dunnettreader + crime   18

By nearly any measure, sunny South Florida is tops in fraud | CBS News July 2015
Yikes -- 46 times the national average for submitting fraudulent tax returns, plus Medicare scams, identity theft, and in and on
Pocket  US_society  crime  fraud  US_government  from pocket
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Bert Useem and Anne Morrison Piehl - Prison State: The Challenge of Mass Incarceration | Cambridge University Press - March 2008
Bert Useem, Purdue University, Indiana -- Anne Morrison Piehl, Rutgers University, New Jersey -- Paperback isbn: 9780521713399 -- Within the past 25 years, the prison population in America shot upward to reach a staggering 1.53 million by 2005. This book takes a broad, critical look at incarceration, the huge social experiment of American society. The authors investigate the causes and consequences of the prison buildup, often challenging previously held notions from scholarly and public discourse. By examining such themes as social discontent, safety and security within prisons, and impact on crime and on the labor market, Piehl and Useem use evidence to address the inevitable larger question, where should incarceration go next for American society, and where is it likely to go? **--** Table of Contents -- 1. The buildup to mass incarceration -- 2. Causes of the prison buildup -- 3. More prison, less crime? -- 4. Prison buildup and disorder -- 5. The buildup and inmate release -- 6. Implications of the buildup for labor markets -- 7. Conclusion: right-sizing prison. -- via Mark Kleiman re after a certain percentage of the population incarcerated, each marginal convict you add actually increases the crime rate, due to both internal factors (prisons breed criminals) and external impacts on the community from which prisoners are being taken -- excerpt downloaded pdf to Note
books  US_history  US_society  US_legal_system  US_politics  social_history  20thC  21stC  crime  criminal_justice  prisons  Labor_markets  racism  discrimination  poverty  inequality  law_enforcement  privatization  police  legislation  judiciary  state_government  urban_politics  cities-governance  downloaded 
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Darrell M. West - How digital technology can reduce prison incarceration rates | Brookings Institution | March 31, 2015
It’s an acknowledged fact that the United States has the highest incarceration rate among developed nations. And just last week, there’s been a marked momentum for sentencing reform in Congress. On Thursday, March 26, former Republican House speaker Newt Gingrich and a top Koch Industries executive joined the left-leaning Center for American Progress and the ACLU at a bipartisan criminal justice summit in Washington to work towards avoiding incarceration for nonviolent offenders.
US_government  US_legal_system  crime  criminal_justice  prisons  US_politics  technology  privacy 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Sarah Jane Downing, The English Pleasure Garden 1660–1860 (2009 Shire Publications
During their heyday in the mid-eighteenth century the pleasure gardens were one of the hubs of polite society. Laid out with formal gardens and buildings for dining and amusement, the pleasure gardens were the scene of upper class exercise and entertainment. Most famous were Vauxhall Gardens, Cremorne Gardens and Ranelagh Gardens. In Bath, Sydney Gardens is the only English pleasure garden that has not since been closed and built over. This book tells the story of the pleasure gardens, explaining their beginnings in the seventeenth century, their rising social importance, the variety of entertainment contained within, and their eventual decline into seedy hangouts for gamblers, thieves and prostitutes. **--** Contents -- Introduction *-* The First Gardens *-* Stolen Moments and Halcyon Days. *-* Ranelagh: The Divinest Place Under Heaven. *-* Marylebone and Vauxhall: The Later Years *-* Eighteenth-century Provincial Gardens. *-* Nineteenth-century Provincial Gardens. *-& The Victorian Pleasure Gardens. *-* Arcadia Fallen **--** Paperback; March 2009; 64 pages; ISBN: 9780747806998
books  17thC  18thC  19thC  British_history  cultural_history  leisure  politeness  elite_culture  crime  gardens  popular_culture 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Amanda Vickery - Those Gorgeous Georgians - Tercentenary Review | academia.edu
Downloaded docx to iPhone -- We tend to associate the Georgian era with glacial calm, tinkling tea cups, and whispering silk dresses, an oasis of elegance and calm between the strife of the Civil War and the grime and class struggle of the Victorians. But this is a pallid Sunday teatime vision of the eighteenth century. Th... - published as article in The Telegraph(?)
paper  academia  downloaded  memory-cultural  cultural_history  social_history  British_history  English_lit  art_history  music_history  elite_culture  court_culture  18thC  19thC  monarchy  change-social  historiography  politeness  public_opinion  popular_culture  consumers  urbanism  social_order  crime  fiscal-military_state  colonialism  trade  status  hierarchy  religious_history 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Filip Palda, A school in decline: In Chicago, economists honour Gary Becker | Financial Post | November 4, 2014
Too bad. Becker was far superior to his promoters and acolytes - same with Coase. An embarrassingly feeble celebration of the Becker-Friedman-Stigler counter-revolution of outsider genius rebels against "Keynesian hegemony" beginning in the 1950s. The take-away seems to have been that markets are efficient when left alone and that government programs will inevitably be defeated by either regulatory capture or clever, rational, forward-looking agents that will game the system to produce an unintended (often perverse) outcome. Ironically, the only big example chosen to illustrate how Becker's forays into other social sciences flummoxed left-wing by overturning their cherished worldview looks increasingly flimsy - treating criminals as rational calculating economic agents rather than victims of assorted "pathologies." The microeconomist "knows" that the key to behavioral change is to just get the incentives and prices right through adjusting levels and types of punishment or type and amount of policing. Unfortunately for this example of economic imperialism, It's now clear that the enormous increase in crime rates over decades, followed by an equally enormous decline, shows that macro effects of some, yet to be agreed upon, social factors simply swamped any of the micro concerns of Becker's rational calculating agents. That's not to suggest microfoundations were irrelevant, but it increasingly appears that individual behavior was affected by factors of precisely the opposite sort from those that would be involved in rational utility calculations - the environmental poisoning of children's neurological systems, especially in the segregated urban-industrial ghettos into which the black population was forced to live, that reduced the capacity for self-control and rational calculation, and increased impulsive, indeed irrational, aggressive behavior, too often violent crime. And as the amount of poisoning has declined, so too has irrational, impulsive violence. But despite the accumulating evidence of macro factors, we can expect for decades to come that micro textbooks and right-wing economists will be reciting the "lessons" Becker's approach has "taught" for designing social policy. Just as they "know" voluntary unemployment doesn't exist - only that the government must be interfering with the prices and market incentives. Pthew!
20thC  intellectual_history  economic_theory  social_theory  behavioral_economics  microeconomics  microfoundations  incentives  prices  markets_in_everything  crime  criminal_justice  Chicago_School 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Michael Sallah, Robert O’Harrow Jr., Steven Rich - 3-part WaPo Investigation: "Stop and Seize on America's highways" | The Washington Post September 2014
Part 1: In recent years, thousands of people have had cash confiscated by police without being charged with crimes. -- Part 2: One training firm started a private intelligence-sharing network and helped shape law enforcement nationwide. -- Part 3: Motorists caught up in the seizures talk about the experience and the legal battles that sometimes took more than a year. **--** After the terror attacks on 9/11, the government called on police to become the eyes and ears of homeland security on America’s highways. Local officers, county deputies and state troopers were encouraged to act more aggressively in searching for suspicious people, drugs and other contraband. Dept Homeland Security and DOJ spent millions on police training. The effort succeeded, but it had an impact that has been largely hidden from public view: the spread of an aggressive brand of policing that has spurred the seizure of $100s millions in cash from motorists and others not charged with crimes. Thousands of people have been forced to fight legal battles to get their money back. Behind the rise in seizures is a cottage industry of private police-training firms that teach the techniques of “highway interdiction” to departments across the country. One firm created a private intelligence network that enabled police nationwide to share detailed reports about motorists — criminals and the innocent alike — including their Social Security numbers, addresses and identifying tattoos, as well as hunches about which drivers to stop. Many of the reports have been funneled to federal agencies and fusion centers as part of the government’s burgeoning law enforcement intelligence systems — despite warnings from state and federal authorities that the information could violate privacy and constitutional protections. A thriving subculture of road officers on the network now competes to see who can seize the most cash and contraband, describing their exploits in the network’s chat rooms and sharing “trophy shots” of money and drugs. Some police advocate highway interdiction as a way of raising revenue for cash-strapped municipalities.
US_society  US_constitution  US_foreign_policy  US_legal_system  US_politics-race  national_security  judiciary  local_government  state_government  government_finance  police  privacy  networks-information  power-asymmetric  abuse_of_power  public-private_partnerships  crime  criminal_justice  civil_liberties  terrorism  due_process  property-confiscations  intelligence_agencies  militarization-society  incentives  civil_society  governmentality  government_officials  authoritarian  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Historical Background - Reformation of Manners Campaigns - London Lives
Contents - The First Societies, 1690-1738 *--* 1757-63 Society *--* Opposition to Informers and Reforming Constables. *--* Legal Opposition. *--* The Proclamation Society, 1787. *--* Exemplary Lives. *--* Introductory Reading & Footnotes. -- Largely reliant on private prosecutions, the early modern criminal justice system did not facilitate the prosecution of large numbers of victimless offences such as immorality and irreligion. But despite increasing religious toleration, England in the 18thC remained a strongly Protestant country, and many people were offended by public displays of sin, not least because it was thought that such conduct led sinners down a slippery slope of increasingly criminal conduct which would lead inevitably to the gallows. The 18thC was the first great age of voluntary societies, and concerns about vice led to the formation, over the course of the century, of successive societies which aimed to suppress immorality. While members sought to promote reform through persuasion, in sermons and through the distribution of printed literature, they saw the need for coercion as well. With the Church Courts in decline, the reformers turned to the criminal justice system. Their methods attracted significant opposition, however, and the reformers frequently found themselves at the receiving end of often vexatious litigation aimed at undermining their activities. Ultimately, attempts to use the law to promote a reformation of manners were frustrated by a combination of both legal and popular opposition. The records included in this website provide evidence of both the reformers' activities and the opposition they engender.
website  18thC  British_history  British_politics  reformation_of_manners  1690s  legal_system  judiciary  crime  criminal_justice  gin_craze  Parliament  Church_of_England  church_courts  lower_orders  London  police  parish  litigation  evidence  immorality  prostitution  local_government  religious_lit  social_history  cultural_history  bibliography  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Josephine Sandler Nelson - "CORPORATE CONSPIRACY: HOW NOT CALLING A CONSPIRACY A CONSPIRACY IS WARPING THE LAW ON CORPORATE WRONGDOING" | Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy 24.2 (2015) - bepress
The intracorporate conspiracy doctrine immunizes an enterprise and its agents from conspiracy prosecution based on the legal fiction that an enterprise and its agents are a single actor incapable of the meeting of two minds to form a conspiracy. The doctrine, however, misplaces incentives in contravention of agency law, criminal law, tort law, and public policy. As a result, harmful behavior is ordered and performed without consequences, and the victims of the behavior suffer without appropriate remedy. Especially in the wake of the financial crisis, prosecutors and the public are searching for new tools. The most obvious and tested tool would be to roll back the intracorporate conspiracy doctrine. In the absence of this solution, frustration with applying the doctrine has led to over-reliance on alternative methods of holding agents of enterprises responsible for their actions -- piercing the corporate veil, responsible corporate officer doctrine, and unusual approaches such as denying “retroactive” imposition of the corporate veil and adopting “reverse” piercings of the corporate veil. But these doctrines were fundamentally developed in and adapted to other circumstances. They do not take into account the coordination of actions within an enterprise and the unique nature of conspiracy that fall—and should fall—into the heart of behavior that would trigger liability if not for the intracorporate conspiracy doctrine. Using alternative doctrines to impose liability on behavior that would otherwise be recognized as intracorporate conspiracy results in inconsistent decisions and disproportionate awards. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  legal_theory  corporations  corporate_law  liability  accountability  crime  criminal_justice  financial_regulation  torts  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Jesse R. Harrington and Michele J. Gelfand - Tightness–looseness across the 50 united states | PNAS | Mobile
Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD -- This research demonstrates wide variation in tightness–looseness (the strength of punishment and degree of latitude/permissiveness) at the state level in the United States, as well as its association with a variety of ecological and historical factors, psychological characteristics, and state-level outcomes. Consistent with theory and past research, ecological and man-made threats—such as a higher incidence of natural disasters, greater disease prevalence, fewer natural resources, and greater degree of external threat—predicted increased tightness at the state level. Tightness is also associated with higher trait conscientiousness and lower trait openness, as well as a wide array of outcomes at the state level. Compared with loose states, tight states have higher levels of social stability, including lowered drug and alcohol use, lower rates of homelessness, and lower social disorganization. However, tight states also have higher incarceration rates, greater discrimination and inequality, lower creativity, and lower happiness relative to loose states. In all, tightness–looseness provides a parsimonious explanation of the wide variation we see across the 50 states of the United States of America. -- downloaded pdf to Note
culture  culture-American  norms  inequality  discrimination  US_politics  conservatism  liberalism  crime  punishment  deviance  tolerance  social_order  ecology  social_psychology  US_society  creativity  Innovation  happiness  hierarchy  culture_wars  culture-tightness  culture-looseness  prisons  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria, An Essay on Crimes and Punishments... With a Commentary by M. de Voltaire - Online Library of Liberty
Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria, An Essay on Crimes and Punishments. By the Marquis Beccaria of Milan. With a Commentary by M. de Voltaire. A New Edition Corrected. (Albany: W.C. Little & Co., 1872). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2193> -- An extremely influential Enlightenment treatise on legal reform in which Beccaria advocates the ending of torture and the death penalty. The book also contains a lengthy commentary by Voltaire which is an indication of high highly French enlightened thinkers regarded the work.
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Beccaria  Voltaire  crime  criminal_justice  punishment  torture  capital_punishment  treason  heresy  tolerance  authority  church_courts  legal_history  legal_system  Absolutism  authoritarian  tyranny  reform-political  reform-legal  social_sciences  social_order  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Esther Snell - Discourses of criminality in the eighteenth-century press: the presentation of crime in The Kentish Post, 1717–1768 | Continuity and Change (2007) - Cambridge Journals Online
In the eighteenth century the newspaper became the most important source for the printed dissemination of criminological stories and information. In bringing together thousands of narratives about crime and justice it far outstripped any other printed source of the period. As the primary literary means of accessing stories and information about crime, it is likely that newspapers influenced their readers' perceptions of and attitudes towards crime and the justice system. This article offers a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the crime content of one provincial newspaper, The Kentish Post, or Canterbury Newsletter. The study reveals the newspaper to have been constructed to a template, which privileged crime as one of its most important subjects. However, the editorial imperatives of compiling a regular text with an unprecedented number of stories resulted in a discourse of the nature, causes and consequences of crime very different to that expounded in the pamphlet literature, which had been the mainstay of printed discourses about crime before the arrival of newspapers and with which historians are more familiar.
article  paywall  social_history  cultural_history  18thC  public_opinion  crime  judiciary  public_disorder  public_policy  lower_orders  sociology_of_knowledge  newspapers  pamphlets  political_press  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Jonathan White - The “Slow but Sure Poyson”: The Representation of Gin and Its Drinkers, 1736–1751 | JSTOR: Journal of British Studies, Vol. 42, No. 1 (January 2003), pp. 35-64
It can often seem that William Hogarth's famous Gin Lane (1751) says all that would ever need to be said about the “gin craze” of the early eighteenth century. The engraving has come to be virtually identified with its subject, revealing and circumscribing possible histories within its familiar lines. Yet, Gin Lane appeared at a determinate moment, chronologically marking the end of the gin craze and the culmination of one phase in the history of proletarian drinking. During this phase, as I will argue, there were significant changes in both the social conditions and relations that shaped laboring-class drinking and the ideas through which the propertied classes attempted to understand and control it. That this has not been argued before suggests how many historians have approached this phenomenon as a distinct social problem with fairly simple, basic features. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  social_history  cultural_history  political_history  18thC  British_history  British_politics  lower_orders  popular_culture  popular_politics  gin_craze  public_disorder  crime  violence  riots  public_opinion  Parliament  taxes  Whigs-oligarchy  1730s  1740s  Hogarth  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Frank O'Gorman, review essay - Approaches to Hanoverian Society JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 39, No. 2 (Jun., 1996), pp. 521-534
(1) Philanthropy and Police: London Charity in the Eighteenth Century by Donna T. Andrew; *--* (2) The Language of Liberty: Political Discourse and Social Dynamics in the Anglo-American World by J. C. D. Clark; *--* (3) Stilling the Grumbling Hive. The Response to Social and Economic Problems in England, 1689-1750 by L. Davison; *--* (4) Riot, Risings and Revolution. Governance and Violence in Eighteenth- Century England by Ian Gilmour; *--* (5) A Patriot Press. National Politics and the London Press in the 1740s by Robert Harris; *--* (6) Judging New Wealth. Popular Publishing and Responses to Commerce in England, 1750-1850 by James Raven; *--* (7)The Local Origins of Modern Society. Gloucestershire 1500-1800 by David Rollison; *--* (8) An Imperial State at War: Britain from 1689 to 1815 by Lawrence Stone; *--* (9) Protest and Survival: The Historical Experience. Essays for E. P. Thompson by John Rule; Robert Malcolmson -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  bookshelf  article  jstor  political_history  cultural_history  political_culture  social_history  political_economy  17thC18thC  19thC  British_politics  British_Empire  UK_economy  UK_Government  UK_government-colonies  British_foreign_policy  military_history  political_press  class_conflict  local_government  political_philosophy  charity  crime  violence  riots  lower_orders  mercantilism  luxury  status  nouveaux_riches  governing_class  governmentality  fiscal-military_state  popular_culture  popular_politics  populism  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Black, reviews - Alliances, Duelling, and Social Policy | Eighteenth-Century Studies (2011)
Project MUSE - Jeremy Black. "Alliances, Duelling, and Social Policy." Eighteenth-Century Studies 45.1 (2011): 140-142 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Works reviewed: --**-- Marco Cesa, Allies yet Rivals: International Politics in 18th Century Europe (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2010). Pp. xi + 294.$55.00. --**-- Stephen Banks, A Polite Exchange of Bullets: The Duel and the English Gentleman 1750–1850 (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2010). Pp. vii + 317. $115.00. --**'- Joanna Innes, Inferior Politics: Social Problems and Social Policies in Eighteenth-Century Britain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009). Pp. xviii + 364. $110.00.
books  reviews  18thC  IR  alliances  balance_of_power  British_history  social_history  crime  local_government  honor  status  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader

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