dunnettreader + cosmology   71

John Cramer - The Copernican System: A Detailed Synopsis (2015) - Medievalists.net
Oglethorpe Journal of Undergraduate Research, Vol. 5:1 (2015) via blurb omn Medievalists.net - downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
downloaded  intellectual_history  16thC  cosmology  astronomy  paper  history_of_science  solar_system  Copernicus 
october 2016 by dunnettreader
Eric Schwitzgebel - Crazyist Metaphysics of Mind (2014) Australasian Journal of Philosophy: Vol 92, No 4
Crazyism about X is the view that something it would be crazy to believe must be among the core truths about X. In this essay, I argue that crazyism is true of the metaphysics of mind. A position is ‘crazy’ in the intended sense if it is contrary to common sense and we are not epistemically compelled to believe it. Crazyism can be treated as the conjunction of two sub-theses: (1) that something contrary to common sense must be true and (2) that whatever that true thing is, we are not epistemically compelled to believe it. I defend the first thesis on grounds of the probable incoherence of folk metaphysics, from which it follows that any fully fleshed-out metaphysics will inevitably conflict with some piece of that incoherent story. I defend the second thesis on three grounds: peer disagreement, lack of a compelling method for resolving metaphysical disputes about the mind, and the dubiousness of the general cosmological claims with which metaphysical claims about the mind are entangled. -- Keywords: common sense, consciousness, dualism, idealism, materialism, metaphilosophy, metaphysics, -- downloaded to Tab S2
article  metaphysics  mind  epistemology  folk_psychology  cosmology  dualism  idealism  materialism  consciousness  reductionism  naturalism  downloaded 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Matthew Sharpe - Ilsetraut Hadot’s Seneca: ancient philosophy and spiritual direction (2015) | Academia.edu
Abstract: Exegetical and reflective presentation for Sydney conference "In pursuit of wisdom: Ancient Chinese and Greek perspectives on cultivation" on Ilsetraut Hadot's magisterial *Sénèque: Direction Spirituelle et pratique de la philosophie* (2015, Vrin. - Research Interests: Stoicism, Philosophy as Therapy, Roman Stoicism, Philosophy as a way of life, and Pierre Hadot -- downloaded
lecture  ancient_philosophy  Stoicism  Seneca  Hadot  Hadot_  Ilsetraut  philosophy_as_way_of_life  moral_philosophy  cosmology  moral_psychology  Hellenism  books  French_language  reviews  downloaded 
july 2016 by dunnettreader
William T. Lynch - Darwinian Social Epistemology: Science and Religion as Evolutionary Byproducts Subject to Cultural Evolution (Feb 2016) | Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective
Key to Steve Fuller’s recent defense of intelligent design is the claim that it alone can explain why science is even possible. By contrast, Fuller argues that Darwinian evolutionary theory posits a purposeless universe which leaves humans with no motivation to study science and no basis for modifying an underlying reality. I argue that this view represents a retreat from insights about knowledge within Fuller’s own program of social epistemology. I show that a Darwinian picture of science, as also of religion, can be constructed that explains how these complex social institutions emerged out of a process of biological and cultural evolution. Science and religion repurpose aspects of our evolutionary inheritance to the new circumstances of more complex societies that have emerged since the Neolithic revolution.  - downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
sociology_of_religion  animals  theodicy  cosmology  gene-culture_coevolution  constructivism  intelligent_design  human_nature  transhumanism  imago_dei  intellectual_history  Darwinism  epistemology-social  sociology_of_knowledge  sociology_of_science_ 
may 2016 by dunnettreader
Massimo Pigliucci, review - The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time - Scientia Salon 2015
He likes it quite a lot - downloaded as pdf to Note along with a second part that deals with the math portion of the book -- couldn't get the pdf to contain content beyond the pdf first page - saved to Instapaper
Instapaper  books  reviews  kindle-available  downloaded  cosmology  time  philosophy_of_science  physics  mathematics  from instapaper
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Vincent Citot - Le processus historique de la Modernité et la possibilité de la liberté (universalisme et individualisme) (2005) - Cairn.info
I - Considérations introductives sur l’essence de la modernité
- L’esprit de la modernité : la liberté, l’universalisme et l’individualisme
- Réflexivité, autonomie et indépendance
- Conséquences : les idées d’égalité et de progrès
II - Les origines antiques de la modernité
- Universalisme et individualisme en Grèce antique
- Le stoïcisme : entre hellénisme et christianisme
- Universalisme, égalitarisme et individualisme chrétien
- L’individualisme du droit romain
III - L’avènement de la modernité et la périodisation de l’ère moderne
- Le monde Ancien et le monde Moderne
- La périodisation de la modernité:
1 - La première modernité : de la Renaissance aux Lumières
2 - La seconde modernité : de la fin du XVIIIème siècle aux années 1960
3 - La troisième modernité : entre postmodernité et hypermodernité
Citot Vincent, « Le processus historique de la Modernité et la possibilité de la liberté (universalisme et individualisme). », Le Philosophoire 2/2005 (n° 25) , p. 35-76
individualism  moral_philosophy  Counter-Enlightenment  16thC  Romanticism  history_of_science  politico-theology  autonomy  scholastics  Renaissance  change-social  democracy  republicanism  modernity-emergence  political_philosophy  democracy_deficit  Stoicism  Reformation  Early_Christian  French_Enlightenment  18thC  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  French_Revolution  periodization  Europe-Early_Modern  universalism  downloaded  subjectivity  political_culture  religious_history  article  Ancients-and-Moderns  community  self  German_Idealism  Counter-Reformation  authority  Enlightenment  metaphysics  ancient_Rome  17thC  Cartesians  cosmology  Descartes  ancient_Greece  Locke  modernity  liberty  Hobbes  intellectual_history  bibliography 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Louis Pinto - Le débat sur les sources de la morale et de la religion (2004) - Cairn.info
Après la Grande Guerre, le ralliement d’une partie de la droite conservatrice à un régime désormais doté d’une légitimité guerrière et patriotique a pour effet de modifier sensiblement la définition des vertus républicaines jusqu’alors associée à l’alliance entre la démocratie et la science, qui caractérise le durkheimisme aussi bien que l’idéologie laïque. Cette évolution se reflète en partie dans le champ philosophique : dans le livre Les Deux sources de la morale et de la religion (1932), Bergson entend se situer sur les terrains de prédilection de la sociologie durkheimienne. Les oppositions majeures de sa métaphysique se trouvent appliquées à la société, la célèbre opposition entre le « clos » et l’« ouvert » permettant de renvoyer les sociologues du côté du légalisme et de l’utilitarisme étroits, et d’attribuer des qualités nobles et novatrices à des « héros ». On s’intéresse ici à la riposte d’Albert Bayet qui est simultanément celle d’un professeur rationaliste défendant l’héritage des Lumières, celle d’un sociologue d’inspiration durkheimienne et celle d’un militant de la laïcité non résigné à se voir dépouillé de valeurs comme la générosité et l’enthousiasme. Après avoir contesté aussi bien la notion de morale ouverte que l’individualisme métaphysique, il montre le lien entre les prises de position théoriques et leurs conséquences politiques.
cosmology  comparative_religion  cultural_authority  spirituality  intelligentsia  Durkheim  evolution-as-model  sociology_of_knowledge  morality-conventional  Bergson  psychology  utilitarianism  downloaded  political_culture  phenomenology  James_William  social_theory  declinism  France  social_sciences  entre_deux_guerres  irrationalism  morality-divine_command  social_order  article  intellectual_history  politics-and-religion  conservatism  morality-objective 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Martin Meisel, “On the Age of the Universe” | BRANCH
The Charles Darwin-inspired debate over the Age of the Earth that pitted contemporary Physics against the theory and practice of contemporary Geology was intimately tied to recent unsettling projections on the thermodynamic fate of the universe. The leading voices in the debate were William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin, and Thomas Henry Huxley, Darwin’s most able champion. The argument—resolved only in the next century—has exemplary value as an intractable dissonance between two vigorous and well established, but not entirely secure scientific disciplines. And its content laid some of the groundwork for the pessimism that qualified the cult of progress and the whiggish habits of cultural and material complacency towards the end of the century. - reviews 18thC theories as well -- download pdf to iPhone-DBox
universe-age  Shelley_Mary  Shelley  Cuvier  Buffon  cosmology  age_of_the_earth  Darwin  Darwinism  entropy  Byron  time  intellectual_history  evolution  physics  astronomy  geology  18thC  Kelvin  downloaded  Franklin_Ben  chronology  19thC  history_of_science  law_of_conservation 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Kuni Sakamoto - Pierre Gassendi's Reception of Keplerian Ideas | JSTOR Journal of the History of Ideas (Jan 2009)
The German Hercules's Heir: Pierre Gassendi's Reception of Keplerian Ideas -- Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 70, No. 1 (Jan., 2009), pp. 69-91 -- big interesting bibliography -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  16thC  17thC  ancient_philosophy  natural_philosophy  natural_history  Plato  Aristotle  Pliny_the_Elder  Albert_Magnus  medieval_philosophy  astronomy  astrology  cosmology  Kepler  Gassendi  atomism  generation  divine_intellect  causation  mathematization  bibliography  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
Adam Takahashi - Nature, Formative Power and Intellect in the Natural Philosophy of Albert the Great | JSTOR - Early Science and Medicine (2008)
Early Science and Medicine, Vol. 13, No. 5 (2008), pp. 451-481 -- The Dominican theologian Albert the Great (ca. 1200-1280) was one of the first to investigate into the system of the world on the basis of an acquaintance with the entire Aristotelian corpus, which he read under the influence of Islamic philosophers. The present study aims to understand the core of Albert's natural philosophy. Albert's emblematic phrase, "every work of nature is the work of intelligence" (omne opus naturae est opus intelligentiae), expresses the conviction that natural things are produced by the intellects that move the celestial bodies, just as houses are made by architects moving their instruments. Albert tried to fathom the secret of generation of natural things with his novel notion of "formative power" (virtus formativa), which flows from the celestial intellects into the sublunary elements. His conception of the natural world represents an alternative to the dominant medieval view on the relationship between the artificial and the natural. -- large bibliography of secondary sources post WWII -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  medieval_philosophy  13thC  Albert_Magnus  natural_philosophy  Aristotle  Aristotelian  causation  cosmology  laws_of_nature  divine_intellect  generation  bibliography  downloaded 
january 2016 by dunnettreader
The Gnostic Society Library and the Nag Hammadi Library - Introduction to Gnosticism
An Introduction to Gnosticism and The Nag Hammadi Library -- site has huge collection of etexts from Nag Hammadi, apocryphal gospels, background materials on Gnosticism through the ages - video lectures, some free (especially by the Bishop of the Gnostic Ecclesia, sort of weekly sermons) and for $, collections of lectures e.g. the Divine Feminine, the Arthurian and Grail cycle. Big emphasis on Jungian psychology, symbols etc. New Age reaching or getting in touch with the divine spark in each person - and developing, fulfillment etc. The etexts have explanatory materials that link to legitimate scholarship
evil  Jungian  bibliography  religious_history  monotheism  theology  imago_dei  mysticism  cosmology  church_history  Biblical_criticism  website  Kabbalah  archaeology  Christology  Biblical_authority  Early_Christian  manuscripts  Biblical_exegesis  late_antiquity  intellectual_history  heterodoxy  Biblical_allusion  Christianity  theodicy  gnostic  etexts 
december 2015 by dunnettreader
Gerard Passannante - Homer Atomized: Francis Bacon and the Matter of Tradition (2009) | JSTOR - ELH
ELH, Vol. 76, No. 4 (Winter, 2009), pp. 1015-1047 -- extensive primary and secondary bibliography from Renaissance philology through Montaigne, Bacon, Vico and 18thC German challenges to Homeric "authorship" as well as ancient literary tradition, epistemology, cosmology and physics - Stoics, Epicureans -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  literary_history  historiography  cosmology  epistemology  philology  natural_philosophy  ancient_Greece  ancient_Rome  Hellenism  Homer  atomism  Stoicism  Epicurean  Cicero  Lucretius  authors  author_intention  text_analysis  time  void  chance  Renaissance  humanism  Erasmus  17thC  18thC  scepticism  Montaigne  Bacon  Vico  Nietzsche  tradition  cultural_transmission  knowledge  bibliography  downloaded 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
John Sellars - Stoic Cosmopolitanism and Zeno's Republic | Academia.edu
History of Political Thought 28/1 (2007), 1-29 -- Modern accounts of Stoic politics have attributed to Zeno the ideal of an isolated community of sages and to later Stoics such as Seneca a cosmopolitan utopia transcending all traditional States. By returning to the Cynic background to both Zeno's Republic and the Cosmopolitan tradition, this paper argues that the distance between the two is not as great as is often supposed. This account, it is argued, is more plausible than trying to offer a developmental explanation of the supposed transformation in Stoic political thought from isolated community to cosmopolitan utopia. -- Keywords: Stoicism, Cosmopolitanism, Cicero, Cynicism (Ancient Greek Philosophy), and Zenon of Citium -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  Academia.edu  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  cosmology  Stoicism  cynicism  Seneca  Zenon_of_Citium  Diogenes_the_Cynic  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  ancient_Rome  Hellenism  cosmopolitanism  Cicero  imperialism  Roman_Empire  Roman_Republic  Plato-Republic  downloaded 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
John Sellars - Aiôn and Chronos: Deleuze and the Stoic Theory of Time (2007) | Academia.edu
[published in Collapse 3 (2007), 177-205] -- Gilles Deleuze outlines a supposedly Stoic dual theory of time: on the one hand there is aiôn, comprising an infinite past and future; on the other there is chronos, the extended present. In the scholarly literature on Stoicism, however, either a single theory is reconstructed or the evidence is dismissed as too thin and incoherent. I offer an explanation for this distance between the Deleuzian and scholarly presentations of the Stoic theory of time. I conclude by answering the question to what extent, if any, the Deleuzian theory of aiôn and chronos deserves to be called Stoic.-- downloaded pdf to Note
article  Academia.edu  intellectual_history  ancient_philosophy  late_antiquity  commentaries  Diogenes_Laertius  Plutarch  Stoicism  time  cosmology  ontology  20thC  Deleuze  poststructuralist  postmodern  downloaded 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
Lumière, lumières - Collège de France - 15 octobre 2015 09:30
Depuis la nuit des temps, la lumière a fasciné et inquiété les humains. Dans l’Antiquité, les cultes solaires étaient importants, et les historiens des religions du XIXe siècle leur ont donné une plus grande importance encore, au point de vouloir comprendre toutes les divinités antiques comme des métaphores du soleil. Très rapidement aussi, les humains ont tenté d’expliquer les manifestations de la lumière, révélées en particulier par la pratique de l’astronomie, en proposant des théories diverses qui ont abouti non seulement à des cosmologies, mais aussi à la physique et aux innombrables applications qui en sont nées. Ainsi, on peut dire que la lumière artificiellement produite ou contrôlée, qu’elle soit visible ou qu'elle soit un rayonnement électromagnétique invisible, est l’une des composantes essentielles d’un grand nombre des technologies d’aujourd’hui. À côté de ces développements scientifiques, les penseurs européens du XVIIIe siècle ont recouru à la métaphore de la lumière pour définir une démarche intellectuelle ayant pour fin d’éclairer les esprits (Lumières, Enlightenment, Aufklärung), alors que la création artistique n’a cessé de mettre en oeuvre la lumière ou l’obscurité dans la représentation ou la transfiguration de la réalité. -- program pdf to Dropbox
astronomy  intellectual_history  video  biology  Collège_deFrance  nanotechnology  history_of_science  lecture  cosmology  Enlightenment  physics  energy  French_Enlightenment  vision 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
David Sedley - Lucretius and the Transformation of Greek Wisdom | Classical Literature | Cambridge University Press (hbk 1998)
This book studies the structure and origins of De Rerum Natura (On the nature of things), the great first-century BC poem by Lucretius. By showing how he worked from the literary model set by the Greek poet Empedocles but under the philosophical inspiration of the Greek philosopher Epicurus, the book seeks to characterize Lucretius' unique poetic achivement. It is addressed to those interested both in Latin poetry and in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy. [A later chapter concerns the "imprint" of Theophrastus *--* The appearance of this book is a great event - a first class modern philosopher writing on a major Roman author *--* Nothing of this kind available elsewhere *--* Contains the first ever full-scale reconstruction of Epicurus' great treatise On Nature -- downloaded marketing materials to Note
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  literary_history  Lucretius  ancient_philosophy  cosmology  religious_belief  ancient_Greece  ancient_Rome  Greek_lit  Latin_lit  Hellenism  Epicurean  atomism  Empedocles  Theophrastus  poetry  rhetoric-moral_basis  epistemology  nature  perception  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Design Arguments for the Existence of God | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Table of Contents -- 1. The Classical Versions of the Design Argument -- a. Scriptural Roots and Aquinas's Fifth Way -- b.The Argument from Simple Analogy -- c. Paley's Watchmaker Argument -- d. Guided Evolution **--** 2. Contemporary Versions of the Design Argument. -- a. The Argument from. -- b. Irreducible Biochemical Complexity -- c. The Argument from Biological Information. -- d. The Fine-Tuning Arguments -- (i) The Argument from Suspicious Improbability -- (ii) The Confirmatory Argument. **--** 3. The Scientifically Legitimate Uses of Design Inferences. **--** 4.References and Further Reading -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  ancient_philosophy  medieval_philosophy  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  philosophy_of_religion  theology  natural_religion  rational_religion  Newtonianism  creation  design-nature  God-existence  God-attributes  Aquinas  analogy  Paley  complexity  cosmology  cosmological-fine-tuning  intelligent_design  creationism  natural_philosophy  evolution  Bible-as-history  bibliography  downloaded 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Hartshorne: Biography and Psychology of Sensation | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
(..) he insisted that metaphysics and empirical science have different aims and methods, each ensuring in its own way a disciplined objectivity. His “neoclassical” or “process” metaphysics is in the same family of speculative philosophy that one finds in the works of CS Peirce and the later writings of AN Whitehead. Although he did not style himself a disciple of either, he made significant contributions to the study of these philosophers even as he developed his own views. Like them, he endeavored in his own metaphysical thinking to give full weight to the dynamic, relational, temporal, and affective dimensions of the universe. He emphasized, as few before him had, in logic and in the processes of nature, the foundational nature of asymmetrical relations. He was also a theist (...) the revival of the ontological or modal argument for God’s existence...He insisted, however, that it was unavailing to appeal to ...any theistic argument) as support for theism without first rethinking the concept of deity. He argued that thinking about God had been handicapped by lack of attention to the logically possible forms of theism, and in place of the unmoved mover of classical theology, he proposed “the most, and best, moved mover.” He endorsed a “dipolar” version of theism according to which God is both necessary and contingent, but in different respects. He sought a “panentheism” in which God includes the creatures without negating their distinctiveness. -- entry also covers his 1st book on perception -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  20thC  metaphysics  philosophy_of_religion  Peirce  Whitehead  theism  Hartshorne  natural_religion  rational_religion  God-attributes  God-existence  analytical_philosophy  logic  logic-Peirce  process_theology  panentheism  ontological_argument  cosmology  Aristotelian  sensation  perception  empiricism  downloaded 
august 2015 by dunnettreader
Alan Jacobs - Fantasy and the Buffered Self - The New Atlantis - Winter 2014
If fantasy rose to centrality as a form of nostalgia for a day when the porous self was at least surrounded by other sentient beings rather than a dark and silent cosmos, it may now have become something else altogether, a kind of ultimate disenchantment where even our own selves are vacated in favor of a world prefabricated for us by others. This raises again that key question from American Gods: Is resistance futile? Is it simply the case that “all we’re facing here is a f — ing paradigm shift”? Or might there be forces of resistance capable of waging a “mighty battle” on behalf of human freedom?(..) we might take comfort from what seems to me the authentic core of the fantastic as a genre, as we see it from the standpoint of late modernity: fantasy may best be taken as an acknowledgment that the great problem of the pagan world — how to navigate as safely as possible through an ever-shifting landscape of independent and unpredictable powers who are indifferent to human needs — is our problem once more. (..) American Gods is an especially important text for this moment, because it rightly identifies technologies as gods and simultaneously sides with the older gods as being intrinsically closer to the proper human lifeworld. Imaginatively, if not in substantive belief, we are pagans once more. (..) We may choose to believe that we can buffer ourselves, protect ourselves against unknown powers. But that’s a kind of wager: if the powers are real, our disbelief won’t deter them. And it may be that certain powers profit from being disregarded or treated as mere fancies. -- downloaded as pdf to Note
article  SFF  religious_belief  religious_culture  gods-antiquity  technology  self  teleology  cosmology  modernity  disenchantment  sublime  humanism  Taylor_Charles  philosophical_anthropology  cultural_change  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Ronald Osborn - The Great Subversion: The Scandalous Origins of Human Rights | IASC: The Hedgehog Review - Volume 17, No. 2 (Summer 2015)
Hopgood’s bracing critique of rights talk and his call for a less lofty, more pragmatic dispensation forces us to face the implications of the loss of theological anthropology for concepts of human equality and dignity. Can we have a rationally coherent, morally compelling, and historically sustainable discourse as well as a practice of humanistic values and human rights absent a “thick” metaphysical or religious framework, such as the one provided in the Western tradition for some two millennia by Judeo-Christian sources? Put another way, the question “Can we be good without God?” does not strike nearly deep enough. The urgent question is: Will we still be good to the stranger in our midst, or good in the same ways, once we have fully grasped the contestable character of humanism and once we have utterly abandoned the essentially religious idea that every person is made, in the enigmatic language of Scripture, in the image of God? It is a question that even committed atheists, for the sake of good atheism, should find worthy of consideration. -- balance behind paywall
books  reviews  human_rights  theodicy  teleology  cosmology  modernity  disenchantment  morality-divine_command  philosophical_anthropology  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  imago_dei  recognition  dignity  equality  foundationalism 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Karl Giberson (part 2 of 2) creating Adam, again and again - Peter Enns - June 2015
Today’s post is the second of two by Karl Giberson and is adapted from his newly published Saving the Original Sinner: How Christians Have Used the Bible’s… -- not clear whether they take up the first shock to the historical Adam centuries before Darwinism - discovery of the New World, and then moves toward scientific racism that debated whether humans were single or multiple species - and during same period, geology pushing back age of the earth far beyond an historically plausible frame for the literalist reading of Genesis
Instapaper  books  religious_history  Christianity  theology  change-intellectual  change-religious  creation  Adam  original_sin  theodicy  Bible-as-history  Early_Christian  Augustine  evolution  evolutionary_biology  cosmology  death  Biblical_exegesis  Biblical_criticism  Biblical_authority  science-and-religion  Darwinism  Fall  Genesis  from instapaper
june 2015 by dunnettreader
Ada Palmer - Reading Lucretius in the Renaissance | JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 73, No. 3 (July 2012), pp. 395-416
In the Renaissance, Epicureanism and other heterodox scientific theories were strongly associated with heresy and atheism, and frequently condemned. Yet, when Lucretius’s Epicurean poem De Rerum Natura reappeared in 1417, these associations did not prevent the poem’s broad circulation. A survey of marginalia in Lucretius manuscripts reveals a characteristic humanist reading agenda, focused on philology and moral philosophy, which facilitated the circulation of such heterodox texts among an audience still largely indifferent to their radical content. Notes in later sixteenth century print copies reveal a transformation in reading methods, and an audience more receptive to heterodox science. Article is on Project MUSE - the jstor archive is open through 2011, closed for 2012, and has no later volumes. The jstor page for articles from 2012 has the advantage of the full set of footnotes. I've copied the footnotes to Evernote. -- update, I've downloaded it to Note
article  jstor  bibliography  intellectual_history  Lucretius  Epicurean  heterodoxy  atheism  15thC  16thC  Renaissance  humanism  philology  moral_philosophy  reading  reader_response  readership  atomism  determinism  cosmology  Scientific_Revolution  cultural_change  cultural_transmission  circulation-ideas  Evernote  downloaded 
april 2015 by dunnettreader
Steve Shapin - The Virtue of Scientific Thinking | Boston Review - Jan 2015
scientific reeearch may not make you more vitruous, or scientists as a group better people, but the disenchantment (severing assumed link between divine design of the cosmos and our ability to learn more and better understand how man fits in) described hy Weber in Vocation priduces a few worrisome trends. One is the hubris of "playing God" scientism, The Sam Harris and Steve Pinker types that think science can explain enough about hiw humans got to whete we are and how we function in modernity to be philosopher-kings on defining moral values and how our political and social structures should operate for what ends. The other disturbing consequence of cutting the link is the loss of discipline via internalized norms of the religious and miral worth of disinyetested inquiry. As profit and funding increasingly drive all levels of scientific research, and the rnds are increasingly narrowed to technology that can be exploited for profit or power (or both in the military-industrial-( academia) complex, what's to distinguish scientists from bankers. The foundation of trust in scientific results is at extreme risk. The only positive, which ashapin doesn't drvelop, is scepticism re the trustworthiness of the scientific enterprise may threaten the future of the planet via climate change, but few will be eager to put their trust in tge claims of the candidates nominating themselves as philosopher-kings.
Social_Darwinism  Pocket  cosmology  18thC  morality  virtue  scientism  post-WWII  moral_philosophy  17thC  21stC  19thC  history_of_science  mioitary-industrial_complex  20thC  cultural_history  Cold_War  morality-objective  curiosity  is-ought  natural_theology  norms  Reformation  intellectual_history  sociology_of_knowledge  morality-conventional 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Scientists just found 8 distant planets that might be the right temperature for life - Vox Jan 2015
Today, astronomers from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics announced the discovery of eight new planets orbiting distant stars. they may be made of rock, not gas Distant exoplanets, are being found faster and faster all the time — and more than 1800 have been spotted so far. What makes today's discovery especially exciting is that these planets all seem to be in their stars' habitable zones — meaning that liquid water might exist on their surfaces — and their diameters indicate that they may be made of rock, not gas. Both of these conditions are thought to be necessary for life. In fact, one of these planets, called Kepler-438b, is one of the most similar to Earth — in terms of size and potential climate — of any exoplanet we've found thus far.
astronomy  cosmology 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Tim Radford, review - The Copernicus Complex by Caleb Scharf – a cosmic quest | Books | The Guardian September 2014
Tim Radford's The Address Book: Our Place in the Scheme of Things is published by 4th Estate. -- With optical super-telescopes we might soon see not just distant, Earthlike planets but even the signature of life in their atmospheres. At any moment, a radiotelescope might start to pick up a message from a civilisation far away and long ago in the galaxy. In either case, humans would no longer be alone, and the Earth not such a special place. In either case, there would still be questions about the conditions that make life possible. To resolve some of these questions, Scharf, an astrophysicist and astrobiologist, proposes a new "cosmo-chaotic" principle that might explain here and now, and us and the "them" that we think must exist, somewhere. Life, he argues, may perhaps only be possible at the borders of calm and chaos, where the accidents of matter and motion dictate change and variation without overwhelming the emerging entities, and this in turn might make sentient life a natural but very rare event. Scharf does not have the answers. His book is an intoxicating collection of questions answered with other questions, and startling discoveries that make creation even more mysterious. A couple of decades ago, physicists spoke confidently of a "theory of everything" and one or two even proposed an "end to science". All has now changed. The mysteries have multiplied. Forget the tricksy parenthesis in the subtitle. Skip past an early tendency to label scientists as budding, and science as cutting-edge. This book expands, like spacetime itself, from a very small point. It begins with the microscope pioneer Antony van Leeuwenhoek's famous discovery in Delft in 1674 of a microcosm in a drop of lake water, and it ends with speculation about a lonely civilisation, 100bn years on, in a freezing vacuum that no longer contains information about anything. Books such as these remind us that we are lucky to be here at all, and even luckier to be here now.
books  reviews  kindle-available  cosmology  big_bang  biology  chaos_theory  time  history_of_science 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Corrado Bologna - Le retour des dieux anciens : Giulio Camillo et Fontainebleau | Italique, V, 2002, p109-138.
Italique [En ligne], V | 2002, mis en ligne le 06 octobre 2009, DOI : 10.4000/italique.152 **--** En ce début de XVIème, après des siècles d’absence, les dieux anciens “sont de retour” à Fontainebleau. Ils tapissent les murs, remplissent les bibliothèques, les salons royaux, les salles sévères des écoles universitaires. Leur présence inaugure une nouvelle mythographie et presque une nouvelle théologie païenne. Ce sont des dieux et des héros élégants, sophistiqués, très différents de ceux que, au milieu des années vingt, un grand élève de Raphaël, Giulio Romano, s’inspirant aux modèles antiques, inscrit de leur naturel de chair toute rosée et déjà flasque, où tant de maniéristes et de baroques trouveront leur inspiration, sur les murs de Palazzo Te à Mantoue. .La censure ecclésiastique et aussi politique déchaînent immédiatement une forte polémique (dont, à la fin du siècle et au terme du Concile de Trente, l’ouvrage de Gabriele Paleotti sanctionnera victorieusement la fin) à l’encontre de ce très heureux moment de paganisme potentiellement absolu, subversif, qui me semble proposer non pas tant un “retour à l’Esprit Classique”, qu’un “retour de l’Esprit Classique”. En songeant davantage et d’abord à la “cour païenne” du roi très chrétien à Fontainebleau plutôt qu’à la Rome “ville sacrée” du grand baroque de Bernin, je parlerais donc d’une « Présence réelle » de la mythologie paganisante que certains grands Italiens entent en France. -- gobs of footnotes and references - downloaded pdf to Note
article  revues.org  art_history  literary_history  cultural_history  religious_history  16thC  France  Renaissance  pagans  gods-antiquity  cosmology  hermeticism  Neoplatonism  François_I  Henri_II  elite_culture  court_culture  Italian_influence  Counter-Reformation  baroque  myth  bibliography  artists  exiles  patronage  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
George F.R. Ellis | Personal Page
Links to extensive number of books he has authored or co-authored and to speeches and papers -- Teaching and research interests: *-* General Relativity theory and its application to the study of the large-scale structure of the universe (cosmology). *-* The history and philosophy of cosmology. *-* Complex systems and emergence of complexity. *- * The human brain and behaviour. *-* Science policy, developmental issues. *-* Science and mathematics education. *-* The relation of science to religion.
philosophy_of_science  philosophy_of_religion  cosmology  physics  neuroscience  mind  mind-body  reductionism  causation  emergence  complexity  systems_theory  systems-complex_adaptive  science-and-religion  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
John Horgan - Physicist George Ellis Knocks Physicists for Knocking Philosophy, Falsification, Free Will | Cross-Check, Scientific American Blog Network - July 2014
A native of South Africa, Ellis is professor emeritus at the U of Cape Town, where he taught for decades, and has also held positions at Cambridge, the U of Texas, the Fermi Institute and ...around the globe. He was an early critic of apartheid, and Mandela awarded him the Order of the Star of S.Africa. -- Horgan: At the conference where we met you were in a session called “The end of experiment.” What was that about? - Ellis: - many of the possible high-energy physics experiments and astronomy observations relevant to cosmology are now in essence nearly complete. Physics experiments are approaching the highest energies it will ever be possible to test by any collider experiment... We can’t build a collider bigger than the surface of the Earth. Thus our ability to test high energy physics – and hence structures on the smallest physical scales – is approaching its limits. Astronomical observations at all wavelengths are now probing the most distant cosmological events that will ever be “seeable” by any kinds of radiation whatever, because of visual horizons for each form of radiation. -- So what we can see at the largest and smallest scales is approaching what will ever be possible, except for refining the details. But I emphasize that this comment does not apply to complex systems. Complexity is almost unbounded – microbiology, biology, the brain will give us work to do for many centuries more, what we may find may be very unexpected. That might also apply to the foundations of quantum physics, and its relation to complexity. -- I concede that observations relevant to structure formation in the universe – galaxies, stars, planets – have a good while to go, they are in essence verging to the side of studying complexity, and still have life in them yet, they are very interesting studies.
physics  cosmology  astronomy  scientism  reductionism  complexity  metaphysics  creation  big_bang  free_will  philosophy_of_science  neuroscience  EF-add 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
When the first stars blinked on | MIT News Office - December 2012
“[The birth of the first stars] is one of these important moments in the history of the universe,” Simcoe says. “It went from looking like the early universe, which was just gas and dark matter, to looking like it does today, where there are stars and galaxies … it’s the point when the universe started to resemble what it looks like today. And it’s sort of amazing how early that happens. It didn’t take long.” John O’Meara, an associate professor of physics at St. Michael’s College in Vermont, says while scientists will have to analyze many more distant quasars to confirm the absence of heavy elements, the MIT group’s discovery is an “impressive and important step in advancing our knowledge of the universe when it was very young.” “Prior to this result, we have not seen regions of the universe this old and devoid of heavy elements, so there was a missing link in our understanding of how the elemental content of the universe has evolved with time,” O’Meara adds. “[This] discovery possibly provides such a rare environment where the universe had yet to form stars.”
astronomy  cosmology  big_bang 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Oren Harman review - Sean B. Carroll, Brave Genius : A Scientist, a Philosopher, and Their Daring Adventures from the French Resistance to the Nobel Prize - "Chance and Necessity" Revisited | The Los Angeles Review of Books - July 2014
IN THE FALL of 1970, Éditions du Seuil published Le hasard et la nécessité, a monograph by the French molecular biologist Jacques Monod,. Chance and Necessity was a slim book laden with technical details of oligomeric proteins, teleonomic structures, and microscopic perturbations. Despite the technical jargon, the book sold over 200,000 copies in its first year and became a best seller in Germany and Japan. It was bested in France only by Erich Segal’s Love Story. What explains its popularity? Monod was an eminent scientist, to be sure: he’d received the 1965 Nobel Prize with André Lwoff and François Jacob for “discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis.” But the resonance of Chance and Necessity is best explained by two epigraphs that adorned its opening page, stoic reminders that this was an affair well beyond the confines of mere science. The first is a dramatic statement by the Greek philosopher Democritus: “Everything existing in the Universe is the fruit of chance and necessity.” The second epigram, more than anything, best explains the book’s salience: a lengthy quotation from Albert Camus’s essay The Myth of Sisyphus. “The struggle itself towards the heights is enough to fill a man’s heart”; it ends, “One must imagine Sisyphus happy.” Sean B. Carroll, the American developmental molecular geneticist, reveals the deep friendship between Camus and Monod in Brave Genius. Their relationship, Carroll finds, not only illuminates the work of both men, but also unlocks the political and philosophical contingencies of a key moment in 20th-century thought.
books  reviews  intellectual_history  political_history  history_of_science  existentialism  20thC  France  WWII  French_Resistance  biography  Camus  evolutionary_biology  genetics  biology  cosmology  nihilism  chance  determinism  necessity 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Jack Miles - Tilting Against Naïve Materialism: On Thomas Nagel's "Mind and Cosmos" | The Los Angeles Review of Books - Feb 2013
Nagel is a professed scientific realist. He does not put scientific knowledge in scare quotes. He believes that reason is reliable and that science does engage reality. But when an account of the origin of reason that links it entirely to reproductive success has this self-subversive corollary, he chooses to trust reason and question the account rather than trust the account and question reason.Here, for this reviewer, is the core challenge, the core disturbance, of this challenging and intentionally disruptive work. Mind and Cosmos, which has been taken as an oblique defense of creationism, is actually a defense of reason. Yet it is also a fabulous effort of the imagination. The place of imagination, of fantasy, even of dream-life in the history of human thought is a large one. Nagel admits that he is not a scientist, but it would call for imagination and not just analysis for a scientist in any given field to begin thinking past contemporary science as a whole toward the contours of what might someday succeed it. Unless one is a scientific Whig, one must strongly suspect that something someday will indeed succeed it. Nagel’s Mind and Cosmos does not build a road to that destination, but it is much to have gestured toward a gap in the hills through which a road might someday run. -- Swift would agree
books  reviews  kindle-available  philosophy_of_science  evolutionary_biology  evolution  Darwinism  Nagel  reason  epistemology  teleology  monism  panpsychic_monism  materialism  reductionism  truth  Swift  historiography-Whig  history_of_science  consciousness  mind  cosmology  imagination  creativity  human_nature  evo_psych  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Charles Taliaferro - Unknowable Truths and Omniscience: A Reply to Kvanvig | JSTOR: Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 61, No. 3 (Autumn, 1993), pp. 553-566
The various attribute debates in analytical_philosophy tend to be piecemeal. They also often smuggle in positions on heavily debated issues such as free_will. Helpful pulling apart various threads of theism debates on attributes, determinism and theodicy -- didn't download
article  jstor  theology  Christianity  God-attributes  free_will  theodicy  cosmology  determinism  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Charles Taliaferro - God's Estate [Locke's theory of God's ownership of the cosmos] | JSTOR: The Journal of Religious Ethics, Vol. 20, No. 1 (Spring, 1992), pp. 69-92
This article defends John Locke's notion that the cosmos is owned by God and explores the ethical implications of such divine ownership. Locke's theory, recently revived by Baruch Brody, is modified and defended against criticisms leveled against it by Joseph Lombardi and Robert Young. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  theology  metaphysics  moral_philosophy  creation  theism  Plato-religion  soul  immortality  property  property_rights  God-attributes  obligation  morality-divine_command  morality-Christian  Locke-religion  Locke-2_Treatises  cosmology  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Karl Marx - The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature. with an Appendix - Doctoral Dissertation of Karl Marx | marxists.org
Written: March 1841; - First Published: 1902; -- Source: Marx-Engels Collected Works Volume 1; -- Publisher: Progress Publishers; -- Transcription/Markup: Andy Blunden; -- Online Version: Brian Baggins (marxists.org) 2000.
etexts  19thC  ancient_Greece  ancient_Rome  intellectual_history  Marx  Hegel  natural_philosophy  cosmology  atomism  laws_of_nature  Democritus  Epicurean  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
"THE INTELLIGIBLE CREATOR-GOD AND THE INTELLIGENT SOUL OF THE COSMOS IN" by Jason G. Rheins | Penn Dissertations
Advisors - Charles H. Kahn and Susan Sauvé Meyer, Paul Guyer -- When Plato discusses the World-soul, cosmic intellect (nous), and the Demiurge, he approaches them theologically, i.e. as being the subjects of an account of the nature of the gods, but few works in the last half-century or more have addressed the ‘players’ in Plato’s theology as such. -- I analyze Plato’s various accounts of those divine things that are immanent in the world of change (e.g. the World-soul) and those that are said to be transcendent intelligibles (e.g. the Forms and the Demiurge) in order to determine what Plato’s gods are, and what roles they play in his system. -- The invention of the World-soul is revealed to be Plato’s way of instantiating intellect in the cosmos in order to suit the demands of his natural and moral philosophy, while his esoteric account of the Demiurge resolves any tensions between his immanent theology and his metaphysics, and suggests, semi-literally, the role that timeless, intelligible goodness plays in organizing the sensible world of change. -- Rheins, Jason G., "THE INTELLIGIBLE CREATOR-GOD AND THE INTELLIGENT SOUL OF THE COSMOS IN PLATO’S THEOLOGY AND METAPHYSICS" (2010). Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations. Paper 184. -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  religious_history  theology  metaphysics  moral_philosophy  creation  gods-antiquity  God-attributes  God-existence  immanence  transcendence  forms  ideas-theories  Plato  change-metaphysics  cosmology  good  time  timeless  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
"Adventures in Rationalism" by Michael Della Rocca
Michael Della Rocca, Yale University -- Rationalism is the thesis that the world and all the things in the world are intelligible, through and through. Nothing happens for no reason. On the contrary, whatever takes place, whatever exists, takes place or exists for a reason. Everything. On this view there are no brute facts. Each thing that exists has a reason that is sufficient for explaining the existence of the thing. According to perhaps the most extreme implication of this view, even the world itself, the totality of all that exists, exists for a reason, has an explanation. Many philosophers today think that rationalism is a crazy view. However, this paper argues in support of rationalism, and explores its implications. -- Della Rocca, Michael (2013) "Adventures in Rationalism," Philosophic Exchange: Vol. 43: Iss. 1, Article 1. -- downloaded pdf to Note
intellectual_history  metaphysics  rationalist  causation  cosmology  Leibniz  Spinoza  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Alfred Caldecott, Hugh Ross Mackintosh, eds. - Selections from the Literature of Theism (1904 - 472 pgs) - Google Books
Thomas Aquinas *--* Descartes *--* Spinoza *--* The Cambridge Platonists *--* Berkeley *--* Kant *--* Schleiermacher *--* Cousin *--* Comte *--* Mansel *--* Lotze *--* Martineau *--* Janet *--* Ritschl -- each author introduced by brief essay but more interesting intellectual framework of the editors comes out in their footnotes -- not exactly a companion to Caldecott history of British and American philosophy of religion, since his history covers a large number of thinkers and doesn't include Continental except as needed to explain the Anglo-American authors, but still useful for the intellectual framework of increasingly confident academic approach to philosophy of religion as distinct from theology -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  Google_Books  intellectual_history  theology  philosophy_of_religion  17thC  18thC  19thC  Descartes  Spinoza  Spinozism  Cambridge_Platonists  Berkeley  Kant  Schleiermacher  Comte  German_Idealism  British_Idealism  Hegelian  hermeneutics  moral_philosophy  cosmology  materialism  mind-body  metaphysics  God-attributes  God-existence  realism  scepticism  intuitionism  sociology_of_religion  phenomenology  Fin-de-Siècle  modernity  Victorian  Edwardian  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Alfred Caldecott - The Philosophy of Religion in England and America (1901) - Google Books
Downloaded pdf to Note -- interesting from standpoint of how he classifies the philosophical elements - e.g. lumps Bolingbroke with Berkeley and Butler, not with Deists or Hume - clearly doesn't see how similar Bolingbroke and Hume really were, unlike Warburton who grasped it; also doesn't sneer like Leslie Stephen -- a specimen of fin de siècle academic professionalization after the divinity training raison d'être and "vocation" of Anglo-American universities had evaporated
books  etexts  Google_Books  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  intellectual_history  theology  philosophy_of_religion  British_history  US_history  reason  revelation  cosmology  God-attributes  God-existence  creation_ex_nilho  creation  scepticism  theism  Cambridge_Platonists  Locke-religion  Deism  rational_religion  natural_religion  materialism  mind-body  mind-theory_of  idealism-transcendental  subjectivism  Butler  Berkeley  Bolingbroke  theodicy  comparative_religion  comparative_anthropology  monotheism  ecclesiology  Hegelian  British_Idealism  moral_philosophy  moral_sentiments  obligation  intuitionism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Richard Marshall interview with Alastair Wilson - Multiverses and sleeping beauty » 3:AM Magazine June 2014
Alastair Wilson is a Vulcan somewhere else in the multiverse. He thinks about what a metaphysics of science might be and never stops contemplating the Everettian multiverse, which he thinks is one of the most beautiful ideas in the history of science. It’s a theory that he thinks shows physicists to be less conservative than philosophers. He looks at the philosophical puzzles connected with it, criticises overlapping worlds, is puzzled by questions of identity criteria, thinks Sleeping Beauty has an important connection to the theory, is less sure about crystal balls and indecisive Gods, thinks it is definitely science and can’t be junked, thinks the laws of nature are metaphysically necessary, has deep thoughts on quiddities, and has things to say about the spats between metaphysicians and scientists.
metaphysics  philosophy_of_science  modality  modal_logic  multiverse  cosmology  quantum_physics  physics  time  ontology  emergence  chance  probability  necessity  laws_of_nature  bibliography  Quine  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
John David Walker - Circles of Contingency: Alexander Pope's "Epistle to Arbuthnot" | JSTOR: South Central Review, Vol. 2, No. 4 (Winter, 1985), pp. 31-43
Complex reading based on perilous position of world and person depending on God's immanent action in maintaining cosmic order and individual soul, with corruption threatening from all sides -- interesting note re Atticus, Addison earlier allusions besides the most apparent -- didn't download
article  jstor  English_lit  lit_crit  18thC  Pope  satire  cosmology  Providence  corruption  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
JOSE R. TORRE - The Teleology of Political Economy and Moral Philosophy in the Age of the Anglo-American Enlightenment | JSTOR: Early American Studies, Vol. 8, No. 3 (Fall 2010), pp. 646-671
"An Inward Spring of Motion and Action": The Teleology of Political Economy and Moral Philosophy in the Age of the Anglo-American Enlightenment -- The Enlightenment-era narratives of political economy and moral philosophy shared an epistemic base and theory of causation that understood the human experience as a self-realizing or immanent teleology driving toward a providential and benevolent outcome. In political economy the pursuit of personal wealth and satisfaction tended naturally to a benevolent equilibrium without the knowledge or intent of the agent. In moral philosophy the agent acted intuitively and unconsciously to satisfy immediate emotional desires that culminated in pleasure but nevertheless improved society. The teleology of both these narratives derived from a series of larger shifts in human psychology and ideas from an early modern and Reformation-era theological voluntarism to an Enlightenment-era Neoplatonic and Aristotelian theory of humanity and nature. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  18thC  British_history  Atlantic  American_colonies  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  moral_sentiments  moral_philosophy  political_economy  causation  teleology  human_nature  moral_psychology  passions  Neoplatonism  voluntarism  Augustinian  Aristotelian  natural_philosophy  natural_law  cosmology  Providence  hedonistic  utilitarianism  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Torstein Theodor Tollefsen - Activity and Participation in Late Antique and Early Christian Thought (2012) - Oxford University Press
Focuses on the ancient background of an important topic in modern Orthodox spirituality, the concept of divine energies and how created beings may participate in these -- Activity and Participation in Late Antique and Early Christian Thought is an investigation into two basic concepts of ancient pagan and Christian thought. The study examines how activity in Christian thought is connected with the topic of participation: for the lower levels of being to participate in the higher means to receive the divine activity into their own ontological constitution. Torstein Theodor Tollefsen sets a detailed discussion of the work of church fathers Gregory of Nyssa, Dionysius the Areopagite, Maximus the Confessor, and Gregory Palamas in the context of earlier trends in Aristotelian and Neoplatonist philosophy. His concern is to highlight how the Church Fathers thought energeia (i.e. activity or energy) is manifested as divine activity in the eternal constitution of the Trinity, the creation of the cosmos, the Incarnation of Christ, and in salvation understood as deification.
books  theology  Early_Christian  late_antiquity  Neoplatonism  Aristotelian  Trinity  creation  cosmology  Christology  salvation  Christianity  Orthodox_Christianity 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Just After It All Began, the Universe Sent Us a Text Message. We Just Decoded It. | Mother Jones March 2014
Phil Plait explains the universe's sudden and dramatic inflation…tiny fractions of a second after the Big Bang.—By Chris Mooney and Indre Viskontas -- article that hilights podcast with Phil Plait
cosmology  astronomy  physics  EF-add 
april 2014 by dunnettreader
NATHANIEL WOLLOCH - Edward Gibbon's Cosmology | JSTOR: International Journal of the Classical Tradition, Vol. 17, No. 2 (JUNE 2010), pp. 165-177
This article is a study of Edward Gibbon's view of the human mastery and cultivation of nature as a sign of cultural progress. It examines the sources of Gibbon's views on this issue, and specifically the influence of the traditional Western anthropocentric cosmology on his historiographical interpretations. Gibbon's views on the command of nature are highlighted as forming a central part of his general historiographical and philosophical world view. He is depicted as situating the common early modern praise of mastering nature within a distinctly historiographical context. -- useful references -- Downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  history_of_science  historiography-18thC  Gibbon  progress  Western_civ  nature-mastery  natural_history  Enlightenment_Project  environment  eco-theology  cosmology  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Frank Coleman - Hobbes's Iconoclasm | JSTOR: Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 51, No. 4 (Dec., 1998), pp. 987-1010
This essay shows that Hobbes's thought rests on biblical foundations, casting him in an unfamiliar role - that of an iconoclastic prophet, a Jeremiah. He resembles the later prophets, particularly Jeremiah, in three ways: first by warring against idolatry, reconceived as the attribution of sanctity to mental images, "Phantasmes of the Brain," as Hobbes calls them (Leviathan ch. 45, 449, E.W. 3: 651) - as distinguished from limiting such attribution to "graven images" (Deuteronomy 4: 28, Jeremiah 1: 16); second, by viewing iconoclasm, followed by catastrophic intervention, as the path to political regeneration; and third, by being centrally preoccupied with the implications of the biblical idea of a created nature for material, cultural, and political artifice. The essay further shows that the biblical cosmology underlying Hobbes natural and civil philosophy is not, as might be supposed, in conflict with the premisses of his scientific writings, but is harmonious and coincident with it.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  theology  cosmology  17thC  Hobbes  Biblical_allusion  Biblical_authority  idolatry  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Maria Popova - Godliness in the Known and the Unknowable: Alan Lightman on Science and Spirituality | Brainpickings Jan 2014
Maria Popova on Alan Lightman (MIT physicist and author of fiction and nonfiction) -new essay collection 'The Accidental Universe: The World You Thought You Knew" - though an atheist thinks there are lots of ways to knowledge besides science, and that creativity and happiness requires embracing uncertainty and faith of various types
books  reviews  find  amazon.com  21stC  science-and-religion  physics  spirituality  secular_humanism  God-existence  God-attributes  Deism  atheism  natural_religion  cosmology  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Rhoda Rappaport - Hooke on Earthquakes: Lectures, Strategy and Audience | JSTOR: The British Journal for the History of Science, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Jul., 1986), pp. 129-146
Separating Hooke's prescient geology and fossil theories from his other speculative evidence, his manner of presentation etc -- an interesting angle on the scientific culture and social processes of knowledge production and communication
article  jstor  17thC  British_history  cultural_history  intellectual_history  history_of_science  Scientific_Revolution  Hooke  geology  paleontology  cosmology  sociology_of_knowledge  Royal_Society  virtuosos  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Rhoda Rappaport, review - Paolo Rossi, The Dark Abyss of Time. The History of the Earth and the History of Nations from Hooke to Vico trans by Lydia G. Cochrane - JSTOR: The British Journal for the History of Science, Vol. 19, No. 3 (Nov., 1986), pp. 362-
Some interesting remarks on Vico and Rossi's attempts to keep him from being appropriated as a Romantic and historicist precursor. She highlights translation problems. Would have liked more on the radicals, and those like Hooke or Whiston who dealt with both science (part 1) and history (part 2 where they're not discussed).
books  reviews  jstor  bookshelf  intellectual_history  religious_history  science-and-religion  17thC  18thC  geology  cosmology  Biblical_criticism  Bible-as-history  Genesis  creation_ex_nilho  natural_history  Enlightenment  Vico  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Gowdy et al - Economic cosmology and the evolutionary challenge | Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization Special Issue 2013
2nd lead articl5 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- The intellectual histories of economics and evolutionary biology are closely intertwined because both subjects deal with living, complex, evolving systems. Because the subject matter is similar, contemporary evolutionary thought has much to offer to economics. In recent decades theoretical biology has progressed faster than economics in understanding phenomena like hierarchical processes, cooperative behavior, and selection processes in evolutionary change. This paper discusses three very old “cosmologies” in Western thought, how these play out in economic theory, and how evolutionary biology can help evaluate their validity and policy relevance. These cosmologies are: (1) “natural man” as a rational, self-sufficient, egotistical individual, (2) competition among individuals can lead to a well-functioning society, and (3) there exists an ideal optimal state of nature. These correspond to Colander et al. (2004) “holy trinity of orthodox economics”, rationality, greed, and equilibrium. It is argued below that current breakthroughs in evolutionary biology and neuroscience can help economics go beyond these simple cosmologies.

They equate Pope’s Essay (self love and social are the same) with Mandeville Fable of the Bees
paper  journal  intellectual_history  ancient_philosophy  Western_civ  natural_law  cosmology  Providence  self-interest  competition  markets  economic_theory  economic_sociology  economic_culture  evolution-social  biocultural_evolution  evo_psych  evolution-as-model  reason  rationality-economics  rational_choice  downloaded  EF-add  equilibrium  complexity  Smith  Pope  Mandeville 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Kenan Malik - WHO NEEDS GOD? | Pandaemonium February 2012
What I want to concentrate on today, however, is on the first type of argument. And that is because for me, as it is for many other atheists, this is the primary motivation for my atheism – I simply do not see the necessity for God.

There are three kinds of reasons often given for the necessity of God. First, there is the claim that God is necessary to explain Creation and the maintenance of the cosmos. Second, that God is a necessary source of moral values; that without God we would fall into the abyss of moral nihilism. And third, that without belief in God, there can be no purpose or meaning to life. Let us look at each of these claims in turn.
intellectual_history  theology  atheism  God-existence  God-attributes  voluntarism  moral_philosophy  morality-objective  morality-conventional  Biblical_criticism  Bible-as-history  Aquinas  cosmology  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Kenan Malik - WHAT DID THE GREEKS EVER DO FOR GOD? | Pandaemonium Dec 2013
Xenophanes (c 570-476 BCE), one of the earliest of the Presocratics, savaged Homer and Hesiod for ‘attributing to the gods everything that men find shameful and reprehensible – stealing, adultery and deceiving one another.’ Humans possessed false ideas of gods because they fashioned them in their own image. So, ‘Ethiopians say their gods are flat-nosed and black, and Thracians that theirs have blue eyes and red hair.’ And if horses and cows possessed gods, they would undoubtedly be ‘horse-like gods, cow-like gods’.

There could only be one God, Xenophanes insisted, ‘since it is sacrilege for any of the gods to have a master’. This God could be ‘in no way similar to mortal men in body or in thought’. God must have always existed, for there is nothing superior that could have created Him, and He could not have been created by an inferior being. He is a living being but unlike like organic beings there are no parts in Him. He has no physical contact with anything in the world but ‘remains for ever in the same place, entirely motionless’ and ‘effortlessly, he shakes all things by thinking with his mind.’ This notion of a wholly simple God came to be important in both Islam and Christianity.
theology  ancient_philosophy  ancient_Greece  anthropomorphism  monotheism  polytheism  Plato  Aristotle  cosmology  God-attributes  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
The Day The Earth Smiled July 19, 2013
On July 19, 2013, the Cassini spacecraft, currently in orbit around Saturn, will be turned to image that planet and its entire ring system during an eclipse of the sun, as it has done twice before during its previous 9 years in orbit.But this time will be very different. This time, the images collected will capture, in natural color, a glimpse of our own planet alongside Saturn and its rings on a day that will be the first time the Earth's inhabitants know in advance their picture is being taken from a billion miles away.
science  cosmology 
july 2013 by dunnettreader

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