dunnettreader + firms-structure   17

The Coordinated Activity Theory of the Firm by Peter Dorman :: SSRN
Abstract
This paper proceeds from the assumption that economies are characterized by a high degree of interactive nonconvexity in most activities and at most scales. The consequence is nonconvex production and preference sets and the corresponding inefficiency of myopic algorithms. One application of this perspective is the theory of the firm. Conventional theories explain the existence, boundaries and internal organization of firms on the basis of contracting costs that impede the otherwise optimizing properties of market decentralization. I propose instead an approach in which the motive for organizing production within rather than between institutions is to internalize nonconvexities, thereby obtaining the benefit of explicitly coordinated plans. A useful device for representing this problem is the profit landscape, understood to be nonconvex in the sense that fitness landscapes are in evolutionary theory. Firms face three types of challenges, optimizing with respect to a particular profit hill (the problem analyzed in standard microeconomics), selecting a desirable hill, and achieving flexibility to transition between hills in the face of environmental change. These entail tradeoffs, which are reflected in the diversity of personnel, organizational, and innovation strategies observed in actual enterprises. While the use of the landscape metaphor in coordinated activity theory resembles a similar deployment in evolutionary economics, the two approaches differ in the questions they ask and the units of observation and analysis they employ. The applicability of the coordinated activity model is underscored by its congruence with the bulk of management literature, which can be understood more readily in terms of hill-selection than, or in addition to, the hill-climbing paradigm of conventional economics. In this sense, the existing management literature already provides a body of empirical and applied support for coordinated activity theory, although not generally for the socially-founded objectives of economics.

Keywords: theory of the firm, evolutionary economics, nonconvexities
firms-theory  downloaded  SSRN  firms-organization  firms-structure 
march 2018 by dunnettreader
Oliver Hart and the Poetry of Economic Theory -
At this year’s annual ASSA meeting, Stigler Center Director Luigi Zingales delivered a lecture honoring Oliver Hart, winner of the 2016 Nobel Prize for…
firms-theory  firms-structure  incentives-distortions  human_capital  organizations  microeconomics  Evernote  from instapaper
march 2018 by dunnettreader
Edward Kane - Theory of How and Why Central-Bank Culture Supports Predatory Risk-Taking at Megabanks | INET (Dec 2015)
This paper applies Schein’s model of organizational culture to financial firms and their prudential regulators. It identifies a series of hard-to-change cultural norms and assumptions that support go-for-broke risk-taking by megabanks that meets the every-day definition of theft. The problem is not to find new ways to constrain this behavior, but to change the norms that support it by establishing that managers of megabanks owe duties of loyalty, competence, and care directly to taxpayers. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  downloaded  financial_system  financial_regulation  norms-business  incentives  incentives-distortions  banking  organizations  firms-theory  firms-structure  firms-organization 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Emily Erikson : Between Monopoly and Free Trade: The English East India Company, 1600–1757 | Princeton University Press
The EIF was one of the most powerful and enduring organizations in history. "Between Monopoly and Free Trade" locates the source of that success in the innovative policy by which the Court of Directors granted employees the right to pursue their own commercial interests while in the firm’s employ. Exploring trade network dynamics, decision-making processes, and ports and organizational context, Emily Erikson demonstrates why the EIC was a dominant force in the expansion of trade between Europe and Asia, and she sheds light on the related problems of why England experienced rapid economic development and how the relationship between Europe and Asia shifted in the 18thC and 19thC.(..) Building on the organizational infrastructure of the Company and the sophisticated commercial institutions of the markets of the East, employees constructed a cohesive internal network of peer communications that directed English trading ships during their voyages. This network integrated Company operations, encouraged innovation, and increased the Company’s flexibility, adaptability, and responsiveness to local circumstance. -- assistant professor in the department of sociology and the school of management (by courtesy) at Yale University, as well as a member of the Council of South Asian Studies. -- excerpt Chapter 1 downloaded pdf to Note
books  kindle-available  buy  economic_history  business_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  British_history  British_Empire  British_foreign_policy  colonialism  imperialism  networks-business  networks-political  networks-information  networks-social  India  Indian_Ocean  Central_Asia  Chinese_history  China-international_relations  monopolies  trading_companies  trading_privileges  VOC  East_India_Company  trade  trade_finance  shipping  ports  British_Navy  business-and-politics  business_practices  business_influence  business-norms  nabobs  MPs  Board_of_Trade  Parliament  entrepreneurs  organizations  firms-structure  firms-organization  consumer_revolution  exports  Navigation_Acts  Anglo-Dutch_wars  French_foreign_policy  competition-interstate  risk-mitigation  risk_management  corporate_governance  corporate_citizenship  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Margaret Blair - What must corporate directors do? Maximizing shareholder value versus creating value through team production | Brookings Institution - June 2015
Blair reviews the legal and economic theories behind the share-value maximization norm, and then lays out a theory of corporate law building on the economics of team production. Arguing that the corporate form itself helps solve the team production problem, Blair details five features which distinguish corporations from other organizational forms: 1. Legal personality -- 2. Limited liability -- 3. Transferable shares -- 4. Management under a Board of Directors -- 5. Indefinite existence -- Blair concludes that these five characteristics are all problematic from a principal-agent point of view where shareholders are principals. However, the team production theory makes sense out of these arrangements. This theory provides a rationale for the role of corporate directors consistent with the role that boards of directors historically understood themselves to play: balancing competing interests so the whole organization stays productive. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  corporate_governance  corporate_citizenship  business_practices  shareholder_value  hedge_funds  corporate_law  firms-theory  firms-structure  equity-corporate  equity_markets  investors  long-term_orientation  labor_share  cooperation  coordination  teams  downloaded 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Andrew W. Lo - The Gordon Gekko Effect: The Role of Culture in the Financial Industry | NBER June 2015
NBER Working Paper No. 21267 -- Culture is a potent force in shaping individual and group behavior, yet it has received scant attention in the context of financial risk management and the recent financial crisis. I present a brief overview of the role of culture according to psychologists, sociologists, and economists, and then present a specific framework for analyzing culture in the context of financial practices and institutions in which three questions are answered: (1) What is culture?; (2) Does it matter?; and (3) Can it be changed? I illustrate the utility of this framework by applying it to five concrete situations—Long Term Capital Management; AIG Financial Products; Lehman Brothers and Repo 105; Société Générale’s rogue trader; and the SEC and the Madoff Ponzi scheme—and conclude with a proposal to change culture via “behavioral risk management.” -- check SSRN
paper  paywall  SSRN  financial_instiutions  business_practices  business-norms  risk_management  economic_culture  financial_crisis  financial_regulation  incentives  incentives-distortions  social_psychology  economic_sociology  firms-structure  firms-organization 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Thorsten Beck, Asli Demirgüç-Kunt, Maria Soledad Martinez Peria - Foreign banks and small and medium enterprises: Are they really estranged? | VOX, CEPR’s Policy Portal - 01 April 2010
Small and medium enterprises are engines of economic growth. But what kind of market structure is more conducive to financing these enterprises? This column argues that different types of bank, applying different types of lending technology and organisational structures can all play a vital role in financing them. They're working with a big data set they developed -- shows quite different lending technologies as between foreign and domestic, but similar outcomes in volume of lending, conditions, pricing etc. The big differences are cross couhtry, where thoorer, less developed suffer from less access to credit for investment, higher pricing, etc -- which reflects overall economic conditions and business environment. -- nice use of data -- downloaded page as pdf to Note
financial_system  development  emerging_markets  LDCs  SMEs  access_to_finance  banking  financial_instiutions  cross-border  firms-structure  firms-organization  credit_ratings  financial_sector_development  financial_innovation  investment  collateral  downloaded 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Kathleen Perkins Miller, George Serafeim - Chief Sustainability Officers: Who Are They and What Do They Do? (revised September 2014) :: SSRN
Kathleen Perkins Miller, Miller Consultants -- George Serafeim, Harvard University - Harvard Business School *--* Chapter 8 in Leading Sustainable Change, Oxford University Press, 2014 *--* While a number of studies document that organizations go through numerous stages as they increase their commitment to sustainability over time, we know little about the role of the Chief Sustainability Officer (CSO) in this process. Using survey and interview data we analyze how a CSO’s authority and responsibilities differ across organizations that are in different stages of sustainability commitment. We document increasing organizational authority of the CSO as organizations increase their commitment to sustainability moving from Compliance to Efficiency and then to Innovation. However, we also document a decentralization of decision rights from the CSO to different functions, largely driven by sustainability strategies becoming more idiosyncratic at the Innovation stage. The study concludes with a discussion of practices that CSOs argue to accelerate the commitment of organizations to sustainability. -- Pages in PDF File: 22 -- Keywords: sustainability, organizational change, Chief Sustainability Officer, innovation, -- downloaded pdf to Note
chapter  SSRN  business_practices  business-norms  CSR  sustainability  firms-organization  firms-structure  Innovation  corporate_governance  accountability  institutional_change  institutional_capacity  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
George Serafeim - The Role of the Corporation in Society: An Alternative View and Opportunities for Future Research b(revised June 2014) :: SSRN
Harvard University - Harvard Business School *--* A long-standing ideology in business education has been that a corporation is run for the sole interest of its shareholders. I present an alternative view where increasing concentration of economic activity and power in the world’s largest corporations, the Global 1000, has opened the way for managers to consider the interests of a broader set of stakeholders rather than only shareholders. Having documented that this alternative view better fits actual corporate conduct, I discuss opportunities for future research. Specifically, I call for research on the materiality of environmental and social issues for the future financial performance of corporations, the design of incentive and control systems to guide strategy execution, corporate reporting, and the role of investors in this new paradigm. -- Pages in PDF File: 27 -- Keywords: corporate performance, corporate size, sustainability, corporate social responsibility, accounting -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  corporate_governance  corporate_citizenship  global_economy  global_governance  international_political_economy  shareholder_value  shareholders  CSR  disclosure  accountability  accounting  institutional_economics  institutional_investors  incentives  institutional_change  long-term_orientation  business-and-politics  business-norms  business_practices  business_influence  sustainability  MNCs  firms-theory  firms-structure  firms-organization  power  power-concentration  concentration-industry  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Beiting Cheng, Ioannis Ioannou, George Serafeim - Corporate Social Responsibility and Access to Finance - May 19, 2011 | Strategic Management Journal, 35 (1): 1-23. :: SSRN
Beiting Cheng, Harvard University - Harvard Business School -- Ioannis Ioannou, London Business School -- George Serafeim, Harvard University - Harvard Business School **--** In this paper, we investigate whether superior performance on corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies leads to better access to finance. We hypothesize that better access to finance can be attributed to a) reduced agency costs due to enhanced stakeholder engagement and b) reduced informational asymmetry due to increased transparency. Using a large cross-section of firms, we find that firms with better CSR performance face significantly lower capital constraints. Moreover, we provide evidence that both of the hypothesized mechanisms, better stakeholder engagement and transparency around CSR performance, are important in reducing capital constraints. The results are further confirmed using several alternative measures of capital constraints, a paired analysis based on a ratings shock to CSR performance, an instrumental variables and also a simultaneous equations approach. Finally, we show that the relation is driven by both the social and the environmental dimension of CSR. -- Pages in PDF File: 43 -- Keywords: corporate social responsibility, sustainability, capital constraints, ESG (environmental, social, governance) performance -- didn't download
article  SSRN  business_practices  business-norms  corporate_finance  corporate_governance  shareholder_value  CSR  environment  sustainability  accounting  accountability  firms-theory  firms-structure  information-asymmetric  disclosure  finance-cost 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Robert G. Eccles, Ioannis Ioannou, George Serafeim - The Impact of Corporate Sustainability on Organizational Processes and Performance - November 23, 2011 :: SSRN - Management Science, Forthcoming
Robert G. Eccles, Harvard Business School -- Ioannis Ioannou, London Business School -- George Serafeim, Harvard University - Harvard Business School *--* We investigate the effect of a corporate culture of sustainability on multiple facets of corporate behavior and performance outcomes. Using a matched sample of 180 companies, we find that corporations that voluntarily adopted environmental and social policies many years ago – termed as High Sustainability companies – exhibit fundamentally different characteristics from a matched sample of firms that adopted almost none of these policies – termed as Low Sustainability companies. In particular, we find that the boards of directors of these companies are more likely to be responsible for sustainability and top executive incentives are more likely to be a function of sustainability metrics. Moreover, they are more likely to have organized procedures for stakeholder engagement, to be more long-term oriented, and to exhibit more measurement and disclosure of nonfinancial information. Finally, we provide evidence that High Sustainability companies significantly outperform their counterparts over the long-term, both in terms of stock market and accounting performance. The outperformance is stronger in sectors where the customers are individual consumers instead of companies, companies compete on the basis of brands and reputations, and products significantly depend upon extracting large amounts of natural resources. -- Keywords: sustainability, corporate social responsibility, culture, governance, disclosure, performance -- didn't download
paper  SSRN  corporate_governance  corporate_citizenship  corporate_finance  CSR  brands  reputation  incentives  sustainability  long-term_orientation  natural_resources  firms-theory  firms-structure  firms-organization  executive_compensation  business-norms  profit  disclosure 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Richard N. Langlois - Knowledge, Consumption, and Endogenous Growth - January 2000 :: SSRN
University of Connecticut - Department of Economics -- working paper for Knowledge, Consumption, and Endogenous Growth. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Vol. 11, No. 1. http://ssrn.com/abstract=257785 -- Abstract of article: In neoclassical theory, knowledge generates increasing returns-and therefore growth-because it is a public good that can be costlessly reused once created. In fact, however, much knowledge in the economy is actually tacit and not easily transmitted-and thus not an obvious source of increasing returns. Several writers have responded to this alarming circumstances by affirming hopefully that knowledge today is increasingly codified, general, and abstract-and increasingly less tacit. This paper disputes such a trend. But all is not lost: for knowledge does not have to be codified to be reused and therefore to generate economic growth. -- Abstract of paper adds -- This essay takes a skeptical view of the proposition that we are experiencing greater codification hand in hand with modern technology and economic growth. ... [and] an equally skeptical view ...that only codified knowledge, and never tacit knowledge, can generate economic growth. Knowledge can be externalized and made less idiosyncratic in ways that do not necessarily involve codification. Knowledge is structure. And knowledge can be externalized beyond an individual creator by being imbedded either in machines and other physical technology or in various kinds of social or behavioral structures that I will broadly call institutions. Using a wonderful 1912 essay by Wesley Clair Mitchell as a starting point, I examine, as a kind of case study, the way in which knowledge is embedded and shared in consumption -- an important and neglected aspect of the process of economic growth. -- Pages in PDF 38 -- Keywords: Tacit knowledge, Increasing returns, Growth theory, Knowledge reuse, Codification -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  SSRN  philosophy_of_social_science  institutions  institutional_economics  firms-theory  firms-structure  knowledge  knowledge_economy  know-how  public_goods  epistemology-social  technology  technology_transfer  technology-adoption  economic_growth  economic_sociology  Innovation  increasing_returns  bibliography  consumption  consumers  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Ron Harris - (pdf) The Institutional Dynamics of Early Modern Eurasian Trade: The Commenda and the Corporation
The focus of this article is on legal-economic institutions that organized early- modern Eurasian trade. It identifies two such institutions that had divergent dispersion patterns, the corporation and the commenda. The corporation ended up as a uniquely European institution that did not migrate until the era of European colonization. The commenda that originated in Arabia migrated all the way to Western Europe and to China. The article explains their divergent dispersion based on differences in their institutional and geographical environments and on dynamic factors. It claims that institutional analysis errs when it ignores migration of institutions. It provides building blocks for the modeling of institutional migration. -- via Dick Langlois at organizationsandmarkets.com presented at Nov 2014 conference put together by Business History program at Harvard Business School, on the History of Law and Business Enterprise -- downloaded to iPhone
paper  downloaded  economic_history  institutional_economics  legal_history  medieval_history  firms-structure  firms-theory  trade  colonialism  Europe-Early_Modern  China  India  MENA  Islamic_law  business_practices  risk_management  economic_culture  cultural_influence  trade-cultural_transmission  corporate_law  business_history  comparative_economics  Eurasia  business  organizations 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Addressing the Tax Challenges of the Digital Economy (Sept 2014) - OECD/G20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Project Tax | OECD
The spread of the digital economy poses challenges for international taxation. This report sets out an analysis of these tax challenges. It notes that because the digital economy is increasingly becoming the economy itself, it would not be feasible to ring-fence the digital economy from the rest of the economy for tax purposes. The report notes, however, that certain business models and key features of the digital economy may exacerbate BEPS risks. These BEPS risks will be addressed by the work on the other Actions in the BEPS Action Plan, which will take the relevant features of the digital economy into account. The report also analyses a number of broader tax challenges raised by the digital economy, and discusses potential options to address them, noting the need for further work during 2015 to evaluate these broader challenges and potential option. - Report can be read online or $ for download
report  OECD  G20  BEPS  21stC  international_political_economy  global_governance  MNCs  taxes  tax_havens  tax_collection  OECD_economies  transfer_pricing  transaction_costs  digital_economy  accounting  firms-structure  IP  profit  arms-length_transactions  treaties  corporate_citizenship  corporate_law  corporate_tax  reform-legal  fiscal_policy 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Oct 2014 - Release of discussion draft on Action 7 of the BEPS Action Plan (Artificial Avoidance of Permanent Establishment Status) | Tax treaties - OECD
The OECD Action Plan on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting, July 2013, identifies 15 actions to address BEPS in a comprehensive manner and sets deadlines to implement these actions. Action 7 – Prevent the Artificial Avoidance of PE (permanent establishment) Status -- including through the use of commissionnaire arrangements and the specific activity exemptions. Work on these issues will also address related profit attribution issues. -- Public comments are invited on a discussion draft which ... includes proposals for changes to the definition of PE in the OECD Model Tax Convention. -- The Action Plan also notes that MNCs may artificially fragment their operations among multiple group entities to qualify for the exceptions to PE status for preparatory and auxiliary activities. -- Further, the Report Addressing the Tax Challenges of the Digital Economy has identified issues in the digital economy that need to be taken into account in the course of the work on Action 7, namely ensuring that core activities cannot inappropriately benefit from the exception from PE status and that artificial arrangements relating to sales of goods and services cannot be used to avoid PE status.
OECD  OECD_economies  international_political_economy  global_governance  MNCs  taxes  tax_havens  tax_collection  transfer_pricing  treaties  BEPS  accounting  corporate_tax  corporate_citizenship  corporate_law  reform-legal  digital_economy  G20  profit  arms-length_transactions  transaction_costs  firms-structure 
november 2014 by dunnettreader

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