June 2015, Vol.38:71–81, doi:10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2014.12.002
Dept. of Economics, University of Genoa, Via Vivaldi 5, 16126 Genova, Italy
Several explanations have been given to account for the fact that, in contrast to the claim made by North and Weingast (1989), the decline in interest rates on British sovereign debt did not occur until several years after the Glorious Revolution in 1688. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the decline in the risk premium on Britain's sovereign debt was due to the significant increase in excise duties in the early part of the eighteenth century. This increase was possible for two reasons. On the one hand, with the Glorious Revolution, parliament no longer had reason to fear that the King would strengthen his political power due to the availability of more fiscal revenue. On the other hand, the new excise taxes were borne mostly by the poor, that is a social class not represented in parliament. The delay in reducing the interest rate on British sovereign debt, following the Glorious Revolution, was, therefore, due to the length of time needed to increase and improve the fiscal bureaucracy responsible for the collection of excise duties.
Keywords -- Glorious Revolution Fiscal capacity Sovereign debt Interest rates
article  paywall  political_economy  institutional_economics  North-Weingast  Glorious_Revolution  fiscal-military_state  fiscal_space  tax_policy  tax_collection  bureaucracy  sovereign_debt  interest_rates  Parliament  Parliamentary_supremacy  interest_groups  inequality  excise  lower_orders  taxes-consumption  landed_interest 
december 2016 by dunnettreader
Viktor Slavtchev and Simon Wiederhold: Does the Technological Content of Government Demand Matter for Private R&D? - via Brad DeLong
Must-Read: Viktor Slavtchev and Simon Wiederhold: Does the Technological Content of Government Demand Matter for Private R&D?: "Governments purchase everything from airplanes to zucchini... ...This paper investigates the role of the technological content of government procurement in innovation.... Theoreticall... a shift in the composition of public purchases toward high-tech products translates into higher economy-wide returns to innovation, leading to an increase in the aggregate level of private research and development (R&D). Collecting unique panel data on federal procurement in US states, we find that reshuffling procurement toward high-tech industries has an economically and statistically significant positive effect on private R&D, even after extensively controlling for other R&D determinants. Instrumental-variable estimations support a causal interpretation of our findings. -- link to pdf - didn't download
paper  investment-government  investment  R&D  government_spending  fiscal-military_state  technology  Innovation  innovation-government_policy 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Anthony Page - The Seventy Years War, 1744–1815, and Britain’s Fiscal-Naval State | War and Society, 34:3 (8 2015), pp. 162-186
Anthony.Page@utas.edu.au -- University of Tasmania -- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/0729247315Z.00000000053 -- This article argues that we should view Britain as fighting a ‘Seventy Years War’ with France between the battles of Fontenoy in 1745 and Waterloo in 1815. Through years of hot and cold war, Britain struggled to build the military power needed to prevent it from falling under the domination of France. In hindsight, many view the British as inevitable imperialists, confidently building towards their global empire of the 19thC. In reality, 18thC Britons frequently fretted about the threat of invasion, military weakness, possible financial collapse, and potential revolution. Historical developments only look inevitable in hindsight and with the aid of the social sciences. The struggle to defend itself in Europe during the Seventy Years War saw Britain develop a ‘fiscal-naval state’ that built a global empire.
Keywords: Britain, ancien regime, warfare, eighteenth century.
article  paywall  18thC  British_history  British_Empire  British_Navy  British_foreign_policy  Anglo-French  War_of_Austrian_Succession  Seven_Years_War  American_Revolution  French_Revolutionary_Wars  Napoleonic_Wars  balance_of_power  fiscal-military_state  colonialism  imperialism  English_Channel  French_foreign_policy  French_army  French_Navy  French_Empire  blue_water_strategy  British_Empire-military  British_Army  Britain-invasion  Britain-Continent 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
John Dunn, ed. - The Economic Limits to Modern Politics (1992) | Cambridge University Press
The central problem of modern government and political action is how to choose and implement effective economic policies. For this reason, the economic considerations of public policy have assumed a more prominent place in contemporary political thought. Despite efforts among political scientists, economists, and sociologists to fathom the complexities of this added dimension, none of these solid sciences offers a satisfying approach to the problem. This volume attempts to display the historical novelty and intellectual importance of this dilemma, to uncover its origins, and to procure a remedy through a clearer and steadier focus. The book's contributors range from historians of ideas to economic theorists, who bring the approach of their own intellectual discipline to bear upon the issue. **--** Introduction, John Dunn *-* 1. The economic limits to modern politics, John Dunn *-* 2. The wealth of one nation and the dynamics of international competition, Istvan Hont *-* 3. The political limits to pre-modern politics, J. G. A. Pocock *-* 4. The economic constraints on political programs, Frank H. Hahn *-* 5. International liberalism reconsidered, Robert O. Keohane *-* 6. Capitalism, socialism, and democracy: compatibilities and contradictions John Dunn. -- ebook Adobe Reader - not clear whether in kindle format -- excerpt (10 ogs Intro) downloaded pdf to Note
books  kindle-available  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  intellectual_history  economic_history  political_history  political_philosophy  political_economy  judgment-political  public_policy  capitalism  competition-interstate  economic_growth  development  raison-d'-état  British_history  British_politics  British_Empire  trade  trade-policy  Great_Divergence  economic_theory  political_culture  economic_culture  macroeconomic_policy  Innovation  innovation-government_policy  collective_action  property_rights  Labor_markets  redistribution  fiscal_policy  fiscal-military_state  Davenant  Smith  social_order  social_democracy  liberalism  elites-political_influence  IR_theory  globalization  international_political_economy  public_finance  public_goods  class_conflict  downloaded 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Dan Bogart - "There Can Be No Partnership with the King": Regulatory Commitment and the Tortured Rise of England's East Indian Merchant Empire | via Brad DeLong - Equitablog
Dan Bogart, Department of Economics, UC Irvine - : “There Can Be No Partnership with the King”: Regulatory Commitment and the Tortured Rise of England’s East Indian Merchant Empire: “The English East India Company helped build Britain’s colonial empire, but the Company was not a leader in East Asian trade for nearly a century after its founding in 1600. This paper argues that its early performance was hindered by a problem of regulatory commitment. It gives a brief history of the torturous renegotiations over its monopoly trading privileges and the fiscal demands by the monarchy. It also analyzes the effects of political instability, warfare, and fiscal capacity on the Company’s investment in shipping tonnage. Regressions show the growth of shipping tonnage declined significantly when there were changes in government ministers, when Britain was at war in Europe and North America, and when shipping capacity exceeded central government tax revenues. The findings point to the significance of regulatory institutions in Britain’s development and its links with politics and war. They also provide an important case where regulatory uncertainty lowers investment.” paper dated Jan 2015 -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  downloaded  economic_history  British_history  British_Empire  fiscal-military_state  state-building  UK_government-colonies  East_India_Company  trade-policy  trading_companies  trading_privileges  monopolies  British_Navy  17thC  institutional_capacity  regulation  monarchy-proprietary  James_I  Charles_I  Charles_II  James_II  English_Civil_War  Interregnum  taxes  political_culture  shipping  merchants  interlopers  military_history  Anglo-Dutch_wars  Glorious_Revolution  Nine_Years_War  War_of_Spanish_Succession  investment  uncertainty-regulation  uncertainty-political  British_politics  Restoration  colonialism  parties  faction  EF-add 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
JAMES LIVESEY, Review Essay - BERKELEY, IRELAND AND 18thC INTELLECTUAL HISTORY (Dec 2014) | Modern Intellectual History - Cambridge Journals Online
Department of History, School of Humanities, University of Dundee -- Books reviewed: (1) Marc A. Hight ed., The Correspondence of George Berkeley (Cambridge University Press, 2013), (2) Scott Breuninger , Recovering Bishop Berkeley: Virtue and Society in the Anglo-Irish Context (Palgrave, 2010), (3) Daniel Carey and Christopher J. Finlay , eds., The Empire of Credit: The Financial Revolution and the British Atlantic World, 1688–1815 (Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2011) -- 18thC Irish intellectual history has enjoyed a revival in recent years. New scholarly resources, such as the Hoppen edition of the papers of the Dublin Philosophical Society and the recently published Berkeley correspondence, have been fundamental to that revival. Since 1986 the journal Eighteenth-Century Ireland: Iris an dá chultúr has sponsored a complex conversation on the meaning and legacy of the 18thC in Irish history. Work in the journal and beyond deploying “New British” and Atlantic histories, as well as continuing attention to Europe, has helped to enrich scholarly understanding of the environments in which Irish people thought and acted. The challenge facing historians of Ireland has been to find categories of analysis that could comprehend religious division and acknowledge the centrality of the confessional state without reducing all Irish experience to sectarian conflict. Clearly the thought of the Irish Catholic community could not be approached without an understanding of the life of the Continental Catholic Church. Archivium Hibernicum has been collecting and publishing the traces of that history for a hundred years and new digital resources such as the Irish in Europe database have extended that work in new directions. The Atlantic and “New British” contexts have been more proximately important for the Protestant intellectual tradition. -- paywall
articles  books  reviews  paywall  intellectual_history  18thC  Ireland  Protestants-Ireland  Catholics-Ireland  Berkeley  Anglo-Irish_constitution  British_politics  reform-social  reformation_of_manners  virtue_ethics  civic_virtue  Protestant_Ascendancy  Whigs-oligarchy  Church_of_England  Church_of_Ireland  patronage  networks-political  networks-social  networks-information  fiscal-military_state  public_finance  taxes  credit  financial_innovation  financial_sector_development  economic_history  political_economy  politics-and-religion  politics-and-money 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Amanda Vickery - Those Gorgeous Georgians - Tercentenary Review | academia.edu
Downloaded docx to iPhone -- We tend to associate the Georgian era with glacial calm, tinkling tea cups, and whispering silk dresses, an oasis of elegance and calm between the strife of the Civil War and the grime and class struggle of the Victorians. But this is a pallid Sunday teatime vision of the eighteenth century. Th... - published as article in The Telegraph(?)
paper  academia  downloaded  memory-cultural  cultural_history  social_history  British_history  English_lit  art_history  music_history  elite_culture  court_culture  18thC  19thC  monarchy  change-social  historiography  politeness  public_opinion  popular_culture  consumers  urbanism  social_order  crime  fiscal-military_state  colonialism  trade  status  hierarchy  religious_history 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Sarah Dry - True or false? Ten myths about Isaac Newton | OUPblog July 2014
She's the author of The Newton Papers which tells the story of the trove of manuscripts Newton left that erten't made part if what he chisr as his official papers for posterity - The mythical Newton abounds in contradictions; he is a semi-divine genius and a mad alchemist, a somber and solitary thinker and a passionate religious heretic. Myths usually have an element of truth to them but how many Newtonian varieties are true? Here are ten of the most common, debunked or confirmed by the evidence of his own private papers, kept hidden for centuries and now freely available online.
books  kindle-available  17thC  18thC  British_history  Newton  Socinian  Bible-as-history  Scientific_Revolution  physics  history_of_science  19thC  20thC  sociology_of_knowledge  fiscal-military_state  intellectual_history 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Clement Fatovic - Reason and Experience in Alexander Hamilton’s Science of Politics | JSTOR: American Political Thought, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Spring 2013), pp. 1-30
Alexander Hamilton is often described as an enterprising modernist who promoted forward-looking reforms that broke with established institutions and ideas. However, the scale and apparent novelty of his reforms have tended to obscure the extent to which those innovations were rooted in a belief that knowledge and practice must be guided by “experience.” This article argues that even Hamilton’s most far-reaching reforms were grounded in a Humean understanding of the limits of rationality in explaining and controlling the world. Hamilton’s agreement with David Hume on the epistemic authority of experience helps explain his positions on constitutional design, executive power, democratic politics, public opinion, and other important political issues. Moreover, the epistemological underpinnings of Hamilton’s political thought are significant because they suggest that a “science of politics” grounded in experience can avoid some of the dangers associated with more rationalistic approaches yet still be quite open to significant innovation in politics. - as much or more Hume's various essays as Hamilton
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  18thC  British_history  British_politics  US_history  US_constitution  US_politics  US_economy  political_economy  political_culture  economic_culture  epistemology  epistemology-social  US_government  public_opinion  public_finance  democracy  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  fiscal-military_state  sovereign_debt  Hume  Hume-politics  Hamilton  Founders  Early_Republic  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Jean-Philippe Genet - La genèse de l'État moderne: Culture et société politique en Angleterre (2003) | Livres -- Amazon.fr
La genèse de l'État moderne est le fruit d'une lente évolution à partir de la seconde moitié du XIIIe siècle, qui a d'abord affecté les monarchies féodales d'Occident : il y a quelques années, elle a fait l'objet d'études systématiques de nombreux historiens en Europe, grâce au CNRS et à la Fondation européenne de la Science. Le présent ouvrage est une étude de cas, consacrée à l'Angleterre, à bien des égards la plus précoce et la plus cohérente des constructions politiques médiévales qui, paradoxalement, est peu étudiée par les historiens français. On y retrouve le primat de la guerre et de la fiscalité dans la dynamique de la genèse de l'État moderne, ainsi que la mise en place d'un système judiciaire garantissant la reproduction de la classe dominante dans des conditions satisfaisantes. Mais l'ouvrage permet surtout de relever et d'articuler la corrélation entre le développement et la vitalité de la société politique, dont l'existence est une condition sine qua non pour l'État moderne, et la mutation de la culture et du système de communication médiéval, tant au niveau des médias et de la langue qu'à celui des types de textes produits. Par l'analyse de plus de 2200 bio-bibliographies d'" auteurs " actifs dans les domaines de l'histoire et du politique, et au moyen d'une théorie des champs de production textuelle, se dégage ce qu'a été l'idéologie spécifique du féodalisme d'État. Alors naissent progressivement les catégories modernes du politique, ainsi que la notion d'une société politique " nationale " -- Recommended in Penguin history of England bibliographies
books  amazon.fr  British_history  British_politics  medieval_history  13thC  14thC  15thC  nation-state  national_ID  political_culture  feudalism  legal_system  legal_culture  common_law  judiciary  historiography  political_sociology  military_history  state-building  political_economy  elites  elite_culture  monarchy  taxes  fiscal-military_state  nobility 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
PHILIP LOFT -- POLITICAL ARITHMETIC AND THE ENGLISH LAND TAX IN THE REIGN OF WILLIAM III. (2013). | The Historical Journal, 56, pp 321-343. - Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
PHILIP LOFT - University College London -- This article explores the role of the method of political arithmetic and political arithmeticians in the changing methods of raising finance during the Nine Years War. It discusses the actions of parliament-men in committees and their interaction with reports containing data, and the influence of projectors on the decision to introduce, and later abandon, the pound rate. Throughout this period, political arithmeticians were active participants, providing data, advice, and schemes to the treasury and parliament, and when they were not, ‘country’ MPs, in particular, were active in calling for data and leading its cross-examination. This article suggests that debates on public finance did not occur along party lines, with ‘county communities’ given fresh presence by the quantification of the inequality of the land tax burden. Political arithmetic is shown to have played an important role in the processes and negotiations that occurred over the setting of taxation policy in the ‘long eighteenth century’. -* I thank Julian Hoppit for his generous encouragement and comments on this article. Thanks also to Clare Jackson, Andrew Preston and the anonymous reviewers. - available for download - to Note
article  17thC  18thC  British_history  British_politics  economic_history  political_economy  Glorious_Revolution  William_III  Nine_Years_War  taxes  landed_interest  land_tax  fiscal_policy  fiscal-military_state  political_arithmetick  Parliament  House_of_Commons  Parliamentary_supremacy  Country_Party  oversight-legislature  public_finance  public_policy  partisanship  Whig_Junto  Tories  Whigs-opposition  sovereign_debt  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
PATRICK A. WALSH -- THE FISCAL STATE IN IRELAND, 1691–1769 (2013).| The Historical Journal, 56, pp 629-656 Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
PATRICK A. WALSH - University College, Dublin (& UCL post doc fellowship) -- This article examines the Irish fiscal-military state in the eighteenth century. It locates the Irish state within a broader imperial context showing how Ireland contributed to the wider British imperial project. In particular, this article looks at the development of an efficient tax-gathering apparatus, showing how the revenue board, the most pervasive agency of the eighteenth-century Irish state, extracted increasing levels of taxation from a sometimes hostile population. Drawing extensively on the records of the Irish revenue commissioners, a very rich if under utilized source, it demonstrates for the first time the levels of taxation raised in Ireland, while also exploring how these taxes were collected. It concludes that this period saw the expansion of an increasingly professional bureaucracy, challenging existing interpretations that have focused predominantly on politicization. The final section looks at issues of evasion and compliance, showing the difficulties faced by the Irish state in this period, as it expanded deeper into Irish society. -* I would like to thank Stephen Conway, Niamh Cullen, Julian Hoppit, Eoin Magennis, and Ivar McGrath, as well as the two anonymous readers, for their comments on earlier drafts.
article  paywall  find  17thC  18thC  British_history  Ireland  Ireland-English_exploitation  taxes  fiscal-military_state  tax_collection  bureaucracy  state-building  British_Empire  British_Empire-constitutional_structure  UK_Government  UK_government-colonies  primary_sources  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Kevin Linch and Matthew McCormack, eds - Britain’s Soldiers: Rethinking War and Society, 1715–1815 | Liverpool University Press
The British soldier was a fascinating and complex figure in the century between the Hanoverian accession and the Battle of Waterloo. The ‘war and society’ approach has shed much light on Britain’s frequent experience of conflict in this period, but Britain’s Soldiers argues that it is time to refocus our attention on the humble redcoat himself, and rethink historical approaches to soldiers’ relationship with the society and culture of their day. Using approaches drawn from the histories of the military, gender, art, society, culture and medicine, this volume presents a more rounded picture of the men who served in the various branches of the British armed forces. This period witnessed an unprecedented level of mass mobilisation, yet this was largely achieved through novel forms of military service outside of the regular army. Taking a wide definition of soldiering, this collection examines the part-time and auxiliary forces of the period, as well as looking at the men of the British Army both during their service and once they had been discharged from the army. Chapters here explore the national identity of the soldier, his sense of his rights within systems of military discipline, and his relationships with military hierarchies and honour codes. They also explore the welfare systems available to old and wounded soldiers, and the ways in which soldiers were represented in art and literature. In so doing, this book sheds new light on the processes through which soldiers were ‘made’ during this crucial period of conflict
books  18thC  British_history  British_Empire  British_Army  British_foreign_policy  militia  military_history  fiscal-military_state  cultural_history  social_history  Seven_Years_War  American_Revolution  French_Revolutionary_Wars  British_Empire-military  working_class  medicine 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert A. Black and Claire G. Gilmore - Crowding Out during Britain's Industrial Revolution | JSTOR: The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 50, No. 1 (Mar., 1990), pp. 109-131
Contrary to earlier assertions, the historical data for Britain do confirm a (lagged) crowding-out effect during the Industrial Revolution. Heavy government borrowing after 1793 for the wars with France raised interest rates. These results are confirmed with nominal-interest-rate equations rather than with real-rate equations, which impose restrictive assumptions about the adjustment of nominal rates to inflation expectations. We see no reason to abandon the neoclassical, factor-allocation model of saving and investment in favor of a theory asserting that firms accumulate capital for investment independently of household saving decisions. -- 2nd article in to and fro with Mirowski -- didn't download
article  jstor  economic_history  finance_capital  sovereign_debt  crowding_out  capital_markets  fiscal-military_state  Industrial_Revolution  British_history  18thC  19thC  capital_flows  savings  investment  interest_rates  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Carol E. Heim and Philip Mirowski - Interest Rates and Crowding-Out During Britain's Industrial Revolution | JSTOR: The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 47, No. 1 (Mar., 1987), pp. 117-139
Available evidence on interest rates and government borrowing during Britain's industrial revolution, while limited, does not support the idea that war spending crowded out private investment. This article demonstrates the importance of using data on net receipts from borrowing, rather than changes in government debt. Weaknesses of the crowding-out model concerning capital markets and investment, openness of the economy, and full employment are identified for the historical case. The case raises broader issues of whether conceptions of saving and investment based in neoclassical supply-constrained models are as appropriate as theories of capital accumulation. -- 1st in series of back and forth articles -- didn't download
article  jstor  economic_history  finance_capital  sovereign_debt  crowding_out  capital_markets  fiscal-military_state  Industrial_Revolution  18thC  19thC  British_history  UK_Government  interest_rates  international_finance  capital_flows  savings  investment  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Julian Hoppit - Political Arithmetic in Eighteenth-Century England | JSTOR: The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 49, No. 3 (Aug., 1996), pp. 516-540
With regard to public policy, in late seventeenth-century Britain there was a remarkable development of social statistics, what Petty called 'political arithmetic'. The general view, however, is that this new approach ended early in the eighteenth century only to be rediscovered by the early Victorian statistical movement. In fact, through the eighteenth century public policy continued to be considered partly in quantitative terms. This article explores some of the dimensions and peculiarities of this varied and extensive political arithmetic. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  economic_history  political_history  18thC  British_politics  political_arithmetick  UK_economy  UK_Government  Parliament  public_policy  public_opinion  political_press  economic_growth  wages  prices  trade  fiscal_policy  sovereign_debt  fiscal-military_state  taxes  Excise_Crisis  luxury  UK_government-colonies  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Frank O'Gorman, review essay - Approaches to Hanoverian Society JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 39, No. 2 (Jun., 1996), pp. 521-534
(1) Philanthropy and Police: London Charity in the Eighteenth Century by Donna T. Andrew; *--* (2) The Language of Liberty: Political Discourse and Social Dynamics in the Anglo-American World by J. C. D. Clark; *--* (3) Stilling the Grumbling Hive. The Response to Social and Economic Problems in England, 1689-1750 by L. Davison; *--* (4) Riot, Risings and Revolution. Governance and Violence in Eighteenth- Century England by Ian Gilmour; *--* (5) A Patriot Press. National Politics and the London Press in the 1740s by Robert Harris; *--* (6) Judging New Wealth. Popular Publishing and Responses to Commerce in England, 1750-1850 by James Raven; *--* (7)The Local Origins of Modern Society. Gloucestershire 1500-1800 by David Rollison; *--* (8) An Imperial State at War: Britain from 1689 to 1815 by Lawrence Stone; *--* (9) Protest and Survival: The Historical Experience. Essays for E. P. Thompson by John Rule; Robert Malcolmson -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  bookshelf  article  jstor  political_history  cultural_history  political_culture  social_history  political_economy  17thC18thC  19thC  British_politics  British_Empire  UK_economy  UK_Government  UK_government-colonies  British_foreign_policy  military_history  political_press  class_conflict  local_government  political_philosophy  charity  crime  violence  riots  lower_orders  mercantilism  luxury  status  nouveaux_riches  governing_class  governmentality  fiscal-military_state  popular_culture  popular_politics  populism  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Natasha Glaisyer - "A due Circulation in the Veins of the Publick": Imagining Credit in Late 17thC and Early 18thC England | JSTOR: The Eighteenth Century, Vol. 46, No. 3 (FALL 2005), pp. 277-297
Thinks too much has been made of fickle Lady Credit and Pocock's Machiavelli reading of anti commerce. Shows other metaphors, eg circulation of blood, and rich pamphlet literature of proposals for dealing with credit necessary for commercial prosperity as well as state financing - shows people weren't such ninnies as Pocock's version would have it. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  economic_history  economic_culture  political_economy  17thC  18thC  British_history  sovereign_debt  credit  money_supply  capital_markets  money_market  political_press  public_opinion  public_finance  public_policy  fiscal-military_state  commerce  Pocock  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Review by: Nuala Zahedieh - War and Economy in the Age of William III and Marlborough by D. W. Jones | JSTOR: The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 43, No. 1 (Feb., 1990), pp. 141-142
She buys Jones argument that the wars following the Glorious Revolution were an immense economic burden -- Britain was borrowing and taxing for expenditures mostly abroad. Coin clipping was actually salvation in the 1690s -- without new sources of gold and silver and some other pieces of good fortune, Marlborough victories wouldn't have happened.
books  reviews  bookshelf  jstor  17thC  18thC  economic_history  British_history  sovereign_debt  Nine_Years_War  War_of_Spanish_Succession  currency  money_supply  fiscal-military_state  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
NUALA ZAHEDIEH - Regulation, rent-seeking, and the Glorious Revolution in the English Atlantic economy | JSTOR: The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 63, No. 4 (NOVEMBER 2010), pp. 865-890
The rapid rise of England's colonial commerce in the late seventeenth century expanded the nation's resource base, stimulated efficiency improvements across the economy, and was important for long-term growth. However, close examination of the interests at play in England's Atlantic world does not support the Whiggish view that the Glorious Revolution played a benign role in this story. In the decades after the Restoration, the cases of the Royal African Company and the Spanish slave trade in Jamaica are used to show that the competition between Crown and Parliament for control of regulation constrained interest groups on either side in their efforts to capture the profits of empire. Stuart 'tyranny' was not able to damage growth and relatively competitive (and peaceful) conditions underpinned very rapid increases in colonial output and trade. The resolution of the rules of the Atlantic game in 1689 allowed a consolidated state better to manipulate and manage the imperial economy in its own interests. More secure rent-seeking enterprises and expensive wars damaged growth and European rivals began a process of catch-up. The Glorious Revolution was not sufficient to permanently halt economic development but it was sufficient to slow progress towards industrial revolution. -- very interesting attack on North-Weingast, Pincus et al -- paywall Wiley -- enormous bibliography on jstor information page
article  jstor  paywall  Wiley  economic_history  British_history  British_Empire  American_colonies  West_Indies  Atlantic  17thC  18thC  Glorious_Revolution  fiscal-military_state  North-Weingast  rent-seeking  UK_government-colonies  economic_growth  trade  trading_companies  British_politics  Parliament  Nine_Years_War  War_of_Spanish_Succession  colonialism  mercantilism  tariffs  Whig_Junto  bibliography 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
On the Origin of States: Stationary Bandits and Taxation in Eastern Congo by Raul Sanchez de la Sierra :: SSRN
Can see something to tax as it moves vs things that can be hidden (evade taxes) -- recommended by Chris Blattman -- The state is among the greatest developments in human history and a precursor of economic growth. Why do states arise, and when do they fail to arise? A dominant view across disciplines is that states arise when violent actors impose a "monopoly of violence" in order to extract taxes. One key fact underlies all existing studies: no census exists prior to the state. In this paper, I provide the first econometric evidence on the determinants of state formation. As a foundation for this study, I conducted fieldwork in stateless areas of Eastern Congo, managing a team that collected village-level panel data on current armed groups. I develop a model that introduces optimal taxation theory to the decision of armed groups to form states, and argue that the returns to such decision hinge on their ability to tax the local population. A sharp, exogenous rise in the price of a bulky commodity used in the video-game industry, coltan, leads armed groups to impose a "monopoly of violence" in coltan villages. A later increase in the price of gold, easier to conceal and hence more difficult to tax, does not. Results based on two alternative identification strategies are also consistent with the model. The findings support the hypothesis that the expected revenue from taxation, in particular tax base elasticity, is a determinant of state formation.
paper  SSRN  political_economy  fiscal-military_state  taxes  development  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Daniel Little - Understanding Society: Making institutions Dec 2013
Looks at range of institutional work (Thelen, Pierson etc) - mostly praise for recent work that's a comparative combination of historical sociology, political science, political economy, with implications for work in Tilly's tradition of fiscal-military_state -- Wenkai HE's Paths toward the Modern Fiscal State: England, Japan, and China is a timely and interesting contribution. HE undertakes a comparative study of the emergence of what he calls the "modern fiscal state" in Britain, China, and Japan. He has undertaken to learn enough about these three cases in detail to be able to tell a reasonably detailed story of the emergence of this set of state tax and revenue institutions in the three settings, and he is thereby poised to consider some important institutional-causal questions about the innovations he observes. The book is a "cross-over" work, with political science methods and historical research content. The book combines new institutionalism, comparative historical sociology, and first-rate historical scholarship to make a compelling historical argument.. .... One thing that I particularly appreciate about HE's work is his ability to combine structure and agency into a single coherent analysis and explanation.
books  kindle-available  reviews  social_theory  historical_sociology  fiscal-military_state  political_economy  political_culture  institutions  bureaucracy  taxes  17thC  18thC  19thC  British_history  James_I  China  Japan  modernization  nation-state  governance  government_officials  governmentality  economic_history  Great_Divergence  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
NAKED KEYNESIANISM: The Fiscal-Military State and Western Hegemony - Nov 2013
An often neglected, at least in economics, argument for the rise of the West (leaving the debate of when the Big Divergence took place, if around 1800 or before, for another post), is its fiscal advantage when compared to the Oriental Empires (Mughal, Ottoman, Safavid and Qing). Patrick O'Brien, the prominent author of the idea of Western fiscal exceptionalism, suggests that the smaller and more urbanized polities of the West found it easier to tax their populations than the Eastern empires with more extensive territories, larger populations and less urbanized economies, even if the latter were in many respects more advanced than the former. The figure below shows that to some extent the Dutch dominance, and then the English ascension, go hand in hand with and increase of tax revenue as a share of GDP.

In this respect, the work by Jan Glete on the effects of a permanent navy on State formation deserves also careful reading.

However, the reasons for the militaristic nature of the Western economies is not well developed in the Fiscal-Military State literature. Kenneth Chase's book on the history of firearms provides an interesting answer.

He argues that early firearms were not very effective when used against cavalry because of their overall lack of mobility, poor rates of fire, and limited accuracy. As a result, their effectiveness was restricted to infantry and siege warfare, and were not used in regions threatened by nomads
economic_history  historical_sociology  Great_Divergence  fiscal-military_state  military_history  Military_Revolution  links 
november 2013 by dunnettreader
Matias Vernengo: Crowding out and the Industrial Revolution July 2013 | NAKED KEYNESIANISM
Charts from Dickson re interest rates on UK bonds through 18thC and the interest rates spikes during War of Spanish Succession -- links to classic studies (JSTOR) estimating slower growth during 18thC and speculating on crowding out. Link to McColloch paper disputing that Bubble Act reduced industrial investment in 18thC. Vernengo doesn't mention either usury controls or, more important for his speculation that finance for investment grew only as demand grew, that Britain was most heavily taxed and relied increasingly on consumption taxes that would have an impact on growth of demand. Temin and Voth theory that focuses on banking, and less on capital markets (do they think Bubble Act was important? ), other than relations between banking system and sovereign debt market. Vernengo cites papers (including from 1950s) that see Bank of England providing liquidity to the whole system especially in 2nd half of 18thC through the expansion of the revenue collection and government spending process -- new country banks also collecting taxes and the government was spending large amounts on war. Vernengo mentions that in earlier post on same topic and McColloch paper. JSTOR papers are downloaded to Note
paper  article  jstor  links  political_economy  economic_history  18thC  Britain  public_finance  sovereign_debt  fiscal-military_state  fiscal_policy  taxes  interest_rates  Bubble_Act  Bank_of_England  economic_growth  investment  financial_regulation  banking  War_of_Spanish_Succession  Industrial_Revolution  crowding_out  financial_repression  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
GEORGE GRANTHAM: The French cliometric revolution: A survey of cliometric contributions to French economic history (1997)
JSTOR: European Review of Economic History, Vol. 1, No. 3 (DECEMBER 1997), pp. 353-405 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- This article surveys cliometric research on the development of the French economy, with special emphasis on the fiscal and monetary history of the Revolution, the alleged retardation of the French economy in the nineteenth century, and the question of agricultural productivity in the early modern and industrial age.
article  jstor  economic_history  statistics  17thC  18thC  19thC  France  fiscal-military_state  fiscal_policy  monetary_policy  sovereign_debt  agriculture  demography  industrialization  modernization  lit_survey  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Anthony Molho: The State and Public Finance: A Hypothesis Based on the History of Late Medieval Florence (1995)
JSTOR: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 67 (Dec., 1995), pp. S97-S135 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- questions fiscal-military_state as driver of centralizing state - provide conditions of external pressures but response function of internal politics
article  jstor  historical_sociology  state-building  fiscal-military_state  15thC  16thC  17thC  Italy  Florence  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Michael Braddick: State Formation and Social Change in Early Modern England: A Problem Stated and Approaches Suggested (1991)
JSTOR: Social History, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Jan., 1991), pp. 1-17 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- the theoretical background to Braddick work on local government, taxation, authority and challenges in Three Kingdoms etc -- focus on state building process not on state as entity
article  jstor  historiography  historical_sociology  17thC  British_history  UK_Government  British_politics  social_history  local_government  taxes  fiscal-military_state  state-building  nation-state  English_Civil_War  political_culture  Ireland  Scotland 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Review by: R. M. Sunter: The British Armed Nation, 1793-1815 by J. E. Cookson (2000)
JSTOR: The Scottish Historical Review, Vol. 79, No. 208 (Oct., 2000), pp. 260-262 -- 1st thorough study of how extensive mobilization of manpower was in British Isles during French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Lots of stuff on militias, volunteer units, yeomanry in Ireland (Protestants mostly in North East) and England, and fencibles. Throw away comment that how it hooks up with understanding of society at the time runs counter to Linda Colley and John Brewer.
books  reviews  18thC  19thC  British_history  military_history  British_Army  British_Navy  militia  Ireland  Scotland  Irish_Rebellion  Castlereagh  French_Revolutionary_Wars  Napoleonic_Wars  fiscal-military_state  social_history  Britain-invasion  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Review by: J. G. A. Pocock - Hume's Philosophical Politics by Duncan Forbes (1978)
JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 72, No. 2 (Jun., 1978), pp. 638-639 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Finds Forbes writing and analysis both hopelessly confused -- some great stuff re where Hume sits vis à vis various flavors of Whigs, Tories and political historians at different times from 1740s onwards. Here's where Pocock's idée fixe on corrupting commerce is useful in explaining how the Essays fit with History of England -- not just against "vulgar Whiggism" (by time Hume wrote History based on Modern constitution theory of the Court Whigs, both oligarchic and radical Whigs had returned to Ancient Constitution) but pro the civilizing virtues of economic development. His target is the austere civic virtue of the republicans. Here's where Pocock misses -- Britain post Fletcher had few austere republicans - only found among idolators of Sparta on the Continent. That there was a luxury debate across the 18thC in both Continental Europe and Britain is clear, but it's not a debate re republicanism -- it's about the new "civil society", about foundation of morals if not biblicalrevelation or fear of hell, it's about human nature, and it's involved in comparative anthropology (geographic and historical) In short, it's about the science of man. Pocock's terrific observations re time, and the shift from anxiety re inevitable decline to possibility of progress fits in the science of man luxury and corruption debates that go far wider and deeper than classical republicanism. Though on Continent it takes on more of a republican angle after Montesquieu.
books  reviews  Pocock  Hume  18thC  historiography-18thC  political_philosophy  historians-and-politics  historiography-Whig  Whigs-oligarchy  Tories  clientelism  British_politics  British_history  commerce-doux  fiscal-military_state  sovereign_debt  parties  UK_government-colonies  War_of_Austrian_Succession  Seven_Years_War  Pitt_the_Elder  British_Empire  political_economy  downloaded  EF-add  bookshelf 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Edgar Kiser and April Linton: Determinants of the Growth of the State: War and Taxation in Early Modern France and England (2001)
JSTOR: Social Forces, Vol. 80, No. 2 (Dec., 2001), pp. 411-448 -- downloaded pdf to Note -'- Although the causal impact of war on state-making in the early modern era is now widely accepted, there is less consensus about the way in which war affects levels of taxation, and the factors that might strengthen or weaken the relationship. Two questions can be posed: Do individual wars produce immediate effects on taxes, or is the cumulative effect of long periods of warfare more important? How do variations in administrative capacity and the strength of representative institutions affect the extent to which war pushes the growth of the state? This article attempts to answer these questions with a quantitative analysis of the effects of war on taxation in early modern England and France. We find that the cumulative effect of war is strong in both cases, suggesting that war made states via a "ratchet effect," and that this effect is much stronger when the administrative capacity of states is improved by centralization and bureaucratization. Strong representative assemblies decrease the effect of war on state growth in France but increase it in England, due to the very different characteristics of these institutions in the two countries.
article  jstor  social_theory  historical_sociology  state-building  Weber  Tilly  fiscal-military_state  representative_institutions  Parliament  institutional_economics  taxes  war  16thC  17thC  18thC  Britain  British_politics  France  fiscal_policy  French_politics  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Edgar Kiser, Kriss A. Drass and William Brustein: Ruler Autonomy and War in Early Modern Western Europe (1995)
JSTOR: International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 39, No. 1 (Mar., 1995), pp. 109-138 -- Following Kant, many scholars have argued that rulers often benefit more from war than do their subjects, and thus that rulers with more autonomy from subjects will initiate more wars. They usually test this argument by focusing on whether democratic states are less prone to initiate wars than autocracies, and generally find little or no relationship. These are not adequate tests of the general argument, since they turn both ruler autonomy and the interests of actors into rough dichotomies (democracy vs. autocracy, rulers' interests vs. interests of all subjects), and they ignore opportunity costs. This article uses a model of state policy formation based on agency theory to provide a better measure of ruler autonomy by differentiating between institutional autonomy and resource autonomy. We also use a more nuanced specification of the interests of different groups of subjects, taking their opportunity costs into account. This model allows us to derive more precise propositions about the relationship between ruler autonomy and war initiation. An analysis of war in four Western European states (England, France, Sweden, and Spain) between 1400 and 1700, using logit regression and qualitative comparative analysis, provides some support for the central propositions of the theory.
article  jstor  social_theory  IR  democratic_peace_theory  15thC  16thC  17thC  fiscal-military_state  war  Britain  France  Spain  Sweden  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Richard Lachmann: Greed and Contingency: State Fiscal Crises and Imperial Failure in Early Modern Europe (2009)
JSTOR: American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 115, No. 1 (July 2009), pp. 39-73 -- paywall $14.00 -- Why do states lose the capacity to finance the expansionist military policies, economic development strategies, or domestic spending initiatives they once supported? The path‐dependent models offered by fiscal‐military, rational choice, and geopolitical theorists are evaluated in comparison with an elite conflict model of contingent historical change. The latter model is found to be better able to explain territorial and fiscal stagnation and decline as well as imperial expansion in the cases of early modern Spain, France, the Netherlands, and Britain.
article  jstor  paywall  social_theory  historical_sociology  state-building  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  fiscal-military_state  rational_choice  geopolitics  IR  balance_of_power  Spain  Dutch  Britain  France  British_Empire  find  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Heather Welland: Taxes are Evil | The 18th - Century Common
1740s and 1750s Patriots fights with establisment Whigs against national debt and taxes - fight over Glorious Revolution legacy- "austerity" has a long history. Also anti imperialism re control of foreign dominions - an empire only of trade. A bit confused re 1st few decades after 1688 and rise of fiscal-military state but lots of links.
British_history  British_politics  18thC  Patriots  fiscal-military_state  taxes  Bolingbroke  Hume  sovereign_debt  institutional_economics  North-Weingast  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
William E. McColloch: A shackled revolution? The Bubble Act and financial regulation in eighteenth-century England : Review of Keynesian Economics
Revisionist estimates of growth rates during the British industrial revolution, though largely successful in presenting a more modest picture of Britain's ‘take-off’ prior to the 1830s, have also posed fresh analytical difficulties for champions of the new economic history. If eighteenth-century Britain was witness to a diffuse explosion of ‘useful knowledge,’ why did aggregate growth rates or industrial output growth rates not more closely shadow the pace of technological change? In an effort to explain this paradox, Peter Temin and Hans-Joachim Voth have claimed that a few key institutional restrictions on financial markets – namely the Bubble Act, and the tightening of usury laws in 1714 – served to amplify the crowding-out impact of government borrowing. Against this vision, the present paper contends that the adverse impact of financial regulation and state borrowing in eighteenth-century Britain has been greatly overstated. To this end, the paper first briefly outlines the historical context in which the Bubble Act emerged, before turning to survey the existing diversity of perspectives on the Act's lasting impact. It is then argued that there is little evidence to support the view that the Bubble Act significantly restricted firms' access to capital. Following this, it is suggested that the ‘crowding-out’ model, theoretical shortcomings aside, is largely inapplicable to eighteenth-century Britain. The savings-constrained vision of British capital markets significantly downplays the extent to which the Bank of England, though founded as an institution to manage the public debt, provided the entire financial system with liquidity in the eighteenth century.

DOI:10.4337/roke.2013.03.04
Volume 1, Issue 3, pp 300-13
Paywall $35
article  economic_history  18thC  Britain  fiscal-military_state  banking  capital_markets  economic_growth  Industrial_Revolution  political_economy  interest_rates  central_banks  financial_system  financial_regulation  paywall  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Interest Rate Restrictions in a Natural Experiment: Loan Allocation and the Change in the Usury Laws in 1714 by Peter Temin, Hans-Joachim Voth :: SSRN
Abstract:      This paper studies the effects of interest rate restrictions on loan allocation. In 1714, the British government tightened the usury laws, reducing the maximum permissible interest rate from 6 to 5 percent. A sample of individual loan transactions from a goldsmith bank allows us to examine how interest rate restrictions affected loan allocation. Average loan size and minimum loan size increased strongly. Access to credit for those of noble origin improved, while it worsened for those with less "social capital." Collateralized credits, which had accounted for a declining share of total lending, returned to their former role of prominence. While we have no direct evidence that loans were misallocated, the discontinuity in loan receipts makes this likely. Our results suggest that the usury laws distorted credit markets significantly. We find no evidence that they offered a form of Pareto-improving social insurance.
Number of Pages in PDF File: 27

Downloaded pdf to Note
British_history  British_politics  18thC  banking  financial_regulation  economic_history  fiscal-military_state  interest_rates  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Voth & Drelichman: Banks should learn from Habsburg Spain | FT.com July 2013
The Genoese and Philip had a system that adjusted payment streams, rollovers and renegotiations that limited the impact of default on Philip's fiscal priorities while spreading risk among creditors that limited shocks to the lending system.

They're working on book dealing with Spanish Empire finances.

Wonder how they contrast their story with North Weingast "credible commitment" story re England and fiscal-military_state
economic_history  sovereign_debt  Spain  international_finance  banking  fiscal-military_state  institutional_economics  North-Weingast  16thC  EF-add 
july 2013 by dunnettreader

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