dunnettreader + culture   39

Alan Patton - Cultural Preservation and Liberal Values: A Reply to William James Booth (2013) | American Political Science Review on JSTOR
William James Booth elaborates three main challenges to my social lineage account (Patten 2011). Conceptually, he finds the proposal to be question-beginning. Normatively, he thinks that it has objectionable implications. And, substantively, he claims that the proposal is unhelpful, that it fails to explain a case of theoretical importance for multiculturalism. In this reply, I argue that each of these challenges misses the target. The social lineage account continues to offer a promising, nonessentialist basis for normative multiculturalism. - Downloaded via iphone
cultural_change  social_theory  US_politics  indigenous_peoples  US_society  culture_wars  political_sociology  cultural_diversity  minorities  identity-multiple  political_culture  culture  essentialism  political_theory  downloaded  liberalism  multiculturalism  national_ID  article  bibliography  nationalism  political_science  jstor  cultural_transmission  community  US_politics-race  cultural_stability  mass_culture 
july 2017 by dunnettreader
Eurozine - Europe's narrative bias - Erik Hammar - January 2012
Original in Swedish -- Translation by Anna Paterson -- First published in Arena 5/2011 (Swedish version); Eurozine (English version) -- Democracy, humanism and diversity have little to do with a "European inheritance". Yet EU cultural policy instrumentalizes cultural heritage to promote common identity. This narrative bias needs to be challenged, says Erik Hammar. -- EU cultural budgets and priorities being set by right wing pro-EU with focus on "the big 3" of England, France and Germany in languages and efforts to project "soft power" globally -- the purportedly universally shared European heritage and collective identity is "humanism, tolerance and enlightenment"
Europe  EU  culture  cultural_history  cultural_capital  cultural_authority  cultural_transmission  grand_narrative  collective_memory  identity  identity_politics  identity-multiple  national_ID  memory-cultural  Europe-exceptionalism  European_integration  EU_governance  political_culture  nation-state  national_tale  national_origins 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Nicolaas P. Barr Clingan, review essay on Edward Skidelsky and Tobias Bevc histories of the philosophy of Ernst Cassirer (March 2010) | H-Net Reviews - H-German
Nicolaas P. Barr Clingan. Review of Bevc, Tobias, Kulturgenese als Dialektik von Mythos und Vernunft: Ernst Cassirer und die Kritische Theorie and Skidelsky, Edward, Ernst Cassirer: The Last Philosopher of Culture. H-German, H-Net Reviews. March, 2010. Skidelsky offers a welcome, broad introduction of Cassirer's work, but one that is problematic in its approach to broader issues of philosophy and politics. His more polemic claims, often asserted rather than argued, are unlikely to persuade specialists in intellectual history and may misguide general readers about the complex political contours of continental philosophy. Bevc, in contrast, offers a more focused and systematic comparison of Cassirer's philosophy and Critical Theory. His argument is generally compelling. He also skillfully draws a number of significant parallels that would seem to have been precluded by Adorno's dismissive comment, although Bevc does occasionally overstep in the case of the Frankfurt School. But perhaps this faux pas is fitting for a scholar whose efforts at intellectual and political conciliation were so recklessly dismissed in his own time and remain, as Skidelsky observes, foreign to our contentious age.
books  reviews  kindle-available  intellectual_history  political_culture  20thC  Germany  entre_deux_guerres  Cassirer  Frankfurt_School  Heidegger  culture  symbol  symbols-religious  myth  reason  Enlightenment  Enlightenment_Project  phenomenology  existentialism  philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_language  philosophy_of_history  human_nature  humanism  anti-humanism  culture_industries  irrationalism  rationalization-institutions  modernity  Marxist  continental_philosophy  neo-Kantian  Adorno 
may 2015 by dunnettreader
Cécile Nicco-Kerinvel, review essay Spinozisme et sciences sociales - La Vie des idées- 28 avril 2008
Recensé : Spinoza et les sciences sociales, De la puissance de la multitude à l’économie des affects. Sous la direction de Yves Citton et Frédéric Lordon, collection « Caute ! », éditions Amsterdam, 2008. -- Dossier(s) : Pierre Bourdieu et la culture -- Mots-clés : sociologie économique | sciences sociales | spinozisme. -- Quels rapports entre la philosophie de Spinoza et les sciences sociales ? L’ouvrage collectif dirigé par Yves Citton et Frédéric Lordon montre qu’ils sont nombreux et éclairants. Spinoza a en effet pensé des thèmes-clés pour les sciences sociales comme l’économie des affects ou la constitution des corps politiques et leurs crises, et ses concepts peuvent être réinvestis dans des problématiques sociologiques. Il y a donc bien lieu de faire dialoguer Spinoza avec Tarde, Foucault, Bourdieu, Mauss ou Durkheim. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  social_theory  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  political_economy  sociology  government-forms  governmentality  anthropology  17thC  19thC  20thC  economic_sociology  social_sciences  social_order  culture  Spinoza  Durkheim  Foucault  Bourdieu  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
James Wood - The Nearest Thing To Life (book excerpt) ‹ Literary Hub
The following is chapter two from James Wood’s forthcoming memoir, The Nearest Thing to Life, a blend of criticism and biography drawn from his 2013 Mandel Lectures for the Humanities.
books  lit_crit  etexts  fiction  culture 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Getting Grief Right - NYTimes.com Jan 2015
Re a woman who had lost her daughter to SIDS and thought she was "failing" because she couldn't eork heg way past the assigned stages. What was initially a comfort to help people bettef understand the process they were giong through has become a strait-jacket of prrsonal & social expectations that you can only fail.
health  culture  psychology 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
available on CJO2014. - Hebrew University of Jerusalem -- This essay explores the development of Georg Simmel's interpretation of Immanuel Kant's philosophy in the context of neo-Kantianism and its preoccupation with the question of unity in modern diversity. It argues that the neo-Kantian movement can be divided into two periods: in the first, unity was addressed with regard to Kant's epistemology; in the second period, the main issue was the overall coherence of Kantian teaching. Simmel, who belonged to the younger generation of neo-Kantians, absorbed the conclusions of the previous generation that purged Kantian epistemology from its metaphysical foundations related to the noumenal world. Yet he did not share the views of his peers who considered Kant to be the philosopher of cultural plurality. On the contrary, he argued that Kant's system is thoroughly intellectualistic, and that ethics, aesthetics and religion within it are subordinated to logic. At the same time, his own philosophy presupposed cultural plurality akin to that of other neo-Kantians. In other words, Simmel abandoned Kant in order to develop his own version of neo-Kantianism.
article  paywall  intellectual_history  social_theory  German_Idealism  German_scholars  Simmel  metaphysics  sociology  neo-Kantian  19thC  20thC  culture  diversity  modernity  pluralism 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Jason M. Wirth, Seattle University, review - Dalia Nassar (ed.), The Relevance of Romanticism: Essays on German Romantic Philosophy (OUP 2014) // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // September 23, 2014
Dalia Nassar's assemblage of engaging and significant essays on some of the resurgent philosophers of early German romanticism emphasizes their contemporary philosophical relevance. "For it is a specifically philosophical revival, motivated by philosophical questions". Nassar demarcates this relevance into four general kinds. In the first part of the book, consisting of a fascinating debate between two of the heaviest hitters in this revival, Manfred Frank and Frederick Beiser, the question revolves around the very identity of early German philosophical romanticism. What counts as a work of this kind? What makes these works significantly different from works by practitioners of German idealism? Or can the two areas be so clearly distinguished? The next three sections are less global in their ambitions, but all of them touch on important facets of this period's enduring philosophical provocation. The second section features essays on the question of culture, language, sociability, and education, while the third turns to matters aesthetic, and the fourth and concluding section takes up the question of science.
books  reviews  find  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  German_Idealism  Romanticism  Kant  Hegel  Schelling  Schleiermacher  Fichte  Novalis  Hölderin  metaphysics  epistemology  mind  nature  aesthetics  culture  cultural_history  subjectivity  Absolute  philosophy_of_language  philosophy_of_science  hermeneutics  history_of_science  sociability  education  bildung  Evernote 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Zhijie Chen, Jing Zhuo - The Trade and Culture Debate in the Context of Creative Economy: An Adaptive Regulatory Approach from Fragmentation to Coherence :: SSRN June 16, 2014
Zhijie Chen - The University of Hong Kong (PhD Student) -- Jing Zhuo - University of Macau. -- Fourth Biennial Global Conference of the Society of International Economic Law (SIEL) Working Paper No 2014/07. **--** The trade and culture debate has been a long tension without a definite result. It has been widely argued that neither the existing WTO regulatory framework nor the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expression can address the debate. More recently, some emerging domains in the digital age, including digital technology and intellectual property rights, have posed crucial challenges These trends invite the careful reconsideration of the role of law, the dominant legal responses and regulatory approaches; however they have not been paid due attention. This paper investigates a possibly more adaptive regulatory approach for the trade and culture debate under the changed regulatory environment. Compared with cultural industries, it appears that creative industries tend to more properly reflect the status quo of the current economy, and the concept of creative economy could be employed as the concept to design a new regulatory approach for the debate in the digital age. For the WTO regulatory framework, a two-steps approach could be considered. The first step is to formulae the ‘creative economy’ as a legal concept, followed by the second step of introducing the concept into the WTO regulatory framework. It is suggested that such approach could be a more adaptive and coherent regulatory approach for the trade and culture debate in the digital age. -- Number of Pages: 41 - downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  international_law  international_economics  law-and-economics  international_political_economy  global_governance  UN  UNESCO  culture  diversity  trade-policy  WTO  creative_economy  regulation  regulation-harmonization  digital_humanities  technology  Innovation  convergence-business  globalization  national_interest  public_goods  free_trade  protectionism  IP  property_rights  downloaded  EF-add  change-social 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Lilian Richieri Hanania - The UNESCO Convention on the Diversity of Cultural Expressions as a Coordination Framework to Promote Regulatory Coherence in the Creative Economy :: SSRN June 7, 2014
"The UNESCO Convention on the Diversity of Cultural Expressions as a Coordination Framework to Promote Regulatory Coherence in the Creative Economy" -- Université Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne -- Fourth Biennial Global Conference of the Society of International Economic Law (SIEL) Working Paper No. 2014/03. **--** [The paper looks at] business convergence in creative industries from the perspective of cultural diversity. It is based on the premise that the recognition of the creative and innovative component of the so-called “creative industries” or the “creative economy” confirms the need for non-economic factors and particularly cultural concerns to be taken into account in regulatory efforts addressing those industries. It examines the way new technologies and business convergence may affect the “trade and culture debate” vis-à-vis the WTO, and how the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (CDCE) may respond in a relevant manner to those challenges. Despite its weakly binding language, the CDCE contains principles, objectives and rules that set a comprehensive framework for policy “related to the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions” at the national, regional and international levels. -- By prioritizing policy and regulatory coordination, ... the main elements enshrined in the CDCE should be employed to contribute to greater coherence ...vis-à-vis the WTO and other IOs. - Number of Pages: 23 - downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  international_law  international_economics  law-and-economics  international_political_economy  global_governance  UN  UNESCO  diversity  culture  cultural_change  culture_industries  creative_economy  trade-policy  trade-agreements  international_organizations  WTO  development  sustainability  regulation-harmonization  administrative_agencies  administrative_law  convergence-business  globalization  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
STEPHEN ARATA - Henry James, "The Art of Fiction" (1884) | JSTOR: Victorian Review, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Spring 2009), pp. 53-56
Short but helpful positioning of Art of Fiction in late Victorian belles lettres, including the article by Walter Besant with same title to which James was in part responding to. Comments on shifts in James' appreciation of Matthew Arnold - disagreed with Arnold that criticism was most needed when literary cultural life in a slump - for James literary criticism was an integral part of an era of lively, creative culture and literature. -- didn't download
article  jstor  literary_history  19thC  lit_crit  literary_theory  novels  fiction  culture  literature-and-morality  James_Henry  Arnold_Matthew  Victorian  English_lit  belles-lettres  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Equity, Excellence and Inclusiveness in Education: Policy Lessons from Around the World (July 2014) - OECD iLibrary
Excellence in education without equity risks leading to large economic and social disparities; equity in education at the expense of quality is a meaningless aspiration. The most advanced education systems now set ambitious goals for all students, focusing on both excellence and equity. They also equip their teachers with the pedagogic skills that have been proven effective and with enough autonomy so that teachers can use their own creativity in determining the content and instruction they provide to their individual students. The fourth International Summit on the Teaching Profession brought together education ministers, union leaders and other teacher leaders from high-performing and rapidly improving education systems, as measured by PISA (the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment ). Their aim was to discuss equity, excellence and inclusiveness in education by exploring three questions: • How are high-quality teachers developed, and how do schools with the greatest need attract and retain them? • How can equity be ensured in increasingly devolved education systems? and • What kinds of learning environments address the needs of all students? - To underpin the discussions, this publication identifies some of the steps policy makers can take to build school systems that are both equitable and excellent. The analysis is complemented with examples that illustrate proven or promising practices in specific countries. -- Online access but pdf download requires $
education  inequality  poverty  culture  unions  governmentality  central_government  local_government  OECD_economies  US_government  US_society  university-contemporary  public_policy  public_goods 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Why it’s hard for the US to learn from other countries on education - Vox - July 2014
Summary of OECD report re US comparative position on different metrics and what lessons might be drawn from the report -- see other bookmark for OECD link (to read online - pdf requires $) -- New data on poverty, inequality and education are likely to reignite the conversation. But it's easier to point to what other countries are doing right than it is to figure out what lessons they can teach the US. That's evident in the latest education report from the OECD, a group of 34 mostly rich countries and economies. The OECD is a big player in the international-comparison game because it tests students around the world in math, reading and other subjects. Those tests are often used as benchmarks to show that the US is falling behind. The OECD, though, also reports on how different nations handle inequity in education. That data, like the test scores, shows the US has a long way to go.
education  inequality  poverty  culture  unions  governmentality  central_government  local_government  OECD_economies  US_government  US_society  university-contemporary  public_policy  public_goods 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jesse R. Harrington and Michele J. Gelfand - Tightness–looseness across the 50 united states | PNAS | Mobile
Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD -- This research demonstrates wide variation in tightness–looseness (the strength of punishment and degree of latitude/permissiveness) at the state level in the United States, as well as its association with a variety of ecological and historical factors, psychological characteristics, and state-level outcomes. Consistent with theory and past research, ecological and man-made threats—such as a higher incidence of natural disasters, greater disease prevalence, fewer natural resources, and greater degree of external threat—predicted increased tightness at the state level. Tightness is also associated with higher trait conscientiousness and lower trait openness, as well as a wide array of outcomes at the state level. Compared with loose states, tight states have higher levels of social stability, including lowered drug and alcohol use, lower rates of homelessness, and lower social disorganization. However, tight states also have higher incarceration rates, greater discrimination and inequality, lower creativity, and lower happiness relative to loose states. In all, tightness–looseness provides a parsimonious explanation of the wide variation we see across the 50 states of the United States of America. -- downloaded pdf to Note
culture  culture-American  norms  inequality  discrimination  US_politics  conservatism  liberalism  crime  punishment  deviance  tolerance  social_order  ecology  social_psychology  US_society  creativity  Innovation  happiness  hierarchy  culture_wars  culture-tightness  culture-looseness  prisons  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert E. Wood, review - Vittorio Hösle (ed.), The Many Faces of Beauty // Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews // Feb 2014
This work contains the conference papers from the first of three conferences at the Notre Dame Institute for Advance Study under the direction of Vittorio Hösle. The conferences were focused on what were previously known as three transcendental properties of Being: Beauty, Truth, and Goodness, respectively. The current volume contains the papers from the 2010 conference. -- The work is divided into five parts: 1. Beauty in Mathematics and Nature (four essays), 2. Beauty in the Human Mind and in Society (four essays), 3. Historicity, Interculturality, and the Ugly as Challenges of Aesthetics (three essays), 4. Beauty in the Arts (four essays: on painting, music, literature, and film), and 5. Beauty and God (one essay). Hösle devotes 18 pages to an ample introductory summary of the argument of each of the 16 papers. -- The Many Faces of Beauty provides stimulating approaches to the topic. We have a look at many different art forms and a look at beauty through history from many different perspectives. As we move into and through the twentieth century, there is a defocusing on beauty and a focus upon the sublime. Also, it is unusual to find reaction to Hegel, pro or con, appearing in several of the articles. But there is a new interest in Hegel today, especially in the circles that pronounced him dead. This work should pique that interest.
books  reviews  intellectual_history  aesthetics  beauty  sublime  Kant-aesthetics  Hegel  Neoplatonism  culture  taste  elite_culture  music  music_history  art_history  articles  EF-add 
march 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert Wokler - Todorov's Otherness | JSTOR: New Literary History, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Winter, 1996), pp. 43-55
From dedicated issue organized around two essays by Todorov -- A Symposium on "Living Alone Together" Wokler is responding to the opening essay, which was organized around one work each by Rousseau, Adam Smith and Hegel. Todorov appreciates the Enlightenment engagement with the other, through travel literature and history, as a reflection of universalist values of humanism, contra the stereotypes and caricatures of the Enlightenment_Project. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  18thC  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Rousseau  Smith  Hegel  moral_philosophy  culture  diversity  self-and-other  human_nature  humanism  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Terry Eagleton - The Contradictions of Postmodernism | JSTOR: New Literary History, Vol. 28, No. 1 (Winter, 1997), pp. 1-6
Culture or historicism or the marginalized aren't inherently radical left - as likely to be appropriated or constituted by reactionaries -- culturisn as reductionist as biologism etc. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  20thC  21stC  social_theory  culture  cultural_history  new_historicism  New_Left  postmodern  post-colonial  conservatism  culture_wars  Marxist 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Mark A. Pachucki and Ronald L. Breiger - Cultural Holes: Beyond Relationality in Social Networks and Culture | JSTOR: Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 36 (2010), pp. 205-224
A literature review -- A burgeoning literature spanning sociologies of culture and social network methods has for the past several decades sought to explicate the relationships between culture and connectivity. A number of promising recent moves toward integration are worthy of review, comparison, critique, and synthesis. Network thinking provides powerful techniques for specifying cultural concepts ranging from narrative networks to classification systems, tastes, and cultural repertoires. At the same time, we see theoretical advances by sociologists of culture as providing a corrective to network analysis as it is often portrayed, as a mere collection of methods. Cultural thinking complements and sets a new agenda for moving beyond predominant forms of structural analysis that ignore action, agency, and intersubjective meaning. The notion of "cultural holes" that we use to organize our review points both to the cultural contingency of network structure and to the increasingly permeable boundary between studies of culture and research on social networks. -- over 150 references
article  jstor  paywall  lit_survey  social_theory  culture  networks-social  agency  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
David Swartz - Bridging the Study of Culture and Religion: Pierre Bourdieu's Political Economy of Symbolic Power | JSTOR: Sociology of Religion, Vol. 57, No. 1 (Spring, 1996), pp. 71-85
This essay examines key features of Pierre Bourdieu's sociology of culture in light of their potential contribution to the sociology of religion. For Bourdieu, religion can be analyzed as a system of symbolic power with properties analogous to other cultural domains, such as art, philosophy, science, or consumer fashion. Bourdieu's approach to culture develops a political economy of symbolic practices that includes a theory of symbolic interests, a theory of cultural capital, and a theory of symbolic power. While Bourdieu draws upon a variety of intellectual influences, the materialism of Karl Marx and Max Weber's sociology of religion have been particularly influential. This essay will focus on how Bourdieu elaborates from Marx and Weber to develop an original analytical grid for the study of culture and religion as well. Particular attention will be given to Bourdieu's concept of "field" since it is the most relevant of Bourdieu's concepts for both cultural and religious studies and currently the least well-known in the sociology of religion. -- didn't download
article  jstor  social_theory  Bourdieu  culture  sociology_of_religion  religious_culture  cultural_capital  power-symbolic  Marx  Weber  bibliography  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
William Rasch - Enlightenment as Religion | JSTOR: New German Critique, No. 108 (Fall, 2009), pp. 109-131
Recent polemical and philosophical claims about modern, secular, liberal, enlightened Europe are examined from the perspective of Europe's relation, past and present, to the non-European world. The notion that Enlightenment reason and liberal institutions represent a higher level of culture because they serve as a universal, neutral medium in contrast to particular religious or ideological worldviews and most especially religious “fundamentalism” is questioned through a discussion of texts by Günter Grass, Jürgen Habermas, Martti Koskenniemi, Carl Schmitt, and Tzvetan Todorov. The legitimacy of Europe's identity as enlightened, secular, and liberal is not denied, only its self-understanding that with Enlightenment (implicitly regarded as the final stage of history) come universality and neutrality. Such a self-understanding contributes to the political problems that rational, “neutral” discourse is meant to solve. -- paywall Duke Journals
article  jstor  paywall  Enlightenment-ongoing  liberalism  secularism  Europe  Western_civ  culture  ideology  clash_of_civilizations  religion-fundamentalism  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Joe Henrich - Website | University of British Columbia
Research Program: Coevolution, Development, Cognition & Cultural Learning -- Published Papers and Book Chapters by Category

- Societal Complexity and Cultural Evolution
- Social Norms and Cooperation
- Social Status (Prestige and Dominance)
- Religion
- Methodological Contributions and Population Variations
- Overviews
- Cultural Learning (Models and Evidence)
- Ethnography (Fiji, Machiguenga, Mapuche)
- Chimpanzee Sociality
- General Interest
bibliography  research  paper  biocultural_evolution  culture  social_psychology  anthropology  behavioral_economics  sociology_of_religion  status  norms  morality-conventional  moral_psychology  emotions  networks  institutions  complexity  demography  children  learning  tools  cooperation  competition  Innovation 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Hruschka DJ and Henrich J (2013) Economic and evolutionary hypotheses for cross-population variation in parochialism | Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Human populations differ reliably in the degree to which people favor family, friends, and community members over strangers and outsiders. In the last decade, researchers have begun to propose several economic and evolutionary hypotheses for these cross-population differences in parochialism. In this paper, we outline major current theories and review recent attempts to test them. We also discuss the key methodological challenges in assessing these diverse economic and evolutionary theories for cross-population differences in parochialism. -- Keywords: parochialism, in-group favoritism, cross-cultural, market integration, religion, institutions, parasite stress, closeness --
Citation: Hruschka DJ and Henrich J (2013) Economic and evolutionary hypotheses for cross-population variation in parochialism. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7:559. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00559
culture  anthropology  biocultural_evolution  economic_sociology  behavioral_economics  moral_psychology  sociology_of_religion  incentives  cosmopolitanism  parochialism  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Defending diversity but questioning political multiculturalism - goes back to Romanticism as Counter-Enlightenment -- Romanticism was not a specific political or cultural view but rather described a cluster of attitudes and preferences: for the concrete over the abstract; the unique over the universal; nature over culture; the organic over the mechanical; emotion over reason; intuition over intellect; particular communities over abstract humanity.

These attitudes came to the fore towards the end of the eighteenth century largely in reaction to the predominant views of the Enlightenment. Much has been written about the varieties of beliefs and arguments within the eighteenth century and it is no longer fashionable to talk about the Enlightenment. Nevertheless, beneath the differences there were a number of beliefs that most of the philosophes held in common and which distinguished Enlightenment thinkers from those of both the seventeenth and the nineteenth centuries.
intellectual_history  political_philosophy  human_nature  18thC  19thC  Enlightenment  Counter-Enlightenment  Romanticism  diversity  culture  cosmopolitanism  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Kenan Malik - HOW HUMAN IS CULTURE? | Pandaemonium Dec 2013
Enlightenment philosophes talked more of ‘civilisation’ than of culture and through that notion they tried to express three key ideas. First, they saw civilisation as a single phenomenon, an expression of human universalities, rather than of human differences. Second they understood it as transformative, as an expression of human agency. Culture was as much about our emancipation from nature as of our embodiment in it. And third, it expressed their belief in progress – technological, moral and social.

The Romantic view of culture developed through the nineteenth century directly in response to such Enlightenment beliefs. Romantics saw not a single civilisation, but a plurality of cultures, each rooted in a particular people’s history and myth. Culture, therefore, was an expression of differences, not of universals; and of a putative past, rather than of a potential future. Anthropologists influenced by this tradition came to view culture as functional rather than as transformative, that is, as something essential for social integration and stability, and hence downplayed the role of agency in human life.
intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  20thC  culture  anthropology  human_nature  evolution  evolution-social  social_theory  social_sciences  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Joseph R. Gusfield: On Legislating Morals: The Symbolic Process of Designating Deviance - JSTOR: California Law Review, Vol. 56, No. 1 (Jan., 1968), pp. 54-73
On Legislating Morals: The Symbolic Process of Designating Deviance
Joseph R. Gusfield
California Law Review
Vol. 56, No. 1 (Jan., 1968) (pp. 54-73)
Page Count: 20 - 58 references

Revision and expansion of Moral Passage: The Symbolic Process in Public Designations of Deviance, Social Problems,Vol. 15, No. 2 (Autumn, 1967) (pp. 175-188) - Abstract - The fact of public affirmation of a norm through law and government action expresses the public worth of one sub-culture vis-à-vis others. Because different forms of deviance affect that normative status in different ways, they incur different responses from the designators. Three forms of deviance are disinguished: repentant, sick, and enemy. One form threatens the public affirmation of the norm more than another. The public definition of deviance undergoes changes from one form to another, as illustrated in issues of drinking control. Where consensus on the norm is lacking and deviants become enemies, movements for legal restrictions are most likely. It is not the frequency of deviant acts but the symbolic import of deviance for the status of the norm which is determinative of these reactions.
social_theory  sociology  moral_psychology  norms  deviance  morality-conventional  law  legitimacy  symbolic_interaction  enemies  sub-cultures  culture  culture_wars  downloaded  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Aaron Beim: The Cognitive Aspects of Collective Memory | Symbolic Interaction, Vol. 30, No. 1 (Winter 2007), pp. 7-26
The Cognitive Aspects of Collective Memory
Aaron Beim
Symbolic Interaction
Vol. 30, No. 1 (Winter 2007) (pp. 7-26)
Downloaded pdf to Note

While these conceptions [from research to date] provide powerful frameworks for thinking about group remembrance, they describe exclusively institutional manifestations of collective memory. There are two characteristics of current collective memory research that account for this phenomenon. First, collective memory researchers assume that collective memory is collective only if it is institutionalized; they argue implicitly that collective memory is discernible only in institutionalized objects. Second, collective memory analyses conflate the production of the object and its reception. Objects are analyzed both in terms of their development as cultural objects (Griswold 1986) and in terms of their representativeness of the memory of a given population.

While these conceptions of collective memory are insightful, they preclude the analysis of both collective memory sui generis and the mechanisms of collective memory’s production and reception. I contend that we can undertake these types of analysis by including the cognitive processes that produce schemata that define the past.
article  jstor  social_theory  social_psychology  cognition  collective_memory  lit_survey  bibliography  methodology  institutionalization  sociology-process  symbolic_interaction  culture  cognition-social  cultural_objects  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2013 by dunnettreader
John Dewey: The Evolutionary Method As Applied To Morality: II Its Significance for Conduct | George Herbert Mead Project
John Dewey. "The Evolutionary Method As Applied To Morality: II Its Significance for Conduct", Philosophical Review 11, (1902): 353-371.

I would have those who deny moral significance to the historical method show how we may guide and control the formation of our further moral judgments if we forego inquiry into the process of their formation as historically set before us....... The point of the genetic method is then that it shows relationships, and thereby at once guarantees and defines meaning. We must take the history of any intuition or attitude of moral consciousness in both directions: both ex parte ante and ex parte post. We must consider it with reference to the antecedents which evoked it, and with reference to its later career and fate. It arises in a certain context, and as a reaction to certain circumstances ; it has a subsequent history which can be traced. It maintains and reinforces certain conditions, and modifies others. It becomes a stimulus which provokes new modes of action. Now when we see how and why the belief came about, and also know what else came about because of it, we have a hold upon the worth of the belief which is entirely wanting when we set it up as an isolated intuition. Pure intuitionalism. is often indeed undistinguishable from the crassest empiricism. The ' intuition' is declared to be a content of 'reason,' but reason is a mere label. The ordinary relation and criteria of rationality are expressly eliminated. Quite likely we have deified the results of a merely accidental history or series of circumstances. The only way to introduce reasonableness is to analyze in detail the course of events from which the intuition results, and to trace in further detail the influences that radiate from it. There is much ground for John Stuart Mill's basis of opposition to intuitionalism -- it tends to perpetuate prejudice and sanctify conservatism by calling them eternal truths of reason, and thus to erect barriers in the way of moral progress.
article  online_texts  Dewey  19thC  20thC  intellectual_history  US_history  moral_philosophy  intuitionism  values  reason  history-as_experiment  evolution-as-model  evolution-social  genealogy-method  morality-objective  morality-conventional  epistemology-moral  progress  pragmatism  culture  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Neil Fligstein and Luke Dauter: The Sociology of Markets (2007)
JSTOR: Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 33 (2007), pp. 105-128 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- The sociology of markets has been one of the most vibrant fields in sociology in the past 25 years. There is a great deal of agreement that markets are social structures characterized by extensive social relationships between firms, workers, suppliers, customers, and governments. But, like in many sociological literatures, the theory camps that have formed often seem to speak by each other. We show that some of the disagreement between theory camps is due to differences in conceptual language, and other disagreements stem from the fact that theory camps ignore the concepts in other theory camps, thereby making their theories less complete. We end by considering deeper controversies in the literature that seem open both to new conceptualization and further empirical research.
article  jstor  social_theory  economic_sociology  institutional_economics  markets  networks  culture  fields  firms-theory  lit_survey  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Peter Levin: Culture and Markets: How Economic Sociology Conceptualizes Culture (2008)
JSTOR: Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 619 (Sep., 2008), pp. 114-129 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Current ways of addressing culture in the sociology of markets are incomplete. One approach treats culture as constitutive of markets (markets are culture), while the other treats culture as something affecting markets (markets have culture). This division corresponds to markets that are more or less "settled." The author outlines the history and shortcomings of this duality and proposes a more dimensional approach to culture and markets that more fully integrates culture into economic sociology.
article  js  social_theory  economic_sociology  institutional_economics  markets  networks  culture  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Percy S. Cohen: Theories of Myth (1969)
JSTOR: Man, New Series, Vol. 4, No. 3 (Sep., 1969), pp. 337-353 -- survey of (at least 7) theories of myth -- mid 20thC schools - Levi-Strauss, Malinowski predecessors [pre Geertz?]
article  jstor  social_theory  anthropology  sociology_of_religion  social_psychology  culture  ritual  myth  identity  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Jad Smith: Custom, Association, and the Mixed Mode: Locke's Early Theory of Cultural Reproduction (2006)
JSTOR: ELH, Vol. 73, No. 4 (Winter, 2006), pp. 831-853 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- questions assumptions like those of Raymond Williams who don't see these issues showing up until Herder and 19thC (with exception of Vico)
article  jstor  intellectual_history  social_theory  culture  anthropology  17thC  18thC  Locke  Enlightenment  Herder  Vico  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
John Patrick Diggins: Arthur O. Lovejoy and the Challenge of Intellectual History (2006)
JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 67, No. 1 (Jan., 2006), pp. 181-208.....Heavy on anti pragmatism and anti modernism. ?...Downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  20thC  intellectual_history  historiography  pragmatism  Lovejoy  Cambridge_School  Dewey  James_William  concepts  culture  culture_wars  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Peter Levin: Culture and Markets: How Economic Sociology Conceptualizes Culture (2008)
JSTOR: Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 619 (Sep., 2008), pp. 114-129 --- Current ways of addressing culture in the sociology of markets are incomplete. One approach treats culture as constitutive of markets (markets are culture), while the other treats culture as something affecting markets (markets have culture). This division corresponds to markets that are more or less "settled." The author outlines the history and shortcomings of this duality and proposes a more dimensional approach to culture and markets that more fully integrates culture into economic sociology.
article  jstor  social_theory  culture  markets  firms-theory  economic_sociology  economic_culture  political_economy  Weber  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Ethan Watters: Why Americans Are the WIERDest People in the World | Pacific Standard February 2013
Long form article: Joe Henrich and his colleagues are shaking the foundations of psychology and economics—and hoping to change the way social scientists think about human behavior and culture.
* * * *
The growing body of cross-cultural research that the three researchers were compiling suggested that the mind’s capacity to mold itself to cultural and environmental settings was far greater than had been assumed. The most interesting thing about cultures may not be in the observable things they do—the rituals, eating preferences, codes of behavior, and the like—but in the way they mold our most fundamental conscious and unconscious thinking and perception.
* * * * This new approach suggests the possibility of reverse-engineering psychological research: look at cultural content first; cognition and behavior second. Norenzayan’s recent work on religious belief is perhaps the best example of the intellectual landscape that is now open for study. 
social_theory  statistics  culture  biocultural_evolution  human_nature  psychology  social_psychology  microeconomics  rational_choice  evo_psych  sociology_of_religion  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Robert Gonzalez: WIERD - Rich, educated westerners could be skewing social science studies | io9.com
Links to debates about psychology, social psych, evo psych, experimental microeconomics etc using subjects from developed Western societies, especially college students, and even worse, psych majors
social_theory  psychology  microeconomics  rational_choice  statistics  culture  social_psychology  sociology_of_religion  biocultural_evolution  evo_psych  human_nature 
august 2013 by dunnettreader

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