dunnettreader + development   141

Brad DeLong - link to WP - Robert Allen (2004): Progress and Poverty in Early Modern Europe
Robert Allen (2004): Progress and Poverty in Early Modern Europe: "At the end of the middle ages, the urban, manufacturing core of Europe was on the Mediterranean with an important offshoot in Flanders... -- downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
improvement  development  urbanization  social_history  Europe-Early_Modern  paper  economic_history  inequality  poverty  progress  downloaded  trade  economic_growth 
january 2017 by dunnettreader
Rafael La Porta and Andrei Shleifer - "Informality and Development" (2014) Journal of Economic Perspectives
In developing countries, informal firms account for up to half of economic activity. They provide livelihood for billions of people. Yet their role in economic development remains controversial with some viewing informality as pent-up potential and others viewing informality as a parasitic organizational form that hinders economic growth. In this paper, we assess these perspectives. We argue that the evidence is most consistent with dual models, in which informality arises out of poverty and the informal and formal sectors are very different. It seems that informal firms have low productivity and produce low- quality products; and, consequently, they do not pose a threat to the formal firms. Economic growth comes from the formal sector, that is, from firms run by educated entrepreneurs and exhibiting much higher levels of productivity. The expansion of the formal sector leads to the decline of the informal sector in relative and eventually absolute terms. A few informal firms convert to formality, but more generally they disappear because they cannot compete with the much more-productive formal firms.
Citation -La Porta, Rafael and Andrei Shleifer. 2014. "Informality and Development." Journal of Economic Perspectives, 28(3): 109-26.
structural_adjustment  informal_economy  LDCs  access_to_finance  article  Labor_markets  doing_business  productivity  tax_avoidance  regulation  poverty_reduction  poverty  tax_policy  access_to_services  conditionality  entrepreneurs  economic_growth  aid  development  formal_economy  industrialization  downloaded 
august 2016 by dunnettreader
Kevin O'Rourke - The Davos Lie (April 2016) - Critical Quarterly - Wiley Online Library
Economists can tut-tut all they want about working-class people refusing to buy into the benefits of globalisation, but as social scientists we surely need to think about the predictable political consequences of economic policies. Too much globalisation, without domestic safety nets and other policies that can adequately protect globalisation's losers, will inevitably invite a political backlash. Indeed, it is already upon us. - downloaded to Tab S2
article  downloaded  international_political_economy  globalization  trade-theory  trade-policy  trade-compensation  inequality  outsourcing  working_class  development  development-impact  populism  political_economy  political_order  stability 
august 2016 by dunnettreader
Why Tax Havens Are Political and Economic Disasters - The Atlantic - July 2016
In the early 1990s, economists coined the term " the resource curse " to describe a paradox they observed in countries where valuable natural resources were…
Instapaper  tax_havens  development  corruption  politics-and-money  financial_sector_development  resource_curse  capital_flows  inequality  from instapaper
july 2016 by dunnettreader
Dani Rodrik and Arvind Subramanian - Why Did Financial Globalization Disappoint? | IMF Staff Papers - Jan 2009
IMF Staff Papers (2009) 56, 112–138. doi:10.1057/imfsp.2008.29; published online 6 January 2009 -- The stylized fact that there is no correlation between long-run economic growth and financial globalization has spawned a recent literature that purports to provide newer evidence and arguments in favor of financial globalization. We review this literature and find it unconvincing. The underlying assumptions in this literature are that developing countries are savings-constrained; that access to foreign finance alleviates this to boost investment and long-run growth; and that insofar as there are problems with financial globalization, these can be remedied through deep institutional reforms. In contrast, we argue that developing economies are as or more likely to be investment- than savings-constrained and that the effect of foreign finance is often to aggravate this investment constraint by appreciating the real exchange rate and reducing profitability and investment opportunities in the traded goods sector, which have adverse long-run growth consequences. It is time for a new paradigm on financial globalization, and one that recognizes that more is not necessarily better. Depending on context and country, the appropriate role of policy will be as often to stem the tide of capital inflows as to encourage them. Policymakers who view their challenges exclusively from the latter perspective risk getting it badly wrong. - downloaded pdf to Note
paper  downloaded  IMF  international_political_economy  international_finance  global_economy  emerging_markets  LDCs  capital_flows  investment  investment-government  development  economic_growth  economic_policy  economic_reform  access_to_finance  capital_controls  FX-misalignment  FX-rate_management  economic_theory  macroeconomics  international_economics  financial_economics  financial_sector_development 
may 2016 by dunnettreader
Durwood Zaelke - IGSD
Durwood Zaelke is founder and President of the Institute for Governance
climate  development 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Guillaume Calafat & Éric Monnet - Le retour de l’histoire économique ? - La Vie des idées - 5 janvier 2016
Le récent succès d’ouvrages d’histoire économique, alors même que cette spécialité paraît souvent négligée à l’université, ainsi que des évolutions disciplinaires simultanées, font espérer de nouveaux rapprochements entre l’histoire et l’économie. -- downloaded pdf to Note
economic_history  economic_theory  Great_Divergence  Industrial_Revolution  trade  trade-cultural_transmission  networks-information  networks-business  development  sociology_of_knowledge  economic_sociology  economic_culture  econometrics  consumer_revolution  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Ben Leo and Todd Moss - Bringing US Development Finance into the 21st Century | Center For Global Development 7/20/15
Part of the White House and the World 2016 Briefing Book -- Well-established European development finance institutions (DFIs) are providing integrated services for businesses...-- debt and equity financing, risk mitigation, and technical assistance. .. emerging-market actors — including China, India, Brazil, and Malaysia — have dramatically increased financing activities in developing regions such as Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. As the needs of developing countries have changed, so has the political and economic environment in the US. First, traditional development dynamics are shifting rapidly from a donor-recipient aid relationship to win-win partnerships involving public and private actors. Second, most US aid agencies typically are not positioned to address many pressing development priorities, such as expanding economic opportunities in frontier markets. Third, the US development assistance budget has become increasingly constrained, with growing pressure to cut programs. Within this context, we assess the need for a modern, full-service US Development Finance Corporation and provide a series of options for how the next US president could structure such an institution consistent with bipartisan congressional support and budgetary realities. For such a USDFC, we propose below potential products, services, and tools; size, scale, and staffing requirements; governance structures and oversight functions; performance metrics; and capital structure models. We conclude with a notional implementation road map that includes the required US executive and legislative actions. -- downloaded pdf to Note
report  development  IFIs  aid  US_politics  public-private_partnerships  development-impact  development-finance  emerging_markets  FDI  technical_assistance  technology_transfer  US_government  US_politics-foreign_policy  fiscal_policy  cross-border  LDCs  World_Bank  IFC  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Brian Z. Tamanaha - The Knowledge and Policy Limits of New Institutional Economics on Development :: SSRN - Dec 2014, Journal of Economic Issues, 2015, Forthcoming
Washington University in Saint Louis - School of Law -- New Institutional Economics (NIE) has secured impressive achievements in academia and policy circles. The World Bank and other development organization in the past two decades have expended billions of dollars on efforts to build “good governance” and the “rule of law” informed by the NIE theory that economic development requires supportive political and legal institutions. NIE appears to be the new consensus view of development thinking, supplanting the neo-liberal Washington Consensus (..) This essay elaborates on the barriers that stand in the way of the knowledge and policy goals of NIE. Foremost is the “interconnectedness of society:” cultural, technological, legal, political, and economic activities all affect one another and are affected by one another, often in ways that are subtle and all but invisible; each situation unique in its constellation of social forces and is dynamic, constantly changing in reaction to surrounding influences. (..) I explore the ongoing struggle to identify a shared conception of “institution” — and I explain why this cannot be solved. For reasons I go on to elaborate, NIE scholars also will not be able to get a precise grip on the surrounding institutional influences that affect economic development. (..) NIE scholars today, it turns out, are repeating lessons announced five decades ago in the law and development field. The problems were insuperable then and will remain so. (..) While critical of NIE knowledge and policy objectives, this essay is not negative in orientation. NIE research is illuminating. Greater awareness of the limits will help orient future work in the field in the most fruitful directions. - Pages in PDF File: 35 -- Keywords: economic development, new institutional economics, old institutional economics, legal development, rule of law, legal theory -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  SSRN  institutional_economics  law-and-economics  institutions  legal_culture  political_culture  institution-building  institutional_change  institutionalization  development  rule_of_law  legal_reform  legal_theory  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Joram Mayshar, Omer Moav, Zvika Neeman, Luigi Pascali - The Neolithic roots of economic institutions | VOX, CEPR’s Policy Portal - 11 September 2015
Conventional theory suggests that hierarchy and state institutions emerged due to increased productivity following the Neolithic transition to farming. This column argues that these social developments were a result of an increase in the ability of both robbers and the emergent elite to appropriate crops. Hierarchy and state institutions developed, therefore, only in regions where appropriable cereal crops had sufficient productivity advantage over non-appropriable roots and tubers. -- I.e. Eurasia, not Sub-Saharan Africa
paper  economic_history  pre-historical_people  development  institutional_economics  institutions  state-building  state-roles  agriculture  elites  violence  hierarchy  Sub-Saharan_Africa  geography  geography-and-economics 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Mary Hallward-Driemeier and Lant Pritchett - How Business Is Done in the Developing World: Deals versus Rules(2015) | AEAweb: Journal of Economic Perspectives, 29(3): 121-40
Affiliations World Bank and Harvard - What happens in the developing world when stringent regulations characterizing the investment climate meet weak government willingness or capability to enforce those regulations? How is business actually done? The Doing Business project surveys experts concerning the legally required time and costs of regulatory compliance for various aspects of private enterprise—starting a firm, dealing with construction permits, trading across borders, paying taxes, getting credit, enforcing contracts, and so on—around the world. The World Bank's firm-level Enterprise Surveys around the world ask managers at a wide array of firms about their business, including questions about how long it took to go through various processes like obtaining an operating license or a construction permit, or bringing in imports. This paper compares the results of three broadly comparable indicators from the Doing Business and Enterprise Surveys. Overall, we find that the estimate of legally required time for firms to complete a certain legal and regulatory process provided by the Doing Business survey does not summarize even modestly well the experience of firms as reported by the Enterprise Surveys. When strict de jure regulation and high rates of taxation meet weak governmental capabilities for implementation and enforcement, we argue that researchers and policymakers should stop thinking about regulations as creating "rules" to be followed, but rather as creating a space in which "deals" of various kinds are possible. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  development  institutional_economics  institutional_capacity  regulation  regulation-enforcement  regulation-costs  SMEs  World_Bank  doing_business  business_practices  business-norms  business_influence  investment  business-and-politics  business-ethics  FDI  investor_protection  downloaded 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Timothy Besley - Law, Regulation, and the Business Climate: The Nature and Influence of the World Bank Doing Business Project (2015) | AEAweb: Journal of Economic Perspectives, 29(3): 99-120
Affiliation LSE - The importance of a well-functioning legal and regulatory system in creating an effective market economy is now widely accepted. One flagship project that tries to measure the environment in which businesses operate in countries across the world is the World Bank's Doing Business project, which was launched in 2002. This project gathers quantitative data to compare regulations faced by small and medium-size enterprises across economies and over time. The centerpiece of the project is the annual Doing Business report. It was first published in 2003 with five sets of indicators for 133 economies, and currently includes 11 sets of indicators for 189 economies. The report includes a table that ranks each country in the world according to its scores across the indicators. The Doing Business project has become a major resource for academics, journalists, and policymakers. The project also enjoys a high public profile with close to ten million hits on its website each year. With such interest, it's no surprise that the Doing Business report has come under intense scrutiny. In 2012, following discussions by its board, the World Bank commissioned an independent review panel to evaluate the project, on which I served as a member. In this paper, I first describe how the Doing Business project works and illustrate with some of the key findings of the 2015 report. Next, I address what is valuable about the project, the criticisms of it, and some wider political economy issues illustrated by the report. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  institutional_economics  World_Bank  development  SMEs  doing_business  FDI  investment  investor_protection  downloaded 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
John Dunn, ed. - The Economic Limits to Modern Politics (1992) | Cambridge University Press
The central problem of modern government and political action is how to choose and implement effective economic policies. For this reason, the economic considerations of public policy have assumed a more prominent place in contemporary political thought. Despite efforts among political scientists, economists, and sociologists to fathom the complexities of this added dimension, none of these solid sciences offers a satisfying approach to the problem. This volume attempts to display the historical novelty and intellectual importance of this dilemma, to uncover its origins, and to procure a remedy through a clearer and steadier focus. The book's contributors range from historians of ideas to economic theorists, who bring the approach of their own intellectual discipline to bear upon the issue. **--** Introduction, John Dunn *-* 1. The economic limits to modern politics, John Dunn *-* 2. The wealth of one nation and the dynamics of international competition, Istvan Hont *-* 3. The political limits to pre-modern politics, J. G. A. Pocock *-* 4. The economic constraints on political programs, Frank H. Hahn *-* 5. International liberalism reconsidered, Robert O. Keohane *-* 6. Capitalism, socialism, and democracy: compatibilities and contradictions John Dunn. -- ebook Adobe Reader - not clear whether in kindle format -- excerpt (10 ogs Intro) downloaded pdf to Note
books  kindle-available  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  intellectual_history  economic_history  political_history  political_philosophy  political_economy  judgment-political  public_policy  capitalism  competition-interstate  economic_growth  development  raison-d'-état  British_history  British_politics  British_Empire  trade  trade-policy  Great_Divergence  economic_theory  political_culture  economic_culture  macroeconomic_policy  Innovation  innovation-government_policy  collective_action  property_rights  Labor_markets  redistribution  fiscal_policy  fiscal-military_state  Davenant  Smith  social_order  social_democracy  liberalism  elites-political_influence  IR_theory  globalization  international_political_economy  public_finance  public_goods  class_conflict  downloaded 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Charles Kenny - Aiming High - setting the new Sustainable Development Goals -- Finance & Development, June 2015, Vol. 52, No. 2
2015 marks the deadline for the MDGs... And while it might come as a surprise to those in Japan, Europe, or North America, the past 15 years may have been the period of greatest progress in humanity’s quality of life. Not least, the available data suggest that we have seen the fastest declines in global child mortality and absolute poverty in recorded history. As a result, we have far surpassed the first MDG—to halve the number of people worldwide living on less than $1.25 a day. 2015 is also the starting date for the SDGs to be agreed at the UN this fall. These goals outline a vision of progress to 2030 covering poverty, health, education, security, the environment, governance, gender equality, and much more. ..at Addis Ababa in July this year will try to finance that new agenda. ... at the UN Climate Change Conference in Paris in December, countries will pledge to cut greenhouse gas emissions, with the hope of setting us on a path away from catastrophic global warming. A strong agreement in Addis Ababa and progress toward the SDGs depend on advanced economies’ understanding that the issue is not altruism but naked self-interest. In 2002, when rich countries ... discussed global cooperation to meet the MDGs, these countries may have asked, “What can we do for them?” This time around the process can only be seen as “What can we do for each other?” Even though developing countries need global ties to make progress, at issue now is not persuading cash-strapped OECD finance ministers to be a little less skinflint but tackling a set of global problems that can be resolved only with the support of the developing world. -- in F&D issue downloaded as pdf to Note
article  sustainability  development  globalization  global_governance  global_system  climate  environment  trade  trade-policy  trade-agreements  global_value_chains  SDGs  poverty  aid  health  OECD_economies  public_finance  public_goods  cross-border  tax_collection  technical_assistance  technology_transfer  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Is the Glass Half Empty Or Half Full? : Issues in Managing Water Challenges and Policy Instruments | IMF Staff Discussion Notes No. 15/11, June 08, 2015
Author/Editor: Kalpana Kochhar ; Catherine A. Pattillo ; Yan Sun ; Nujin Suphaphiphat ; Andrew Swiston ; Robert Tchaidze ; Benedict J. Clements ; Stefania Fabrizio ; Valentina Flamini ; Laure Redifer ; Harald Finger -- Summary: This paper examines water challenges, a growing global concern with adverse economic and social consequences, and discusses economic policy instruments. Water subsidies provided through public utilities are estimated at about $456 billion or 0.6 percent of global GDP in 2012. The paper suggests that getting economic incentives right, notably by reforming water pricing, can go a long way towards encouraging more efficient water use and supporting needed investment, while enabling policies that protect the poor. It also discusses pricing reform options and emphasizes an integrated and holistic approach to manage water, going beyond the water sector itself. The IMF can play a helpful role in ensuring that macroeconomic policies are conducive to sound water management. -- Subject(s): Water resources | Economic policy | Subsidies | Water supply | Supply and demand | Policy instruments | Fund role -- paper summary in F&D issue, June 2015 (downloaded to Note) -- didn't download Staff Discussion Note
paper  IMF  water  development  LDCs  emerging_markets  aid  public_finance  economic_policy  economic_reform  economic_sociology  subsidies  sustainability  poverty  access_to_services  utilities  incentives  incentives-distortions  investment  infrastructure  public-private_partnerships  public_goods  downloaded  Aiviq 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Montfort Mlachila, René Tapsoba, and Sampawende Tapsoba - A Quest for Quality [of economic growth] -- Finance & Development, June 2015, Vol. 52, No. 2
Despite consensus in the economics profession that growth alone does not lead to better social outcomes (Ianchovichina and Gable, 2012), quality growth still lacks a rigorous definition or formal quantification. In a recent paper, we develop a quality of growth index (QGI) that captures both the intrinsic nature of growth and its social dimension. Our premise is that not all growth produces favorable social outcomes. How growth is generated is critical to its sustainability and ability to create decent jobs, enhance living standards, and reduce poverty. We aim in our design of the QGI to capture these multidimensional features of growth by focusing on its very nature and desired social outcomes. -- in F&D issue downloaded as pdf to Note
article  development  economic_growth  political_economy  LDCs  emerging_markets  GDP  GDP-alternatives  inequality  participation-economic  inclusion  marginalized_groups  access_to_services  access_to_finance  SMEs  micro-enterprises  Innovation  innovation-government_policy  rent-seeking  informal_sectors  living_standards  poverty  health_care  education  sustainability  unemployment  common_good  statistics  economic_policy  economic_sociology  economic_reform  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
VOX ebook -The Age of Global Value Chains: Maps and Policy Issues | VOX, CEPR’s Policy Portal -July 2015
João Amador, Filippo di Mauro -- Global value chains (GVCs) - referring to the cross-border flows of goods, investment, services, know-how and people associated with international production networks - have transformed the world. Their emergence has resulted in a complete reconfiguration of world trade, bearing a strong impact on the assessment of competitiveness and economic policy. The contributions to this eBook are based on research carried out within the scope of the Eurosystem Competitiveness Research Network (CompNet), bringing together participants from EU national central banks, universities and international organisations interested in competitiveness issues. The mapping of GVCs and full awareness about their implications are essential to informed public debate and improved economic policy.-- downloaded pdf to Note
books  global_economy  cross-border  globalization  supply_chains  global_value_chains  economic_sociology  trade-policy  competitiveness  competition-interstate  manufacturing  transport  transaction_costs  tax_policy  business_practices  business_processes  economic_policy  development  development-impact  labor_standards  Labor_markets  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Peter Draper, Andreas Freytag, and Sarah Al Doyaili - Why Should Sub-Saharan Africa Care about the Doha Development Round? — Economics E-Journal - May 08, 2013
(Published in Special Issue Multilateral Trade Liberalization and Regional Integration under Stress – Workshop in Honor of Prof. Dr. Rolf J. Langhammer) -- In recent years sub-Saharan Africa, notwithstanding the global financial crisis, has increased its share in global trade and investment flows. This has led to an appreciable improvement in development levels, albeit off a small base. However, these patterns are still dominated by commodity flows and investment, and remain marginal on the global stage. Increased trade and investment flows, particularly related to network services, would be of great benefit to the sub-continent. Yet many domestic regulatory constraints remain. Furthermore, substantial international market distortions, particularly in agricultural trade, inhibit economic diversification into more value-adding activities. The Doha development round could, if concluded, go a long way towards addressing these barriers. Ultimately it could prove more consequential to the sub-continent’s development trajectory than regional economic integration. The latter, whilst important, is shallow and too reliant on institution-intensive forms mimicking the European Union. Overall therefore this paper motivates for an African trade agenda focused on concluding the Doha round.-- didn't download
paper  e-journal  economic_growth  regional_blocs  Sub-Saharan_Africa  trade-policy  trade-agreements  WTO  FDI  agriculture  development  economic_policy 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Frankema, Jeffrey G. Williamson, Woltjer - An economic rationale for the African scramble | VOX, CEPR’s Policy Portal- 14 July 2015
Ewout Frankema, Jeffrey G. Williamson, Pieter Woltjer -- The partitioning of Africa by European imperial powers in the late 19th century irreversibly transformed the long-term development trajectories of African economies. Yet, the motives for, and timing of, the scramble remain poorly understood. This column argues that the changes in African international trade over the course of the 19th century created an economic rationale for the African scramble. This episode offers insights that are relevant for current African economic development. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  economic_history  Africa  African_trade  19thC  20thC  imperialism  British_Empire  French_Empire  Industrial_Revolution  raw_materials  natural_resources  globalization  Sub-Saharan_Afric  economic_growth  development  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Bassino, Broadberry, Fukao, Gupta, and Takashima - Japan and the Great Divergence, 725 to 1874 | VOX, CEPR’s Policy Portal - 01 July 2015
Jean-Pascal Bassino, Stephen Broadberry, Kyoji Fukao, Bishnupriya Gupta, Masanori Takashima -- Japan was the first Asian nation to achieve modern economic growth. This column discusses new evidence suggesting that Japan’s growth started from a lower level than Britain’s and grew more slowly until the Meiji Restoration. The key to understanding modern economic growth seems to lie in identifying the forces that dampened growth reversals, rather than the forces responsible for growth itself. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  economic_history  economic_growth  medieval_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  economic_theory  economic_sociology  Great_Divergence  Japan  development  UK_economy  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Must-Read: Sharun Mukand and Dani Rodrik: The Political Economy of Liberal Democracy - Washington Center for Equitable Growth
We distinguish between… property rights, political rights, and civil rights… …Liberal democracy is that it protects civil rights (equality before the law for minorities) in addition to the other two. Democratic transitions are typically the product of a settlement between the elite (who care mostly about property rights) and the majority (who care mostly about political rights). Such settlements rarely produce liberal democracy, as the minority has neither the resources nor the numbers to make a contribution at the bargaining table. We develop a formal model to sharpen the contrast between electoral and liberal democracies…. We discuss… the difference between social mobilizations sparked by industrialization and decolonization. Since the latter revolve around identity cleavages rather than class cleavages, they are less conducive to liberal politics. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  democracy  liberal_democracy  civil_liberties  rights-legal  rights-political  human_rights  democratization  transition_economies  elites-political_influence  property_rights  property-confiscations  identity_politics  decolonization  post-colonial  industrialization  LDCs  emerging_markets  development  economic_growth  political_economy  political_culture  majoritarian  minorities  class_conflict  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Michael Kwass, review essay - Reassessing Enlightenment Economics - Reinert's "Translating Empire" | Books & ideas - 25 March 2013
Reviewed: Sophus A. Reinert, Translating Empire: Emulation and the Origins of Political Economy. Harvard University Press, 438 pp - Resurrecting the life of John Cary’s Essay on the State of England, a book which travelled all over Europe throughout the 18th century, S.A. Reinert challenges our understanding of Enlightenment economics, while calling for a more nuanced and historically-informed understanding of political economy in general. (..) By resurrecting the life of a text that scholars have dismissed as “mercantilist” and repositioning that work at the center of 18th-century political economy, Reinert challenges our basic understanding of Enlightenment economics, so often reduced to the free-trade doctrines of the physiocrats and Adam Smith. He argues that the diffusion of Cary’s work demonstrates that state-centered approaches to the creation of wealth enjoyed wide resonance at the very moment when discussions of economic policy were expanding beyond state chambers to engage a broader public. Far from being eclipsed by theories of laissez-faire economics, as conventional histories of economic thought would have us believe, such approaches became “the absolute mainstream in Europe” by the late 18th century -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  kindle  18thC  economic_history  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  political_economy  Enlightenment  economic_theory  mercantilism  laisser-faire  Physiocrats  Smith  British_history  British_foreign_policy  nation-state  economic_growth  development  public_policy  public_goods  government-roles  Italy  Austria  Germany  readership  history_of_book  print_culture  information-intermediaries  networks-information  networks-business  networks-policy  Republic_of_Letters  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
POPE PAUL VI - Populorum Progressio (March 26, 1967) - ENCYCLICAL ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PEOPLES | Vatican
The progressive development of peoples is an object of deep interest and concern to the Church. This is particularly true in the case of those peoples who are trying to escape the ravages of hunger, poverty, endemic disease and ignorance; of those who are seeking a larger share in the benefits of civilization and a more active improvement of their human qualities; of those who are consciously striving for fuller growth. -- downloaded pdf to Note
religious_history  20thC  post-WWII  Catholics  Papacy  Vatican_II  religious_belief  religious_culture  social_thought  social_problem  social_theory  modernity  poverty  inequality  justice  development  progress  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Ravi Kanbur, Michael Keen - Rethinking informality | VOX, CEPR’s Policy Portal - 05 June 2015
The ‘informal’ economy presents a key challenge for developing-nation policymakers due to its labour-market and tax-revenue implications. Informality is usually defined as the complement to formality, i.e. any activity that isn’t covered by a clear set of laws. This column argues that such a definition risks obscuring more than it reveals, by failing to understand and address the varieties of informality that exist. Sensible policy should focus on tailored interventions across different categories of taxpayer, not on reducing aggregate informality. -- nice way of looking at policy objectives - it's not just revenue collection, there's interactions with other types of regulation - they highlight labor laws, but lots of the "doing business" projects uncover many other regulatory compliance issues in developing countries that would interact as well
Instapaper  paper  development  regulation  regulation-enforcement  regulation-costs  informal_sectors  Labor_markets  labor_law  labor_standards  tax_policy  tax_collection  SMEs  micro-enterprises  doing_business 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Thorsten Beck, Asli Demirgüç-Kunt, Maria Soledad Martinez Peria - Foreign banks and small and medium enterprises: Are they really estranged? | VOX, CEPR’s Policy Portal - 01 April 2010
Small and medium enterprises are engines of economic growth. But what kind of market structure is more conducive to financing these enterprises? This column argues that different types of bank, applying different types of lending technology and organisational structures can all play a vital role in financing them. They're working with a big data set they developed -- shows quite different lending technologies as between foreign and domestic, but similar outcomes in volume of lending, conditions, pricing etc. The big differences are cross couhtry, where thoorer, less developed suffer from less access to credit for investment, higher pricing, etc -- which reflects overall economic conditions and business environment. -- nice use of data -- downloaded page as pdf to Note
financial_system  development  emerging_markets  LDCs  SMEs  access_to_finance  banking  financial_instiutions  cross-border  firms-structure  firms-organization  credit_ratings  financial_sector_development  financial_innovation  investment  collateral  downloaded 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Martens, Rusconi and Leuze, eds. - New Arenas of Education Governance: The Impact of International Organizations and Markets on Educational Policy Making | Palgrave Macmillan - November 2007
Edited by Kerstin Martens, Alessandra Rusconi, Kathrin Leuze -- How and to what extent is education becoming a field of international and market governance? Traditionally, education policy making has been viewed as the responsibility of the nation state, falling within the realm of domestic politics. But recent years have witnessed the transformation of the state. Globalization has introduced new actors and led to the internationalization and marketization of education. This volume provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date account of these new arenas of education governance, examining the impact of international organizations and the role of the market in policymaking. It demonstrates how education policy is formulated at international levels and what the consequences for national policy making will be. -- excerpt = TOC, Introduction and index -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  public_policy  education  education-higher  education-training  education-privatization  education-finance  international_organizations  globalization  markets_in_everything  market_fundamentalism  privatization  public_goods  governance  global_governance  business-and-politics  business_influence  education-civic  values  accountability  Labor_markets  human_capital  competition  competition-interstate  development  distance_learning  IT  communication  nation-state  national_ID  knowledge_economy  OECD  World_Bank  WTO  trade-policy  trade-agreements  student_debt  democracy_deficit  political_participation  EU  EU_governance  standards-setting  testing  downloaded 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Joseph Adelson, review essay - What Caused Capitalism? | Foreign Affairs - May 2015
Once upon a time, smart people thought the world was flat. As globalization took off, economists pointed to spreading market forces that… Includes new Cambridge History of Capitalism, Mokyr Enlightened Economy, Acemoglu and Robinson Why Nations Fail, and Beckert Empire of Cotton -- contrasts tales that are, in broad brush, optimistic and internalist re origins (especially Mokyr) vs pessimistic and externalist (especially Cotton) -- copied to Instapaper
books  reviews  bookshelf  economic_history  capitalism  Great_Divergence  ancient_history  global_economy  global_history  global_system  Europe-Early_Modern  city_states  Italy  Spain  France  British_history  India  US_history  colonialism  imperialism  empires  institutional_economics  technology  development  Scientific_Revolution  Industrial_Revolution  industrialization  industrial_policy  US_Civil_War  slavery  property  property_rights  mercantilism  mercantilism-violence  Instapaper  markets  political_economy  economic_culture  economic_growth  from instapaper
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Médicins sans frontières - The Trans-Pacific Partnership: A Threat To Global Health? -:May 2015
The IP protections for big pharma not only go against consensus on improving global health policy, they are in the opposite direction of Obama administration domestic policy! The trade technocrats who've been committed to a career of trade negotiations seem to have completely lost the plot. Looks like a classic case of regulatory capture (sharing "business promotion" process and goals with US MNCs, their most important "partners") of one part of the policymaking bureaucracy, which isn't even registering the fact of conflict with other parts of the government. The White House (and Treasury? ) appear to have bought the negitiators' claim that the deal is the "best" they can get, and if a part of it is attacked the whole thing will come apart. Besides the MNCs who will be able to exploit monopolies on a global scale and protect their newly acquired"property rights" from pesky national regulations, it's unclear who in the US benefits. But the trade technocrats are working in a bubble where "doing a deal" would be a triumph, regardless of the merits, after Doha fell apart. It also looks like "intellectual capture" with a failure to mark policies to market in face of counter evidence. There's been nothing on the trade front that has vocally challenged neoliberal verities the way the IMF is openly questioning its dogmas. I bet USTR is still mandating capital account liberalization in bilaterals while it's been abandoned as "best practice" at the IMF, with no timely input from the right people at Treasury to change the boilerplate demands. Jason Furman, or somebody close to the President, needs to show him how much the TPP embodies a host of awful stuff he's been openly fighting against. The secrecy has been working against him -- it distorts the signals. People whose judgment he'd trust haven't opposed specifics they'd scream against, since they haven't seen the details and aren't willing to be seen to undermine him, and he's only been pressured from the Left which can be completely discounted, since they're expected to be unhappy. But it's looking not just "hold your nose" poor -- it's actively terrible -- especially since it's also to be used as a blueprint for bringing more countries on board! Total dig's breakfast!
US_economy  US_politics  trade-policy  trade-agreements  Trans-Pacific-Partnership  IP  IP-global_governance  pharma  health  development  LDCs  monopolies  rent-seeking  inequality  unions  neoliberalism  Democrats  Obama_administration  Obama  Instapaper  from instapaper
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Jonathan D. Ostry , Atish R. Ghosh , and Mahvash S. Qureshi - Managing Capital Flows in Frontier Economies | IMF Direct - April 2015
By Jonathan D. Ostry , Atish R. Ghosh , and Mahvash S. Qureshi  There has been a remarkable increase in financial flows to frontier economies from private… Enfin! Just 20+ years late. Nice roundup of various people (like Rodrik) thinking about all the variables, including what sorts of local institutional capacity (government and financial markets and institutions) are required for (1) absorbing different types of capital flows or (2) if a country wants to restrict flows in some fashion, to manage different types of restrictions. Additionally, there are challenges to the basic premise of encouraging capital flows to frontier markets -- these countries are more likely to be investment constrained than the unproven assumption that they're savings constrained. Macroeconomic impacts are also getting a closer look, not only the dilemmas of managing monetary policy and exchange rates -- e. g., FDI can be defeated if inflows raise the rate to reduce trade advantages. Since the biggest issuers from frontier markets tend to be the state, there's a big potential impact on sustainability of fiscal policy (to say nothing of corruption), and again the exchange rate impacts can be severe in both directions. The post is mainly an outline of an ambitious, multidimensional research program that's emerging among development economists, financial economists, macroeconomics in both the OECD countries and think tanks in emerging markets and the IFIs. -- finally the discussion has moved off the obsession with flight capital that took root in the 1980s and was the trump played anytime anyone questioned the happy-happy conventional wisdom of capital liberalization promoters.
economic_theory  macroeconomics  capital_flows  FDI  IFIs  IMF  capital_controls  fiscal_policy  monetary_policy  FX  FX-misalignment  neoliberalism  globalization  emerging_markets  frontier_markets  competitiveness  technology_transfer  infrastructure  development  financial_system  financial_regulation  financial_sector_development  financial_stability  banking  interest_rates  institutional_investors  institutional_capacity  institution-building  central_banks  governance  bibliography  Instapaper  from instapaper
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Arnold C. Harberger - The Search for Relevance in Economics - The Richard Ely Lecture | JSTOR - The American Economic Review (May 1993)
Arnold C. Harberger, Professor of Economics, UCLA & Catholic University of Chile -- The American Economic Review, Vol. 83, No. 2, Papers and Proceedings of the Hundred and Fifth Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association (May, 1993), pp. 1-16 -- focus is on "practicing economists" (e.g, in central banks, IFIs, government departments and agencies, especially in developing countries) on analogy to "practitioners of medicine" within the medical profession. The medical profession is demonstrably better at both preparing their members in graduate school for what they will undertake in the real world, and in producing ongoing research, publications etc by academics that are relevant to practitioners. Follows on the heels of a high status Krueger Commission on Graduate Education, which reflected some of the problems he identifies, such as graduates with highly developed technical, principally math, skills, but little training in how to apply to real world problems that won't be framed in a way the technical skills can be readily applied. Lots of overlap from both the Commission and Harberger with the criticisms of economic education post the 2008 financial crisis. Although the sense that there was a consensus re the economic theories that needed to be taught seems to not have yet been challenged, at least to the same degree as 15 years later. The issue, rather, was "relevance" -- which doesn't seem to have improved in 15 years, but now made worse by challenges to the core content and failure to incorporate "specialties" like finance and agent-based modeling into the "core" or Kuhn's normal science. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  economic_theory  economic_sociology  sociology_of_knowledge  professionalization  policy  economic_models  economic_policy  education-higher  policymaking  political_economy  development 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Lawrence H. Summers and Lant H. Pritchett - The Structural-Adjustment Debate (May, 1993) | JSTOR - The American Economic Review
Lawrence H. Summers and Lant H. Pritchett, The American Economic Review, Vol. 83, No. 2, Papers and Proceedings of the Hundred and Fifth Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association (May, 1993), pp. 383-389 -- review of World Bank research on results of IMF/World Bank programs -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  jstor  IFIs  development  development-impact  Washington_Consensus  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Geoffrey Jones - Entrepreneurs, Firms and Global Wealth Since 1850 - March 2013 | SSRN
Modern economic growth diffused from its origins in the North Sea region to elsewhere in western and northern Europe, across the Atlantic, and later to Japan, but struggled to get traction elsewhere. The societal and cultural embeddedness of the new technologies posed significant entrepreneurial challenges. The best equipped to overcome these challenges were often entrepreneurs based in minorities who held significant advantages in capital-raising and trust levels. By the interwar years productive modern business enterprise was emerging across the non-Western world. Often local and Western managerial practices were combined to produce hybrid forms of business enterprise. After 1945 many governmental policies designed to facilitate catch-up ended up crippling these emergent business enterprises without putting effective alternatives in place. The second global economy has provided more opportunities for catch up from the Rest, and has seen the rapid growth of globally competitive businesses in Asia, Latin America and Africa. This is explained not only by institutional reforms, but by new ways for business in the Rest to access knowledge and capital, including returning diaspora, business schools and management consultancies. Smarter state capitalism was also a greater source of international competitive advantage than the state intervention often seen in the past. -- downloaded pdf to Note
economic_history  development  industrialization  institutional_economics  19thC  20thC  21stC  post-WWII  competition-interstate  globalization  industrial_policy  emtrepreneurs  diaspora  SMEs  technology_transfer  trust  access_to_finance  modernization_theory  business_history  firms-organization  downloaded  SSRN  Industrial_Revolution 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Dani Rodrik - Premature deindustrialisation in the developing world | voxeu 12 February 2015
As developed economies have substituted away from manufacturing towards services, so too have developing countries – to an even greater extent. Such sectoral change may be premature for economies that never fully industrialised in the first place. This column presents evidence that countries with smaller manufacturing sectors substitute away from manufacturing to a larger extent, suggesting a trade channel through which falling international relative prices of manufacturing lead price-taking developing economies to substitute accordingly.
development  industrialization  industrial_policy  productivity  deindustrialisation  LDCs  OECD_economies  democratization  globalization  import_substitution  free_trade 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Ma Yuge and Joel Sandhu - Making Sense of China and India’s Low-Carbon Pathways | Global Policy Journal 16th September 2014
China and India’s low-carbon development is crucial for global sustainability and domestic welfare. However, embedded political and economic obstacles have prevented a smooth and effective transition towards a low-carbon future in the two emerging countries. This article analyzes China and India’s energy efficiency policies as a lens into this question. We argue that the existing energy efficiency and broader low-carbon development pathways – India’s market-oriented approach and China’s target-driven paradigm – are not sufficient to address the challenges. Policymakers should reflect on and fix the shortcomings of the current pathways by paying close attention to the various forms of maneuvers of low-carbon policies in the given political and economic environments in China and India. -- part of Global Policy "Juxtaposition" program re comparative work on China and India -- didn't download paper
paper  IR  global_governance  environment  climate  energy  China  India  development  green_economy  local_government  central_government 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Rasmus Karlsson and Jonathan Symons - Making Climate Leadership Meaningful: Energy Research as a Key to Global Decarbonisation - Feb 2015 | Global Policy Journal- Wiley Online Library
This article revisits a number of familiar debates about climate change mitigation yet draws some unorthodox conclusions. First, that progress towards a renewable small-scale energy future in environmentally conscious countries such as Germany and Sweden may take the world as a whole further away from climate stability by reducing the political pressure to finance breakthrough innovation. Second, that without such game-changing innovations, developing countries will continue to deploy whatever technologies are domestically available, scalable and affordable, including thermal coal power in most instances. Third and finally, that as any realistic hope of achieving climate stability hinges on the innovation of breakthrough technologies, the urgency of climate change calls not so much for the domestic deployment of existing energy technologies but rather a concentrated effort to develop technologies that will be adopted globally. These arguments imply that national innovation policy, and an international treaty establishing a ‘Low-Emissions Technology Commitment’ should be the central focus of climate policy. -- added to Wiley profile
article  paywall  Wiley  global_governance  energy  climate  technology  Innovation  technology-adoption  technology_transfer  green_finance  development  IR  IR-domestic_politics  economic_growth  IP-global_governance  innovation-government_policy  industrial_policy  industrialization 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Jeff Horn - Economic Development in Early Modern France: The Privilege of Liberty, 1650–1820 (release date for hardback mid-Feb 2015) | European history after 1450 | Cambridge University Press
Privilege has long been understood as the constitutional basis of Ancien Régime France, legalising the provision of a variety of rights, powers and exemptions to some, whilst denying them to others. In this fascinating new study however, Jeff Horn reveals that Bourbon officials utilized privilege as an instrument of economic development, freeing some sectors of the economy from pre-existing privileges and regulations, while protecting others. He explores both government policies and the innovations of entrepreneurs, workers, inventors and customers to uncover the lived experience of economic development from the Fronde to the Restoration. He shows how, influenced by Enlightenment thought, the regime increasingly resorted to concepts of liberty to defend privilege as a policy tool. The book offers important new insights into debates about the impact of privilege on early industrialisation, comparative economic development and the outbreak of the French Revolution. **--** 1. Introduction: profits and economic development during the Old Régime *--* 2. Privileged enclaves and the guilds: liberty and regulation *--* 3. The privilege of liberty put to the test: industrial development in Normandy *--* 4. Companies, colonies, and contraband: commercial privileges under the Old Régime *--* 5. Privilege, liberty, and managing the market: trading with the Levant *--* 6. Outside the body politic, essential to the body economic: the privileges of Jews, Protestants and foreign residents *--* 7. Privilege, innovation, and the state: entrepreneurialism and the lessons of the Old Régime *--* 8. The reign of liberty? Privilege after 1789 -- look for pdf of Intro once released
books  find  political_economy  economic_history  political_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  France  privileges-corporate  economic_culture  economic_policy  development  monarchy  profit  entrepreneurs  guilds  trading_companies  trade-policy  regulation  industrialization  industrial_policy  Colbert  Colbertism  urban_development  urban_elites  commerce  commercial_interest  French_government  Huguenots  Jews  colonialism  French_Empire  colonies  corporate_finance  monopolies  Levant  MENA  Ottomans  liberties  liberty  Ancien_régime  Louis_XIV  Louis_XV  Louis_XVI  French_Revolution  French_Revolutionary_Wars  Napoleonic_Wars  Restoration-France  bourgeoisie  haute_bourgeoisie  markets  markets-structure  foreign_trade  foreign_policy  foreigners-resident 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Special Issue: Microfinance -- AEAweb: American Economic Journal: Applied Economics Vol. 7 No.1, Jan 2015
Abstract of introductory article -- Causal evidence on microcredit impacts informs theory, practice, and debates about its effectiveness as a development tool. The six randomized evaluations in this volume use a variety of sampling, data collection, experimental design, and econometric strategies to identify causal effects of expanded access to microcredit on borrowers and/or communities. These methods are deployed across an impressive range of locations—six countries on four continents, urban and rural areas—borrower characteristics, loan characteristics, and lender characteristics. Summarizing and interpreting results across studies, we note a consistent pattern of modestly positive, but not transformative, effects. We also discuss directions for future research. -- broad conclusion to be expected contra the hype -- but focus still seems to be on *credit* (with assumptions re micro and SME entrepreneurs and business formation) rather than access to services -- also question whether the former Yugoslavia study really dealt with "micro", likely the sort of labeling of SMEs as micro like Aftab's programs
journals-academic  article  paywall  microfinance  access_to_finance  development  economic_growth  economic_sociology  development-impact  RCT  econometrics  causation  causation-social  financial_sector_development  financial_economics  financial_access  institutional_economics  banking  credit  financial_innovation  SMEs  access_to_services  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Solutions Journalism - Toolkit for Reporting Internationally
Downloaded guide to iPhone -- This meaty guidebook has two objectives: (1) to highlight and dissect the solutions-oriented work of four Pulitzer Center grantees; and (2) to offer general guidance about howto report on solutions stories internationally – and how to get your story idea funded. This guidebook has been produced in partnership with the Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting, which supports international journalism across media platforms.
report  downloaded  journalism  narrative  public_sphere  public_policy  development  urbanism  family  migration  public_health  education  women-education  public_disorder  racism  civil_wars  environment  climate  poverty  access_to_services  labor  labor_standards  political_participation  gender  violence  norms 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Garicano, Luis and Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban (2014) - Knowledge-based hierarchies: using organizations to understand the economy - LSE Research Online
Via Economic Principals -- We argue that incorporating the decision of how to organize the acquisition, use, and communication of knowledge into economic models is essential to understand a wide variety of economic phenomena. We survey the literature that has used knowledge-based hierarchies to study issues like the evolution of wage inequality, the growth and productivity of firms, economic development, the gains from international trade, as well as offshoring and the formation of international production teams, among many others. We also review the nascent empirical literature that has, so far, confirmed the importance of organizational decisions and many of its more salient implications. - downloaded to iPhone
paper  lit_survey  economic_theory  economic_growth  productivity  inequality  labor  wages  supply_chains  teams  off-shoring  trade  emerging_markets  corporate_finance  development  MNCs  power  power-asymetric  firm-theory  organization  hierarchy  know-how  technology  innovation  superstars  middle_class  working_class  social_stratification  social_theory  institutional_economics  globalization  economy_of_scale  increasing_returns  IP  downloaded 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Ashraf & Galor - The 'Out of Africa' Hypothesis, Human Genetic Diversity, and Comparative Economic Development | from American Economic Review 2013
This research advances and empirically establishes the hypothesis that, in the course of the prehistoric exodus of Homo sapiens out of Africa, variation in migratory distance to various settlements across the globe affected genetic diversity and has had a persistent hump-shaped effect on comparative economic development, reflecting the trade-off between the beneficial and the detrimental effects of diversity on productivity. While the diversity of Native American populations and the high diversity of African populations have been detrimental for the development of these regions, the intermediate levels of diversity associated with European and Asian populations have been conducive for development. - dowmloaded to iPhone zip file
economic_culture  development  economic_growth  demography  genetics  diversity-genetic  migration  deep_history  downloaded 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Jeffrey A. Sheehan - The Legacy of Indonesia's Boediono - Knowledge@Wharton
Boediono served as Vice President of Indonesia from 2009 to October 20, 2014, when President Joko Widodo was elected and took office with Vice President Jusuf Kalla. In the following piece, Jeffrey A. Sheehan of Sheehan Advisory LLC — and former associate dean for international relations at Wharton — writes about Boediono, who he has known for 22 years. The material, which draws on public and private discussions, is excerpted from the manuscript of Sheehan’s forthcoming book, tentatively titled, “There Are No Foreign Lands.”
books  Indonesia  democracy  democratization  development  nation-state  state-building  emerging_markets  national_ID  globalization  global_governance  post-colonial  Dutch  20thC  21stC  bureaucracy  corruption 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Gloria Balderas, Opinion Article - Habits as learning enhancers (2014) | Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Opinion ARTICLE -- Frontiers of Human Neuroscience., 14 November 2014 | doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00918- Departamento de Filosofía, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain -- Introduction - Habits are usually associated with both a positive and a negative consequence. The positive consequence is that habits liberate attentional resources and mechanisms, thus enabling organisms to perform simultaneous or more complex actions. The negative consequence is that habits become rigid behaviors which persist despite producing harmful outcomes, as in addictions and some neurological disorders. This article proposes that habits also function as learning enhancers. The plausibility of this statement is supported by results from research on word-trained dogs. (..) Evidence has been found that dogs are able to fast map. In studies of language acquisition, the ability to make accurate assumptions about the referent of an unfamiliar word is called fast mapping, a phenomenon that has been observed especially in toddlers. This article argues that the training in words forms habits that predispose dogs to establish a new word-object association. The definition of learning as ontogenetic adaptation and the hierarchical view of habit are expounded in Section Learning and Habits. Taking into account these notions, the results of experiments on fast mapping in dogs are presented in Section Fast Mapping in Dogs and Learned Habits, to show that habits work as learning enhancers. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  neuroscience  learning  habit  fast_mapping  language  development  development-biological  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Razzaque, M. and Y. Basnett(eds.) - Regional Integration in South Asia: Trends, Challenges and Prospects (Commonwealth Secretariat, 2014) | The Commonwealth iLibrary - Books
"Regional Integration in South Asia: Trends, Challenges and Prospects" presents an objective assessment of trade and economic co-operation among South Asian nations and highlights policy issues to foster regional integration. The analyses presented in this volume go beyond the usual discussions on trade-in-goods to provide insightful perspectives on potential new areas of co-operation, emerging challenges, and country-specific views on regional and bilateral trade co-operation issues. Written by influential analysts and researchers, the volume’s 24 chapters include perspectives from Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, and examinations of new areas of co-operation such as investment, regional supply chains, energy and cross-border transport networks. -- From overview chapter, looks like they pour cold water on launching another in a long series of splashy but ineffective regional initiatives. They expect few major benefits from focusing on tariffs and official non-tariff trade barriers or a preferential regional bloc. The region simply is poorly integrated by infrastructure, movements of people and ideas, and business relations. Much is due to the costs of adequate over land transport given the topography, which exacerbated by the political tensions that are barriers to devoting significant scarce resources to building cross-border linkages. But even ports have been developed with an eye to global rather than regional trade. Can be read online - or download for $
books  South_Asia  economic_growth  development  exports  export-led  regional_blocs  India  Pakistan  Bangladesh  Sri_Lanka  trade-policy  trade-agreements  trade  supply_chains  globalization  political_economy  infrastructure  transport  ports  tariffs 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Special Issue in Memory of Charles Tilly (1929–2008): Cities, States, Trust, and Rule - Contents | JSTOR: Theory and Society, Vol. 39, No. 3/4, May 2010
1 - Cities, states, trust, and rule: new departures from the work of Charles Tilly - Michael Hanagan and Chris Tilly [d-load] *-* 2 - Cities, states, and trust networks: Chapter 1 of 'Cities and States in World History' - Charles Tilly [d-load] *-* 3 - Unanticipated consequences of "humanitarian intervention": The British campaign to abolish the slave trade, 1807-1900 - Marcel van der Linden [d-load] *-* 4 - Is there a moral economy of state formation? Religious minorities and repertoires of regime integration in the Middle East and Western Europe, 600-1614 - Ariel Salzmann [d-load] *-* 5 - Inclusiveness and exclusion: trust networks at the origins of European cities - Wim Blockmans [d-load] *-* 6 - Colonial legacy of ethno-racial inequality in Japan - Hwaji Shin. *-* 7 - Legacies of empire? - Miguel Angel Centeno and Elaine Enriquez. *-* 8 - Cities and states in geohistory - Edward W. Soja [d-load] *-* 9 - From city club to nation state: business networks in American political development - Elisabeth S. Clemens [d-load] *-* 10 - Irregular armed forces, shifting patterns of commitment, and fragmented sovereignty in the developing world - Diane E. Davis *-* 11 - Institutions and the adoption of rights: political and property rights in Colombia - Carmenza Gallo *-* 12 - Taking Tilly south: durable inequalities, democratic contestation, and citizenship in the Southern Metropolis - Patrick Heller and Peter Evans *-* 13 - Industrial welfare and the state: nation and city reconsidered - Smita Srinivas *-* 14 - The forms of power and the forms of cities: building on Charles Tilly - Peter Marcuse [d-load] *-* 15 - Was government the solution or the problem? The role of the state in the history of American social policy
journal  article  jstor  social_theory  political_sociology  contention  social_movements  change-social  historical_sociology  nation-state  cities  city_states  urban_politics  urban_elites  urbanization  urban_development  economic_sociology  institutions  institutional_change  property_rights  civil_liberties  civil_society  political_participation  political_culture  inequality  class_conflict  development  colonialism  abolition  medieval_history  state-building  religious_culture  politics-and-religion  MENA  Europe-Early_Modern  Reformation  networks-business  US_history  US_politics  US_economy  welfare_state  power-asymmetric  power-symbolic  elites  elite_culture  imperialism  empires  trust  networks-social  networks-religious  networks  14thC  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  geohistory  moral_economy  military_history  militia  guerrillas  mercenaires  sovereignty  institution-building 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Lapavitsas, Costas and Aybar, S. - "Financial System Design and the Post-Washington Consensus" (2001) - In Lapavitstas, C. and Fine, B. and Pincus, J., (eds.), Neither the Washington nor the Post-Washington Consensus - SOAS Research Online
Lapavitsas, Costas and Aybar, S. (2001) 'Financial System Design and the Post-Washington Consensus.' In: Lapavitstas, C. and Fine, B. and Pincus, J., (eds.), Neither the Washington nor the Post-Washington Consensus: Development at the Crossroads. London: Routledge, pp. 28-51. -- no abstract -- eprint not on SOAS site
paper  books  libraries  financial_system  financial_sector_development  financial_regulation  development  World_Bank  emerging_markets 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
ECONOMICS AS SOCIAL THEORY - Routledge Series edited by Tony Lawson - Titles List
Social theory is experiencing something of a revival within economics. Critical analyses of the particular nature of the subject matter of social studies and of the types of method, categories and modes of explanation that can legitimately be endorsed for the scientific study of social objects, are re-emerging. Economists are again addressing such issues as the relationship between agency and structure, between the economy and the rest of society, and between inquirer and the object of inquiry. There is renewed interest in elaborating basic categories such as causation, competition, culture, discrimination,evolution, money, need, order, organisation, power, probability, process, rationality, technology, time, truth, uncertainty and value, etc. The objective for this series is to facilitate this revival further. In contemporary economics the label `theory' has been appropriated by a group that confines itself to largely a-social, a-historical, mathematical `modelling'. Economics as Social Theory thus reclaims the `theory' label, offering a platform for alternative, rigorous, but broader and more critical conceptions of theorising.
books  social_theory  economic_theory  social_sciences  intellectual_history  political_economy  causation-social  economic_sociology  economic_culture  rationality-economics  rational_choice  rationality-bounded  rational_expectations  critical_realism  evolution-social  history_of_science  historical_sociology  agency-structure  power  power-asymmetric  business-and-politics  capitalism  capital_as_power  Marxist  Post-Keynesian  epistemology  epistemology-social  conventions  social_order  civil_society  public_policy  public_goods  anarchism  competition  financialization  development  economic_growth 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Sunanda Sen - International Trade Theory and Policy: A Review of the Literature - Working Paper No. 635 | Levy Economics Institute - November 2010
This paper provides a survey of the literature on trade theory, from the classical example of comparative advantage to the New Trade theories currently used by many advanced countries to direct industrial policy and trade. An account is provided of the neo-classical brand of reciprocal demand and resource endowment theories, along with their usual empirical verifications and logical critiques. A useful supplement is provided in terms of Staffan Linder’s theory of “overlapping demand,” which provides an explanation of trade structure in terms of aggregate demand. Attention is drawn to new developments in trade theory, with strategic trade providing inputs to industrial policy. Issues relating to trade, growth, and development are dealt with separately, supplemented by an account of the neo-Marxist versions of trade and underdevelopment. -- Associated Program: The State of the US and World Economies -- Related Topic(s):Comparative costs New theories of trade Overlapping demand Resource pattern and trade Strategic trade Trade and development -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  lit_survey  economic_theory  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  trade-theory  trade-policy  industrial_policy  economic_growth  development  comparative_advantage  demand-side  supply-side  natural_resources  commodities  industrialization  exports  import_substitution  imports  export-led  neoclassical_economics  neo-Marxist  trade-strategic  underdevelopment  inequality  labor  downloaded 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
Jonathan E. Leightner - Asia's Financial Crisis, Speculative Bubbles, and Under-Consumption Theory | JSTOR: Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 34, No. 2 (Jun., 2000), pp. 385-392
He looks at Asian high savings rates (and global imbalances) in 1990s and returns to Mummery& Hobson theory of under-consumption from late 19thC -- Mummery, A. F., and J. A. Hobson. The Physiology of Industry: Being an Exposure of Certain Fallacies in Existing Theories of Economics. London: J. Murray, 1889, reprint Fairfield, N.J.: Augustus M. Kelley Publishers -- His doctoral work looks to have focused on comparative growth patterns and importance of balanced growth of social and economic classes in providing consumer demand that pushes new technology and productivity gains -- dangers of inequality and benefits of more equal distribution -- Leightner, Jonathan E. "The Compatibility of Growth and Increased Equality: Evidence from Thailand, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and South Africa." Unpublished part of Ph.D. diss -- short article, didn't download
article  jstor  economic_history  political_economy  1990s  Asian_crisis  international_political_economy  international_finance  financial_crisis  consumer_demand  inequality  savings  global_imbalance  economic_growth  economic_theory  19thC  Victorian  demand-side  development  bubbles  speculative_finance  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
theAIRnet.org - Home
The Academic-Industry Research Network – theAIRnet – is a private, 501(c)(3) not-for-profit research organization devoted to the proposition that a sound understanding of the dynamics of industrial development requires collaboration between academic scholars and industry experts. We engage in up-to-date, in-depth, and incisive research and commentary on issues related to industrial innovation and economic development. Our goal is to understand the ways in which, through innovation, businesses and governments can contribute to equitable and stable economic growth – or what we call “sustainable prosperity”.
website  economic_growth  industry  technology  Innovation  green_economy  development  business  business-and-politics  capitalism  global_economy  public-private_partnerships  public_policy  public_health  public_goods  urban_development  health_care  IP  Labor_markets  wages  unemployment  education-training  sustainability  financial_system  corporate_citizenship  corporate_governance  corporate_finance  CSR  firms-theory  management  plutocracy  MNCs  international_political_economy  human_capital  OECD_economies  emerging_markets  supply_chains  R&D  common_good  1-percent  inequality  working_class  work-life_balance  workforce  regulation  regulation-harmonization  incentives  stagnation 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Chetna Vijay Sinha How to build an entrepreneur - microcredit for women in India | The World Economic Forum Blog - Sep 12 2014
Story of a cooperative microfinance bank founded in 1997 for women in the village of Mhaswad, in the Satara district of India. Women wanted to save, but no bank would accept the tiny sums they could deposit. Today, the Mann Deshi Mahila Bank, run by and for women, has over 2,000,000 clients in many districts of Maharashtra state. But launching it in 1997 was far from straightforward. Applying for a bank licence revealed how many societal barriers there are for impoverished women. Yet it also showed that it is often the women themselves who have answers to the problems they face. -- The women now had a microbank, but they had no time to come to it during their working day. So we decided to take the bank to the home and began doorstep banking. Next we found that the women all wanted to leave their passbooks with the bank ‒ if they took them home, their husbands would take the money. Women needed control over their finances and their decisions. This is how we became, in 1999, the first bank in India to introduce doorstep banking with e-card wireless technology to securely store personal financial information. -- They need a support network because so often there is little or no support within the family. A woman who raised sheep and goats wanted a loan to buy a mobile phone so she could talk to her children when she was working. She also asked us to show her how to operate the phone. This led to the launch of a a day-long workshop how to operate mobile phones, and other basic skills like using calculators. Mann Deshi also introduced a Deshi MBA programme to provide training in such areas as cash management, self-management and mentorship. And because the women cannot travel, we established a business school bus that travels to them. -- loan program for girls to buy bikes to go to school etc
development  poverty  microfinance  India  women-and-development  women-property  education-women  education-training  tech-mobile_phones  e-commerce  e-banking  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Nicolas Véron - Chart: Alibaba IPO underlines rise of Chinese private sector | Bruegel.org - September 2014
Looks at Chinese companies in FT global top companies -- The chart suggests three observations. First, with about two-thirds of the total, the PRC’s government retains a firm control of the “commanding heights” of Chinese business, as has been plain since the massive IPOs of state-owned enterprises in the mid-2000s. Second, however, this measure suggests a continuous erosion of state control for the past half-decade, as new entrants such as Tencent and Alibaba gain ground – and as private firms in Hong Kong and Macao have also comparatively recovered somewhat from their low point of the late 2000s. Third, and for the first time with Alibaba’s addition to the mix, large private-sector companies from the mainland collectively weigh as much as their peers from Hong Kong and Macao when measured by aggregate value. As always in China, one must keep in mind that the distinction between public and private sector remains somewhat fuzzy. Ultimate ownership of private-sector firms is often unclear, and the Communist Party of China retains ways to influence the strategy and behaviour of many nominally private-sector companies. Nevertheless, the gradual rise of private-sector companies as compared with the state-owned giants is too continuous to be ignored. Alibaba’s IPO is likely to be remembered as the symbolic moment of this momentous transformation of the Chinese corporate landscape.
China  SOEs  capital_markets  private_enterprise  development 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Lant Pritchett -The Politics of Penurious Poverty Lines (Part II) Strange Bedfellows | Center For Global Development September 2014
Re unholy alliance in US, Europe and Japan between advocates for the destitute, fiscal realists and post-materialists -- I argue the success of the "advocates for the destitute" is the result of a coalition of strange bedfellows that actually bring the political heft in rich countries and use the rhetoric of the "advocates" as cover. The fiscal realists and post-materialists like penurious poverty lines not because they put more attention on the poor [the advocates' rationalization of using the poorest of the poor as a PR target], but because they take income gains to everyone else off the table by making a small deal of big differences in incomes between the “middle class” in Ethiopia or India and those of the rich countries. Reframing the “center” of the development agenda around an arbitrary poverty measure that eliminates 5 billion people from “development” is a political master-stroke for the fiscal realists. The advocates of penurious poverty lines create political space for fiscal realists to posture as “pro-development” (and not just hard-hearted or fiscally strapped) while arguing that “development assistance” hasn’t gone to “the poor” (by this new arbitrary measure) and hence with “focus,” agencies need less resources. “Extreme poverty” is a boon for post-materialists in promoting their goals as it manages to take the concerns of large majorities in developing countries in favor of rapid material progress (prioritized at their existing material conditions over other legitimate goals) off the table as their income gains don’t “count” as development progress as they are not “poor.”
post-2015_agenda  development  poverty  global_governance  emerging_markets  OECD_economies  aid  conservatism  values  environment  sustainability  welfare  technical_assistance  technology_transfer  middle_class  international_organizations  UN 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Lant Pritchett - Politics of Penurious Poverty Lines (Part I) | Center For Global Development -September 2014
There are three good reasons why gains to those between the 40th and 80th percentile of the income/consumption distribution need to be central to a global development agenda. -- 1. there is at least a rhetorical consensus on two points: one, that aid effectiveness is requires “country ownership,” and two, governments should reflect the wishes of their citizens (some would simplify this to “democracy”). How can a democratically elected government be expected to “own” a global development agenda centered on a goal that excludes their middle class .. and not on policies that promote the general well-being of all citizens. 2. the consumption of the median person in developing countries is itself a good development target. Birdsall and Meyer (2014) show that, compared to even the poorest in rich countries, the median in developing countries have very low consumption - the poorest income quintile in the USA is 15 times higher than the consumption of the median person in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, or Nigeria and almost 10 times higher than even the median person in “middle income” countries like Egypt or China. No one in US politics claims the consumption of the US median household at $39 dollars a day is “too rich” to merit concern. 3. many have argued that having a functional and prospering “middle class” is instrumentally essential to development and functioning governance and hence benefitting the poor (e.g., Easterly 2000). Given the central role that “good governance” and “building institutions” has acquired in development discourse, try to imagine a successful strategy for strengthening governance or institutions that deliberately excluded the middle class. How exactly does one build “political momentum” to center a global development agenda on a goal that is not the center of the development agenda of any major developing country? And why? That is for part II.
development  poverty  aid  post-2015_agenda  institution-building  emerging_markets  middle_class  governance  OECD_economies  global_governance  international_political_economy  international_organizations  IFIs  UN 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Nancy Birdsall - Latin America Left Behind: "It’s Inequality Stupid”? | Center For Global Development - March 2014
Since 1990, Latin America has not shared at all in the much-ballyhooed convergence of emerging markets with the advanced economies in the last two decades. Average per capita income in Latin America was approaching 30% of the average in the US in the early 1970s, but fell back to 20% in the last 2 decades, and is now about 25% of the level in the US. Even more worrisome, as shown here, is that Latin America’s income gap has widened with respect to other emerging market economies at similar levels of development. Meanwhile in average per capita income in Asia has increased from less than 15% of US per capita income in the late 1960s to 40% today. One theory is that Latin America is caught in a middle-income trap. More likely, given growing evidence of the effects of inequality on growth, is that the region is caught in an inequality trap — in which a high concentration of economic and political wealth and privilege rooted in its colonial origins and its longstanding dependence on commodity exports stifles opportunities for investment and innovation. The historical record suggests that high inequality in Latin America is not a consequence of low growth. But it does not follow that it is a cause; it could be that low growth and high inequality are outcomes of a common set of other factors. Whatever the specific nature of the relationship between growth and inequality, the following charts suggest they’re worth unpacking.
economic_history  post-WWII  development  Latin_America  emerging_markets  East_Asia  economic_growth  inequality 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Lilian Richieri Hanania - The UNESCO Convention on the Diversity of Cultural Expressions as a Coordination Framework to Promote Regulatory Coherence in the Creative Economy :: SSRN June 7, 2014
"The UNESCO Convention on the Diversity of Cultural Expressions as a Coordination Framework to Promote Regulatory Coherence in the Creative Economy" -- Université Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne -- Fourth Biennial Global Conference of the Society of International Economic Law (SIEL) Working Paper No. 2014/03. **--** [The paper looks at] business convergence in creative industries from the perspective of cultural diversity. It is based on the premise that the recognition of the creative and innovative component of the so-called “creative industries” or the “creative economy” confirms the need for non-economic factors and particularly cultural concerns to be taken into account in regulatory efforts addressing those industries. It examines the way new technologies and business convergence may affect the “trade and culture debate” vis-à-vis the WTO, and how the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (CDCE) may respond in a relevant manner to those challenges. Despite its weakly binding language, the CDCE contains principles, objectives and rules that set a comprehensive framework for policy “related to the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions” at the national, regional and international levels. -- By prioritizing policy and regulatory coordination, ... the main elements enshrined in the CDCE should be employed to contribute to greater coherence ...vis-à-vis the WTO and other IOs. - Number of Pages: 23 - downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  international_law  international_economics  law-and-economics  international_political_economy  global_governance  UN  UNESCO  diversity  culture  cultural_change  culture_industries  creative_economy  trade-policy  trade-agreements  international_organizations  WTO  development  sustainability  regulation-harmonization  administrative_agencies  administrative_law  convergence-business  globalization  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
SSRN Society of International Economic Law (SIEL), Fourth Biennial Global Conference
The Fourth Biennial Global Conference of the Society of International Economic Law (SIEL) was held in Bern and hosted by the World Trade Institute (WTI) of the University of Bern, from 10-12 July 2014. You can browse all SIEL Fourth Biennial Global Conference abstracts in the SSRN eLibrary. The Society of International Economic Law (SIEL) is a new organization aimed at academics and academically-minded practitioners and officials in the field of IEL, in all parts of the world. The broad goals and objectives of the organization include: building links and networks between and among IEL academics and academically-minded practitioners and officials; fostering the development of local IEL expertise and IEL organizations where needed; representing the discipline of international economic law as appropriate in global, regional and national fora; and encouraging research, practice, service and teaching in the field of IEL.
paper  SSRN  international_law  international_economics  law-and-economics  international_organizations  development  trade-policy  trade-agreements  WTO  global_governance  international_political_economy  reform-legal  institutional_economics  international_finance  capital_markets  capital_flows  climate  energy  ocean  treaties 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Ansar, Flyvbjerg, Budzier, Lunn - Should We Build More Large Dams? The Actual Costs of Hydropower Megaproject Development (Energy Policy, March 2014, pp.1-14.) :: SSRN
Atif Ansar - University of Oxford - Blavatnik School of Government -- Bent Flyvbjerg - University of Oxford - Said Business School -- Alexander Budzier - University of Oxford - Saïd Business School.-- Daniel Lunn - University of Oxford - Department of Statistics *--* A brisk building boom of hydropower mega-dams is underway from China to Brazil. Whether benefits of new dams will outweigh costs remains unresolved despite contentious debates. We investigate this question with the “outside view” or “reference class forecasting” based on literature on decision-making under uncertainty in psychology. We find overwhelming evidence that budgets are systematically biased below actual costs of large hydropower dams — excluding inflation, substantial debt servicing, environmental, and social costs. Using the largest and most reliable reference data of its kind and multilevel statistical techniques applied to large dams for the first time, we were successful in fitting parsimonious models to predict cost and schedule overruns. The outside view suggests that in most countries large hydropower dams will be too costly in absolute terms and take too long to build to deliver a positive risk-adjusted return unless suitable risk management measures outlined in this paper can be affordably provided. Policymakers, particularly in developing countries, are advised to prefer agile energy alternatives that can be built over shorter time horizons to energy megaprojects. - Number of Pages in PDF File: 14 - Keywords: Large hydropower dams, Schedule & cost estimates, Cost benefit forecasting, Reference class forecasting, Outside -- didn't download
article  SSRN  development  energy  IFIs  business-and-politics  statistics  social_sciences  methodology-quantitative  decision_theory  international_finance  institutional_economics  business-forecasts 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Matias Vernengo NAKED KEYNESIANISM: Manufacturing matters - Jan 2013
Chart of distribution of manufacturing capacity over the centuries pre and post Industrial Revolution from Robert Allen -- Note that the West, narrowly defined as England the rest of Western Europe, what was to become the US and Russia (called for the whole period USSR) had a share of less than 20% in 1750, it had expanded to more than 80% on the eve of WW-I. If you add Australia, Canada and Latin America (which are all in Rest of the World, but are what Maddison would call Western offshoots), the numbers are even larger. Most of the changes were associated to the squeeze of China. And most of the recent changes are associated with expansion of China and East Asia (which includes Japan). We have not gone full circle, by the way. In other words, the process of development (or indutrialization in the center) went hand in hand with the process of underdevelopment (deindustrialization) in the periphery, and old lesson from a little book by Osvaldo Sunkel which is still worth reading. [1972 study of Latin American development and underdevelopment from 1750, tracking exports, FDI etc]
economic_history  economic_theory  economic_growth  development  emerging_markets  Latin_America  Great_Divergence  China  India  Industrial_Revolution  industrialization  manufacturing  exports  British_history  capitalism  18thC  19thC 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Matias Vernengo - NAKED KEYNESIANISM: Institutions, what institutions? - September 2014
Nice breakdown of theorists of causes of development and underdevelopment and problems of trying to catch up -- So if you believe most heterodox economists institutions are relevant, but not primarily those associated to the supply side; the ones linked to the demand side, in Keynesian fashion are more important than the mainstream admits. Poor countries that arrive late to the process of capitalist development cannot expand demand without limits since the imports of intermediary and capital goods cause recurrent balance of payments crises. The institutions that allow for the expansion of demand, including those that allow for higher wages to expand consumption and to avoid the external constraints, are and have been central to growth and development. The role of the State in creating and promoting the expansion of domestic markets, in the funding of research and development, and in reducing the barriers to balance of payments constraints, both by guarantying access to external markets (sometimes militarily, like in the Opium Wars) and reducing foreign access to domestic ones was crucial in the process of capitalist development. In this view, for example, what China did not have that England did, was not lack of secure property rights and the rule of law, but a rising bourgeoisie (capitalists) that had to compete to provide for a growing domestic market that had acquired a new taste (and hence explained expanding demand) for a set of new goods, like cotton goods from India, or china (porcelain) from… well China, as emphasized by economic historian Maxine Berg among others (for the role of consumption in the Industrial Revolution go here). Or simply put, China did not have a capitalist mode of production (for the concept of mode of production and capitalism go here). Again, I argued that Robert Allen’s view according to which high wages and cheap energy forced British producers to innovate to save labor, leading to technological innovation and growth, and the absence of those conditions in China led to stagnation is limited since it presupposes that firms adopt more productive technologies even without growing demand. -- see links
economic_history  economic_theory  economic_growth  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  development  emerging_markets  Latin_America  Great_Divergence  demand  consumer_demand  British_history  China  institutional_economics  institutional_change  institution-building  institutions  supply-side  demand-side  cultural_history  economic_culture  political_culture  industrialization  Industrial_Revolution  international_political_economy  international_monetary_system  balance_of_payments  state-building  rent-seeking  rentiers  commodities  links 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
John Locke, Encouragement of Irish Linen Manufacture (August 1697) - Online Library of Liberty
John Locke, H.B. Fox Bourne, The Life of John Locke. In Two Volumes (London: Henry S. King, 1876). Vol. 2 pp. 363-372. 07/16/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2332> -- Available as Facsimile PDF 352 KB This is a facsimile or image-based PDF made from scans of the original book -- Locke’s detailed proposals to encourage the Irish linen industry which was quoted in full in Fox Bourne’s The Life of John Locke (1876), vol. 2, pp. 363-372.
etexts  17thC  intellectual_history  British_history  British_politics  political_economy  Locke  biography  Ireland  Ireland-English_exploitation  industry  agriculture  protectionism  development  interest_groups  Parliament  Parliamentary_supremacy  Irish_Parliament  1690s  Whig_Junto  Board_of_Trade  UK_government-colonies  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Liberty Matters Forum: John Locke on Property (January, 2013) - Online Library of Liberty
This online discussion is part of the series “Liberty Matters: A Forum for the Discussion of Matters pertaining to Liberty.” Eric Mack discusses John Locke’s theory of property to which Jan Narveson, Peter Vallentyne, and Michael Zuckert respond in a series of essays and comments. -- downloaded ebook to Note
etexts  intellectual_history  17thC  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  political_economy  Locke  Locke-2_Treatises  property  property_rights  social_contract  natural_law  natural_rights  state-of-nature  labor  landowners  landed_interest  lower_orders  reformation_of_manners  mass_culture  political_participation  popular_politics  popular_culture  public_disorder  public_goods  Native_Americans  colonialism  development  common_good  commons  liberalism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Forum - “Deirdre McCloskey and Economists’ Ideas about Ideas” (July, 2014) - Online Library of Liberty
Deirdre McClosky is over the halfway point of her 4 volume work on The Bourgeois Era. Two volumes have already appeared, Bourgeois Virtues (2006) and Bourgeois Dignity (2010), and a third is close to appearing [2015]. This Liberty Matters online discussion will assess her progress to date with a Lead Essay by Don Boudreaux and comments by Joel Mokyr and John Nye, and replies to her critics by Deirdre McCloskey. The key issue is to try to explain why “the Great Enrichment” of the past 150 years occurred in northern and western Europe rather than elsewhere, and why sometime in the middle of the 18th century. Other theories have attributed it to the presence of natural resources, the existence of private property and the rule of law, and the right legal and political institutions. McCloskey’s thesis is that a fundamental change in ideas took place which raised the “dignity” of economic activity in the eyes of people to the point where they felt no inhibition in pursuing these activities which improved the situation of both themselves and the customers who bought their products and services.
intellectual_history  cultural_history  economic_history  economic_growth  Medieval  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  Great_Divergence  British_history  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Industrial_Revolution  bourgeoisie  political_economy  France  Germany  Prussia  China  development  institutional_economics  North-Weingast  legal_history  property  property_rights  commerce  trade  trading_companies  free_trade  improvement  technology  Innovation  agriculture  energy  natural_capital  nature-mastery  transport  capitalism  colonialism  industry  industrialization  social_order  Great_Chain_of_Being  consumers  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  equality  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  liberalism  incentives  microeconomics  historical_sociology  historical_change  social_theory  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
JW Mason - The Slack Wire: Wealth Distribution and the Puzzle of Germany - April 2014
In other words, one reason household wealth is low in Germany is because German households exercise their claims on the business sector not via financial assets, but as workers. -- It’s not a coincidence that Europe’s dominant economy has the least market wealth. The truth is, success in the world market has depended for a long time now on limiting dependence on asset markets, just as the most successful competitors within national economies are the giant corporations that suppress the market mechanism internally. Germany, as with late industrializers like Japan, Korea, and now China, has succeeded largely by ensuring that investment is not guided by market signals, but through active planning by banks and/or the state. There’s nothing new in the fact that greater real wealth in the sense of productive capacity goes hand hand with less wealth in the sense of claims on the social product capitalized into assets. Only in the poorest and most backward countries does a significant fraction of the claims of working people on the product take the form of asset ownership. The world of small farmers and self-employed artisans isn’t one we can, or should, return to. Perhaps the world of homeowners managing their own retirement savings isn’t one we can, or should, preserve.
economic_history  economic_growth  political_economy  20thC  21stC  development  wealth  inequality  investment  capital_markets  labor  wages  profit  SMEs  Germany  EU  corporate_governance  corporate_finance  working_class  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Daron Acemoglu, Suresh Naidu, Pascual Restrepo, James A Robinson - Can democracy help with inequality? | vox 7 February 2014
Paper on NBER -- Inequality is currently a prominent topic of debate in Western democracies. In democratic countries, we might expect rising inequality to be partially offset by an increase in political support for redistribution. This column argues that the relationship between democracy, redistribution, and inequality is more complicated than that. Elites in newly democratised countries may hold on to power in other ways, the liberalisation of occupational choice may increase inequality among previously excluded groups, and the middle classes may redistribute income away from the poor as well as the rich.
paper  political_economy  democracy  development  inequality  class_conflict  neoliberalism  middle_class  redistribution  oligarchy  marginalized_groups  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Peter Temin - Economic History and Economic Development: New Economic History in Retrospect and Prospect | NBER Working Paper - May 2014
Abstract -- I argue in this paper for more interaction between economic history and economic development. Both subfields study economic development; the difference is that economic history focuses on high-wage countries while economic development focuses on low-wage economies. My argument is based on recent research by Robert Allen, Joachim Voth and their colleagues. Voth demonstrated that Western Europe became a high-wage economy in the 14th century, using the European Marriage Pattern stimulated by the effects of the Black Death. This created economic conditions that led eventually to the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century. Allen found that the Industrial Revolution resulted from high wages and low power costs. He showed that the technology of industrialization was adapted to these factor prices and is not profitable in low-wage economies. The cross-over to economic development suggests that demography affects destiny now as in the past, and that lessons from economic history can inform current policy decisions. This argument is framed by a description of the origins of the New Economic History, also known as Cliometrics, and a non-random survey of recent research emphasizing the emerging methodology of the New Economic History.
paper  paywall  economic_history  development  demography  OECD_economies  emerging_markets  Industrial_Revolution  Great_Divergence 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Ricardo Hausmann - Why technological diffusion does not occur according to economic theory. - Project Syndicate - May 2014
That is why cities, regions, and countries can absorb technology only gradually, generating growth through some recombination of the knowhow that is already in place, maybe with the addition of some component – a bassist to complete a string quartet. But they cannot move from a quartet to a philharmonic orchestra in one fell swoop, because it would require too many missing instruments – and, more important, too many musicians who know how to play them. Progress happens by moving into what the theoretical biologist Stuart Kauffman calls the “adjacent possible,” which implies that the best way to find out what is likely to be feasible in a country is to consider what is already there. Politics may indeed impede technological diffusion; but, to a large extent, technology does not diffuse because of the nature of technology itself.
economic_theory  economic_growth  economic_history  institutional_economics  institutional_change  institution-building  development  US_foreign_policy  rent-seeking  elites  oligarchy  technology  capital  labor  knowhow 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
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