dunnettreader + commerce   78

Antonella Alimento - Beyond the Treaty of Utrecht: Véron de Forbonnais's French Translation of the British Merchant (1753): History of European Ideas: Vol 40, No 8
Pages 1044-1066 | Published online: 06 Nov 2014
This study focuses on the cultural and political context from which stemmed the French translation of the British Merchant. The paratextual and macrostructural interventions that characterised Le négotiant anglois clearly demonstrate that the translator, Véron de Forbonnais, used his work to set out his own epistemological method and his way of looking at inter-state relations. With the book, Forbonnais had distanced himself from Gournay by rejecting the idea that in order for France to prosper in a situation of international competition the government needed to adopt a muscular strategy that included the adoption of a navigation act modelled on the one enacted by Britain in 1660. At the same time, Forbonnais warned French decision-makers that signing commercial treaties with the maritime powers might also be prejudicial to national economic interests. Forbonnais supplied qualified French readers not only with an annotated edition of the British Merchant but also with a translation of Davenant's Of the Use of Political Arithmetick. In so doing, he proposed to his audience a type of governance based on a competent use of statistics. In conclusion, I will argue that in Le négotiant anglois Forbonnais anticipated the key political and economical tenets of his project of ‘monarchie commerçante’, which he later set out in the Principes et observations æconomiques (1767) in order to counter the rise of the epistemology and plans for a ‘royaume agricole’ put forward by the physiocratic movement.
Keywords: British Merchant, Gournay, Davenant, navigation act, treaties of commerce, ‘balance du commerce’
article  paywall  18thC  intellectual_history  political_economy  international_political_economy  France  British_foreign_policy  economic_theory  economic_policy  Physiocrats  commerce  mercantilism  competition-interstate  Navigation_Acts  trade-agreements  trade-policy  Gournay  Davenant  translation  reception_history  French_government  enlightened_absolutism  balance_of_power  statistics  government-data 
december 2016 by dunnettreader
Ida Nijenhuis - For the Sake of the Republic: The Dutch Translation of Forbonnais's Elémens du commerce | History of European Ideas: Vol 40, No 8 (2014)
History of European Ideas
Volume 40, 2014 - Issue 8: Translation, reception and Enlightened Reform: The case of Forbonnais in eighteenth-century political economy
For the Sake of the Republic: The Dutch Translation of Forbonnais's Elémens du commerce
Ida Nijenhuis
Pages 1202-1216 | Published online: 03 Nov 2014
The open access article from the special issue on Forbonnais - downloaded to Tab S2
article  downloaded  political_economy  intellectual_history  18thC  French_Enlightenment  economic_theory  economic_policy  translation  Dutch  commerce  commerce-doux  mercantilism  Bolingbroke  maritime_powers 
december 2016 by dunnettreader
Emily Nacol - An Age of Risk: Politics and Economy in Early Modern Britain (2016) | Princeton University Press (eBook and Hardcover)
In An Age of Risk, Emily Nacol shows that risk, now treated as a permanent feature of our lives, did not always govern understandings of the future. Focusing on the epistemological, political, and economic writings of Hobbes, Locke, Hume, and Adam Smith, Nacol explains that in 17th-18thC Britain, political and economic thinkers reimagined the future as a terrain of risk, characterized by probabilistic calculation, prediction, and control. Nacol contends, we see 3 crucial developments in thought on risk and politics. While thinkers differentiated uncertainty about the future from probabilistic calculations of risk, they remained attentive to the ways uncertainty and risk remained in a conceptual tangle, a problem that constrained good decision making. They developed sophisticated theories of trust and credit as crucial background conditions for prudent risk-taking, and offered complex depictions of the relationships and behaviors that would make risk-taking more palatable. They also developed 2 narratives that persist in subsequent accounts of risk—risk as a threat to security, and risk as an opportunity for profit. Nacol locates the origins of our own ambivalence about risk-taking. By the end of the 18thC, a new type of political actor would emerge from this ambivalence, one who approached risk with fear rather than hope. -- Emily C. Nacol is assistant professor of political science at Vanderbilt University.
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 “Experience Concludeth Nothing Universally” - Hobbes and the Groundwork for a Political Theory of Risk 9
Chapter 3 The Risks of Political Authority - Trust, Knowledge, and Political Agency in Locke’s Politics and Economy 41
Chapter 4 Hume’s Fine Balance - On Probability, Fear, and the Risks of Trade 69
Chapter 5 Adventurous Spirits and Clamoring Sophists - Smith on the Problem of Risk in Political Economy 98
Chapter 6 An Age of Risk, a Liberalism of Anxiety 124
Notes 131 -- References 157 -- Index 167
Downloaded Chapter 1 to Tab S2
books  kindle-available  downloaded  intellectual_history  17thC  18thC  British_history  Hobbes  Locke  Locke-Essay  Locke-2_Treatises  Hume  Hume-causation  Hume-politics  Smith  political_economy  trade  commerce  commercial_interest  epistemology  epistemology-history  probability  risk  risk_assessment  uncertainty  insurance  risk_shifting  political_discourse  economic_culture 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Acemoglu, Cantoni, Johnson
The Consequences of Radical Reform: The French Revolution
Daron Acemoglu, Davide Cantoni, Simon Johnson and James A. Robinson
The American Economic Review
Vol. 101, No. 7 (DECEMBER 2011), pp. 3286-3307
Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
commerce  urbanization  guilds  elites  republicanism  reform-legal  Rhineland  reform-political  Germany  economic_growth  political_economy  reform-economic  jstor  political_history  civil_code  French_Revolution  rule_of_law  institutional_economics  bourgeoisie  aristocracy  trade  article  downloaded  feudalism  economic_history 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Paolo Malanima - The long decline of a leading economy: GDP in central and northern Italy, 1300–1913 (2013) - European Economic History Review
The long decline of a leading economy: GDP in central and northern Italy, 1300–1913 PAOLO MALANIMA Institute of Studies on Mediterranean Societies (Naples) Italian National Research Council (CNR), malanima@issm.cnr.it The purpose of the article is to present the statistical reconstruction of a series of per capita output in central–northern Italy between 1300 and 1913. The various phases of both the statistical procedure and the results are presented and discussed. From the Renaissance until the 1880s, when modern growth starts, the curve of per capita GDP is downward bent. Output series together with three robustness tests, are collected in the Appendices.
Downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
productivity  economic_growth  17thC  agriculture  18thC  16thC  Renaissance  economic_history  14thC  stats  urbanization  Italy  GDP  manufacturing  GDP-per_capita  economic_decline  downloaded  article  proto-industry  agriculture-productivity  19thC  commerce  15thC 
september 2016 by dunnettreader
Richard Tuck - István Hont and Rousseau and Smith’s radical resemblances | TLS
Rousseau and Smith’s radical resemblances -- RICHARD TUCK -- István Hont, POLITICS IN COMMERCIAL SOCIETY Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Adam Smith Edited by Béla Kapossy and…
Instapaper  books  reviews  kindle-available  intellectual_history  18thC  Rousseau  Smith  political_economy  commerce  protectionism  economic_growth  community  market-size_of  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  human_nature  from instapaper
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Robert P. Irvine - Labor and Commerce in Locke and Early 18thC English Georgic (2009) | JSTOR - ELH
ELH, Vol. 76, No. 4 (Winter, 2009), pp. 963-988 -- importance of (agricultural) labor from Locke’s 2nd Treatise to "naturakize" money not just within the economy but within politics of the mercantilist imperial state - comparing Virgil use of georgics to encompass the Roman imperial state. Contrasts political agendas of Philips (Cyder 1707) and Pope (Windsor Forest 1713) in their use of georgics, both working within the Lockean framework of property. Extensive lit survey - lots of recent work on 18thC georgics to say nothing of cultural dimensions of political economy of expanding trade, commercialization and imperialism. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  literary_history  English_lit  18thC  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  Locke-2_Treatises  property  mercantilism  imperialism  trade  commerce  commerce-doux  civility-political  politeness  civil_society  public_sphere  nature  parties  partisanship  Whigs  Whig_Junto  City  Tories  gentry  landed_interest  national_ID  national_interest  War_of_Spanish_Succession  Queen_Anne  Spectator  Addison  political_culture  economic_culture  British_politics  British_Empire  poetry  poetics  nature-poetry  nature-mastery  Virgil  Pope  1700s  1710s  peace  Peace_of_Utrecht  labor_theory_of_value  labor  agriculture  Davenant  political_economy  bibliography  downloaded 
november 2015 by dunnettreader
William A. Pettigrew - Freedom's Debt: The Royal African Company and the Politics of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1672-1752 (2013) | UNC Press
Shortlisted for the 2013 Whitfield Prize, Royal Historical Society
In the years following the Glorious Revolution, independent slave traders challenged the charter of the Royal African Company by asserting their natural rights as Britons to trade freely in enslaved Africans. In this comprehensive history of the rise and fall of the RAC, William A. Pettigrew grounds the transatlantic slave trade in politics, not economic forces, analyzing the ideological arguments of the RAC and its opponents in Parliament and in public debate. Ultimately, Pettigrew powerfully reasons that freedom became the rallying cry for those who wished to participate in the slave trade and therefore bolstered the expansion of the largest intercontinental forced migration in history. Unlike previous histories of the RAC, Pettigrew's study pursues the Company's story beyond the trade’s complete deregulation in 1712 to its demise in 1752. Opening the trade led to its escalation, which provided a reliable supply of enslaved Africans to the mainland American colonies, thus playing a critical part in entrenching African slavery as the colonies' preferred solution to the American problem of labor supply. -- William A. Pettigrew is lecturer in history at the University of Kent.
books  British_history  US_history  British_politics  17thC  18thC  slavery-Africans  African_trade  slavery-law  commerce  trading_companies  Royal_African_Co  Whigs  Whig_Junto  freedom  free_trade  maritime_history  West_Indies  North_America  American_colonies  Atlantic  colonialism  British_foreign_policy  Parliament  Harley  Bolingbroke  Peace_of_Utrecht  1690s  1700s  1710s  capitalism  plantations  colonial_governance  Nine_Years_War  War_of_Spanish_Succession  War_of_Jenkins_Ear 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Jonathan Eacott - Selling Empire: India in the Making of Britain and America, 1600-1830 (2016) | UNC Press
Linking four continents over three centuries, Selling Empire demonstrates the centrality of India--both as an idea and a place--to the making of a global British imperial system. In the seventeenth century, Britain was economically, politically, and militarily weaker than India, but Britons increasingly made use of India’s strengths to build their own empire in both America and Asia. Early English colonial promoters first envisioned America as a potential India, hoping that the nascent Atlantic colonies could produce Asian raw materials. When this vision failed to materialize, Britain’s circulation of Indian manufactured goods--from umbrellas to cottons--to Africa, Europe, and America then established an empire of goods and the supposed good of empire. Eacott recasts the British empire's chronology and geography by situating the development of consumer culture, the American Revolution, and British industrialization in the commercial intersections linking the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. From the seventeenth into the nineteenth century and beyond, the evolving networks, ideas, and fashions that bound India, Britain, and America shaped persisting global structures of economic and cultural interdependence. -- Jonathan Eacott is associate professor of history at the University of California, Riverside.
books  economic_history  British_Empire  17thC  18thC  19thC  British_history  colonialism  settler_colonies  South_Asia  North_America  West_Indies  slavery-Africans  commerce  consumer_revolution  consumer_demand  East_India_Company  American_colonies 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Mark G. Hanna - Pirate Nests and the Rise of the British Empire, 1570-1740 (Nov 2015) | UNC Press
Analyzing the rise and subsequent fall of international piracy from the perspective of colonial hinterlands, Mark G. Hanna explores the often overt support of sea marauders in maritime communities from the inception of England's burgeoning empire in the 1570s to its administrative consolidation by the 1740s. Although traditionally depicted as swashbuckling adventurers on the high seas, pirates played a crucial role on land. Far from a hindrance to trade, their enterprises contributed to commercial development and to the economic infrastructure of port towns. English piracy and unregulated privateering flourished in the Pacific, the Caribbean, and the Indian Ocean because of merchant elites' active support in the North American colonies. Sea marauders represented a real as well as a symbolic challenge to legal and commercial policies formulated by distant and ineffectual administrative bodies that undermined the financial prosperity and defense of the colonies. Departing from previous understandings of deep-sea marauding, this study reveals the full scope of pirates' activities in relation to the landed communities that they serviced and their impact on patterns of development that formed early America and the British Empire. -- Mark G. Hanna is associate professor of history at the University of California, San Diego. -- cover is the portrait of the Earl of Warwick
books  16thC  17thC  18thC  British_history  British_Empire  West_Indies  North_America  Atlantic  colonialism  privateers  piracy  economic_history  maritime_history  settler_colonies  commerce  trade  Navigation_Acts  Board_of_Trade  East_India_Company  Indian_Ocean  Pacific  ports  maritime_law  commercial_law  Warwick_Earl_of  Bolingbroke-family  British_foreign_policy 
september 2015 by dunnettreader
Stella Ghervas (2014). “La paix par le droit, ciment de la civilisation en Europe? La perspective du siècle des Lumières” | Stella Ghervas - Academia.edu
Citation:Ghervas, Stella. 2014. “La paix par le droit, ciment de la civilisation en Europe? La perspective du siècle des Lumières,” in "Penser l’Europe au XVIIIe siècle: Commerce, Civilisation, Empire", ed. Antoine Lilti and Céline Spector (Oxford: Voltaire Foundation), pp. 47-69. -- bookmarked and downloaded pdf to Note
chapter  books  18thC  Europe  commerce  commerce-doux  empires  IR  international_law  international_system  international_political_economy  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  peace  dynasties  nation-state  national_interest  mercantilism  mercantilism-violence  competition-interstate  civil_society  civilizing_process  politeness  Enlightenment  downloaded 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Jennifer Pitts, review - Isaac Nakhimovsky, The Closed Commercial State: Perpetual Peace and Commercial Society from Rousseau to Fichte | Perspectives on Politics, March 2013 on Isaac Nakhimovsky - Academia.edu
This book presents an important new account of Johann Gottlieb Fichte's Closed Commercial State, a major early nineteenth-century development of Rousseau and Kant's political thought. Isaac Nakhimovsky shows how Fichte reformulated Rousseau's constitutional politics and radicalized the economic implications of Kant's social contract theory with his defense of the right to work. Nakhimovsky argues that Fichte's sequel to Rousseau and Kant's writings on perpetual peace represents a pivotal moment in the intellectual history of the pacification of the West. Fichte claimed that Europe could not transform itself into a peaceful federation of constitutional republics unless economic life could be disentangled from the competitive dynamics of relations between states, and he asserted that this disentanglement required transitioning to a planned and largely self-sufficient national economy, made possible by a radical monetary policy. Fichte's ideas have resurfaced with nearly every crisis of globalization from the Napoleonic wars to the present, and his book remains a uniquely systematic and complete discussion of what John Maynard Keynes later termed "national self-sufficiency." Fichte's provocative contribution to the social contract tradition reminds us, Nakhimovsky concludes, that the combination of a liberal theory of the state with an open economy and international system is a much more contingent and precarious outcome than many recent theorists have tended to assume. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  reviews  18thC  19thC  intellectual_history  Germany  France  commerce  IR_theory  international_political_economy  international_system  international_law  luxury  trade-policy  protectionism  import_substitution  monetary_policy  French_Revolution  Rousseau  Kant  Fichte  civil_society  civil_liberties  rights-political  perpetual_peace  competition-interstate  free_trade  globalization  imperialism  downloaded 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Frederick Neuhouser, review - Isaac Nakhimovsky, The Closed Commercial State: Perpetual Peace and Commercial Society from Rousseau to Fichte | Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews - Nov 2011
Frederick Neuhouser, Barnard College -- Isaac Nakhimovsky has accomplished what I had thought to be impossible: he has made Fichte's The Closed Commercial State (1800) into an interesting text. By carefully situating this long-neglected work within its historical and philosophical context, Nakhimovsky enables us to see it as more than a misguided attempt by a major philosopher to address the political issues of his day by inventing a utopian vision of the free republic so obviously fantastic that it was widely dismissed as such by most of Fichte's own contemporaries. To his credit, Nakhimovsky does not deny the silliness of many of the details of that vision. What he shows, however, is the urgency -- and, more importantly, the continuing relevance -- of the central problem that Fichte's text attempts to solve: how to reconcile a Rousseauean ideal of free citizenship with the realities of modern "commercial" societies (marked, in Fichte's time, by a decline in agriculture in favor of industry and a rapidly increasing division of labor). Since the principal conflict here is the threat posed by international trade relations to the freedom and economic well-being of the citizens of republics enmeshed in those relations, it is not difficult (with Nakhimovsky's assistance) to see this seemingly most untimely of texts as addressing what is merely an earlier version of the same conflict that stands, even today, at the center of Europe's woes. One of the great strengths of Nakhimovsky's book is that it treats The Closed Commercial State as standing in a long line of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century texts that debate the implications for international peace of what we would call "globalized" commerce. (Kant's Perpetual Peace [1795] is the best known of these texts, it merely continues a much longer tradition that includes works by Fenélon, l'Abbé de Saint-Pierre, Rousseau, Sieyès, and many others.) -- downloaded as pdf to Note
books  reviews  18thC  19thC  intellectual_history  Germany  France  commerce  IR_theory  international_political_economy  international_system  international_law  luxury  trade-policy  protectionism  import_substitution  monetary_policy  French_Revolution  Rousseau  Kant  Fichte  civil_society  civil_liberties  rights-political  perpetual_peace  competition-interstate  free_trade  globalization  imperialism  downloaded 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Maria Fusaro - Political Economies of Empire in the Early Modern Mediterranean: The Decline of Venice and the Rise of England 1450–1700 (to be released April 2015) | Cambridge University Press
Maria Fusaro presents a new perspective on the onset of Venetian decline. Examining the significant commercial relationship between England and Venice in the period 1450–1700, Fusaro demonstrates how Venice's social, political and economic circumstances shaped the English mercantile community in unique ways. By focusing on the commercial interaction between them, she also re-establishes the analysis of the maritime political economy as an essential constituent of the Venetian state political economy. This challenging interpretation of some classic issues of early modern history will be of profound interest to economic, social and legal historians and provides a stimulating addition to current debates in imperial history, especially on the economic relationship between different empires and the socio-economic interaction between 'rulers and ruled'. **--* "For the first time Maria Fusaro gives us the English among the creeks and islands of the Venetian empire, as seen by the Venetians themselves. Using archives hitherto little-known or wholly unknown, she paints a lively picture of Anglo-Venetian commerce, diplomacy and war." Nicholas Rodger, University of Oxford **--** Introduction: political economies of empire *-* 1. The medieval background *-* 2. The reversal of the balance *-* 3. The Ottoman Levant *-* 4. Genoa, Venice and Livorno (a tale of three cities) *-* 5. Trade, violence and diplomacy *-* 6. Diplomacy, trade and religion *-* 7. The Venetian peculiarities *-* 8. The English mercantile community in Venice *-* 9. The English and other mercantile communities *-* 10. The goods of the trade *-* 11. Empires and governance in the Mediterranean *-* 12. Coda and conclusions -- marketing materials not yet available for download
books  find  political_economy  economic_history  political_history  15thC  16thC  17thC  Mediterranean  Venice  Italy  city_states  Genoa  Livorno  British_history  mercantilism  trade  trading_companies  empires  Ottomans  Ottoman_Empire  maritime_history  international_political_economy  international_system  international_law  diplomacy  diplomatic_history  commerce  privileges-corporate  trading_privileges  religion-and-economics  trade_finance  trade-cultural_transmission  governance-regional  maritime_law  commercial_law  commercial_interest  foreigners-resident  wars-causes  military_history  competition-interstate  mercantilism-violence  trade-policy_enforcement  naval_history  shipping  weaponry 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Biancamaria Fontana - Rethinking the Politics of Commercial Society The Edinburgh Review 1802–1832 (hdbk 1985, pbk & ebook 2008) | Political philosophy | Cambridge University Press
This book explores the sources of modern British liberalism through a study of the Edinburgh Review, the most influential and controversial early nineteenth-century British periodical. Founded by a group of young Scottish intellectuals in 1802, the Review served as a principal channel through which the ideas of the Scottish Enlightenment gained wider currency, and did much to popularize the doctrines of economic and political reform. As Dr Fontana shows in this lucid and keen analysis, the first thirty years in the life of the Review clearly display the new social and economic problems confronting European society in the aftermath of the French Revolution. **--** Introduction *--* 1. Scottish theories of commercial society and the French Revolution *-* 2. Adam Smith's heritage: the Edinburgh reviewers and the Wealth of Nations *-* 3. The definition of political economy: political economy as a social science *-* 4. The Edinburgh reviewers and the Whig party *-* 5. Commercial society and its enemies: the debate on the First Reform Bill *-* Conclusion -- downloaded pdfs of front matter and excerpt to Note
books  kindle-available  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_economy  18thC  19thC  British_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Revolution-impact  civil_society  commerce  commerce-doux  science_of_man  social_sciences  democracy  mass_culture  political_participation  British_politics  Edinburgh_Review  Whigs  Whigs-Radicals  Whigs-grandees  liberalism  Industrial_Revolution  industrialization  international_political_economy  British_Empire  British_foreign_policy  Napoleonic_Wars  Napoleonic_Wars-impact  social_order  reform-political  reform-social  reform-finance  reform-economic  Reform_Act_1832  Parliament  parties  trade-policy  trade-theory  trade-cultural_transmission  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Anna Plassart - The Scottish Enlightenment and the French Revolution (to be released April 2015) | Ideas in Context series | Cambridge University Press
Historians of ideas have traditionally discussed the significance of the French Revolution through the prism of several major interpretations, including the commentaries of Burke, Tocqueville and Marx. This book argues that the Scottish Enlightenment offered an alternative and equally powerful interpretative framework for the Revolution, which focused on the transformation of the polite, civilised moeurs that had defined the 'modernity' analysed by Hume and Smith in the 18thC. The Scots observed what they understood as a military- and democracy-led transformation of European modern morals and concluded that the real historical significance of the Revolution lay in the transformation of warfare, national feelings and relations between states, war and commerce that characterised the post-revolutionary international order. This book recovers the Scottish philosophers' powerful discussion of the nature of post-revolutionary modernity and shows that it is essential to our understanding of 19thC political thought. **--** Part I. The Burke–Paine Debate and Scotland's Science of Man: 1. The Burke–Paine debate and the Scottish Enlightenment *-* 2. The heritage of Hume and Smith: Scotland's science of man and politics **--** Part II. The 1790s: 3. Scotland's political debate *-* 4. James Mackintosh and Scottish philosophical history *-* 5. John Millar and the Scottish discussion on war, modern sociability and national sentiment *-* 6. Adam Ferguson on democracy and empire **--** Part III. 1802–15: 7. The French Revolution and the Edinburgh Review *-* 8. Commerce, war and empire
books  find  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_economy  18thC  19thC  British_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Revolution  Smith  Hume  Hume-politics  civil_society  civilizing_process  commerce  commerce-doux  science_of_man  social_sciences  IR_theory  French_Revolutionary_Wars  Napoleonic_Wars  nationalism  national_ID  historiography-18thC  historiography-Whig  military  Military_Revolution  mass_culture  levée_en_masse  conscription  sociability  social_order  empires  empire-and_business  imperialism  Great_Powers  balance_of_power  philosophy_of_history  progress  social_theory  change-social  change-economic  Burke  Paine  Mackintosh_James  Millar_John  Edinburgh_Review  British_Empire  British_foreign_policy  Scottish_politics  1790s  1800s  1810s  international_political_economy  international_system  international_law  democracy  morality-conventional  norms  global_economy  mercantilism 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Jeff Horn - Economic Development in Early Modern France: The Privilege of Liberty, 1650–1820 (release date for hardback mid-Feb 2015) | European history after 1450 | Cambridge University Press
Privilege has long been understood as the constitutional basis of Ancien Régime France, legalising the provision of a variety of rights, powers and exemptions to some, whilst denying them to others. In this fascinating new study however, Jeff Horn reveals that Bourbon officials utilized privilege as an instrument of economic development, freeing some sectors of the economy from pre-existing privileges and regulations, while protecting others. He explores both government policies and the innovations of entrepreneurs, workers, inventors and customers to uncover the lived experience of economic development from the Fronde to the Restoration. He shows how, influenced by Enlightenment thought, the regime increasingly resorted to concepts of liberty to defend privilege as a policy tool. The book offers important new insights into debates about the impact of privilege on early industrialisation, comparative economic development and the outbreak of the French Revolution. **--** 1. Introduction: profits and economic development during the Old Régime *--* 2. Privileged enclaves and the guilds: liberty and regulation *--* 3. The privilege of liberty put to the test: industrial development in Normandy *--* 4. Companies, colonies, and contraband: commercial privileges under the Old Régime *--* 5. Privilege, liberty, and managing the market: trading with the Levant *--* 6. Outside the body politic, essential to the body economic: the privileges of Jews, Protestants and foreign residents *--* 7. Privilege, innovation, and the state: entrepreneurialism and the lessons of the Old Régime *--* 8. The reign of liberty? Privilege after 1789 -- look for pdf of Intro once released
books  find  political_economy  economic_history  political_history  17thC  18thC  19thC  France  privileges-corporate  economic_culture  economic_policy  development  monarchy  profit  entrepreneurs  guilds  trading_companies  trade-policy  regulation  industrialization  industrial_policy  Colbert  Colbertism  urban_development  urban_elites  commerce  commercial_interest  French_government  Huguenots  Jews  colonialism  French_Empire  colonies  corporate_finance  monopolies  Levant  MENA  Ottomans  liberties  liberty  Ancien_régime  Louis_XIV  Louis_XV  Louis_XVI  French_Revolution  French_Revolutionary_Wars  Napoleonic_Wars  Restoration-France  bourgeoisie  haute_bourgeoisie  markets  markets-structure  foreign_trade  foreign_policy  foreigners-resident 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Forrest Capie, review - Eric Helleiner, The Making of National Money: Territorial Currencies in Historical Perspective | JSTOR - The Economic History Review Vol. 56, No. 3 (Aug., 2003), p. 594
Mostly a 19thC to 20thC phenomenon relying on creation of nation-state and industrial capacity. Discusses what countries did and do without national currency, challenges to establishing e.g. free banking, alternatives e.g. dollarization with or contra to government policy. Downloaded 1 page review to Note
books  reviews  jstor  economic_history  19thC  20thC  nation-state  national_ID  monetary_policy  fiscal_policy  currency  commerce  FX  dollarization  free_banking  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
George Selgin - Steam, Hot Air, and Small Change: Matthew Boulton and the Reform of Britain's Coinage | JSTOR - The Economic History Review Vol. 56, No. 3 (Aug., 2003), pp. 478-509
This article challenges the claim that Great Britain solved its 'big problem of small change' (the problem of keeping decent low-denomination coins in circulation) by embracing Matthew Boulton's steam-based coining technology. Evidence from Great Britain's commercial token episode (1787-97) shows that a successful small change system depended, not on the motive power employed in coining, but on the quality and consistency of coin engravings and on having means for systematically withdrawing worn coins. The Tower Mint failed to solve Great Britain's small change problem, not because its equipment was old-fashioned, but because its policies and constitution were flawed. -- excellent bibliography -- challenges story in Sargeant and Velde "Big Problem of Small Change" - bookshelf -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  economic_history  Europe-Early_Modern  18thC  19thC  British_history  currency  commerce  Innovation  UK_Government  monetary_policy  gold_standard  Napoleonic_Wars  bookshelf  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
The Works of John Locke, vol. 4 (Essays on money and Two Treatises of Government) [1824 edition] - Online Library of Liberty
Essays on money -- SOME CONSIDERATIONS OF THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE LOWERING OF INTEREST, AND RAISING THE VALUE OF MONEY. IN A LETTER SENT TO A MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT, 1691. Having lately met with a little tract, entitled, “A Letter to a friend concerning usury,” printed this present year, 1660; which gives, in short, the arguments of some treatises, printed many years since, for the lowering of interest; it may not be amiss briefly to consider them. -- Of raising our Coin. *--* SHORT OBSERVATIONS ON A PRINTED PAPER, ENTITLED, For encouraging the coining silver money in England, and after for keeping it here. *--* FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING RAISING THE VALUE OF MONEY. [Dedicated to Lord Somers] -- converted to html -- didn't download
books  etexts  Liberty_Fund  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  economic_history  political_economy  17thC  Glorious_Revolution  1690s  Locke  Locke-2_Treatises  monetary_policy  interest_rates  commerce  currency  bimetalism  FX  prices  usury  Parliament  House_of_Commons  William_III  Whig_Junto 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World, by the Gale Group, Inc. | Answers.com
The history of Europe from the mid-15th century until the French Revolution. Includes notable events such as wars and revolutions as well as broader processes like the Renaissance and the Enlightenment; biographical information on leading figures; individual national histories; and meaningful developments in the arts, religion, politics, exploration and warfare.
books  etexts  reference  Europe-Early_Modern  Renaissance  exploration  colonialism  16thC  17thC  18thC  British_history  British_politics  Atlantic  American_colonies  France  Germany  Italy  Spain  Spanish_Empire  British_Empire  Dutch  Dutch_Revolt  Reformation  Counter-Reformation  Netherlands  Holy_Roman_Empire  Austria  Denmark  Sweden  Russia  Poland  Ottomans  commerce  intellectual_history  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Absolutism  Thirty_Years_War  Wars_of_Religion  Louis_XIV  military_history  political_culture  political_history  politics-and-religion  art_history  religious_history 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Forum - “Deirdre McCloskey and Economists’ Ideas about Ideas” (July, 2014) - Online Library of Liberty
Deirdre McClosky is over the halfway point of her 4 volume work on The Bourgeois Era. Two volumes have already appeared, Bourgeois Virtues (2006) and Bourgeois Dignity (2010), and a third is close to appearing [2015]. This Liberty Matters online discussion will assess her progress to date with a Lead Essay by Don Boudreaux and comments by Joel Mokyr and John Nye, and replies to her critics by Deirdre McCloskey. The key issue is to try to explain why “the Great Enrichment” of the past 150 years occurred in northern and western Europe rather than elsewhere, and why sometime in the middle of the 18th century. Other theories have attributed it to the presence of natural resources, the existence of private property and the rule of law, and the right legal and political institutions. McCloskey’s thesis is that a fundamental change in ideas took place which raised the “dignity” of economic activity in the eyes of people to the point where they felt no inhibition in pursuing these activities which improved the situation of both themselves and the customers who bought their products and services.
intellectual_history  cultural_history  economic_history  economic_growth  Medieval  16thC  17thC  18thC  19thC  Great_Divergence  British_history  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Industrial_Revolution  bourgeoisie  political_economy  France  Germany  Prussia  China  development  institutional_economics  North-Weingast  legal_history  property  property_rights  commerce  trade  trading_companies  free_trade  improvement  technology  Innovation  agriculture  energy  natural_capital  nature-mastery  transport  capitalism  colonialism  industry  industrialization  social_order  Great_Chain_of_Being  consumers  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  equality  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  liberalism  incentives  microeconomics  historical_sociology  historical_change  social_theory  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
David Womersley, ed. - Liberty and American Experience in the Eighteenth Century (2006) - Online Library of Liberty
David Womersely, Liberty and American Experience in the Eighteenth Century, edited and with an Introduction by David Womersley (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2006). 07/13/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1727> -- This volume is a collection of essays which examines some of the central themes and ideologies central to the formation of the United States including Edmund Burke’s theories on property rights and government, the influence of Jamaica on the American colonies, the relations between religious and legal understandings of the concept of liberty, the economic understanding of the Founders, the conflicting viewpoints between moral sense theory and the idea of natural rights in the founding period, the divisions in thought among the revolutionaries regarding the nature of liberty and the manner in which liberty was to be preserved, and the disparity in Madison’s political thought from the 1780s to the 1790s. -- authors include Jack Greene, David Wootton, Gordon Wood. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  British_history  British_politics  Atlantic  American_colonies  West_Indies  British_Empire-constitutional_structure  colonialism  British_Empire  Anglo-American  political_philosophy  English_constitution  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  limited_monarchy  property  property_rights  liberty  liberalism-republicanism_debates  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  moral_sentiments  natural_law  human_nature  Founders  Parliamentary_supremacy  Patriot_King  Burke  Madison  Hume  Scottish_Enlightenment  commerce  luxury  commerce-doux  corruption  tyranny  Absolutism  US_constitution  American_Revolution  UK_government-colonies  partisanship  common_good  common_law  Whigs  democracy  political_participation  checks-and-balances  separation-of-powers  government-forms  mixed_government  social_order  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
John Millar, The Origin of the Distinction of Ranks [1771], ed. Aaron Garrett - Online Library of Liberty
John Millar, The Origin of the Distinction of Ranks; or, An Inquiry into the Circumstances which give rise to Influence and Authority in the Different Members of Society, edited and with an Introduction by Aaron Garrett (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2006). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/287> -- The Origin of the Distinction of Ranks is one of the major products of the Scottish Enlightenment and a masterpiece of jurisprudence and social theory. Millar developed a progressive account of the nature of authority in society by analyzing changes in subsistence, agriculture, arts, and manufacture. The book is perhaps the most precise and compact development of the abiding themes of the liberal wing of the Scottish Enlightenment. Drawing on Smith’s four-stages theory of history and the natural law’s traditional division of domestic duties into those toward servants, children, and women, Millar provides a rich historical analysis of the ways in which progressive economic change transforms the nature of authority. In particular, he argues that, with the progress of arts and manufacture, authority tends to become less violent and concentrated, and ranks tend to diversify. Millar’s analysis of this historical progress is nuanced and sophisticated; for example, his discussion of servants is perhaps the best developed of the “economic” arguments against slavery. -- 1st edition 1771 - he published 2 more in his lifetime, the latest edition being more "scientific", e.g. removing some references that were less reliable, more speculative, or not in keeping with a more sober tone -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  stadial_theories  social_order  social_sciences  social_process  change-social  political_economy  art_history  literary_history  civilizing_process  civil_society  family  authority  hierarchy  commerce  industry  trade  progress  slavery  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
John Millar, An Historical View of the English Government [1803], eds. Mark Salber Philips and Dale R. Smith - Online Library of Liberty
John Millar, An Historical View of the English Government, From the Settlement of the Saxons in Britain to the Revolution in 1688, in four volumes, edited by Mark Salber Philips and Dale R. Smith, introduction by Mark Salber Philips (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2006). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/1886> -- An Historical View of the English Government consists of three parts, concerned with the most substantive revolutions in English government and manners: from the Saxon settlement to the Norman Conquest, from the Norman Conquest to the accession of James I, and from James I to the Glorious Revolution. Through these three phases Millar traces the development of the “great outlines of the English constitution”—the history of institutions of English liberty from Saxon antiquity to the revolution settlement of 1689. Millar demonstrates serious concern for the maintenance of liberties achieved through revolution and maintains that the manners of a commercial nation, while particularly suited to personal and political liberty, are not such as to secure liberty forever.
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Scottish_Enlightenment  British_history  British_politics  historiography-Whig  historiography-18thC  historians-and-politics  ancient_constitution  English_constitution  Anglo-Saxons  Norman_Conquest  Magna_Carta  Tudor  Elizabeth  James_I  Charles_I  Charles_II  James_II  William_III  English_Civil_War  Restoration  Glorious_Revolution  Revolution_Principles  commerce  liberty  Parliament  Parliamentary_supremacy  monarchy  civil_liberties  civilizing_process  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Emer de Vattel, The Law of Nations, Or, Principles of the Law of Nature, Applied to the Conduct and Affairs of Nations and Sovereigns, with Three Early Essays on the Origin and Nature of Natural Law and on Luxury ed. Béla Kapossy and Richard Whitmore - O
Emer de Vattel, The Law of Nations, Or, Principles of the Law of Nature, Applied to the Conduct and Affairs of Nations and Sovereigns, with Three Early Essays on the Origin and Nature of Natural Law and on Luxury, edited and with an Introduction by Béla Kapossy and Richard Whitmore (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2008). 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2246> -- A republication of the 1797 translation of Vattel’s work, along with new English translations of 3 early essays. -- The 1st French edition was 1758, the 2nd 1773..The 1797 translation is of the 1773 edition and posthumous notes Vattel intended for a revised edition. -- downloaded pdf to Note
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  international_law  natural_law  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  IR_theory  political_economy  international_political_economy  mercantilism  commerce  military_history  diplomacy  diplomatic_history  sovereignty  nation-state  raison-d'-état  balance_of_power  government-forms  luxury  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Lord Kames, Sketches of the History of Man, 3 vols., ed. James A. Harris - Online Library of Liberty
Henry Home, Lord Kames, Sketches of the History of Man Considerably enlarged by the last additions and corrections of the author, edited and with an Introduction by James A. Harris (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2007). 3 Vols. 07/11/2014. <http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2031> -- Written late in his life, this 3 volume work deals with the idea of human progress. Vol. 1 deals with progress in property law, commerce, the treatment of women, and luxury. Vol. 2 deals with the development of states, government, and taxation. Vol. 3 deals with the progress of science.
books  etexts  18thC  intellectual_history  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Kames  historiography-18thC  stadial_theories  progress  civil_society  political_philosophy  human_nature  luxury  property  property_rights  legal_history  legal_culture  commerce  taxes  nation-state  state-building  Scientific_Revolution  Newtonian  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Alan Cromartie - Harringtonian Virtue: Harrington, Machiavelli, and the Method of the Moment | JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 41, No. 4 (Dec., 1998), pp. 987-1009
This article presents a reinterpretation of James Harrington's writings. It takes issue with J. G. A. Pocock's reading, which treats him as importing into England a Machiavellian `language of political thought'. This reading is the basis of Pocock's stress on the republicanism of eighteenth-century opposition values. Harrington's writings were in fact a most implausible channel for such ideas. His outlook owed much to Stoicism. Unlike the Florentine, he admired the contemplative life; was sympathetic to commerce; and was relaxed about the threat of `corruption' (a concept that he did not understand). These views can be associated with his apparent aims: the preservation of a national church with a salaried but politically impotent clergy; and the restoration of the royalist gentry to a leading role in English politics. Pocock's hypothesis is shown to be conditioned by his method; its weaknesses reflect some difficulties inherent in the notion of `languages of thought'. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  historiography  political_philosophy  17thC  18thC  British_history  British_politics  English_Civil_War  Interregnum  Harrington  landed_interest  Machiavelli  republicanism  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  commerce  common_good  civic_virtue  civic_humanism  Stoicism  gentry  Royalists  mixed_government  English_constitution  politics-and-theory  religion-established  religious_culture  politics-and-religion  Church_of_England  corruption  Cambridge_School  Pocock  downloaded  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
Tom Jones - Pope's "Epistle to Bathurst" and the Meaning of Finance | JSTOR: Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, Vol. 44, No. 3 (Summer, 2004), pp. 487-504
This article attempts to show that Alexander Pope's argument and poetic technique in the Epistle to Bathurst challenge the idea that words are like money or other economic tokens. Reading against the recent characterization of Pope's work as nostalgic, this piece takes issue with the corollary established by J. G. A. Pocock and others between financial change and linguistic uncertainty in the early eighteenth century. It presents Pope as a skeptical thinker aware of the radical contingency of all human values, more in line with David Hume than earlier writers on money. It suggests that Pope's imitative meter is an investigation of this contingency of value. -- Yeah ! -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  18thC  English_lit  Pope  political_economy  moral_economy  finance_capital  financial_innovation  language  semiotics  values  historical_change  scepticism  contingency  morality-conventional  social_order  Pocock  commerce  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Christine Churches - Business at Law: Retrieving Commercial Disputes from 18thC Chancery | JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 43, No. 4 (Dec., 2000), pp. 937-954
Recent work on the records of civil litigation in the central courts of Westminster has refined and extended our knowledge of levels of litigation and the types of dispute pursued at law in early modern England. This article discusses two interrelated business disputes at the port of Whitehaven in the first half of the eighteenth century pursued by two of its prominent merchants, both frequent litigants in a period when litigation overall was declining, and suggests some reasons for that decline. It matches the formal court records of King's Bench, Common Pleas, and Chancery with some illuminating, often acerbic, private correspondence, thereby exploring the process and background of litigation, and demonstrating how a third party could influence the conduct and direction of the disputes, while himself remaining almost invisible in the formal legal record. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  legal_history  economic_history  17thC  18thC  British_history  litigation  Chancery  judiciary  equity  commerce  commercial_law  common_law  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Johan van der Zande - Statistik and History in the German Enlightenment | JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 71, No. 3 (July 2010), pp. 411-432
Not statistics but the collection and study of information about the states of Europe - connected to cameralism and focus on political economy rather than military -though clearly how to survive and thrive as an independent state in the European system a major impetus. Van der Zande uses analogy of Venetian ambassadors. Gets launched in a big way in 1750s and has ceased to be a separate important discipline by the early 19thC, the apparent victim of Germany's historical age. Interesting view of motives, academic and bureaucratic resources German states within and without the HRE, the European system, alternative philosophies of human nature, happiness, commerce and the roles of the state. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  18thC  Germany  Enlightenment  Austria  historiography-18thC  political_arithmetick  governance  enlightened_absolutism  cameralism  commerce  agriculture  trade  manufacturing  trading_companies  taxes  social_sciences  nation-state  bureaucracy  public_health  demography  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
N. J. Mayhew - Population, Money Supply, and the Velocity of Circulation in England, 1300-1700 | JSTOR: The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 48, No. 2 (May, 1995), pp. 238-257
The importance of monetary and demographic factors in the later medieval and early modern 'price revolutions' has been much debated. This article analyses this long period in the terms of the Fisher Identity MV=PT, but also fully recognizes the importance of demographic change, and its impact on GDP. Tentative estimates of money supply and GDP are discussed, and from them velocity of circulation is deduced. Velocity has tended to fall over this period, but rising Tudor velocity is regarded as a symptom of economic distress. -- didn't download
article  jstor  economic_history  UK_economy  14thC  15thC  16thC  17thC  economic_growth  demography  population  prices  money_supply  money_velocity  money  commerce  dearth  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Natasha Glaisyer - "A due Circulation in the Veins of the Publick": Imagining Credit in Late 17thC and Early 18thC England | JSTOR: The Eighteenth Century, Vol. 46, No. 3 (FALL 2005), pp. 277-297
Thinks too much has been made of fickle Lady Credit and Pocock's Machiavelli reading of anti commerce. Shows other metaphors, eg circulation of blood, and rich pamphlet literature of proposals for dealing with credit necessary for commercial prosperity as well as state financing - shows people weren't such ninnies as Pocock's version would have it. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  economic_history  economic_culture  political_economy  17thC  18thC  British_history  sovereign_debt  credit  money_supply  capital_markets  money_market  political_press  public_opinion  public_finance  public_policy  fiscal-military_state  commerce  Pocock  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
AARON GRAHAM, review essay -- MERCANTILE NETWORKS IN THE EARLY MODERN WORLD | JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 56, No. 1 (MARCH 2013), pp. 279-295
Reviewed work(s): ** (1) The capital and the colonies: London and the Atlantic economy, 1660—1700 by Nuala Zahedieh; ** (2) Defying empire: trading with the enemy in colonial New York by Thomas M. Truxes; ** (3) East India patronage and the British state: the Scottish elite and politics in the eighteenth century by George K. McGilvary; ** (4) The familiarity of strangers: the Sephardic diaspora, Livorno and cross-cultural trade in the early modern period by Francesca Trivellato; ** (5) Global trade and commercial networks: eighteenth-century diamond merchants by Tijl Vanneste; ** (6) From the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean: the global trade networks of Armenian merchants from New Julfa by Sebouh David Aslanian; ** (7) Oceans of wine: Madeira and the emergence of American trade and taste by David Hancock -- lengthy 17 pages -- paywall Cambridge journals
books  reviews  paywall  economic_history  globalization  Europe-Early_Modern  colonialism  17thC  18thC  British_history  British_Empire  American_colonies  West_Indies  Atlantic  India  trading_companies  networks  trust  commerce  trade  East_India_Company  Portugal  Italy  Mediterranean  London  patronage  Scotland  Anglo-Scot  1707_Union  clientelism  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Review by: Janet Sorensen - Poems of Nation, Anthems of Empire: English Verse in the Long 18thC by Suvir Kaul | JSTOR: The Journal of English and Germanic Philology, Vol. 102, No. 3 (Jul., 2003), pp. 444-446
Looks quite interesting - sees historicist and colonial interlinked - close readings get at both a nationalist imperialism, anxiety re imperialism, the translatio imperii tradition, and concerns of empire,slavery, over extension etc -- starts with Marvell and Dryden, works through the long baggy poems, looking at their different roles and status relative to other writing by the close of the 18thC
books  reviews  17thC  18thC  English_lit  poetry  British_Empire  commerce  nationalism  national_ID  imperialism  colonialism  slavery  Marvell  Dryden  Pope  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
E. A. J. Johnson: Unemployment and Consumption: The Mercantilist View - JSTOR: The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 46, No. 4 (Aug., 1932), pp. 698-719
I. Mercantilists not desirous of mere numbers, 698.--Importance of employment, 700.--Remedies for idleness: provision of employment, 702; corrective and punitive legislation, 705.--II. Condemnation of luxury, 708.--Means of curbing it: sumptuary laws, 712; taxation, 713; moral suasion, 713.--Defense of luxury, 714.--Hume's views, 716.--Conclusions, 718.
article  jstor  economic_history  economic_theory  political_economy  trade-theory  trade-policy  mercantilism  commerce  luxury  unemployment  wages  taxes  economic_culture  17thC  18thC  British_history  downloaded  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Robert B. Ekelund, Jr., review - Germano Maifreda: From Oikonomia to Political Economy: Constructing Economic Knowledge from the Renaissance to the Scientific Revolution | EH.net
Ashgate, 2012. vii + 304 pp. $135 (hardcover), ISBN: 978-1-4094-3301-9.

The transition from the culturally and religiously oriented era of Oikonomia to the political economy of, say, Smith and Hume, was not linear.? Culture, science and religion evolved and helped shape conceptions of economic functioning. (It would appear that medieval Christianity was not productive of ?economy.?)? Secularism also evolved and searches for constancy in value, in exchange and in entrepreneurship were shaped by culture and psychology.? Epistemology affected the scaffolding and functioning of the economic superstructure at any point in time.?

[H]e raises intriguing links between culture, psychology, medicine, biology and economic categories. In Chapters 5 through7 (plus an epilogue), Maifreda weaves together exceptionally interesting material on the manner in which the principles of other sciences and studies used what we now call economic reasoning and motivations.? The whole question of how the idea that labor ?caused? or ?represented? or ?was involved with? value is the subject of Chapters 5 and 6.? Maifreda highlights (properly) how Locke?s analysis of private property is the ?essential element? in productive economy (p. 167).? Also examined is how labor and the concept of equilibrium are related to both theological and physiological reasoning, the concept of equilibrium prominent in the writings of Hales and Boisguilbert He concludes that ?powerful metaphors formed within diverse fields of knowledge … lent their assistance to ways of thinking about phenomena and drawing up models and generalizations? (p. 253) that, later, became an independent science of economics and economic reasoning.? One small complaint is that he does not extend his discussion into exactly how and through whom the transition was finally made (e.g., possibly Cantillon and others).? But that may be the subject for another study.
books  reviews  intellectual_history  economic_history  Renaissance  Scientific_Revolution  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  16thC  17thC  18thC  political_economy  economic_theory  economic_culture  commerce  values  labor  Locke  property  currency  prices  cultural_history  theology  Providence  moral_philosophy  moral_economy  Foucault  Physiocrats  Linnaeus  biology  physiology  equilibrium  metaphor  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Timothy C. Johnson - Reciprocity as the Foundation of Financial Economics | SSRN - Oct 2013
This paper argues that the fundamental principle of contemporary financial economics is balanced reciprocity, not the principle of utility maximisation that is important in economics more generally. The argument is developed by analysing the mathematical Fundamental Theory of Asset Pricing with reference to the emergence of mathematical probability in the seventeenth century in the context of the ethical assessment of commercial contracts. This analysis is undertaken within a framework of Pragmatic philosophy and Virtue Ethics. The purpose of the paper is to mitigate future financial crises by reorienting financial economics to emphasise the objectives of market stability and social cohesion rather than individual utility maximisation. -- Downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  economic_history  legal_history  economic_theory  Aristotle  Aquinas  Papacy  medieval_history  Renaissance  16thC  17thC  18thC  moral_philosophy  moral_economy  financial_innovation  probability  mathematics  commerce  risk  interest_rates  prices  pragmatism  virtue_ethics  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2013 by dunnettreader
David Hancock: "A World of Business to Do": William Freeman and the Foundations of England's Commercial Empire, 1645-1707 (2000)
JSTOR: The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, Vol. 57, No. 1 (Jan., 2000), pp. 3-34 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- records of an early colonial commission agent shows how institutions of the transatlantic commission merchandising system grew organically to address principal-agent problems -- illustrates differences between agriculturally oriented production and commercial British Atlantic empire from Spanish extractive bureaucratic and the French and Dutch commercial empires. Each mercantilist but in distinctive manner. Implications of differences for settlement, governance, center and periphery relations, and cross periphery relations.
article  jstor  economic_history  institutional_economics  economic_sociology  political_economy  17thC  18thC  British_Empire  Atlantic  West_Indies  American_colonies  center-periphery  commerce  agriculture  trade  merchants  entrepreneurs  planters  landowners  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Philip Benedict: More than Market and Manufactory: The Cities of Early Modern France (1997)
JSTOR: French Historical Studies, Vol. 20, No. 3 (Summer, 1997), pp. 511-538 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Although French social and economic historians have closely linked the study of early modern cities to the study of commerce and manufacturing, other social, political, and cultural developments also stimulated urban growth between 1500 and 1789, notably the growth of the state, urban expropriation of rural land, and the movement to the cities of old noble families. Investigation of the pace of these trends suggests that they made their effects most strongly felt between 1550 and 1700, although continuing thereafter. The concentration of elite wealth in the cities that they promoted transformed urban social structures, stimulated luxury production and consumption, and formed the essential context for the development of many new cultural institutions and practices, from permanent theater companies to "coaching in visits."
article  jstor  cultural_history  social_history  16thC  17thC  18thC  France  Paris  urbanization  consumers  elites  urban  commerce  luxury  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Amalia D. Kessler: Enforcing Virtue: Social Norms and Self-Interest in an Eighteenth-Century Merchant Court (2004)
JSTOR: Law and History Review, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Spring, 2004), pp. 71-118 -- though I don't think she frames it this way the merchant court was a sort of self-regulatory organization that imposed norms of charitable virtue where ordinary contract law would have produced anomalous results -- enforcement of community norms reduced transaction costs and supplemented trust networks which expanded the zone of profitable commerce beyond what Ancien_régime legal system would have produced -- though community norms were Christian the Court and its officials could see themselves as promoting common good as virtuous citizens in contrast with a narrow self-interest of eg caveat emptor or strict contract construction
article  jstor  legal_history  economic_history  18thC  France  commerce  merchants  norms  transaction_costs  contracts  SROs  charity  civic_virtue  bibliography  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Nicholas Seager - Review essay - Defoe at 350 | Eighteenth-Century Studies - 2011
Project_MUSE downloaded pdf to Note -- Works reviewed: --**-- Stephen H. Gregg, Defoe’s Writings and Manliness: Contrary Men (Farnham: Ashgate, 2009). Pp. x, 197. $99.95. --**-- Leon Guilhamet, Defoe and the Whig Novel: A Reading of the Major Fiction (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2010). Pp. 243.$56.50. --**-- Robert M. Maniquis and Carl Fisher, eds., Defoe’s Footprints: Essays in Honour of Maximillian E. Novak (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009). Pp. vi, 273. $65.00. --**-- Andreas K. E. Mueller, A Critical Study of Daniel Defoe’s Verse: Recovering the Neglected Corpus of His Poetic Work, with a foreword by Robert Mayer (Lampeter: Edwin Mellen Press, 2010). Pp. xiv, 288. $119.95. --**-- John Richetti, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Daniel Defoe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008). Pp. xiv, 248. $29.99. --**-- Dennis Todd, Defoe’s America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010). Pp. xi, 229. $95.00.
books  reviews  Project_MUSE  17thC  18thC  1690s  1700s  1710s  1720s  English_lit  cultural_history  lit_crit  literary_history  politics-and-literature  novels  political_press  economic_culture  commerce  finance_capital  masculinity  Defoe 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Andrew Fitzmaurice: The Civic Solution to the Crisis of English Colonization, 1609-1625 (1999)
JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 42, No. 1 (Mar., 1999), pp. 25-51 -- Machiavellian Moment on steroids -- Historians have portrayed the Virginia Company and its colony, the first permanent English settlement in America, as an essentially commercial enterprise. The atmosphere of the colony is represented accordingly as one of proto-capitalist individualism. This paper shows that the Virginia Company promoters described the aims of its colony in civic terms: that is, in terms of a politics of virtue, citizenship, and the pursuit of the common good. Promoters of the colony drew on a civic tradition particularly hostile to commerce; a tradition in which wealth was portrayed as Asiatic luxury and corruption. The civic arguments of the Company were a response to the commercial and human disasters which characterized the first years of the colony and its Elizabethan predecessors. The civic ideology promoted by the Company was an attempt to remedy what were perceived to be the causes of this disastrous situation - corruption, greed, faction, and idleness. The promoters' civic arguments also provided an ideological motivation both for potential investors and colonists who might otherwise have been deterred by the financial and human expense.
article  jstor  17thC  James_I  political_philosophy  colonialism  American_colonies  republicanism  civic_virtue  luxury  commerce  common_good  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Abraham D. Kriegel: Liberty and Whiggery in Early Nineteenth-Century England (1980)
JSTOR: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 52, No. 2 (Jun., 1980), pp. 253-278 -- by end of 18thC Whigs had won the battle over defining that ambiguous event, the Glorious Revolution, and had claimed the uncontested mantle of champions of liberty. And in this sense Bolingbroke's claim of the Revolution belonging to both Whigs and Tories, regardless of what theory was used to jusify was indeed out Whigging the Whhigs. But "liberty" had some suspect origins (noble and corporate privileges) by early 19thC and very ambiguous applications, especially in connection with that other ambiguous term property. Some good stuff on particular 17thC and 18thC moments in evolution of political language.
article  jstor  17thC  18thC  19thC  British_politics  political_history  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  language-politics  Whigs  Grey_Lord  Fox_Charles_James  Reform_Act_1832  elections  suffrage  aristocracy  elites  landowners  landed_interest  liberty  property  commerce  middle_class  civil_liberties  constituencies  corruption  hierarchy  deference  downloaded  EF-add  English_constitution 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Paul A. Rahe: Republicanism Modernized - review of A Kalyvas & I Katznelson, Liberal Beginnings: Making a Republic for the Moderns
Project MUSE - Reviews in American History Volume 37, Number 2, June 2009 pp. 205-210 | 10.1353/rah.0.0100 -- This slim volume consists of 7 chapters: an intro situating its argument with regard to the 2ndry lit on republicanism and liberalism; substantive chapters on A Smith, A Ferguson, T Paine and J Madison, G de Staël, and B Constant; and a five-page concluding chapter suggesting what these figures have in common. It is in the subdtantive chapters, taken individually, that the value of the book lies...... Had they read more widely in the 2ndry lit, had they taken the trouble to study with care the writings of Nedham, Harrington, Henry Neville, John Wildman, Algernon Sidney, Moyle, Trenchard, Gordon, and James Burgh (among others), [they] would have seen that the analytical accounts of the history of republicanism provided by [ Pocock and Skinner] are fundamentally at odds; they would have been forced to consider whether there was not a profound difference between the early modern republicanism inspired by Machiavelli and that of the Greeks and Romans; and they would have been driven to ponder whether the liberal beginnings to which the title of this book refers do not, in fact, go back to the 1650s. Moreover, had they done so, they would have been in a better position to define with precision what they mean by republicanism and liberalism. .... [and] whether constitutional monarchies should be regarded as republics and, if so, why; and whether there were any liberals in the second half of the eighteenth century and the first two decades of the nineteenth century who were not also republicans and what would define them as such. Alternatively, [they] could have dismissed the republicanism-liberalism debate as beside the point.... [Rather it's] the distinction drawn by Montesquieu (whom they mention only in passing) between the democratic republics of classical antiquity and the strange, new commercial republic disguised as a monarchy that he discovered during the months he spent in England. It was, after all, The Spirit of Laws that inspired the ruminations of Smith, Ferguson, Paine, Madison, de Staël, and Constant; and it was in response to his political typology that they framed their arguments. Montesquieu was the superintending spirit of the age.
books  bookshelf  reviews  intellectual_history  historiography  political_philosophy  liberalism  republicanism  17thC  18thC  19thC  French_Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  French_Revolution  American_Revolution  US_constitution  Founders  Napoleonic_Wars  Constant  de_Staël  Madison  Paine  Smith  Ferguson  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  Montesquieu  civic_virtue  commerce  monarchy  limited_monarchy  Britain  France  British_politics  French_politics  paywall  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Andrea Radasanu- Montesquieu on Ancient Greek Foreign Relations: Toward National Self-Interest and International Peace | Political Research Quarterly
Political Research Quarterly March 2013 vol. 66 no. 1, 3-17 -- Andrea Radasanu - Political Science Department, Northern Illinois University, 417 Zulauf Hall, DeKalb, IL 60115, USA. Email: aradasanu@niu.edu - Published online before print January 20, 2012, doi: 10.1177/1065912911431246 -- Montesquieu peace ancient republicanism empire confederate republic -- Montesquieu famously claims that modernity ushered in gentle mores and peaceful relations among countries. Consulting Montesquieu’s teaching on Greek foreign policy, both republican and imperial, elucidates the character of these peaceful mores. Montesquieu weaves a modernization tale from primitive ancient Greece to modern commercial states, all to teach the reader to overcome any lingering attachment to glory and to adopt the rational standards of national interest and self-preservation. This account provides important insights on the relationship between realism and idealism in Montesquieu’s international relations teaching and helps scholars to rethink how these categories are construed.
article  paywall  intellectual_history  IR  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  commerce  political_culture  political_economy  lessons-of-history  national_interest  glory  balance_of_power  international_system  imperialism  federalism  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Margaret Jacob: Was the Eighteenth-Century Republican Essentially Anticapitalist? | Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts
Citation: Jacob, Margaret . “Was the Eighteenth-Century Republican Essentially Anticapitalist?.” Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 2, no. 1 (December 15, 2010): http://rofl.stanford.edu/node/66. -- In "Limits of Atlantic Republican Tradition" issue -- downloaded pdf to Note -- With considerable insight in chapter thirteen of The Machiavellian Moment, Pocock interrogated the many Augustan responses to the reality of markets and credit. Where we have parted ways concerns the assertion that “civic humanist values . . . virtually defined rentier and entrepreneur as corrupt.” The rage against stockjobbers or actionists was so intense on both sides of the Channel, I would suggest, precisely because the republican imagination had come to accept the mercantile entrepreneur as a model citizen characterized by caution and probity, by cooperation in social relations, an exemplar of stability.
article  intellectual_history  political_economy  political_culture  economic_culture  political_philosophy  republicanism  Pocock  Machiavelli  17thC  18thC  Britain  British_politics  Dutch  capital_markets  bubbles  South_Sea_Crisis  international_finance  civic_virtue  corruption  commerce  monied_interest  merchants  monopolies  Cato's_Letters  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
J. G. A. Pocock: The Atlantic Republican Tradition: The Republic of the Seven Provinces | Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts
Citation: Pocock, J. G. A.. “The Atlantic Republican Tradition: The Republic of the Seven Provinces.” Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts2, no. 1 (December 15, 2010): http://rofl.stanford.edu/node/72. In "Limits of the Atlantic Republican Tradition" issue -- downloaded pdf to Note-- Hence the debate between ancient and modern liberty, to be found in Britain a century before it was taken up by Benjamin Constant. It was a debate by no means uniquely British, but in the form it took in Britain a class of free landholders, whose history could be traced back through Gothic to classic and Greco-Roman times, played a crucial role. The image of the republic, it needs repeating, was not presented as a norm to be imitated; it was a bench­mark for the interpretation of history, for measuring the gains and losses of movement away from it. This narrative, shaped by a succession of historians from Bruni to Robertson, developed concurrently with a “philosophic” history of human (but European) society, based on the stadial sequence from hunter-gatherers to merchants and capitalists and culminating in the political economy of Adam Smith. In this complex historiography, the role of medieval leagues of merchant republics, Lombard, Hanseatic, and Dutch, was important but problematic; and it is here that the anglophone and Atlantic reader, rightly or wrongly, finds the key to the problem of Dutch republican thought.
article  16thC  17thC  18thC  intellectual_history  political_history  political_culture  historiography  lessons-of-history  republicanism  Machiavelli  Britain  British_politics  American_colonies  American_Revolution  Dutch  city_states  Holy_Roman_Empire  commerce  trade  landed_interest  burghers  oligarchy  corruption  civic_virtue  William_III  Queen_Anne  George_III  tyranny  Stadholder  republics-Ancient_v_Modern  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Catherine Secretan: “True Freedom” and the Dutch Tradition of Republicanism | Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts
Citation: Secretan, Catherine. ““True Freedom” and the Dutch Tradition of Republicanism.” Republics of Letters: A Journal for the Study of Knowledge, Politics, and the Arts 2, no. 1 (December 15, 2010): http://rofl.stanford.edu/node/81. -- in Limits of Atlantic Republican Tradition" issue -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  political_history  political_culture  political_philosophy  republicanism  liberty  commerce  17thC  Dutch  downloaded  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Robin Douglass - Montesquieu and Modern Republicanism - 2012 - Political Studies - Wiley Online Library
Douglass, R. (2012), Montesquieu and Modern Republicanism. Political Studies, 60: 703–719. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9248.2011.00932.x -- In this article I explore Montesquieu's discussion of republics and the constitution of England in order to question the extent to which he should be accorded a central place in a tradition of modern republicanism. This involves challenging Paul Rahe's recent thesis that Montesquieu thought both that monarchy was not at all suited to modernity and that England was a republic all along. By stressing the importance of honour and ambition I argue that the liberty that Montesquieu thought exemplified in the English constitution was, in large part, secured by its monarchical principle. Moreover, by eschewing the relevance of political virtue for modern commercial societies, Montesquieu set his own proposals out in opposition to the prevalent French republican discourse of his time; thus it is highly problematic to view him as having proposed a republic for the moderns. The article also serves to disentangle Montesquieu's understanding of political liberty from his analysis of republics in order to refute the idea that he provides support for a distinctively republican conception of liberty as non-domination. This undermines the republican critique of liberalism set forth by Philip Pettit, which is further challenged by considering the affinities between Montesquieu's and Constant's conceptions of liberty. Many commentators have argued that Montesquieu repudiated classical republicanism, yet on the reading advanced in this article it is equally problematic to view him as a modern republican.
article  Wiley  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  18thC  21stC  Montesquieu  republicanism  civic_virtue  commerce  monarchy  honor  find  EF-add  English_constitution 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Junko Thérèse Takeda: French Absolutism, Marseillais Civic Humanism, and the Languages of Public Good (2006)
JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 49, No. 3 (Sep., 2006), pp. 707-734 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- This article contributes to current historical knowledge on the relationship between Crown and local municipal power in Old Regime France. In particular, it examines the political language of bien public mobilised by Marseillais elites and royal administrators between 1660 and 1700 in the context of French commercial expansion. Traditionally, 'public good' could be understood in two distinct ways. Derived from royal absolutist doctrine, public good was what the king willed to preserve the state, a collection of diverse, corporate bodies held together by royal justice and reason. Derived from civic humanistic, municipal traditions, public good was the united will of the civic community. Investigating three moments where these two definitions of public good converged and collided - during Marseille's urban expansion (1666), in the local justification of modern commerce, and in the deliberations at the Council of Commerce (1700) - this article points to several mutations in the language of public good at the end of the seventeenth century. Pointing to the convergence of civic humanistic and absolutist traditions, this article demonstrates that centralisation under Louis XIV, rather than obscuring local traditions, allowed for the intensification of civic humanistic, republican sensibilities.
article  jstor  political_history  political_culture  17thC  France  Absolutism  local_government  civic_humanism  republicanism  commerce  common_good  Louis_XIV  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Roger Boesche: Fearing Monarchs and Merchants: Montesquieu's Two Theories of Despotism (1990)
JSTOR: The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 43, No. 4 (Dec., 1990), pp. 741-761 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Although he did not invent the word despotism, Montesquieu more than any other author established it in our lexicon of political and politicized words. When we examine Montesquieu's concept of despotism, however, we see an attack on two forces undermining the status of the French nobility — an encroaching monarchy that sought to rule absolutely, and a tantalizing commercialism that threatened France with a licentious servitude. There are, as a consequence, two theories of despotism in the writings of Montesquieu. One theory, directed at his fear of monarchical power, is carefully developed, while the other theory emerges only obliquely in his ambivalent and anxious attitudes toward the new commercial world of the middle classes.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  French_Enlightenment  18thC  Montesquieu  political_philosophy  aristocracy  middle_class  Absolutism  commerce  despotism  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Dániel Margócsy - Encyclopedias, the Exchange of Curiosities, and Practices of Identification before Linnaeus (2010)
Project MUSE - Dániel Margócsy. ""Refer to folio and number": Encyclopedias, the Exchange of Curiosities, and Practices of Identification before Linnaeus." Journal of the History of Ideas 71.1 (2010): 63-89. Project MUSE. Web. 28 Aug. 2013. <http://muse.jhu.edu/>...... Available as html and pdf...... The Swiss natural historian Johann Amman came to Russia in 1733 to take a position as professor of botany and natural history at the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. As part of the job, he corresponded, and exchanged plant specimens, with the English merchant collector Peter Collinson in London, and the Swedish scholar Carolus Linnaeus, among others. After briefly reviewing Amman's correspondence with these scholars and the growing commerce in exotic specimens of natural history, I explore how encyclopedias came to facilitate the exchange of zoological specimens in particular. I argue that, during the seventeenth century, a new genre of zoological encyclopedias appeared on the scene whose design was particularly well-suited for the purposes of identification, a key practice in long-distance exchanges.

?....-- Of interest on several counts. 1) classification and taxonomy process extending Foucault observation re shift from Renaissance representation to Enlightenment classification - not just driven by demands for new forms of intelligibility, but parallel to what happening in commerce, need to support communications needed for ling distance exchange. 2) stages leading to Linnaeus. 3) encyclopedia phenomenon more generally as Republic of Letters expands geographically and in membership and becomes increasingly specialized. How new types of authority asserted, contested and accepted. Also suggestive re how garden, herb, exotic specimens ID'd, info circulated internationally - Bolingbroke's grandmother, Trumbull letter, Pope's gardening.
article  Project_MUSE  17thC  18thC  intellectual_history  cultural_history  biology  species  natural_history  publishing  commerce  Republic_of_Letters  Scientific_Revolution  gardens  Foucault  Linnaeus  Bolingbroke  Pope  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
N. J. Mayhew: Money, prices, and growth in pre-industrial England | OUPblog August 2013
Blog post summarizes key findings in his P&P 2013 article downloaded to Note. Links to other recent economic history papers by other scholars. Summary: in the period 1250 to 1750 population levels and GDP were always closely associated, and estimates of the size of the money stock have little importance without an understanding of the size of the economy that the money stock has to service. In this sense, population levels find a place within the Quantity Theory, but the demographic role influences not only demand but also supply. If this is accepted, the long-standing and increasingly sterile battle between monetary and demographic explanations for the behaviour of prices can be drawn to a close. Money clearly influences the price level, as does velocity, but the size of the economy remains an essential element in the equation. Economic growth emerges as a fundamental influence on population and on price levels.The reassertion of Quantity Theory should not be seen as a victory for the Chicago school since Keynesian observations about the role of velocity (or its inverse, demand for money to hold) and the effect of time lags remain important qualifications. Still more importantly, much depends on the quality of our estimates of GDP, prices, and the money stock.
British_history  economic_history  Medieval  14thC  15thC  16thC  17thC  18thC  population  economic_growth  inflation  commerce  social_history  links  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Against War and Empire :Geneva, Britain & France in the 18thC, Richard Whatmore (2012): Kindle Store
Richard Whatmore presents an intellectual history of republicans who strove to ensure Geneva’s survival as an independent state. Whatmore shows how the Genevan republicans grappled with the ideas of Rousseau, Voltaire, Bentham, and others in seeking to make modern Europe safe for small states, by vanquishing the threats presented by war and by empire. The Genevan attempt to moralize the commercial world, and align national self-interest with perpetual peace and the abandonment of empire, had implications for the French Revolution, the British Empire, and the identity of modern Europe.


“Whatmore uncovers the considerable European intellectual impact of a small group of eighteenth-century Genevan reformers, who called themselves the Représentants. . . . In telling their story Whatmore reveals how political Adam Smith’s political economy became in the final decades of the eighteenth century and into the nineteenth century.”—Philippe Steiner, Paris-Sorbonne

“The fate of small states in a world of competing commercial hegemons is a contemporary quandary with Enlightenment roots. Richard Whatmore's deeply researched, tightly written study shows that a surprising number of those roots sprang from Geneva. Scholars of political thought, international relations and the rise and fall of empires in the late eighteenth century will all have to take account of this masterful book.”—David Armitage, Harvard

“Whatmore expertly narrates the attempts of Genevan radicals to transform European power politics and, in so doing, offers fascinating  insights into Rousseau’s Genevan and democratic credentials, emphasizing his relative conservatism and heterodoxy when compared to his Genevan friends and followers.”—Helena Rosenblatt, CUNY
books  kindle-available  18thC  Britain  France  Geneva  intellectual_history  political_economy  commerce  IR  political_philosophy  Rousseau  Smith  British_Empire  imperialism  Great_Powers  democracy  French_Revolution  radicals  EF-add 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
Markku Peltonen: Politeness and Whiggism, 1688-1732 (2005)
JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 48, No. 2 (Jun., 2005), pp. 391-414 Downloaded pdf to Note Good challenge to Pocock on Whigs modernizing civic virtue to accommodate commerce via non-aristocratic politeness - especially dismantles Klein's simplistic Shaftsbury=Spectator=Whiggism=anti-Tories Useful bibliography, both English and French, 17thC-18thC Focus on Mandeville and Cato's Letters as anti Shaftsbury
jstor  article  17thC  18thC  Britain  France  cultural_history  political_history  British_politics  Whigs  Addison  Steele  Shaftesbury  Locke  Mandeville  Cato's_Letters  elites  aristocracy  commerce  urban  moral_philosophy  Tories  Ramsay  Fenelon  historiography  political_philosophy  civic_virtue  Pocock  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2013 by dunnettreader
Markku Peltonen: Politeness and Whiggism, 1688-1732 (2005)
JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 48, No. 2 (Jun., 2005), pp. 391-414

This article re-examines the role of civility and politeness in the writings of whig authors from 1688 to 1732. It argues that politeness was not an exclusively whig concept. Nor was there any unanimity amongst the whigs about its meaning. Politeness was a hotly debated topic in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, but differences in its interpretations did not follow party lines. The notions of politeness formulated by whig authors after 1688 differed from each other as much as they differed from those framed by non-whigs. The article also reconsiders the account that the whig theorists used their analysis of politeness to defend the commercial values of post-1688 England and Britain. Again, there was no agreement on this amongst the whigs. Some of them explicitly denied the putative link between commerce and politeness, some of them were not interested in it, and even those who argued for it still interpreted politeness in its traditional courtly terms rather than in post-courtly urban terms.

Downloaded pdf to Note
jstor  article  17thC  18thC  British_history  British_politics  Whigs  politeness  political_culture  aristocracy  commerce  politics-and-literature  cultural_history  Bolingbroke  downloaded  EF-add  bibliography 
july 2013 by dunnettreader

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