dunnettreader + bureaucracy   21

Elena Seghezza - Fiscal capacity and the risk of sovereign debt after the Glorious Revolution: A reinterpretation of the North–Weingast hypothesis (2015) — ScienceDirect
European Journal of Political Economy, June 2015, Vol.38:71–81, doi:10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2014.12.002
Dept. of Economics, University of Genoa, Via Vivaldi 5, 16126 Genova, Italy
Several explanations have been given to account for the fact that, in contrast to the claim made by North and Weingast (1989), the decline in interest rates on British sovereign debt did not occur until several years after the Glorious Revolution in 1688. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the decline in the risk premium on Britain's sovereign debt was due to the significant increase in excise duties in the early part of the eighteenth century. This increase was possible for two reasons. On the one hand, with the Glorious Revolution, parliament no longer had reason to fear that the King would strengthen his political power due to the availability of more fiscal revenue. On the other hand, the new excise taxes were borne mostly by the poor, that is a social class not represented in parliament. The delay in reducing the interest rate on British sovereign debt, following the Glorious Revolution, was, therefore, due to the length of time needed to increase and improve the fiscal bureaucracy responsible for the collection of excise duties.
Keywords -- Glorious Revolution Fiscal capacity Sovereign debt Interest rates
article  paywall  political_economy  institutional_economics  North-Weingast  Glorious_Revolution  fiscal-military_state  fiscal_space  tax_policy  tax_collection  bureaucracy  sovereign_debt  interest_rates  Parliament  Parliamentary_supremacy  interest_groups  inequality  excise  lower_orders  taxes-consumption  landed_interest 
december 2016 by dunnettreader
Henry Farrell - Privatization as State Transformation — Crooked Timber - Sept 2016
This account helps explain not only why key parts of the state have become privatized or semi-privatized, being put out to private operators, but why states are increasingly relying on private systems of ordering. It shows how the privatization of governance spans the international sphere as well as domestic politics, since international and cross-national forms of regulation have sometimes been partly privatized, and sometimes structured so as to provide private entities with new opportunities to challenge government decisions. Finally, it provides the basis for a specific normative critique of privatization. Here, I do not try to evaluate whether the economy works worse, or better, after privatization than it did in an era when the state exercised control through ownership rather than regulation. Instead, more simply, I show that privatization did not work as its enthusiasts argued and believed that it would, looking to evaluate it in terms of its own promises. Rather than pushing back the state, and replacing political inefficiency with the competitive disciplines of the market, it has replaced one form of political control with another. -- downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
competition-political  political_science  efficiency  political_change  downloaded  international_organizations  international_political_economy  IR-domestic_politics  hierarchy  accountability  reform-political  competition  political_economy  risk_management  paper  government-forms  political_sociology  political_order  politics-and-money  political_discourse  privatization  organizations  decision_theory  bureaucracy  political_culture 
october 2016 by dunnettreader
The Caliphate’s Global Workforce: An Inside Look at Daresh’s Foreign Fighter Paper Trail (document leak to NBC News) | Combating Terrorism Center at West Point - April 18, 2016
Author(s): Brian Dodwell, Daniel Milton, Don Rassler
This report contains an analysis of over 4,600 unique Islamic State personnel records that were produced by the group primarily between early 2013 and late 2014. The importance of this data for understanding the Islamic State and, in particular, the foreign fighter flow, cannot be overstated. To put it simply, it is the largest cache of primary source documents produced by the Islamic State available in the open-source as of this date. These particular documents were acquired by NBC News from an Islamic State defector and subsequently provided to the CTC (and other entities). This report provides a window into the organization’s global workforce, revealing information about foreign fighters’ countries of origin, citizenship, points of entry into Syria, marital status, skills and previous occupations, education levels, religious knowledge, fighting role preferences in the group, and previous jihadist experience. In addition to analyzing the data at the macro-level, the report also highlights numerous anecdotes of individual fighters. Taken together, the analysis in this report reveals an organization that is attempting to vet new members, manage talent effectively within the organization, and deal with an incredibly diverse pool of recruits. -- downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
bureaucracy  Caliphate  report  counter-terrorism  downloaded  MENA  ISIS  Islamist_fundamentalists 
april 2016 by dunnettreader
Philip Giraldi - Revenge of the Anti-Terror State | The American Conservative - July 2015
In Washington, a favored bit of legislation that doesn’t make it through the committee and onto the floor for a vote can always be tacked on to another bill. Or, if there is some awkwardness about it, it can always be repackaged and given another name. Both of those tactics are currently being employed to revive the Violent Radicalization Act as the The Countering Violent Extremism Act of 2015, which is now being rolled into the renewal of the Homeland Security Act as an amendment. It has also been bureaucratically jiggled, creating an Office for Countering Violent Extremism headed by an Assistant Secretary under the direction of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) rather than a commission run by Congress.
Instapaper  military-industrial  bureaucracy  spying  marginalized_groups  Islamophobia  US_politics  US_foreign_policy  GWOT  DHS  civil_liberties  US_government  Congress  from instapaper
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Harold Laski page - McMaster Economic History archive
Downloaded pdfs to iPhone if his 1917 study in theories of sovereignty and 1819 on evolution of authority and its locus in the modern state. Page also has hyml link to 1922 wirk on Marx and a list of biographies and studies of Laski's thought
books  downloaded  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_economy  Europe-Early_Modern  politics-and-religion  sovereignty  nation-state  bureaucracy  19thC  20thC  WWI  entre_deux_guerres  Marx  website  links 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Jeffrey A. Sheehan - The Legacy of Indonesia's Boediono - Knowledge@Wharton
Boediono served as Vice President of Indonesia from 2009 to October 20, 2014, when President Joko Widodo was elected and took office with Vice President Jusuf Kalla. In the following piece, Jeffrey A. Sheehan of Sheehan Advisory LLC — and former associate dean for international relations at Wharton — writes about Boediono, who he has known for 22 years. The material, which draws on public and private discussions, is excerpted from the manuscript of Sheehan’s forthcoming book, tentatively titled, “There Are No Foreign Lands.”
books  Indonesia  democracy  democratization  development  nation-state  state-building  emerging_markets  national_ID  globalization  global_governance  post-colonial  Dutch  20thC  21stC  bureaucracy  corruption 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Xi’s Reform Gambit by Andrew Sheng and Xiao Geng - Project Syndicate - Dec 2014
Xi’s reforms, like Deng’s, reflect the absence of alternative. - Only by addressing these weaknesses and shifting to an innovation-based, environmentally sustainable growth model can the country continue to prosper – and ultimately achieve high-income status. The difference between the two reform efforts is that Xi must also address the shortcomings of Deng’s work. Deng mistakenly believed that the state, which retained its central role in the economy, would be able to use new market-generated resources to correct the short-run inequalities created by his reforms. But the bureaucracy and its privileged networks benefited most, and a second, non-market source of inequality – endemic official corruption – became entrenched. That is why Xi’s anti-corruption campaign was a critical precursor to reform.
China  economic_growth  economic_reform  legal_reform  rule_if_law  corruption  bureaucracy  SOEs  financial_system  climate 
january 2015 by dunnettreader
Clive Holmes, review - (1) Joel Samaha, Law and Order in Historical Perspective: The Case of Elizabethan Essex and (2) A. Hassell Smith, County and Court: Government and Politics in Norfolk, 1558-1603 | JSTOR: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 49, No. 3
Very useful discussion of the very different tales told re administrative efficiency of local government and judiciary in Elizabethan Norfolk and Essex. Particularly noteworthy was the factionalism that emerged after the fall of the Duke of Norfolk when Norfolk gentry fought for the various powers and control of patronage that had been monopolized by the Duke. The disappearance of the top status figure removed a key organizing part of the structure of ranks and status recognition, producing what sounds like a free-for-all vicious competition. Of course factions tried to develop court connections they could exploit. In addition to contributing local conflicts to central court confkicts, the central-local links also worked the other way. The Elizabethan government, frustrated by the variability and often poor quality of implementation by locals of central policies and concerns, including for security and defense, resorted to delegating particular matters to narrower groups than the overall county structures - e,.g. militia commissions and even letters patent. This selectivity would feed local factional competition. But the disputes fed back into conflicts at the central level in the latter part of Elizabeth's reign even Parliamentary constitutional debates challenging the prerogative to circumvent local government structures.
books  reviews  16thC  Elizabethan  British_history  British_politics  local_government  English_constitution  central_government  centralization  prerogative  judiciary  status  patronage  criminal_justice  bureaucracy  rationalization-institutions  state-building  faction  political_culture  elites  EF-add 
october 2014 by dunnettreader
PATRICK A. WALSH -- THE FISCAL STATE IN IRELAND, 1691–1769 (2013).| The Historical Journal, 56, pp 629-656 Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract
PATRICK A. WALSH - University College, Dublin (& UCL post doc fellowship) -- This article examines the Irish fiscal-military state in the eighteenth century. It locates the Irish state within a broader imperial context showing how Ireland contributed to the wider British imperial project. In particular, this article looks at the development of an efficient tax-gathering apparatus, showing how the revenue board, the most pervasive agency of the eighteenth-century Irish state, extracted increasing levels of taxation from a sometimes hostile population. Drawing extensively on the records of the Irish revenue commissioners, a very rich if under utilized source, it demonstrates for the first time the levels of taxation raised in Ireland, while also exploring how these taxes were collected. It concludes that this period saw the expansion of an increasingly professional bureaucracy, challenging existing interpretations that have focused predominantly on politicization. The final section looks at issues of evasion and compliance, showing the difficulties faced by the Irish state in this period, as it expanded deeper into Irish society. -* I would like to thank Stephen Conway, Niamh Cullen, Julian Hoppit, Eoin Magennis, and Ivar McGrath, as well as the two anonymous readers, for their comments on earlier drafts.
article  paywall  find  17thC  18thC  British_history  Ireland  Ireland-English_exploitation  taxes  fiscal-military_state  tax_collection  bureaucracy  state-building  British_Empire  British_Empire-constitutional_structure  UK_Government  UK_government-colonies  primary_sources  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Philip H. Jos - Moral Autonomy & the Modern Organization | JSTOR: Polity, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Winter, 1988), pp. 321-343
Modern organizations are thought by many to exacerbate the problem of individual ethical integrity by discouraging nonconfirmity and independent judgement. Yet, studies of the effect of organizational structure on individual personality and behaviour have commonly been vague as to the precise nature of the capacities for independent ethical judgement that are endangered and about the structural and situational characteristics of organizations that threaten these capacities. This article seeks to clarify these ambiguities. Borrowing from Aristotle and more recent writers, the author develops a conception of moral autonomy that encompasses concerns about bureaucratic domination and the creation of "organization man." He then addresses the threats posed by organization: the Weberian and Decision Process models. - a lot of Kant - downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  organizations  social_psychology  accountability  Aristotle  virtue_ethics  Kant-ethics  autonomy  bureaucracy  Weber  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
A bygone age … The unraveling … Faith in institutions by Nicholas Lemann | The Washington Monthly
First, we had too much faith in the ability of people like us, smart and well-intentioned upper-middle-class (defined by family background, not by what the Monthly paid) Washington liberals, to determine what was and wasn’t a genuine social need. Our scorn for interest group liberalism led us to undervalue the process of people organizing themselves and pushing the political system to give them what they wanted from it. Second, we failed to anticipate the way that eliminating all those structures that struck us as outdated—the government bureaucracies, the seniority system in Congress, the old-line interest groups—would almost inevitably wind up working to the advantage of elites more than of the ordinary people on whose behalf we imagined ourselves to be advocating. The frictionless, disintermediated, networked world in which we live today is great for people with money and high-demand skills, not so great for everybody else. It’s a cruel irony of the Monthly’s history that our preferred label for ourselves, neoliberal, has come to denote political regimes maximally friendly to the financial markets. I’ve come to see the merits of the liberal structures I scorned in my younger days.
US_history  20thC  intellectual_history  US_politics  liberalism  neoliberalism  democracy  governing_class  Congress  elections  trust  right-wing  interest_groups  bureaucracy  campaign_finance  elites  plutocracy 
april 2014 by dunnettreader
Johan van der Zande - Statistik and History in the German Enlightenment | JSTOR: Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 71, No. 3 (July 2010), pp. 411-432
Not statistics but the collection and study of information about the states of Europe - connected to cameralism and focus on political economy rather than military -though clearly how to survive and thrive as an independent state in the European system a major impetus. Van der Zande uses analogy of Venetian ambassadors. Gets launched in a big way in 1750s and has ceased to be a separate important discipline by the early 19thC, the apparent victim of Germany's historical age. Interesting view of motives, academic and bureaucratic resources German states within and without the HRE, the European system, alternative philosophies of human nature, happiness, commerce and the roles of the state. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  18thC  Germany  Enlightenment  Austria  historiography-18thC  political_arithmetick  governance  enlightened_absolutism  cameralism  commerce  agriculture  trade  manufacturing  trading_companies  taxes  social_sciences  nation-state  bureaucracy  public_health  demography  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert Grafstein - The Failure of Weber's Conception of Legitimacy: Its Causes and Implications | JSTOR: The Journal of Politics, Vol. 43, No. 2 (May, 1981), pp. 456-472
Pins the problem on Weber's "realist" psychology compared with Wittgenstein, Quine more "behaviorist" -- didn't download -- Discusses political philosophers who have found Weber's concept deficient -blaming among other things his attempted fact/value neutrality
article  jstor  political_philosophy  sociology  social_theory  institutions  bureaucracy  legitimacy  governance  Weber  Wittgenstein  Quine  social_psychology  psychology  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Daniel Little - Understanding Society: Making institutions Dec 2013
Looks at range of institutional work (Thelen, Pierson etc) - mostly praise for recent work that's a comparative combination of historical sociology, political science, political economy, with implications for work in Tilly's tradition of fiscal-military_state -- Wenkai HE's Paths toward the Modern Fiscal State: England, Japan, and China is a timely and interesting contribution. HE undertakes a comparative study of the emergence of what he calls the "modern fiscal state" in Britain, China, and Japan. He has undertaken to learn enough about these three cases in detail to be able to tell a reasonably detailed story of the emergence of this set of state tax and revenue institutions in the three settings, and he is thereby poised to consider some important institutional-causal questions about the innovations he observes. The book is a "cross-over" work, with political science methods and historical research content. The book combines new institutionalism, comparative historical sociology, and first-rate historical scholarship to make a compelling historical argument.. .... One thing that I particularly appreciate about HE's work is his ability to combine structure and agency into a single coherent analysis and explanation.
books  kindle-available  reviews  social_theory  historical_sociology  fiscal-military_state  political_economy  political_culture  institutions  bureaucracy  taxes  17thC  18thC  19thC  British_history  James_I  China  Japan  modernization  nation-state  governance  government_officials  governmentality  economic_history  Great_Divergence  EF-add 
december 2013 by dunnettreader
Randall Collins: Weber's Last Theory of Capitalism: A Systematization (1980)
JSTOR: American Sociological Review, Vol. 45, No. 6 (Dec., 1980), pp. 925-942 ...... Downloaded pdf to Note......In Kieran Healy course..... A systematic formulation is given of Weber's theory of the origins of large-scale capitalism, based upon the lectures given just before his death. This last theory is predominantly institutional, unlike the emphasis upon religious ideas and motivations in his early Protestant Ethic thesis, and unlike his analyses of the world religions. Weber's institutional theory involves a sequence of causal conditions. The outcome of the sequence is capitalism characterized by the entrepreneurial organization of capital, rationalized technology, free labor, and unrestrained markets. Intermediate conditions are a calculable legal system and an economic ethic combining universal commercialization with the moderate pursuit of repetitive gains. These conditions are fostered by the bureaucratic state and by legal citizenship, and more remotely by a complex of administrative, military, and religious factors. The overall pattern is one in which numerous elements must be balanced in continuous conflict if economic development is to take place. Weber derived much of this scheme in explicit confrontation with Marxism. His conflict theory criticizes as well as deepens and extends a number of Marxian themes, including a theory of international capitalism which both criticizes and complements Wallerstein's theory of the world system.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  Germany  economic_growth  development  economic_sociology  international_political_economy  social_theory  institutions  Weber  Marx  capitalism  legal_system  bureaucracy  markets  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Red Tape: Akhil Gupta on bureaucracy and poverty in India | India at LSE
He rejects the argument that chronic poverty is a legacy of the colonial state that the post-colonial state is fated to try to eradicate. Instead, Gupta points to political, administrative and judicial inaction that prevents poor Indians from accessing basic necessities such as food and shelter. This inaction – which Gupta reframes as structural violence – allows poverty to become normal and invisible.

the structural violence of poverty as a form of killing by the state—an active process rather than a passive one of ‘allowing to die’. A series of observations helped explain this theorisation. To start, Gupta pointed out that structural violence in the form of poverty persists despite the fact that the Indian poor are not excluded by the state—exclusion being a basis for violence according to Giorgio Agamben’s use of the homo sacer concept. Paradoxically, in India, the poor are included in the democratic process and are, in fact, a central part of the system.

Gupta also tackled the question of why widespread poverty and resultant malnourishment and morbidity have not been addressed more aggressively by the Indian state and civil society. Using the Foucauldian concept of biopower, Gupta argued that poverty in India has been normalised through its documentation in various statistical projects. Once normalised as a feature of the population, deaths from poverty are no longer seen as violations – whether of law, justice, ethics or the constitution – and are thus not punished.
books  India  poverty  nation-state  governance  development  clientelism  bureaucracy  post-colonial 
june 2013 by dunnettreader

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