dunnettreader + clientelism   10

David Millon - The Ideology of Jury Autonomy in the Early Common Law :: SSRN - Nov 2000
Washington & Lee Public Law Research Paper No. 00-5 -- This article looks closely at the substantial discretion exercised by the premodern English jury. Through the sixteenth century, jurors enjoyed broad autonomy with respect to fact-finding. For much of the medieval period they came to court already knowledgeable about the facts of a case and rendered their verdicts on that basis. Even after they ceased to be self-informed and had to rely instead on evidence presented in court, jurors continued to exercise their fact-finding authority with substantial independence from judicial control and review. The premodern jury also had significant autonomy regarding what we would call questions of law, an aspect of jury discretion that has received little attention from historians. In this article I look closely at the evidence bearing on both facets of jury autonomy, including trial records, accounts of trial proceedings, and legislation relating to the jury. In addition, I attempt to shed some light on the ideological assumptions that justified the early common law's commitment to jury autonomy, a commitment that is hard to understand in light of the modern rule of law idea. -- PDF File: 44. -- downloaded pdf to Note
paper  SSRN  legal_history  British_history  medieval_history  16thC  common_law  trials  juries  evidence  epistemology-social  Europe-Early_Modern  legal_culture  legal_validity  legitimacy  civic_virtue  citizenship  local_government  public_goods  commonwealth  governance-participation  status  cities-governance  persona  judgment-independence  autonomy  authority  elites  clientelism  duties  duties-civic  community  rule_of_law  fairness  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
AARON GRAHAM, review essay -- MERCANTILE NETWORKS IN THE EARLY MODERN WORLD | JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 56, No. 1 (MARCH 2013), pp. 279-295
Reviewed work(s): ** (1) The capital and the colonies: London and the Atlantic economy, 1660—1700 by Nuala Zahedieh; ** (2) Defying empire: trading with the enemy in colonial New York by Thomas M. Truxes; ** (3) East India patronage and the British state: the Scottish elite and politics in the eighteenth century by George K. McGilvary; ** (4) The familiarity of strangers: the Sephardic diaspora, Livorno and cross-cultural trade in the early modern period by Francesca Trivellato; ** (5) Global trade and commercial networks: eighteenth-century diamond merchants by Tijl Vanneste; ** (6) From the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean: the global trade networks of Armenian merchants from New Julfa by Sebouh David Aslanian; ** (7) Oceans of wine: Madeira and the emergence of American trade and taste by David Hancock -- lengthy 17 pages -- paywall Cambridge journals
books  reviews  paywall  economic_history  globalization  Europe-Early_Modern  colonialism  17thC  18thC  British_history  British_Empire  American_colonies  West_Indies  Atlantic  India  trading_companies  networks  trust  commerce  trade  East_India_Company  Portugal  Italy  Mediterranean  London  patronage  Scotland  Anglo-Scot  1707_Union  clientelism  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Charles H. Hinnant - Gifts and Wages: The Structures of Exchange in Eighteenth-Century Fiction and Drama | JSTOR: Eighteenth-Century Studies, Vol. 42, No. 1 (Fall, 2008), pp. 1-18
This essay argues that during the eighteenth century the structures of exchange were defined not in terms of an opposition between gifts and commodities but between gifts and wages. This core opposition took two antithetical forms. On the one hand, it valorized liberality, love, gratitude, etc. over purely mercenary considerations. The ethos of the pure gift, far from being the product of a modern market economy, as is commonly supposed, was probably generated within the framework of this aristocratic ideology. On the other hand, a reaction against this ideology took the form of a polarity in which honest industry is privileged over clientage, servility, and idleness. Ironically, alms mistakenly given to the undeserving poor now came to be implicated in the same system of gift-exchange that bestowed honors and places by favors rather than by merit.
article  jstor  18thC  cultural_history  economic_history  anthropology  cultural_capital  aristocracy  clientelism  patronage  charity  Poor_Laws  services  gift  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Review by: J. G. A. Pocock - Hume's Philosophical Politics by Duncan Forbes (1978)
JSTOR: The American Political Science Review, Vol. 72, No. 2 (Jun., 1978), pp. 638-639 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Finds Forbes writing and analysis both hopelessly confused -- some great stuff re where Hume sits vis à vis various flavors of Whigs, Tories and political historians at different times from 1740s onwards. Here's where Pocock's idée fixe on corrupting commerce is useful in explaining how the Essays fit with History of England -- not just against "vulgar Whiggism" (by time Hume wrote History based on Modern constitution theory of the Court Whigs, both oligarchic and radical Whigs had returned to Ancient Constitution) but pro the civilizing virtues of economic development. His target is the austere civic virtue of the republicans. Here's where Pocock misses -- Britain post Fletcher had few austere republicans - only found among idolators of Sparta on the Continent. That there was a luxury debate across the 18thC in both Continental Europe and Britain is clear, but it's not a debate re republicanism -- it's about the new "civil society", about foundation of morals if not biblicalrevelation or fear of hell, it's about human nature, and it's involved in comparative anthropology (geographic and historical) In short, it's about the science of man. Pocock's terrific observations re time, and the shift from anxiety re inevitable decline to possibility of progress fits in the science of man luxury and corruption debates that go far wider and deeper than classical republicanism. Though on Continent it takes on more of a republican angle after Montesquieu.
books  reviews  Pocock  Hume  18thC  historiography-18thC  political_philosophy  historians-and-politics  historiography-Whig  Whigs-oligarchy  Tories  clientelism  British_politics  British_history  commerce-doux  fiscal-military_state  sovereign_debt  parties  UK_government-colonies  War_of_Austrian_Succession  Seven_Years_War  Pitt_the_Elder  British_Empire  political_economy  downloaded  EF-add  bookshelf 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
Review by: Jonathan Dewald - Patrons, Brokers, and Clients in Seventeenth-Century France by Sharon Kettering (1989)
JSTOR: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 61, No. 1 (Mar., 1989), pp. 164-166 -- contra Mousnier, she sees clientelage as a system of interests that were perpetually renegotiated rather than affective ties. Self-interest frame reinforced by her use of political science theory re system. Both Kettering and Mousnier focus on achievements of centralizing ministers (Richelieu, Mazarin, Colbert) in using clientelage in contrast with eg Bonney and Beik who focus on provincial and nobility motivation and initiative.
books  reviews  17thC  France  French_government  centralization  patronage  clientelism  nobility  provinces  Richelieu  Mazarin  Colbert  political_culture  court_culture 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Red Tape: Akhil Gupta on bureaucracy and poverty in India | India at LSE
He rejects the argument that chronic poverty is a legacy of the colonial state that the post-colonial state is fated to try to eradicate. Instead, Gupta points to political, administrative and judicial inaction that prevents poor Indians from accessing basic necessities such as food and shelter. This inaction – which Gupta reframes as structural violence – allows poverty to become normal and invisible.

the structural violence of poverty as a form of killing by the state—an active process rather than a passive one of ‘allowing to die’. A series of observations helped explain this theorisation. To start, Gupta pointed out that structural violence in the form of poverty persists despite the fact that the Indian poor are not excluded by the state—exclusion being a basis for violence according to Giorgio Agamben’s use of the homo sacer concept. Paradoxically, in India, the poor are included in the democratic process and are, in fact, a central part of the system.

Gupta also tackled the question of why widespread poverty and resultant malnourishment and morbidity have not been addressed more aggressively by the Indian state and civil society. Using the Foucauldian concept of biopower, Gupta argued that poverty in India has been normalised through its documentation in various statistical projects. Once normalised as a feature of the population, deaths from poverty are no longer seen as violations – whether of law, justice, ethics or the constitution – and are thus not punished.
books  India  poverty  nation-state  governance  development  clientelism  bureaucracy  post-colonial 
june 2013 by dunnettreader
Pranad Barnahm: Little, Big: Two Ideas About Fighting Global Poverty | Boston Review May 2013
Review essay of 4 books on development economics. 2 from micro view by (1) Abhijit V. Banerjee and Esther Duflo (2) Dean Karlan and Jacob Appel. 2 from macro political economy view by (1) Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson [Why Nations Fail] (2) Timothy Besley and Torsten Persson.
Re micro books, discusses limits of new fad for RCTs that ignore important studies and methods from prior decades as well as well-known problems with causality and scaling up. How effective when macro conditions bad is questioned in macro books.
Unenthusiastic re macro books. Too reliant on North-Weingast approach that misses tensions between centralization and property rights protection vs pluralism, innovation, democracy, politics of inclusion. Particularly weak on explaining China and India (or even Italy) in past 3 decades and where each is likely to go from here.
books  reviews  EF-add  political_economy  political_culture  development  poverty  20thC  21stC  China  India  institutional_economics  North-Weingast  democracy  clientelism  economic_growth  economic_history  from instapaper
june 2013 by dunnettreader

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