dunnettreader + article + human_nature   73

Steve Fuller - Social Epistemology for Theodicy without Deference: Response to William Lynch (pages 207-218) | Symposion. Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Scien - April 2016ces
ABSTRACT: This article is a response to William Lynch’s, ‘Social Epistemology Transformed: Steve Fuller’s Account of Knowledge as a Divine Spark for Human Domination,’ an extended and thoughtful reflection on my Knowledge: The Philosophical Quest in History. I grant that Lynch has captured well, albeit critically, the spirit and content of the book – and the thirty-year intellectual journey that led to it. In this piece, I respond at two levels. First, I justify my posture towards my predecessors and contemporaries, which Lynch shrewdly sees as my opposition to deference. However, most of the response concerns an elaboration of my theodicy-focussed sense of social epistemology, which is long-standing but only started to become prominent about ten years ago, in light of my involvement in the evolution controversies. Here I aim to draw together a set of my abiding interests – scientific, theological and philosophical – in trying to provide a normative foundation for the future of humanity. - downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
sociology_of_knowledge  artificial_intelligence  downloaded  constructivism  Innovation  risk-mitigation  transhumanism  article  human_nature  epistemology-social  sociology_of_science_ 
may 2016 by dunnettreader
Consciousness (pages 11-18) | Symposion. Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences - Jan 2015
Nicholas Rescher

ABSTRACT: Consciousness is sometimes viewed as a particular parametric factor in the analogy of blood pressure or electric charge. The paper argues that this is an erroneous conception becomes consciousness involves a varied assortment of different phenomena that have no single unified commonality. And so even as ‘abnormal psychology’ has to be a disjointed assembly of diverse specialties so will ‘consciousness studies’ have to be.
neuroscience  article  mind-body  philosophy_of_science  reductionism  human_nature  psychology  downloaded  consciousness  mind 
may 2016 by dunnettreader
Spencer J. Pack, Eric Schliesser - Smith's Humean Criticism of Hume's Account of the Origin of Justice (2006) | Project MUSE
From: Journal of the History of Philosophy, Volume 44, Number 1, January 2006 pp. 47-63 | 10.1353/hph.2006.0004 *--* It is argued that Adam Smith criticizes David Hume's account of the origin of and continuing adherence to the rule of law for being not sufficiently Humean. ["Humean" is used for his tendency to use proto-evolutionary explanations of social phenomena in terms of psychological and material factors acting on individuals rather than rationalistic explanations] Hume explained that adherence to the rule of law originated in the self-interest to restrain self-interest. [Treatise 3.2.2,13-14, 316] [Smith says Hume's account is "too refined - TMS II, ii.3.5 ] According to Smith, Hume does not pay enough attention to the "unsocial" passion of resentment and the passion of admiration, which have their source in the imagination. Smith's offers a more naturalistic and evolutionary account [more Humean than Hume] of the psychological pre-conditions of the establishment and morality of justice. Yet, Smith's account also makes room for a thin conception of Lockean natural right to property, while rejecting the contractualist and rationalistic elements in Locke. It emerges that Smith severs the intimate connection that Hobbes and Hume made between justice and property. - paywall
article  paywall  intellectual_history  moral_philosophy  human_nature  18thC  Smith  Hume  justice  passions  imagination  resentment  property  property_rights  self-interest  Hobbes  self-protection  Locke-2_Treatises  natural_law  natural_rights 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Sylvie Taussig - La pluralité des mondes au miroir de l'Europe et de la Chine : pluralisme politique et pluralisme religieux dans un monde globalisé (2014) - Cairn.info
Cet article porte sur les processus de sécularisation, et notamment sur l’avènement du pluralisme religieux et politique et sur le rapport entre monothéisme et pluralisme. Il redonne sa place à un moment souvent ignoré de cette histoire complexe : les échanges fructueux quoique aveugles, ressemblant souvent à un jeu de dupes à somme nulle, entre l’Europe – et particulièrement la France – et la Chine au xviie siècle. L’incompatibilité qui semble se découvrir, dans cette histoire en miroir, concerne le monothéisme et le pluralisme politique. Et, dans notre univers globalisé, il s’agit de gérer la multiplicité des cultures et des religions dans des entités nationales unitaires. - behind a 3-year rolling paywall -- she specializes in 17thC - may be of interest for the Querelle des rites
article  Jesuits  globalization  intellectual_history  pluralism  human_nature  religious_culture  religious_belief  monotheism  China  missionaries  17thC  religious_history  comparative_religion  multiculturalism  universalism  paywall 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Hervé Serry - Saint Thomas sociologue ? 2094)- Cairn.info
Face à l’émergence de la sociologie comme discipline scientifique, l’Église catholique des années 1880-1920 et ses partisans dans les milieux intellectuels se mobilisent rapidement. L’école durkheimienne est ainsi controversée aussi bien par les instances cléricales que par des intellectuels laïques catholiques prolongeant leur action. Cette opposition s’arrime sur la volonté de forger une « sociologie catholique », dont la philosophie thomiste qui guide alors la doctrine officielle de l’Église serait le socle, afin de ne pas laisser le terrain du savoir sur le social aux opposants de l’Église. Méconnue, l’argumentation théorique et politique que développent les entrepreneurs de cette sociologie catholique, dont certains sont les héritiers de Frédéric Le Play, permet d’explorer l’élaboration, à l’époque où l’école française de sociologie s’impose, des fondements de certains schèmes de pensée qui, dans les sciences sociales, privilégient la « liberté » des individus contre les déterminismes sociaux. -- downloaded via iPhone to DBOX
anti-individualism  Counter-Enlightenment  intellectual_history  theology  social_theory  article  Catholics-and-politics  France  3rd_Republic  pre-WWI  Thomism  downloaded  laïcité  epistemology  scientific_method  human_nature  Aquinas  19thC  political_culture  Thomism-19thC  cultural_history  Papacy  Durkheim  anti-modernity  religious_history  intelligentsia  Fin-de-Siècle 
february 2016 by dunnettreader
Jonathan Sheehan - Thinking about Idols in Early Modern Europe - Issue Introduction (2006) | JSTOR - Journal of the History of Ideas
Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 67, No. 4 (Oct., 2006), pp. 561-570 **--** Articles in issue on idolatry *--* Jonathan Sheehan, Introduction: Thinking about Idols in Early Modern Europe (pp. 561-570) *-* Joan-Pau Rubiés, Theology, Ethnography, and the Historicization of Idolatry (pp. 571-596) *--* Carina L. Johnson, Idolatrous Cultures and the Practice of Religion (pp. 597-622) *--* Sabine MacCormack, Gods, Demons, and Idols in the Andes (pp. 623-648) *--* Jonathan Sheehan, The Altars of the Idols: Religion, Sacrifice, and the Early Modern Polity (pp. 649-674) *--* Peter N. Miller, History of Religion Becomes Ethnology: Some Evidence from Peiresc's Africa (pp. 675-696) *--* Martin Mulsow, Idolatry and Science: Against Nature Worship from Boyle to Rüdiger, 1680-1720 (pp. 697-712) -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  journal  jstor  intellectual_history  religious_history  cultural_history  16thC  17thC  18thC  exploration  colonialism  religious_culture  religious_belief  religious_experience  ritual  idolatry  political_philosophy  politics-and-religion  theology  sociology_of_religion  political-theology  science-and-religion  historicism  relativism  demons  devil  Bible-as-history  Biblical_authority  Biblical_criticism  comparative_religion  comparative_history  sacrifice  science_of_man  social_sciences  human_nature  Africa  Latin_America  pagans  nature  natural_religion  nature_worship  religious_imagery  religious_practices  Boyle  Antiquarianism  natural_history  Peiresc  virtuosos  downloaded 
october 2015 by dunnettreader
Nicola Lacey - Jurisprudence, History, and the Institutional Quality of Law (Symposium - Jurisprudence and (Its) History) | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 919 (2015)
A cri de coeur for putting legal theory and history back together with social theory and empirical social sciences,. -- In the early part of my career, legal history and the history of legal ideas were closed books to me, as I made my way in a field of criminal law scholarship dominated by doctrinal scholarship and by concept-focused philosophical analysis of the foundations of criminal law. These 2 very different paradigms have 1 big thing in common: They tend to proceed as if the main intellectual task is to unearth the deep logic of existing legal doctrines, not infrequently going so far as to read them back onto history, as if things could never have been other than they are. (..)I have increasingly found myself turning to historical resources (1) [to examine] the contingency of particular legal arrangements, and (2) ...to develop causal and other theses about the dynamics which shape them and hence about the role and quality of criminal law as a form of power in modern societies. So, in a sense, I have been using history in support of an analysis driven primarily by the social sciences. (..) it is no accident that all of the great social theorists, from Marx to Foucault via Weber, Durkheim, and Elias, ..have incorporated significant historical elements into their interpretations .... Indeed, without the diachronic perspective provided by history (or the perspective offered by comparative study) we could have no critical purchase on social theory’s characterizations of or causal hypotheses about the dynamics of social systems. Hence, (...) my boundless gratitude to the historians whose meticulous research makes this sort of interpretive social theory possible). -- Lacey is not over-dramatizing -- see the "commentary" from a "legal philosopher" who believes the normative basis of criminal responsibility can be investigated as timeless "moral truths". -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  social_theory  historical_sociology  historical_change  institutions  institutional_change  philosophy_of_law  philosophical_anthropology  philosophy_of_social_science  jurisprudence  legal_theory  analytical_philosophy  concepts  morality-conventional  morality-objective  criminal_justice  responsibility  mind  human_nature  norms  power-asymmetric  power-symbolic  power  Neoplatonism  neo-Kantian  a_priori  historiography  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  political_culture  moral_philosophy  evidence  mental_health  social_order  epistemology  epistemology-moral  change-social  change-intellectual  comparative_law  comparative_anthropology  civil_liberties  women-rights  women-property  rights-legal  rights-political  access_to_services  discrimination  legal_culture  legal_system  legal_reasoning  Foucault  Marx  Weber  Durkheim  metaethics  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Kimberly Kessler Ferzan - Of Weevils and Witches: What Can We Learn from the Ghost of Responsibility Past? A Commentary on Lacey's "Jurisprudence, History, and the Institutional Quality of Law" | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 947 (2015)
Lacey's article (..) criticizes the scholarship on criminal responsibility for being too concerned with “its conceptual contours and moral foundations,” “rather than with what it is for[:] its social roles, meaning, and functions.” Here is what she is arguing against. There are theorists, myself included, who think of questions of responsibility in philosophical terms. These moral truths are not socially or historically contingent; they are constant questions to which we seek answers. (..) In some ways, this is a (boring) methodological debate. What I care about as responsibility is not what she cares about as responsibility. -- YIKES -- Apart from the travesty of equating legal norms with "moral truths," this looks like moral realism run amok -- the questions may be "constant" but who gets to frame the Qs, what values are doing the framing (blood money, retribution, restitution, prevention, hierarchy reinforcement, group purification), what anthropology and epistemology implicitly govern the framing (universal depravity, trial by ordeal, women's testimony is unreliable?), the defined criteria (lower orders don't have honor they can defend, husbands can't commit rape), how criteria are to be applied, by whom (civil vs religious authority, manor courts vs king's law, lie detector operators, NSA algorithms?) -- "Philosophical" inquiry is limited to *a priori* concerns, and "philosophical" answers are limited to eternal Platonic "moral truths". But if normative Qs & As are by definition not contingent on changing institutions and social assumptions re behavior, what's's the foundation for her inquiry process? Armchair "fine-grained" intuitions re "mental states"? So do we get new "moral truths" along with the each new neuroscience study? "Proof there's no free will!"="moral truth" (let everybody out of jail?) and next month "Latest study finds the free will spot"=oops, new eternal "moral truth" (can we test it like DNA?) -- Analytic philosophy rediscovering Aristotelian categories is bad enough, but analytic neo-Platonic anthropology gets me actively hostile, and it's even more absurd if we're talking about criminal law -- didn't download
article  analytical_philosophy  a_priori  moral_philosophy  morality-objective  jurisprudence  criminal_justice  biocultural_evolution  human_nature  moral_psychology 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Dan Priel - Toward Classical Legal Positivism (Symposium - Jurisprudence and (Its) History) | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 987 (2015)
I have two major aims: (1) set the historical record straight(...) Hobbes’s and Bentham’s work that seeks to understand their views on law not by isolating it from the rest of their wide-ranging body of work, but by understanding their jurisprudential work as part of a broader project. (2) My main aim is to contribute to contemporary jurisprudential debates and to suggest that the largely neglected approach of earlier positivists is superior to the view held by most contemporary legal positivists. (...) to what extent it is useful for us to call Hobbes and Bentham “legal positivists.” My answer to this question consists of three interrelated points. The first is that we draw an explicit link between their ideas and the view that (some time later) would come to be known as “positivism,” roughly the view that the methods of the “human sciences” are essentially the same as those of the natural sciences. The second point is that the classical legal positivists’ decisive break with natural law ideas prevalent in their day is to be found exactly here, in their views about metaphysics and nature. The third point is that this aspect of their work has been, in my view regrettably, abandoned by contemporary legal positivists. Though all three points are related, in this Article I will say relatively little about the first point, as I discussed it in greater detail elsewhere. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_law  jurisprudence  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  Hobbes  Bentham  natural_law  natural_rights  positivism-legal  analytical_philosophy  metaphysics  natural_philosophy  nature  human_nature  scientific_method  social_theory  social_sciences  positivism  positive_law  Methodenstreit  methodology-quantitative  epistemology  sociology_of_knowledge  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
Jeffrey A. Pojanowski - Positivism(s): A Commentary on Priel's "Toward Classical Legal Positivism" | Virginia Law Review - 101 Va. L. Rev. 1023 (2015)
Anglo-American jurisprudence, before it insulated itself in conceptual analysis and defined itself in opposition to broader questions, was properly a “sociable science,” to use Professor Postema’s phrase from his symposium article. And, in part due to the exemplars of history, so it may become again. By drawing on Bentham and Hobbes, Professor Dan Priel’s Toward Classical Positivism points forward toward more fruitful methods of jurisprudence while illuminating the recent history and current state of inquiry. His article demonstrates the virtues and promise of a more catholic approach to jurisprudence. It also raises challenging questions about the direction to take this rediscovered path, and I am not sure I always agree with his suggested answers. Any misgivings I have about Priel’s particular approach, however, do not diminish my appreciation; I find even the points of disagreement to be live and meaningful, and that itself is refreshing. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_law  jurisprudence  political_philosophy  intellectual_history  intellectual_history-distorted  17thC  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  Hobbes  Bentham  natural_law  natural_rights  positivism-legal  analytical_philosophy  metaphysics  natural_philosophy  nature  human_nature  scientific_method  social_theory  social_sciences  positivism  positive_law  Methodenstreit  methodology-quantitative  epistemology  sociology_of_knowledge  downloaded 
july 2015 by dunnettreader
How (not) to bring psychology and biology together | Scientia Salon
By Mark Feydk -- Published in Philosophical Studies, February 2014. -- Evolutionary psychologists often try to ‘‘bring together’’ biology and psychology by making predictions about what specific psychological mechanisms exist from theories about what patterns of behaviour would have been adaptive in the EEA for humans. This paper shows that one of the deepest methodological generalities in evolutionary biology—that proximate explanations and ultimate explanations stand in a many-to-many relation—entails that this inferential strategy is unsound. Ultimate explanations almost never entail the truth of any particular proximate hypothesis. But of course it does not follow that there are no other ways of ‘‘bringing together’’ biology and psychology. Accordingly, this paper explores one other strategy for doing just that, the pursuit of a very specific kind of consilience. However, I argue that inferences reflecting the pursuit of this kind of consilience with the best available theories in contemporary evolutionary biology indicate that psychologists should have a preference for explanations of adaptive behavior in humans that refer to learning and other similarly malleable psychological mechanisms—and not modules or instincts or any other kind of relatively innate and relatively non-malleable psychological mechanism. -- Downloaded pdf to Note
article  philosophy_of_science  evo_psych  evolutionary_biology  gene-culture_coevolution  psychology  human_nature  downloaded 
march 2015 by dunnettreader
Herbert Gintis - Gene–culture coevolution and the nature of human sociality | Royal Society - Issue Theme "Human Niche Construction" - Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 27 March 2011, vol. 366, no. 1566, 878-888
Human characteristics are the product of gene–culture coevolution, which is an evolutionary dynamic involving the interaction of genes and culture over long time periods. Gene–culture coevolution is a special case of niche construction. Gene–culture coevolution is responsible for human other-regarding preferences, a taste for fairness, the capacity to empathize and salience of morality and character virtues. -- Keywords: gene–culture coevolution, sociobiology, epistatic information transfer -- Published 14 February 2011 doi: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0310 -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  gene-culture_coevolution  sociobiology  social_theory  genetics  cultural_change  social_process  niche_construction  evolution  evolution-social  evolutionary_biology  human_nature  character  preferences  altruism  fairness  empathy  moral_sentiments  moral_psychology  morality-innate  morality-conventional  virtue  tradition  cultural_transmission  evolution-group_selection  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Luke Rendell, Laurel Fogarty and Kevin N. Laland - Runaway cultural niche construction | Royal Society Issue Theme " Human Niche Construction " - Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 27 March 2011 vol. 366 no. 1566, 823-835
School of Biology, University of St Andrews, -- Cultural niche construction is a uniquely potent source of selection on human populations, and a major cause of recent human evolution. Previous theoretical analyses have not, however, explored the local effects of cultural niche construction. Here, we use spatially explicit coevolutionary models to investigate how cultural processes could drive selection on human genes by modifying local resources. We show that cultural learning, expressed in local niche construction, can trigger a process with dynamics that resemble runaway sexual selection. Under a broad range of conditions, cultural niche-constructing practices generate selection for gene-based traits and hitchhike to fixation through the build up of statistical associations between practice and trait. This process can occur even when the cultural practice is costly, or is subject to counteracting transmission biases, or the genetic trait is selected against. Under some conditions a secondary hitchhiking occurs, through which genetic variants that enhance the capability for cultural learning are also favoured by similar dynamics. We suggest that runaway cultural niche construction could have played an important role in human evolution, helping to explain why humans are simultaneously the species with the largest relative brain size, the most potent capacity for niche construction and the greatest reliance on culture. Keywords: niche construction, cultural transmission, gene–culture coevolution, human evolution, spatially explicit models -- doi: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0256 -- didn't download
article  sociobiology  anthropology  genetics  gene-culture_coevolution  niche_construction  social_theory  social_process  change-social  cultural_transmission  evolution  evolution-social  evolutionary_biology  human_nature  evolution-group_selection  EF-add 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Kendal, Jamshid J. Tehrani and John Odling-Smee - Human niche construction in interdisciplinary focus | Royal Society - Theme Issue "Human Niche Construction" Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 27 March 2011, vol. 366, no. 1566, 785-792
doi: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0306 Jeremy Kendal1 and Jamshid J. Tehrani - Centre for the Coevolution of Biology and Culture, Department of Anthropology, University of Durham -- John Odling-Smee - School of Anthropology, University of Oxford -- Issue introduction -- Niche construction is an endogenous causal process in evolution, reciprocal to the causal process of natural selection. It works by adding ecological inheritance, comprising the inheritance of natural selection pressures previously modified by niche construction, to genetic inheritance in evolution. Human niche construction modifies selection pressures in environments in ways that affect both human evolution, and the evolution of other species. Human ecological inheritance is exceptionally potent because it includes the social transmission and inheritance of cultural knowledge, and material culture. Human genetic inheritance in combination with human cultural inheritance thus provides a basis for gene–culture coevolution, and multivariate dynamics in cultural evolution. Niche construction theory potentially integrates the biological and social aspects of the human sciences. We elaborate on these processes, and provide brief introductions to each of the papers published in this theme issue. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  evolution  evolution-social  evolutionary_biology  sociobiology  human_nature  genetics  gene-culture_coevolution  niche_construction  ecology  species  environment  social_theory  social_process  change-social  cultural_change  cultural_transmission  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2015 by dunnettreader
Bernacer J and Murillo JI - The Aristotelian conception of habit and its contribution to human neuroscience (2014) | Frontiers of Human Neuroscience. 8:883. - doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00883 Frontiers | The Aristotelian conception of habit and its contribut
Mind-Brain Group, Institute for Culture and Society, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain, Edited by: Jose Angel Lombo, Pontifical University of the Holy Cross, Italy -- Reviewed by: Katie A. Jennings, University of Oxford, UK - Carol Seger, Colorado State University, USA - Hypothesis & Theory ARTICLE - The notion of habit used in neuroscience is an inheritance from a particular theoretical origin, whose main source is William James. Thus, habits have been characterized as rigid, automatic, unconscious, and opposed to goal-directed actions. This analysis leaves unexplained several aspects of human behavior and cognition where habits are of great importance.(..) We summarize the current notion of habit in neuroscience, its philosophical inspiration and the problems that arise from it, mostly centered on the sharp distinction between goal-directed actions and habitual behavior. We then introduce the Aristotelian view and compare it with that of James. For Aristotle, a habit is an acquired disposition to perform certain types of action. If this disposition involves an enhanced cognitive control of actions, it can be considered a “habit-as-learning”. The current view of habit in neuroscience, which lacks cognitive control and we term “habit-as-routine”, is also covered by the Aristotelian conception. He classifies habits into three categories: (1) theoretical, or the retention of learning understood as “knowing that x is so”; (2) behavioral, through which the agent achieves a rational control of emotion-permeated behavior (“knowing how to behave”); and (3) technical or learned skills (“knowing how to make or to do”). Finally, we propose new areas of research where this “novel” conception of habit could serve as a framework concept, from the cognitive enrichment of actions to the role of habits in pathological conditions. In all, this contribution may shed light on the understanding of habits as an important feature of human action. Habits, viewed as a cognitive enrichment of behavior, are a crucial resource for understanding human learning and behavioral plasticity. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  human_nature  behavior  habit  psychology  epistemology  learning  neuroscience  cognition  brain-development  memory  Aristotle  Aristotelian  James_William  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Marta Florio and Wieland B. Huttner - Neural progenitors, neurogenesis and the evolution of the neocortex (2014) | Development - online Journal of development biology
REVIEW - Abstract - The neocortex is the seat of higher cognitive functions and, in evolutionary terms, is the youngest part of the mammalian brain. Since its origin, the neocortex has expanded in several mammalian lineages, and this is particularly notable in humans. This expansion reflects an increase in the number of neocortical neurons, which is determined during development and primarily reflects the number of neurogenic divisions of distinct classes of neural progenitor cells. Consequently, the evolutionary expansion of the neocortex and the concomitant increase in the numbers of neurons produced during development entail interspecies differences in neural progenitor biology. Here, we review the diversity of neocortical neural progenitors, their interspecies variations and their roles in determining the evolutionary increase in neuron numbers and neocortex size. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  neuroscience  evolutionary_biology  evolution  brain  brain-development  primates  human_nature  genetics  molecular_biology  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Francisco J. Novo - Habit acquisition in the context of neuronal genomic and epigenomic mosaicism (2014)
Frontiers of Human Neuroscience. 2014; 8: 255. - doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00255
PMCID: PMC4007014 -- See the article "Epigenetic Priming of Memory Updating during Reconsolidation to Attenuate Remote Fear Memories" in Cell, volume 156 on page 261. -- A recent paper (Gräff et al., 2014) shows that remote fear memories in mice can be stably attenuated with the administration of histone de-acetylase (HDAC) inhibitors during reconsolidation. This achieved persistent attenuation of remote memories, even though it is well established that the brief period of hippocampal neuroplasticity induced by recent memory recall is absent for remote memories. Apparently, such epigenetic intervention primed the expression of neuroplasticity-related genes. This work comes shortly after the finding (McConnell et al., 2013) that individual neurons show an extraordinary degree of genomic mosaicism. Sequencing the genomes of single human frontal cortex neurons, these authors found that up to 41% of neurons contain at least one de novo copy-number variant (CNV) of at least one megabase in size. Segmental duplications have greatly expanded in African great apes (Marques-Bonet et al., 2009), and it is possible that increased retrotransposon activity during human neurogenesis also contributes to this striking diversity in CNV numbers in neuronal genomes (Singer et al., 2010). Taken together, both studies support the notion that genomic and epigenomic mosaicism allows for the introduction of heritable changes at the single-cell level that promote neuronal plasticity, and thus help to explain how human actions can modify neural circuits involved in memory and learning. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  genetics  epigenetics  primates  human_nature  brain  neuroscience  memory  learning  plasticity  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
David L. Molfese - Advancing Neuroscience through Epigenetics: Molecular Mechanisms of Learning and Memory (2011)
Dev Neuropsychol. Oct 2011; 36(7): 810–827. - doi: 10.1080/87565641.2011.606395 PMCID: PMC3191880 - NIHMSID: NIHMS325838 -- Abstract - Humans share 96% of our 30,000 genes with Chimpanzees. The 1,200 genes that differ appear at first glance insufficient to describe what makes us human and them apes. However, we are now discovering that the mechanisms that regulate how genes are expressed tell a much richer story than our DNA alone. Sections of our DNA are constantly being turned on or off, marked for easy access, or secluded and hidden away, all in response to on-going cellular activity. In the brain, neurons encode information – in effect memories – at the cellular level. Yet while memories may last a lifetime, neurons are dynamic structures. Every protein in the synapse undergoes some form of turnover, some with half-lives of only hours. How can a memory persist beyond the lifetimes of its constitutive molecular building blocks? Epigenetics – changes in gene expression that do not alter the underlying DNA sequence – may be the answer. In this article, epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation and acetylation or methylation of the histone proteins that package DNA are described in the context of animal learning. Through the interaction of these modifications a “histone code” is emerging wherein individual memories leave unique memory traces at the molecular level with distinct time courses. A better understanding of these mechanisms has implications for treatment of memory disorders caused by normal aging or diseases including schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s, depression, and drug addiction. -- downloaded pdf to Note - Keywords: epigenetics, genes, memory, learning, histone, hippocampus, behavior
article  genetics  epigenetics  memory  learning  brain  neuroscience  molecular_biology  primates  psychology  human_nature  downloaded  EF-add 
november 2014 by dunnettreader
Jan-Hendrik Passoth and Nicholas Rowland - Who is acting in International Relations? | Nicholas Rowland - Academia.edu
Chapter draft for edited book - post-humanism or post-anthropology? Extensive footnotes to these post Foucault, Latour, etc trends -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  IR_theory  social_theory  unit_of_analysis  agency-structure  organizations  Actor_Network_Theory  human_nature  bibliography  downloaded 
september 2014 by dunnettreader
Francis Joseph Mootz - Hermeneutics and Law (June 30, 2014) in The Blackwell Companion to Hermeneutics (Eds. Naill Keane and Chris Lawn, 2015) :: SSRN
University of the Pacific - McGeorge School of Law -- This chapter will appear in a forthcoming book on hermeneutics. After providing a hermeneutical phenomenology of legal practice that locates legal interpretation at the center of the rule of law, the chapter considers three important hermeneutical themes: (1) the critical distinction between a legal historian writing aboout a law in the past and a judge deciding a case according to the law; (2) the reinvigoration of the natural law tradition against the reductive characteristics of legal positivism by construing human nature as hermeneutical; and. (3) the role of philosophical hermeneutics in grounding critical legal theory rather than serving as a quiescent acceptance of the status quo, as elaborated by reconsidering the famous exchanges between Gadamer, Ricoeur and Habermas. -- I argue that these three important themes are sufficient to underwrite Gadamer's famous assertion that legal practice has exemplary status for hermeneutical theory. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  books  SSRN  legal_history  legal_system  legal_theory  historiography  lit_crit  critical_theory  legal_reasoning  judiciary  precedent  hermeneutics  natural_law  positivism-legal  legal_realism  rhetoric-writing  human_nature  epistemology-social  epistemology-moral  Gadamer  Habermas  Ricoeur  Heidegger  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Patrick H. Hutton - Vico for Historians: An Introduction [dedicated issue to Vico for historians for our time] | JSTOR: Historical Reflections / Réflexions Historiques, Vol. 22, No. 3 (Fall 1996), pp. 479-493
Introduction gives a brief biography and discusses each of the papers in the issue, plus a short "further reading" -- Contents *--* Community, Prereflective Virtue, and the Cyclopean Power of the Fathers: Vico's Reflections on Unexpected Consequences (pp. 495-515) Edmund E. Jacobitti. *--* The Significance of Tacitus in Vico's Idea of History (pp. 517-535) Alexander U. Bertland. *--* Vico and the End of History (pp. 537-558) Patrick H. Hutton. *--* Vico, Rhetorical Topics and Historical Thought (pp. 559-585) Catherine L. Hobbs. *--* Situating Vico Between Modern and Postmodern (pp. 587-617) Sandra Rudnick Luft. *--* Interpretations and Misinterpretations of Vico (pp. 619-639) Cecilia Miller -- Introduction and all papers downloaded to Note and in separate folder in Dropbox
article  jstor  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  20thC  Vico  Enlightenment  historicism  historiography-18thC  historiography-19thC  ancient_history  poetry  rhetoric  philosophy_of_language  philosophy_of_history  stadial_theories  Tacitus  oral_culture  postmodern  reading  reader_response  readership  cycles  human_nature  humanism  hermeticism  hermeneutics  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Mark Collier - HUME'S THEORY OF MORAL IMAGINATION | JSTOR: History of Philosophy Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 3 (JULY 2010), pp. 255-273
See re neuroscience research re mirroring processes and different types of empathy that suggest something similar to Hume's explanation of two different processes for near and dear vs strangers. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  neuroscience  18thC  Hume-ethics  human_nature  empathy  mirroring  moral_sentiments  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Michael LeBuffe - SPINOZISTIC PERFECTIONISM | JSTOR: History of Philosophy Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 4 (OCTOBER 2010), pp. 317-333
Perfectionism seems to imply simply capable of improvement -- explains Spinoza's Ethics as differing from the virtue ethics sort as not based on something like the essence of humans -- the article gives an outline of what he thinks are the attractive features of Spinoza's moral_philosophy disentangled from some of the more obscure or less plausible parts of Spinoza's system, while recognizing that since Spinoza is a super systematic philosopher, some of his metaphysical concepts are key to his moral_philosophy, which LeBuffe attempts to spell out -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  17thC  20thC  21stC  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  virtue_ethics  virtue  good  hedonistic  happiness  improvement  perfectibility  Spinoza  morality-conventional  morality-objective  perspectivism  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2014 by dunnettreader
Jeremy Waldron - Political Political Theory: An Oxford Inaugural Lecture (2012) :: SSRN
NYU School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 12-26 -- "Inaugural Lecture" for the Chichele Professorship of Social and Political Theory. -- Political theorists study (1) political virtue, (2) political processes and institutions, and (3) political ideals (like justice, liberty, and equality). Since the time of Hume, Madison, and Kant, it has been thought that (2) is more important than (1), because maybe we can set up institutions that work for the general good whatever the state of virtue of the people... But in the revival of political philosophy heralded by Rawls in 1971, there has been great emphasis on (3) and not nearly enough on (2)... particularly in the UK. Chichele chair -holders G.A. Cohen and Isaiah Berlin focused almost exclusively on (3) -- with Berlin announcing that political philosophy was really just the study of "the ends of life." -- I argue for a reorientation of political theory teaching and scholarship back towards institutions -- particularly the normative evaluation of the political process and the exploration of institutional principles like democracy, representation, bicameralism, the rule of law, the separation of powers, federalism and so on. ..these issues should not be left to empirical or comparative politcial science, because they raise important and complex questions of evaluation that may be sold short by the pragmatic and consequentialist emphasis of empirical and comparative work. But political theory should respect the empirical study of institutions more than it does, and it should dovetail the normative and evaluative work that political theory involves with the understanding of institutions, processes, and practices that political science generates. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  SSRN  intellectual_history  18thC  19thC  20thC  21stC  political_philosophy  political_science  human_nature  social_theory  institutions  government-forms  governmentality  constitutions  constitutionalism  constitutional_law  institution-building  institutional_change  political_change  political_participation  political_culture  Arendt  Berlin_Isaiah  Hume  Hume-politics  Hume-historian  comparative_history  political_order  legitimacy  democracy  separation-of-powers  checks-and-balances  legislature  executive  judicial_review  justice  civic_virtue  dignity  egalitarian  rule_of_law  citizenship  education-civic  federalism  social_process  socialization  civil_liberties  Founders  Madison  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Naturalizing Jurisprudence: Three Approaches [chapter] :: SSRN in THE FUTURE OF NATURALISM, J. Shook & P. Kurtz, eds., Prometheus Books, Amherst, NY, 2009
U of Chicago, Public Law Working Paper No. 246 -- General jurisprudence - that branch of legal philosophy concerned with the nature of law and adjudication - has been relatively unaffected by the "naturalistic" strains so evident, for example, in the epistemology, philosophy of mind and moral philosophy of the past forty years. This paper sketches three ways in which naturalism might affect jurisprudential inquiry. The paper serves as a kind of precis of the main themes in my book NATURALIZING JURISPRUDENCE: ESSAYS ON AMERICAN LEGAL REALISM AND NATURALISM IN LEGAL PHILOSOPHY (Oxford University Press, 2007). -- Number of Pages in PDF File: 16 -- Keywords: jurisprudence, naturalism, legal realism, quine, epistemology
article  books  SSRN  philosophy_of_law  analytical_philosophy  naturalism  epistemology  metaphysics  mind  mind-body  consciousness  Quine  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  epistemology-moral  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Moral Skepticism and Moral Disagreement in Nietzsche (2013) :: SSRN - Oxford Studies in Metaethics, Vol. 9 (Oxford University Press, 2014)
U of Chicago, Public Law Working Paper No. 257 -- This essay offers a new interpretation of Nietzsche's argument for moral skepticism.., an argument that should be of independent philosophical interest as well. On this account, Nietzsche offers a version of the argument from moral disagreement, but, unlike familiar varieties, it does not purport to exploit anthropological reports about the moral views of exotic cultures, or even garden-variety conflicting moral intuitions about concrete cases. Nietzsche, instead, calls attention to the single most important and embarrassing fact about the history of moral theorizing by philosophers over two millennia: namely, that no rational consensus has been secured on any substantive, foundational proposition about morality. Persistent and apparently intractable disagreement on foundational questions, of course, distinguishes moral theory from inquiry in the sciences and mathematics (perhaps in kind, certainly in degree). According to Nietzsche, the best explanation for this disagreement is that, even though moral skepticism is true, philosophers can still construct valid dialectical justifications for moral propositions because the premises of different justifications will answer to the psychological needs of at least some philosophers and thus be deemed true by some of them. The essay concludes by considering various attempts to defuse this abductive argument for skepticism based on moral disagreement and by addressing the question whether the argument "proves too much," that is, whether it might entail an implausible skepticism about a wide range of topics about which there is philosophical disagreement. -- Keywords: Nietzsche, morality, skepticism, metaethics, anti-realism -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  books  SSRN  intellectual_history  19thC  Germany  Nietzsche  moral_philosophy  morality-objective  morality-Nietzche  morality-conventional  morality-critics  scepticism  human_nature  metaethics  epistemology-moral  foundationalism  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Nietzsche's Philosophy of Action (2009) :: SSRN - in Blackwell Companion to Philosophy of Action, 2010
U of Chicago, Public Law Working Paper No. 270 -- Nietzsche holds that people lack freedom of the will in any sense that would be sufficient for ascriptions of moral responsibility; that the conscious experience we have of willing is actually epiphenomenal with respect to the actions that follow that experience; and that our actions largely arise through non-conscious processes (psychological and physiological) of which we are only dimly aware, and over which we exercise little or no conscious control. At the same time, Nietzsche, always a master of rhetoric, engages in a “persuasive definition” (Stevenson 1938) of the language of “freedom” and “free will,” to associate the positive valence of these terms with a certain Nietzschean ideal of the person unrelated to traditional notions of free will. -- No of Pages: 18 -- Keywords: Nietzsche, free will, moral responsibility, freedom, philosophy of action, epiphenomenalism -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  books  SSRN  intellectual_history  19thC  Germany  action-theory  Nietzsche  free_will  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  mind  consciousness  physiology  psychology  naturalism  responsibility  guilt  freedom  epiphenomenal  aesthetics  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Morality Critics [chapter] :: SSRN - in THE OXFORD HANDBOOK OF CONTINENTAL PHILOSOPHY, B. Leiter & M. Rosen, eds., Oxford University Press, 2007
U of Texas Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 114 -- One striking feature of post-Kantian philosophy in Europe has been the emergence of morality critics, philosophers who, contra the popular consensus, dispute the value of morality and the moral life. Their views find a faint echo in the work of some Anglophone moral philosophers (Philippa Foot and Bernard Williams are the main exemplars), but, as we will see, the "Continental" criticisms of morality generally cut far deeper and more radically. -- These Continental morality critics object that morality in practice is an obstacle to human flourishing itself. So understood, this attack on morality raises two immediate questions. First, the Continental morality critics are plainly not without ethical views of their own - ..broadly, about the good life for (some or all) human beings - since it is on the basis of these views that they criticize "morality." -- we can usefully divide Continental critics of morality into two camps: .... In the first camp ... see the individual's acceptance of morality as such as an obstacle to the individual's flourishing; in different ways, Nietzsche and Freud .... In the second camp ... see morality as among the "ideological" instruments that sustain socio-economic relations that are obstacles to individual flourishing. On this second account - ..Marx and perhaps some of ..the Frankfurt School - it is not allegiance to morality per se that thwarts individual flourishing, but rather the role such allegiance plays in sustaining certain socio-economic relations.. We will call the former "Direct Morality Critics" and the latter "Indirect Morality Critics." (Foucault straddles both approaches, and so we will discuss him in a transitional section.) -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  books  SSRN  intellectual_history  19thC  20thC  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  social_theory  metaethics  continental_philosophy  cultural_critique  Germany  France  Marx  Nietzsche  Freud  Frankfurt_School  Foucault  morality-Nietzche  morality-conventional  normativity  human_nature  social_order  ideology  bourgeoisie  power  morality-critics  Williams_Bernard  values  ethics  human_condition  flourishing  Aristotelian  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Brian Leiter - Nietzsche [chapter] (last revised 2013) :: SSRN for Oxford Handbook of 19thC Philosophy, M. Forster & K. Gjesdal, eds. (2014)
This essay offers a philosophical overview of the central themes of Nietzsche's philosophy, addressing (1) the primary intellectual influences on his work (esp. the PreSocratics, Schopenhauer, and Lange); (2) the style in which he writes and his philosophical reasons for it; (3) his philosophical naturalism and its role in his conception of the mind and agency; (4) his critique of morality and its connection with the idea that there can be an "aethestic" justification for existence, notwithstanding the terrible truths about human existence (such as suffering and death); and (5) competing interpretations of his views on truth and knowledge. Certain well-known Nietzschean ideas -- like "will to power," "eternal recurrence," and perspectivism -- are also located and explained within this philosophical framework. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  SSRN  books  intellectual_history  19thC  Germany  Nietzsche  pre-Socratics  Schopenhauer  Lange  naturalism  moral_psychology  epistemology  mind  agency  aesthetics  human_nature  perspectivism  relativism  will_to_power  elite_culture  mass_culture  German_Idealism  human_condition  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Przemysław Gut - The Legacy of Spinoza. The Enlightenment According to Jonathan Israel | Diametros
Dr hab. Przemysław Gut, Assistant Professor, Department of the History of Modern and Contemporary Philosophy, Institute of Theoretical Philosophy, Faculty of Philosophy, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin -- The aim of the paper is to present and analyze the interpretation of the Enlightenment which has recently been proposed by Jonathan Israel, with the focus on its philosophical aspect as opposed to the historical one. The paper consists of two parts. The task of the first part is reconstructive: it attempts to explore Israel’s most characteristic statements concerning the Enlightenment. The second and more extensive part has a polemical character: it endeavours to furnish the reader with an answer to the question of the degree to which the understanding of the Enlightenment proposed by Israel can be considered a satisfying interpretation of this period. The paper suggests that the main problem which may undermine Israel’s account of the Enlightenment is associated with the unduly selective interpretation of Spinoza’s philosophy and its position in the intellectual society of that time. -- Keywords - Enlightenment Spinoza historiography naturalism pantheism atheism human nature -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  intellectual_history  religious_history  historiography  17thC  18thC  Enlightenment  Radical_Enlightenment  Spinoza  Spinozism  natural_philosophy  naturalism  pantheism  atheism  human_nature  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  Republic_of_Letters  philosophes  downloaded  EF-add 
july 2014 by dunnettreader
Simon Targett - Government and Ideology during the Age of Whig Supremacy: The Political Argument of Sir Robert Walpole's Newspaper Propagandists | JSTOR: The Historical Journal, Vol. 37, No. 2 (Jun., 1994), pp. 289-317
Contrary to received historical wisdom, Sir Robert Walpole, the pragmatist par excellence, was diverted by political ideas. Thus he invested time and an unprecedented amount of money in political newspapers. This article investigates the primary pro-government newspapers and, as well as identifying the leading circle of political writers sponsored by Walpole, addresses the varied and complex arguments that appeared in their `leading essay' each week for twenty years. After identifying some common but misleading historical representations of Walpolean political thought, the article examines the treatment of three broad philosophical questions - human nature, the origin, nature and extent of government, and political morality - so demonstrating that Walpole's spokesmen were not narrowly pragmatic. Subsequently, the article focuses upon the careful pro-government response to the common charges that Walpole corrupted the political system and betrayed traditional whig values. In doing so, the article highlights the skills of some underrated eighteenth-century political writers and, more importantly, emphasizes the union of government and ideology in Walpolean political thinking. -- very useful references -- Downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  18thC  1720s  1730s  1740s  British_history  British_politics  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  human_nature  mixed_government  English_constitution  Parliament  Parliamentary_supremacy  partisanship  elections  franchise  political_culture  corruption  government_officials  governing_class  political_economy  political_press  Walpole  Hervey  Whigs-oligarchy  Whigs-opposition  Tories  Craftsman  Bolingbroke  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
june 2014 by dunnettreader
JOSE R. TORRE - The Teleology of Political Economy and Moral Philosophy in the Age of the Anglo-American Enlightenment | JSTOR: Early American Studies, Vol. 8, No. 3 (Fall 2010), pp. 646-671
"An Inward Spring of Motion and Action": The Teleology of Political Economy and Moral Philosophy in the Age of the Anglo-American Enlightenment -- The Enlightenment-era narratives of political economy and moral philosophy shared an epistemic base and theory of causation that understood the human experience as a self-realizing or immanent teleology driving toward a providential and benevolent outcome. In political economy the pursuit of personal wealth and satisfaction tended naturally to a benevolent equilibrium without the knowledge or intent of the agent. In moral philosophy the agent acted intuitively and unconsciously to satisfy immediate emotional desires that culminated in pleasure but nevertheless improved society. The teleology of both these narratives derived from a series of larger shifts in human psychology and ideas from an early modern and Reformation-era theological voluntarism to an Enlightenment-era Neoplatonic and Aristotelian theory of humanity and nature. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  18thC  British_history  Atlantic  American_colonies  Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  moral_sentiments  moral_philosophy  political_economy  causation  teleology  human_nature  moral_psychology  passions  Neoplatonism  voluntarism  Augustinian  Aristotelian  natural_philosophy  natural_law  cosmology  Providence  hedonistic  utilitarianism  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
may 2014 by dunnettreader
Joseph Keim Campbell - Issue intro: New Essays on the Metaphysics of Moral Responsibility | JSTOR: The Journal of Ethics, Vol. 12, No. 3/4 (2008), pp. 193-201
This is the introduction to a volume of new essays in the metaphysics of moral responsibility by John Martin Fischer, Carl Ginet, Ishtiyaque Haji, Alfred R. Mele, Derk Pereboom, Paul Russell, and Peter van Inwagen. I provide some background for the essays, cover the main debates in the metaphysics of moral responsibility, and emphasize some of the authors' contributions to this area of philosophy. - didn't download
journal  article  jstor  moral_philosophy  metaethics  metaphysics  free_will  responsibility  human_nature  action-theory  reasons-internalism  reasons-externalism  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Norman Daniels - MORAL THEORY AND THE PLASTICITY OF PERSONS | JSTOR: The Monist, Vol. 62, No. 3 (JULY, 1979), pp. 265-287
Do we have to solve fundamental human nature to do moral_philosophy. Or is there no such thing as human nature. And if the latter a way to make headway on the moral issues without falling into relativism. Starts from a discussion between Rawls and Parfit. Includes Williams. Cited heavily -- didn't download
article  jstor  moral_philosophy  human_nature  identity  Rawls  Williams_Bernard  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Allan Gibbard - Morality as Consistency in Living: Korsgaard's Kantian Lectures | JSTOR: Ethics, Vol. 110, No. 1 (October 1999), pp. 140-164
A review of Christine M. Korsgaard, The Sources of Normativity, with commentary by G. A. Cohen, Raymond Geuss, Thomas Nagel, and Bernard Williams with a reply by Korsgaard; edited by Onora O'Neill with an introduction by her (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996). All references in the text are to this work. These stem from Korsgaard's 1992 Tanner Lectures and commentary on them at Clare Hall, Cambridge. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  action-theory  Kant-ethics  practical_reason  practical_knowledge  normativity  Williams_Bernard  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Christine M. Korsgaard - Skepticism about Practical Reason | JSTOR: The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 83, No. 1 (Jan., 1986), pp. 5-25
Looks like a key fairly early article in Korsgaard Kantian revival and debates over moral realism, internalist theories, moral_psychology and various versions of Hume. -- frequently cited -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  action-theory  Kant-ethics  practical_reason  practical_knowledge  reason-passions  reasons-internalism  reasons-externalism  normativity  Hume-ethics  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert Hanna - Rationality and the Ethics of Logic | JSTOR: The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 103, No. 2 (Feb., 2006), pp. 67-100
Argues for a proto logic that's normative. Extensive discussion of links and separation of logic and psychology from early moderns through Frege and Husserl to various stages of 20thC. Looks useful for intellectual_history -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  moral_philosophy  epistemology  moral_psychology  action-theory  logic  reason  human_nature  psychologism  phenomenology  analytical_philosophy  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
SIMON BLACKBURN - The Majesty of Reason | JSTOR: Philosophy, Vol. 85, No. 331 (January 2010), pp. 5-27
In this paper I contemplate two phenomena that have impressed theorists concerned with the domain of reasons and of what is now called ‘normativity’. One is the much-discussed ‘externality’ of reasons. According to this, reasons are just there, anyway. They exist whether or not agents take any notice of them. They do not only exist in the light of contingent desires or mere inclinations. They are ‘external’ not ‘internal’. They bear on us, even when through ignorance or wickedness we take no notice of them. They thus very conspicuously shine the lights of objectivity, and independence, and even necessity. By basking in this light, ethics is rescued from the slough of sentiment and preference, and regains the dignity denied to it by theorists such as Hobbes or Hume, Williams, Gibbard or myself. Hence, many contemporary philosophers compete to stress and to extol the external nature of reasons, their shining objectivity. The other phenomenon is that of the inescapable ‘normativity’ of means-ends reasoning. Here the irrationality of intending an end but failing to intend the means is a different shining beacon. It is that of pure practical reason in operation: an indisputable norm, again showing a sublime indifference to whatever weaknesses people actually have, and ideally fitted to provide a Trojan horse for inserting rationality into practical life. If the means-end principle is both unmistakably practical and yet the darling child of rationality itself, then other principles of consistency or of humanity, or of universalizing the maxims of our action, can perhaps follow through the breach in the Humean citadel that it has spearheaded. And so we get the dazzling prospect that if people who choose badly are choosing against reason, then this can be seen to be a special and grave defect. It would locate the kind of fault they are indulging. It would give us, the people of reason, a special lever with which to dislodge their vices. Being able to herd knaves and villains in a compound reserved for those who trespass against reason and rationality therefore represents definite progress. -- paywall Cambridge -- see bibliography on jstor information page
article  jstor  paywall  moral_philosophy  moral_psychology  human_nature  Hume-ethics  Hume-causation  reason-passions  reasons-internalism  reasons-externalism  action-theory  normativity  practical_reason  practical_knowledge  Williams_Bernard  judgment-emotions  reason  bibliography  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Claudia Blöser, Aron Schöpf and Marcus Willaschek - Autonomy, Experience, and Reflection. On a Neglected Aspect of Personal Autonomy | JSTOR: Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, Vol. 13, No. 3 (June 2010), pp. 239-253
The aim of this paper is to suggest that a necessary condition of autonomy has not been sufficiently recognized in the literature: the capacity to critically reflect on one's practical attitudes (desires, preferences, values, etc.) in the light of new experiences. It will be argued that most prominent accounts of autonomy—ahistorical as well as historysensitive—have either altogether failed to recognize this condition or at least failed to give an explicit account of it. -- discusses internalist (Frankfurt's "free_will" 1st and 2nd order desires that involves critical reflection; ahistorical, Taylor's "punctuated"?) and externalist (adds conditions of information not just psychology in determining values) - this paper adds ability to reflect on values and experience going forward when new experience doesn't fit with expectations from existing values --focus is on practical judgment without extending into a particular view of moral philosophy etc though points out where theorists in other areas have used a narrower notion of autonomy --bibliography may be useful eg Rawls -- didn't download
article  jstor  human_nature  free_will  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  autonomy  practical_reason  values  development-personal  bibliography  Taylor_Charles  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Denis Dutton, "Aesthetics and Evolutionary Psychology" in The Oxford Handbook for Aesthetics, edited by Jerrold Levinson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003).
Starts with Aristotle and Hume - common elements of human nature that would make certain aspects of poetics common across cultures and over time and make visual and aural experiences aestheticly pleasing. Attacks 20thC extreme blank slate as cultural relativism. Goes through evolutionary psychology theories about sexual selection and fitness, including costliness of effort and display. Returns to Kant re limits on evolutionary psychology that the more reductionist of evo-devo types seem incapable of understanding.
article  books  aesthetics  intellectual_history  Aristotle  Hume  Kant  human_nature  cultural_history  relativism  judgment-aesthetics  taste  evolutionary_biology  psychology  evo_psych  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Gary Saul Morson - Misanthropology | JSTOR: New Literary History, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Winter, 1996), pp. 57-72
Swift in Gulliver vs Dostoyevsky -- they share that sociability isn't simply the source of human goodness - also when man is at his most vicious -- Swift fits the Dostoyevsky model more closely than Morson suggests -- didn't download
article  jstor  literary_history  human_nature  virtue  vice  sociability  misanthropy  Swift  Dostoyevsky  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Robert Wokler - Todorov's Otherness | JSTOR: New Literary History, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Winter, 1996), pp. 43-55
From dedicated issue organized around two essays by Todorov -- A Symposium on "Living Alone Together" Wokler is responding to the opening essay, which was organized around one work each by Rousseau, Adam Smith and Hegel. Todorov appreciates the Enlightenment engagement with the other, through travel literature and history, as a reflection of universalist values of humanism, contra the stereotypes and caricatures of the Enlightenment_Project. -- downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  18thC  Enlightenment  French_Enlightenment  Scottish_Enlightenment  Rousseau  Smith  Hegel  moral_philosophy  culture  diversity  self-and-other  human_nature  humanism  downloaded  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Special Issue -Living Alone Together [Introduction and key article by Tzvetan Todorov] | JSTOR: New Literary History, Vol. 27, No. 1, Winter, 1996
Issue Introduction - Living Alone Together (pp. 1-14) Tzvetan Todorov and Marilyn Gaddis Rose. *--*--* Replies to Introduction *--* (1) Community and Individuality (pp. 15-24) Patricia H. Werhane. *--* (2) A Reply to Tzvetan Todorov's "Living Alone Together" (pp. 25-34) Frances Ferguson. *--* (3) "Living Together Alone or Together": Commentary on Tzvetan Todorov's "Living Alone Together" (pp. 35-41) Stephen A. Mitchell. *--* (4) [downloaded] Todorov's Otherness (pp. 43-55) Robert Wokler. *--* (5) Misanthropology (pp. 57-72) Gary Saul Morson. *--* (6) Conflict and Sociability in Hegel, Freud, and Their Followers: Tzvetan Todorov's "Living Alone Together" (pp. 73-82) Daniel Burston. *--* (7) Regarding Others (pp. 83-93) Stewart Justman. *--*--* Response *--* The Gaze and the Fray (pp. 95-106) Tzvetan Todorov and Marilyn Gaddis Rose. *--*--* A. Self and Others in Culture. *--* Keeping the Self Intact during the Culture Wars: A Centennial Essay for Mikhail Bakhtin (pp. 107-126) Caryl Emerson. *--* Cultural Dreaming and Cultural Studies (pp. 127-144) Marianne DeKoven. *--* Orality, Literacy, and Their Discontents (pp. 145-159) Denis Donoghue.
journal  article  jstor  intellectual_history  literary_history  lit_crit  literary_theory  human_nature  social_theory  moral_philosophy  psychology  sociability  self  self-love  self-development  bildung  self-and-other  ancient_philosophy  Plato  Platonism  Socrates  Aristotle  Cicero  community  individualism  authenticity  constructivism  Rousseau  Hegel  Freud  conflict  Bakhtin  conversation  dialogue  literacy  EF-add 
february 2014 by dunnettreader
Roger Chartier - History, Time, and Space | Republics of Letters - Volume 2, Issue 2 (March 2011)
Downloaded pdf to Note - looks like specifically commissioned historiography reflections after "crisis of history" in 1980s and 1990s - very useful Continental view with helpful ftnts - lead article in issue but doesn't deal with the Forum - read and annotated
article  historiography  cultural_history  microhistory  global_history  periodization  geography  circulation-people  nation-state  narrative  rhetoric  fiction  White_Hayden  Foucault  Annales  Ricoeur  human_nature  comparative_anthropology  comparative_history  historical_sociology  historical_change  evidence  verisimilitude  antiquaries  historiography-18thC  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Cary J. Nederman - The Puzzle of the Political Animal: Nature and Artifice in Aristotle's Political Theory | JSTOR: The Review of Politics, Vol. 56, No. 2 (Spring, 1994), pp. 283-304
Several recent scholars have raised afresh the question of what Aristotle meant in Politics 1 by the statement that men are "by nature" political, that is, are political animals. This article addresses this quandary by reference to Aristotle's psychology and his notion of political education. It is argued that by concentrating on Aristotle's theory of human locomotion and its implications for moral choice, we may identify the relation he conceived between the polis and human nature. Specifically, the ability of humans to live according to their natures requires the systematic education afforded by the laws and institutions of the polis. - downloaded pdf to Note
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  ancient_Greece  human_nature  Aristotle  bibliography  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
E. K. Hunt - The Normative Foundations of Social Theory: An Essay on the Criteria Defining Social Economics | JSTOR: Review of Social Economy, Vol. 63, No. 3 (SEPTEMBER 2005), pp. 423-445
Two views of human nature underlie economic theory and any theory incorporating either view is not social economics. The first view sees human nature as metaphysically or genetically given. This view has difficulty giving differences in the structure and functioning of different societies any importance. The other view asserts that humans are entirely "created" by society. In this view, humans are merely malleable "stuff" which a society molds into "building blocs" appropriate to that society. Hunt argues that social economics lies mid-way between these extremes. Humans are "molded" by the social system of which they are a part, but that socialization is never total because humans are not "malleable stuff." There is a human nature that sometimes resists and occasionally negates socialization. Human nature is a complex set of innate needs and potentialities. Socialization creates "wants" the satisfaction of which may contribute to the satisfaction of the underlying needs, and leads to activities that develop to a certain degree the underlying potentialities. It is the task of social economics to identify those needs and potentialities and to formulate a "vision" of the fully developed human being. Hunt concludes that neoclassical economic theory is not social economics while the theories of Veblen and Marx are social economics.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  economic_theory  social_theory  neoclassical_economics  human_nature  socialization  rational_choice  Marx  Veblen  institutional_economics  capacity_fulfillment  eudaimonia  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Jörg Spieker - Foucault and Hobbes on Politics, Security, and War | JSTOR: Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, Vol. 36, No. 3 (August 2011), pp. 187-199
This article engages and seeks to develop Michel Foucault’s account of the nexus between modern politics, security, and war. Focusing on his 1976 lecture series Society Must Be Defended, the article considers Foucault’s tentative hypothesis about how the logic of war becomes inscribed into modern politics through the principle of security. Contra Foucault, it is suggested that this nexus can already be found in the proto-liberal political philosophy of Thomas Hobbes. In order to make this argument, the article focuses on the ontological dimension of Hobbes' thought. It suggests that the relationship between the state of war and political order in Hobbes is more complex and more ambiguous than Foucault thought. Rather than being transcended, the Hobbesian state of war is appropriated by the state, and converted into the fundamental antagonism between reason and passion. The latter gives rise to a regime of security through which a relationship of war is inscribed into the Hobbesian commonwealth. Jörg Spieker - Department of War Studies, King’s College London, London, UK - doi: 10.1177/0304375411418596 Alternatives: Global, Local, Political August 2011 vol. 36 no. 3 187-199 -- on Sage -- sounds Weberian
article  jstor  paywall  IR  political_philosophy  17thC  20thC  Hobbes  Foucault  war  security  fear  nation-state  political_order  reason  emotions  human_nature  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
Herb Gintis - Gene–culture coevolution and the nature of human sociality | Royal Society | Phil Trans B 2011
Published 14 February 2011 doi: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0310 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 27 March 2011 vol. 366 no. 1566 878-888 -- downloaded pdf to Note Abstract --
Human characteristics are the product of gene–culture coevolution, which is an evolutionary dynamic involving the interaction of genes and culture over long time periods. Gene–culture coevolution is a special case of niche construction. Gene–culture coevolution is responsible for human other-regarding preferences, a taste for fairness, the capacity to empathize and salience of morality and character virtues.
article  genetics  biocultural_evolution  epigenetics  human_nature  moral_psychology  moral_sentiments  character  downloaded  EF-add 
january 2014 by dunnettreader
NIALL O'FLAHERTY - WILLIAM PALEY'S MORAL PHILOSOPHY AND THE CHALLENGE OF HUME: AN ENLIGHTENMENT DEBATE? (2010) - Modern Intellectual History - Cambridge Journals Online
NIALL O'FLAHERTY (2010). WILLIAM PALEY'S MORAL PHILOSOPHY AND THE CHALLENGE OF HUME: AN ENLIGHTENMENT DEBATE?. Modern Intellectual History, 7, pp 1-31. doi:10.1017/S1479244309990254. -- paywall rent 24 hours $5.99 -- This essay offers a reassessment of William Paley's Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy (1785). It focuses on his defence of religious ethics from challenges laid down in David Hume's Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (1751). By restoring the context of theological/philosophical debate to Paley's thinking about ethics, the essay attempts to establish his genuine commitment to a worldly theology and to a programme of human advancement. This description of orthodox thought takes us beyond the bipolar debate about whether intellectual culture in the period was religious or secular: it was clearly religious; the question is: what kind of religion? It also makes questionable the view that England was somehow isolated from so-called Enlightenment currents of thought that were thriving elsewhere on the Continent. The “science of man”, far from being the sole preserve of Scottish and continental thinkers, also provided the basis for moral thought in eighteenth-century England.
article  paywall  find  18thC  intellectual_history  theology  Enlightenment  God-existence  moral_philosophy  religious_culture  improvement  Hume  Paley  human_nature  EF-add 
september 2013 by dunnettreader
George R. Wasserman: "A Strange Chimaera of Beasts and Men": The Argument and Imagery of Hudibras, Part I (1973)
JSTOR: Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, Vol. 13, No. 3 (Summer, 1973), pp. 405-421-- downloaded pdf to Note --- Butler's notebook-reflections on human nature provide the context for a reading of Part I of Hudibras as a satire on mankind. Reason, traditionally regarded as the mark of man's superiority over the beasts, was, for Butler, the cause of human strife and brutishness. Most men, he suggests, use reason unnaturally, as a result of either excessive passion and humour (accidental madness) or of the deliberate use of reason abstracted from the senses ("Industrious Ignorance"). Thus, to the degree that they act in accordance with their true natures, natural fools and animals may be regarded as rational man's superior. These views are illustrated by both the mock-polemics and the mock-heroics of the poem-i.e., by Hudibras's reasoned defense of the uniqueness of rational man against Ralph's identification of Presbyterian synods with bear-baitings; and by the knight's battle with the bear-baiters, whom he rationally proves to be Jesuit subversives. Further illustration of Butler's views is provided by a pervasive pattern of imagery, brutalizing men and humanizing animals. Part I of Hudibras is thus a dramatic and metaphorical redefinition of the sine qua non of man as bestiality.
article  jstor  English_lit  lit_crit  17thC  satire  human_nature  animals  reason  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
Harro Maas: Where Mechanism Ends: Thomas Reid on the Moral and the Animal Oeconomy (2003)
Project MUSE - History of Political Economy Volume 35, Annual Supplement, 2003 pp. 338-360 | Theories of life have consequences for how the social order is conceptualized. I pursue this theme in the work of the Aberdeen philosopher of mind Thomas Reid (1710–96), or more accurately, in his reactions to others' views. Reid typically developed his own ideas into a coherent view in juxtaposition to ideas to which he took exception. This means entering into a number of apparently discrete contexts before the unifying threads can be made plain. Let me introduce my theme with a not untypical example of Reid's way of clarifying by accentuating difference.
article  Project_MUSE  paywall  intellectual_history  18thC  Scottish_Enlightenment  human_nature  physiology  psychology  moral_philosophy  political_philosophy  Reid  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader
J. S. Maloy: The Very Order of Things: Rousseau's Tutorial Republicanism (2005)
JSTOR: Polity, Vol. 37, No. 2 (Apr., 2005), pp. 235-261 -- downloaded pdf to Note -- Rousseau's political theory has seemed to many to contemplate the radical transformation of human character through invasive governmental practices. But a classical republican reading of his general concern with moeurs and his developed conception of statecraft shows why he called for regulating or redirecting psychic dispositions, not destroying and then reconstructing them. Intimately related to this theme of moral economy are Rousseau's ideas on liberty and authority, which evince a deep-seated, complex Platonism. Far from displacing the modern categories of natural law, however, Rousseau's classical republicanism was meant to supply critical force for their revision. Thus the more instructive antinomy for students of Rousseau's politics is not Plato and Hobbes but rather Plato and Machiavelli, for the outstanding interpretive dilemma concerns the precise nature of republican authority.
article  jstor  intellectual_history  political_philosophy  moral_philosophy  human_nature  18thC  France  Rousseau  Plato  Hobbes  Machiavelli  republicanism  liberty  authority  downloaded  EF-add 
august 2013 by dunnettreader

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