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Acemoglu, Cantoni, Johnson
The Consequences of Radical Reform: The French Revolution
Daron Acemoglu, Davide Cantoni, Simon Johnson and James A. Robinson
The American Economic Review
Vol. 101, No. 7 (DECEMBER 2011), pp. 3286-3307
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september 2016 by dunnettreader
Khan, B. - An Economic History of Copyright in Europe and the United States | EH.Net Encyclopedia, edited by Robert Whaples. March 16, 2008
The US created a utilitarian market-based model of intellectual property grants which created incentives for invention, with the primary objective of increasing social welfare and protecting the public domain. The checks and balances of interest group lobbies, the legislature and the judiciary worked effectively as long as each institution was relatively well-matched in terms of size and influence. However, a number of scholars are concerned that the political influence of corporate interests, the vast number of uncoordinated users over whom the social costs are spread, and international harmonization of laws have upset these counterchecks, leading to over-enforcement at both the private and public levels. International harmonization with European doctrines introduced significant distortions in the fundamental principles of US copyright and its democratic provisions. One of the most significant of these changes was also one of the least debated: compliance with the precepts of the Berne Convention accorded automatic copyright protection to all creations on their fixation in tangible form. This rule reversed the relationship between copyright and the public domain that the US Constitution stipulated. According to original US copyright doctrines, the public domain was the default, and copyright a limited exemption to the public domain; after the alignment with Berne, copyright became the default, and the rights of the public and of the public domain now merely comprise a limited exception to the primacy of copyright. The pervasive uncertainty that characterizes the intellectual property arena today leads risk-averse individuals and educational institutions to err on the side of abandoning their right to free access rather than invite challenges and costly litigation. Many commentators are also concerned about other dimensions of the globalization of intellectual property rights, such as the movement to emulate European grants of property rights in databases, which has the potential to inhibit diffusion and learning.
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september 2014 by dunnettreader
Harold J. Berman - The Origins of Historical Jurisprudence: Coke, Selden, Hale | JSTOR: The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 103, No. 7 (May, 1994), pp. 1651-1738
In the 17thC, leading English jurists introduced into the Western legal tradition a new philosophy of law which both competed with and complemented the 2 major schools of law that had opposed each other: natural law theory and legal positivism. The basic tenet of the historical school is that the primary source of the validity of law, including both its moral and political validity, is its historicity, especially the developing customs and ongoing traditions of the community whose law it is. Historical experience is thought to have a normative significance. This theory was adumbrated by Edward Coke, developed by John Selden, and articulated by Matthew Hale, who integrated it with the 2 older theories. In the late 18thC & early 19thC, the 3 theories split apart & the historical school emerged as an independent philosophy. Historical jurisprudence predominated in Europe and the US in the late 19thC & early 20thC, but has been ignored or repudiated by most American legal philosophers. It continues to play an important role in the thinking of American judges and lawyers, especially in constitutional law and in areas where common law still prevails. Its full-fledged articulation only emerged in the context of the English Revolution and its ideals of judicial independence and parliamentary supremacy. Historical jurisprudence had important connections both with Puritan theology and with developments in the natural sciences. In legal science, it was reflected particularly in the development of the doctrine of precedent. In the 18thC, it was given expression by Blackstone and Burke, and in the 19thC it was finally established as a separate school of jurisprudence by the great German jurist Carl Friedrich von Savigny.
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may 2014 by dunnettreader

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